.

Організаційно-економічний механізм управління житлово-комунальним комплексом: Автореф. дис… д-ра екон. наук / Г.О. Крамаренко, НАН України. Ін-т еко

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IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AEIIII?EE I?IIENEIAINO?

OAeE 338.46

E?aia?aiei Aaeeia Ieaenaiae??aia

I?AAI?CAOe?EII-AEIIII?*IEE IAOAI?CI OI?AAE?IIss AEEOEIAI-EIIOIAEUeIEI
EIIIEAENII

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.01 – Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy, a?ciano oa
i?aaa (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee) I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

Oea/aiei Aieiaeeie? Aiae??eiae/,

i?i?aeoi? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? aeaaeai??

oi?aae?iiy, a?ciano oa i?aaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieea Aaneeue ?aaiiae/,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo
I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a);

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?iaa?i Aaeaioei A?eoi?iae/,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo

aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI

Oe?a?ie (i. Aeiiaoeuee);

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ae?aaoi Eaii?ae Ieeieaeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee aoae?aieoeoaa

I?eaei?i?ianueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e
(i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie

IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai

?icaeoeo oa ?ici?uaiiy aaeocae nioe?aeueii?

noa?e (i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “17” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.151.01 ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie: 340048, i.Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea,
77.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie: 340048, i.Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea,
77.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “12” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iieeiinueeee O.TH.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca?aeii c ??oaiiyie o?yaeo uiaei
i?enei?aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie oa on?o noa? aeeooy
noni?euenoaa cae?eniaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iiaeiii
caaacia/eoe iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa eiai
aoaeoeaiino?. I?ioa oaia??oi?e iiiaio aeiiii?/iiai noaio Oe?a?ie ia aea?
i?aenoaa aeey oiai, uia aiai?eoe i?i ei??iiee ia?aeii o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo e?a?ie.

Iineaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? aeiiii?ee aeyaeeiny ? o cieaeaii?
ianooaa?a ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeueii? aace i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, ?o oaoi?/ii? iniauaiino?. sseui na?aaeiuei??/i?
oaiie i?e?inoo aeo?ao aea?aeathaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie, ui iai?aaeyeeny ia
?icaeoie aaeocae nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy, o 60-o? ?iee
noaiiaeee 7,6 %, oi o ianooiiiio aeanyoe??//? – 4,5 %, a a ia?o?e
iieiaei? 90-o ?ie?a – 3,7 %.

Oea i?ecaaei aei a?aenoaaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e ii??aiyii c
aeinyaiooei ??aiai ae?iaie/eo nee ? iio?aaaie ianaeaiiy.
Niinoa??aa?oueny cano?e o ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueii? aace ioi?iie caei?ia’y,
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ina?oe oa ?ioeo aaeocae
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. Iniaeeai neaai caaeiaieueiythoueny iio?aae ianaeaiiy
o ieaoieo iineoaao.

Aaaeeeaa ?ieue na?aae aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e iaeaaeeoue
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noao. Ca nai?i ci?noii ? no?oeoo?ith
aiii ? iaeiei c iaeneeaaei?oeo ? aaaaoia?aiieo ia’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy,
iieeeeaieo ae??ooaaoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?
caaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa. O no?oeoo?? ieaoieo iineoa ianaeaiith o 1995
?ioe? ia aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae i?eiaaea? 41 %. Ca?ac o iueiio
caeiyoi 0,8 iei. /ieia?e, aa?o?noue iniiaieo oiiae?a o 1995 ?ioe? neeaea
400 iei.a?i.

I?ioa aeinyaiooee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ua
ia caaeiaieueiy? iio?aa ianaeaiiy, a iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca oe???
noa?e aeaeaea a?ae aeineiiaeino?.

A aeiiii?/ieo ioae?eaoe?yo inoaii?o ?ie?a, i?enay/aieo ?icaeoeo
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, ui ooo neeaeeny, caeiiii??iinoae, ?? i?noey ? cia/aiiy o
caaeiaieaii? iio?aa ianaeaiiy ? ?ica’ycaii? nioe?aeueieo caaaeaiue. Oeei
ieoaiiyi i?eae?eaii oaaao o ?yae? iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? noaoae
I.A.Nieiaeeiaa, A.I.?oooaeca?a, A.I.Ei?/aa?ia, ?.I.AEeeueoeiaa,
?.I.Aoea?aa, A.O.Iiiiaa, A.I.?aaiiaa, E.?Eeianiia, I.Ae.I?ieiiaiea,
A.A.O?iaa?ia oa ?i. Ieoaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy, ?aa?iiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo oa oi?aae?iiy ?icaeyiooi o aeayeeo iiiia?ao?yo ? noaooyo
A.A.Aaaiaaayia, AeE.Aeeianueeiai. A.I.Ayoe?ii?, I.A.*oia/aiea,
I.?.?aaiiaa, I.A.?na?ai?, A.A.E?noaiiaa, A.I.Eaa?ia, I.A.Ianoa?iaa,
I.A.Oeeoeeia oa ?i. Iai?yiee ?aaeeeaeueii? ?aoi?ie an??? nenoaie
ieaioaaiiy, ui ca?ac ?icai?oa?oueny, aena?oeththoueny a ?iaioao
A.A.Iiiiaa, I.I.Oiaeueiaa, I.I.Aeiaa, I.?.Aiioe, A.A.Aoaianue?aa,
A.A.Aaa?eeaiea, A.I.*a?eiaoey, I.?.Eiieiaa, O.IE?noaiao?oa,
A.?.Iai/aiea, A.I.Ni?oiaa, ss.I.O?einiia, A.E.Iaiooiaa, N.N.Aioaea?y,
A.I.A??aiaa?aa, O.TH.Iieeiinueeiai oa ?i.

Aeine?aeaeaiith oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo aniaeo?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy aaeocaaiai ieaioaaiiy, i?iaeai iiaoaeiae oa ?aae?caoe??
aca?iiiia’ycaieo nenoai iiaeaeae aeey ae??oaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue
ia?niaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo aaeocae ? aaaaoiaaeocaaeo eiiieaen?a i?enay/ai?
?iaioe E.Ae.A?iaenueei?, TH.A.Iaeiaiia, A.A.Aie/eiaa. ?.?.??ueii?ia,
A.I.Eooe?e?ia, I.O.E?aia?a, IE .Eaiaoaaa, A.A.Iae?iao?aa, AA.Nie?iiaa,
TH.I.Oei/oea, O.?.?aaeieeiiaa oa ?i. I?iUeeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a
oi?aae?iiy ?aa?iiaeueieie ainiiaea?nueeeie nenoaiaie oa ?o neeaaeiaeie a
oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?icaeyioo? a ?iaioao A.?.Aeia?aa,
ss.A.Aa?nooeueeiai, A.A.Aeceny, I.?.Aeie?oiueiai, A.I.Eaen?ia,
?.?Eoe?iiaa, A.?.Ieee, ?.O.Iiiiia?ueiaa, A.A.Oea/aiea, I.A.*oia/aiea oa
?ioeo a/aieo.

Aea ieoaiiy ieaioaaiiy aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee caeeoathoueny iaeiaea/aieie. A?aenooi? ioae?eaoe??,
ye? i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ye
iiai? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e, oiaoi a oiio eiai ye?niiio
noai?, eio?iai aiii iaaoaa? ca oiia ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
Niinoa??aa?oueny iaaiee aeao?oeeo oai?aoe/ii? caaacia/aiino?
ainiiaea?nueei? i?aeoeee c ieoaiue iioei?caoe?? i?iii?oe?e aaeocaaiai ?
oa?eoi??aeueiiai aniaeo?a ieaioaaiiy iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, iaae
oi?aae?inueeeo naiaiae ?aa?ii?a oa niiioeaeueieo iioea?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia oeueiio ??ai?, iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa i?noeaai? ?i?oe?aoeae) aca?iicaeaaeiino? ae?iaie/iai ? nioe?aeueiiai
aniaeo?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Iio?aaothoue aeiaeaoeiaiai
oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe ?aa?iiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy aaeocyie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. Aeieeiaiiy aaeeeeo o ianooaaao
?aeiio aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e ii-iiaiio oi?ioeth? oi?aae?inuee?
caaaeaiiy ia?aae ?aa?iiaeueieie i?aaiaie i?noeaai? aeaaee oa i?aaiaie
oi?aae?iiy ia eiie?aoieo i?aei?e?inoaao, ui ? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith
oe??? aaeoc?.

Na?eiciee aeenaaeain aeyaeaii o iaae?iaie/?e noa?? ?aa?ii?a. Aaeocaaee
i?eioeei caeeoeiaiai ?iaanooaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??e a
cii? ae?? i?aei?e?inoa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno

i?eca?a aei ?noioieo ia?aein?a o eiai ?icaeoeo ia o?eueee i?ae ??cieie
?aa?iiaie, aea e o na?aaeei? eiaeiiai c ieo ia eiie?aoieo
i?aei?e?inoaao. Oea caaino?th? iaiao?aei?noue ii?aoethaaiiy aoaeoeaiiai
iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa,
caaacia/aiiy i?iii?oe?eiino? ?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e.

Iei?oiy ia?aaoaeiaa i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo? aenooia?
eia?/iei aeaiaioii o i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Cae?eniaiiy oe??? ?ai?aai?caoe?? aeiaaa?
a?aei?aoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? iaoiaeieia??, e?eoa???a ioe?iee ?o
aoaeoeaiino?.

Aeiei??ii? ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny o ieaioaaii? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, yea
ia? ana a?eueo aeiaaio?eaaeee oa?aeoa?. I?aeaeuothoueny aeiiae aei
iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiaaio?eaaeiai ieaioaaiiy aeiiii?ee oa
ii?aoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo eiioeaioe?e. I?eioeeiiai iiaeo aeanoeainoae
iaaoaa? oe?eueiaa i?ia?aioaaiiy, yea o ii?aeiaii? c eiiieaenieie ieaiaie
?icaeoeo oa?eoi??e ia?aoai?th?oueny ia aieiaiee ?ino?oiaio oi?aae?iiy o
?aa?ii?.

Aeooaeuei?noue cacia/aieo oai?aoe/ieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo oa
iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?iaeai c o?aooaaiiyi iiai? aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a
Oe?a?i? oa ?? ?aa?iiao aecia/eea iaoo ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
iia’ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?aaeaa/aieo ieaiii
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ii aeiaiai?ao ? 301/25-1, ? 301/25-2 oa
?301/30-3, ui noaee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
Oe?a?ie “E?eoe/i? oaoiieia??” (?icae?e 1. Oaoiieia?? aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie) ? iniiaith ieaio IAeAeE? Aea?aeaaiiai aaciaiai
oeaio?o e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? “E?eooaoiao”,

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
? ii?aoethaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue,
iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e noai?aiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiionoeiino? oa aoaeoeaiino? iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? a oiiaao oeea?e?ciaaieo ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? ae??oothoueny oae?
caaea/?:

aecia/aiiy i?noey ia’?eo?a iaae?iaie/i? noa?e a nenoai? noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa; nooiino? i?iii?oe?eiino? oa ?? i?iyao o ?icaeoeo
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaii? i?iii?oe?eiino?
o ?icaeoeo ie?aieo ?? i?aei?e?inoa;

ii?aoethaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ye ie?aiiai i?aei?e?inoaa;

i?aeaeuaiiy eiiieaeniino? ieaioaaiiy, oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a
ii?aeiaiiy aaeocaaiai ? oa?eoi??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
caaeainiaaiino? ieai?a, oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ieaiiaeo iieaciee?a;

oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, aaeaeaaoii? ??aith ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa ? oa?aeoa?o
ae??ooaaieo caaaeaiue; eii?aeeiaoe?y ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy, ni?yiiaaieo ia
caaacia/aiiy ocaiaeaeaii? aca?iiae?? i?aei?e?inoa o na?aaeei? eiiieaeno,
iiaiaeaeai?noue aaeocaaeo ? oa?eoi??aeueieo ?ioa?an?a; eiioeaio?aoe?y
ae?iaie/i-oaoi?/iiai ? ?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo a ?aieao ie?aieo
ia’?aeiaiue ? i?aei?e?inoa, i?aeaeuaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai iioaioe?aeo; ii?aoethaaiiy
i?eioeeiiai iiai? noaie oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii a
oe?eiio;

aiae?c ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e iaae?iaie/i? noa?e; ia?ae?e
?aeiiaiaeiaaieo iieaciee?a aeey aiae?co ? ieaioaaiiy caoiae?a ii
oaeineiiaeaiith oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ca
??aiyie oi?aae?iiy; eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?icaeoeo iniiaieo aeaiaio?a ?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy a oe?eiio; oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie iieaciee?a ieaio
oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy; aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a
ii oaeineiiaeaiith oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii;

anoaiiaeaiiy e?eoa???a oa nenoaie iieaciee?a ieaioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e; oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoai ? iaoiae?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ieaioaaiiy ia an?o ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy,
iie?ioaiiy iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ieaiiaeo ?ic?iaie, iineeaiiy aieeao
iaoee ia aoaeoeai?noue oa iioeiaeuei?noue ieaiiaeo ??oaiue oa
oe?eani?yiiaai?noue ieai?a aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo;

ii?aoethaaiiy aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a ? iiaeaeae ieaioaaiiy
?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e; iiooe oeyo?a, i?aeoiae?a aei aiae?co
ae?iaie/eo neooaoe?e, i?ioeano i?eeiyooy ??oaiue i?e iioeiaeueiiio
ieaioaaii?; iiaoaeiaa aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ieaioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? c a?aeiia?aeiei aeai?eoi?/iei
caaacia/aiiyi; aecia/aiiy iaoiae?a iiaeieaiiy ianoi?nieo iaiaaeaiue o
caaea/ao ia?niaeoeaiiai ? iioi/iiai ieaioaaiiy; ?icaeyae ?yaeo iiaeaeae
iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaeanoeaeo caaea/ e?i?eiiai ?
aeioeeiai i?ia?aioaaiiy;

ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e a oiiaao ?ioaineo?eaoe??
aeiiii?ee; ieaioaaiiy ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a (o?oaeiaeo,
iaoa??aeueieo), iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano; ieaioaaiiy oaii?a ?
i?iii?oe?e ?icaeoeo; ieaioaaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo i?iii?oe?e oa aoaeoeaiino?
?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoeei-eiioeaiooaeuei?, iaoiaeieia?/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa i?eeeaaei?
aniaeoe ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa iaae?iaie/i? noa?e o ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy oeei
i?ioeanii. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ye
noeoii?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, i?ae yeeie ?icoi?thoue
eiie?aoi? i?aei?e?inoaa iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. ?yae aniaeo?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa aiae?co?oueny ia
i?eeeaae? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?. Ae?th/? o ?aa?ii? iie?oe/i?,
aeiiii?/i? ? nioe?aeuei? iaoai?cie aeine?aeaeothoueny o ?aeiino?,
aca?iieo ca’yceao oa aca?iiaieea?. Ocaaaeueiaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny ia aac?
?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co, aea/aiiy no/anieo i?ioean?a, a oaeiae
i?iaiicieo ?ic?iaie c o?aooaaiiyi oeea?e?ciaaieo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? iieiaeaiiy oai??? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, iaoeia?
i?aoe? a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a, o yeeo aena?oeaii ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iieiaeaiiy
oai??? ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??aeueieo ainiiaea?nueeeo nenoai, oi?ioaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy,
?ie? aea?aeaae a aeiiii?oe?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia oai?aoe/iiio
iieiaeaii? i?i oa, ui a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy iinoa? caaaeaiiy i?aeneeaiiy eiiieaenii? ae?? ieaio,
aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a ? noeioe?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy aenieeo e?ioeaaeo
?acoeueoao?a ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ?ioaineaieo, ye?nieo oaeoi??a
c?inoaiiy, aeey i?enei?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, iie?ioaiiy
yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? (?ia?o, iineoa), i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa iaae?iaie/i? noa?e.

Iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?? ca?oiiaaii iaaeiei aeae?eueeio iniiaieo
eiioeaioe?e, eio?? neeaaeathoue aaciaee iaa?? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
?ino?oiaio?a, iieeaaeaieo a ?? iniiao, cie?aia, eiioeaioe?? ieaioaaiiy
oa oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii ye ?aeeiith oe?e?niith
nenoaiith a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

I?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeaiue i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aecia/ea /eneaiiee niaeo? iaoiae?a, iieeaaeaieo a
eiai iniiao: caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo (iaoiae nenoaiiiai aiae?co, neioac
iiaeaethaaiiy, oi?iae?caoe?y, i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?i? aeiiii?/i? ioe?iee,
ea?oia?ao?/iee), eiie?aoii aeiiii?/ieo (aaeainiaee, ii?iaoeaiee,
noaoenoe/i? aea??ee, noaoenoe/i? a?oioaaiiy), aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai?
aeoe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ? Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, iaoa??aee
I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, oi?aae?iiy noaoenoeee
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?, I?i?noa?noaa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, iaeanieo ? i?nueeeo oi?aae?iue aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai ?aa?iio, aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

canoiniaaii eiiieaeniee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee i?aeo?ae aei oi?aae?iiy
?ioaa?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie i?e oi?ioaaii? iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo?, yeee iieyaa? a
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/iiio caaacia/aii? nenoai oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?
niaoeeo?ee ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei;

noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy “aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen” ye noeoiiino?
aca?iiiia’ycaieo ? aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo noa’?eo?a ? aeae?a ae?yeueiino?,
i???ioiaaieo ia iiceoeaio aeeiai?eo ??aiy oa yeino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy, ui
caaacia/o? noaa?eueio, caaeainiaaio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io i???ioaoe?th
iioaioe?aeo i?aea?aeii/eo oa?eoi??e, ?ice?eoi aaaeeea?
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nuee? ? nioe?aeuei? caaaeaiiy, ui noiyoue ia?aae iei;

i?iaiae?ciaaii aieea ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia i?ioeane oa?eoi??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ye nenoaie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a;

cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, a iniiao yeiai iieeaaeaii ?eieia?
a?aeiineie, ?aa?iiaeueia oi?aae?iiy ? no?oeoo?io o?ainoi?iaoe?th aaeocae
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, oa?eoi??aeueio i?aai?caoe?th noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa;

aeine?aeaeaii ? iiaeeaeaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
iniiae oi?aae?iiy a ?aa?iiaeueieo ainiiaea?nueeeo nenoaiao iaae?iaie/i?
noa?e ye noeoiiino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a c o?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? no?oeoo?ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? nenoai ?
iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy, ?icaeyiooi niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, eiai i?noea ? ?ieue o
nenoai? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao ?eieo;

ii?aoeueiaaii iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ii
anueiio aeeoo?aiio oaoiieia?/iiio oeeeeo i?ioean?a ? i?ioeaaeo?,
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ? ioe?ieo iiaeeeaino? o?ainoi?iaoe??
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e,
cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeae? oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? nenoaio eiai oi?aae?iiy i?ae aieeaii
i?ioean?a ?eieiooai?aiiy.

Eiioeaio?aoe?y ae?iaie/i-oaoi?/iiai ? ?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo o ?aieao
ie?aieo ia’?aeiaiue ? i?aei?e?inoa ia’?eoeaii coiiaeth? iiyao iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-no?oeoo?ieo oi?i, ye? ?icaeyiooi o aeai?e ?iaio?.
Ii?aoeueiaaia i?eioeeiiai iiaa noaia oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei
eiiieaenii ni?ey? ?noioiiio i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy ?iaioe aea?aeaaieo ?
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo, a oaeiae
caaacia/o? i?aai?/ia ii?aeiaiiy aaeocaaeo ? oa?eoi??aeueieo iaoiae?a
ieaioaaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy iaae?iaie/ith
noa?ith ia aac? oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a oa ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee aeey anaa?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
ieaiiaeo ??oaiue. Aeei?enoaiiy aaeaeaaoiiai aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai
?ino?oiaioa??th noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ia?aoiaeo aei a?eueo
aeineiiaei? oaoiieia?? ieaioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ca oiia
?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeiiii?ee ? aea? ciiao ?aaeueii ii?aeioaaoe i?eioeeie
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ieaioaaiiy, iiaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai ?ic?aooieo oa
?eieiaee iaoai?ci ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

O aeena?oaoe??, aeoiaey/e c ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae
oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith, ?icaeyiooi i?iaeaio ieaioaaiiy ?ioaineo?eaoe??
aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a. Aeey aiae?co oa ioe?iee ?ioaineo?eaoe?? noa’?eo?a
oi?aae?iiy cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio aeeoa?aioe?eieo iieaciee?a, ?icaeyiooi
iai?yiee ?ioaineo?eaoe??, iaeaaaeeea?o? /eiieee. C o?aooaaiiyi aiae?co
iniiaieo iieaciee?a ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ii
i?aeaaeocyo aea/aii ia?niaeoeao eiai ?icaeoeo, iiaeeeaino? iine?aeiaiiai
iie?ioaiiy ia?aiao??a oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ? yeino? i?iaeoeoe??.

Iniaeeao oaaao iaaeaii e?ea?aeaoe?? aeeni?iii?oe?eiino?, ui oneeaaeith?
i?ioean a?aeoai?aiiy noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?th
ia’?eo?a iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ?icaeyaea?oueny o
iai?yieo caaeainiaaiino?, ui aenooia? ia?aaeoiiaith c?inoaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeaeuaiiy oaii?a ?o aeiiii?/ii?
ia?aaoaeiae. Caaacia/aiiy caieaiiaaieo i?iii?oe?e ?icaeoeo ?icaeyiooi ia
i?eioeeiiai iia?e iniia? – aeei?enoaii? ia?aaaaeii aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a
ainiiaea?nueeiai ea??aieoeoaa. Oe? iaoiaee aeei?enoai? o ieaioaaii? ? a
oi?aae?ii? iaae?iaie/ith noa?ith a oiiaao ?eieo.

Cae?eniaii iia? i?aeoiaee aei ieaioaaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo i?iii?oe?e
?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno c o?aooaaiiyi ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. sse aieiai? iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoai?cio aeine?aeaeaii ieoaiiy e?ea?aeaoe?? a?aeii/i? ???a?o?? oa
ia?aoiaeo aei oe?eueiaiai ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a /a?ac nenoaio oiiae?a,
i?aai?ciaaieo ca oa?eoi??aeueiei i?eioeeiii. ?aeiiaiaeiaaii caeo/aiiy
aea?aeaaieo eioo?a cae?enithaaoe /a?ac nenoaio caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo
i?ia?ai ?icaeoeo aoae?aieoeoaa ? ?iciiae?eo aeeoea, ia’?eo?a
eiioiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. Ca ?aooiie oeeo eioo?a iiaeiia
caaacia/oaaoeny ?aae?caoe?y nenoaie ii?iaoeaieo iieaciee?a ?icaeoeo
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, i?aai?ciaaii? o ?aeeiee eiiieaeniee
noaiaea?o oiia aeeooy.

Ii?aoeueiaaii aa??aioe ia?aoiaeo aei ia?aaaaeii ?ioaineaiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa c o?aooaaiiyi i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaii?a
c?inoaiiy aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. I???ioaoe?th eai?oaeueieo
aeeaaeaiue iaoe?eaii ia iie?auaiiy aioo??oiueieiiieaenii? oa
i?aei?iaeoeoiai? no?oeoo?, a oaeiae oiia ?eieo. I?aeaaeocaaa
caaeainiaai?noue ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aei?noue i?iaeoeoe??, ui
ae?iaey?oueny eiiieaenii ? i?ecia/a?oueny aeey ae?iaie/iai niiaeeaaiiy,
aei iio?aa o i?e. Aeey oeueiai ieaio?oueny iio?aae o i?iaeoeoe??
(?iaioao, iineoaao) iaae?iaie/i? noa?e iia’ycoaaoe c iiaeeeainoyie
ae?iaieoeoaa. ?icaeyaeath/e iaoiaee aeinyaiaiiy i?iii?oe?eiino? o
i?aeaaeocyo ? ia ?o i?aei?e?inoaao, iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii ia?aoiaeo
ia iiaia naiicaaacia/aiiy ? naiio?iainoaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieo.

Aeinyaiaiiy iiaii? caaeainiaaiino? oa iioeiaeueiino? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e aea/aii ca?aeii c aeiiaaie caeiio ieaiii??iiai
i?iii?oe?eiiai ?icaeoeo ? eaoaai??? aoaeoeaiino? noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. I?e ieaioaaii? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a?aoiaaii eiai no?oeoo?o,
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeee oa aaeocaaee aniaeoe. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeiiao
noaio aca?iica’yce?a ieaio oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno c iniiaieie ?icae?eaie ieaio
aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Ieaioaaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ni?yiiaaii ia ?aaeeeaeueia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a i?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Ae??oaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai, caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ianaeaiiy o
iineoaao iaae?iaie/i? noa?e o iaiao?aei?e e?eueeino?, yeino? oa
ani?oeiaio? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii cae?enithaaoe a?aeiia?aeii aei ?aoe?iiaeueieo
ii?i.

C iaoith ?noioiiai iie?ioaiiy ieaioaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiiieaeno
cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio iieaciee?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oa c?inoaiiy.
?ic?iaeaii iaoiae ii?iaoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c?inoaiiy
?acoeueoao?a ae?iaieoeoaa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno oa eiai
iieaoe, ui aeicaiey? iia’ycoaaoe iaoa??aeueii-?a/iao ? aa?o?nio noi?iie
i?ioeano a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa o ?aa?ii?.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?icaeoeo
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, iaa?oiooaaii?
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii oaeineiiaeaiith iaoai?cio eiai

?aaoethaaiiy ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy oa o?aooaaiiy iaeiie/aieo na?oiaeo
?ic?iaie oa i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue
aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ii?aoeueiaai? a i?e oai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy ? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?aae?caoe?? neeaaeiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy ? ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e oi?ioaaii? aea?aeaaii?
?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, a aeiiii?ei-aiae?oe/i?e oa i?iaiinoe/i?e ?iaio?
?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy i?e ae??oaii? i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii?
iioei?caoe?? eiiiiiaioii? oa i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo? oa?eoi??aeueiiai
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? ?aa?iiaeueii? ainiiaea?nueei?
nenoaie, ii?aoethaaii? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai, oaeineiiaeaii?
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy, eii?aeeiaoe?? i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ae?iaeaii? aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo iineoa.

Ii?aoeueiaai? o aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe
ia?aaeieaiiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? eiiieaeniiai ieaioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo
ainiiaea?noa iaea?aeaee ai?iaaoe?th o eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae 1997-2000 ?ie?a oa o ii?aeiaii? c
eieaeueieie oe?eueiaeie eiiieaenieie i?ia?aiaie c iniiaieo iai?yie?a
?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy i?i i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoieo
?eieiaiio ainiiaea?nueeiio iaoai?cio ?aa?iiaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo?, ui aeeeaaeai? o aeine?aeaeaii?,
ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy o ?ic?iaoe? aaia?aeueieo noai oi?aae?iiy i?noa
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea ? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?, ii?aeiaii? ?o o
i?eioeeiiai iiao ?aeeio Aaia?aeueio noaio oi?aae?iiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii oa eiai i?aei?e?inoaaie.

Aeena?oaoe?ei? ?ic?iaee c ieoaiue ooieoe?iioaaiiy oi?aae?inueeiai
aia?aoo ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?a aeei?enoaii i?e noai?aii? no?oeoo?
ae?iaie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno i?noa
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea ? ii?aoethaaii? i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe
aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aei iniiaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ye?
noaiiaeyoue iniaenoee caeiaooie aeena?oaioa ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
iaeaaeaoue oae?:

1. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aecia/aiiy “i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee
iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e” a oiiaao
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

2. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy eaoaai??? “aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen”,
eiai no?oeoo?ecaoe?y ? eiioeaioe?y aaiethoe?? ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo
iineoa.

3. Iaoiaeeea ? ioe?iea o?ainoi?iaoe?? oa?eoi??aeueii-i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a oiiaao aca?iiae?? i?ioean?a
?eieiooai?aiiy.

4. Iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy
iaae?iaie/ith noa?ith ca oiia noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?
ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a o ia?niaeoea?.

5. Iiaeaeue nioe?aeueiiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii, ?aeay, i?noea ?aeeiiai
eiiieaeniiai noaiaea?oo oiia aeeooy ? iaoai?ci eiai ?aae?caoe??.

6. Iaoiaeeea ? ooieoe?iiaeueii-aeai?eoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iieaciee?a
aiae?co oa ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa iaae?iaie/i? noa?e.

7. Iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie, iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy ? iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe??
?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai o noa?? iineoa, iiaeaeue iioeiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo
athaeaeaoieo ?ano?n?a ia ?o o?iainoaaiiy.

8. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy eaoaai??? “?aeeiee eiiieaeniee noaiaea?o
oiia aeeooy”.

9. Eiioeaioe?y oa iaoiaeeea no?aoaa?/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy ?
eii?aeeiaoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ye iniiae ?aae?caoe??
i?inoi?iai? no?aoaa?? o iaae?iaie/?e noa?? ? ?icaeoeo ?? i?aeaaeocae oa
ae?iaieoeoa.

10. Nenoaia iaoai?ci?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? oa?eoi??aeueiiai
?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, iniaeeaino? o?iainiai-athaeaeaoiiai,
iiaeaoeiaiai, a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueieo ?
eieaeueieo ?eie?a iineoa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeeny, iaaiai?thaaeeny oa iaea?aeaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo:

ia Ananithci?e oeie? “I?iaeooaaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai eiio?ieth oa
oi?aae?iiy neeaaeieie ia’?eoaie”, i. Ooaina, 1986 ?.;

I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y
aeiiii?ee oa ?iaanoeoe?? a Oe?a?i?”, i. *a?i?aoe?, 1998 ?.;

iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee: ?ioi?iaoe?eia ? o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?”, i. Naaanoiiieue, 1998 ?.;

V i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?aioe?y ? Oe?a?ia, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee
aeina?ae a eiioaeno? ae?aeiao iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?. No?aoaa?y
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaeo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie”, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998 ?.;

iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a aeey ieoii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai?”, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998 ?.

Ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii 52 iaoeiaeo i?aoe?, a oiio /ene? 3 iiiia?ao??, c ieo 1
?iaeea?aeoaeueia, 5 a?ioo?, 32 iaoeia? noaoo?, 8 oac aeiiia?aeae ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo. Caaaeueiee ianya ioae?eaoe?e – 82,2 ae?oe.a?e.,
c yeeo iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 60,2 ae?oe.a?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a; caaaeueiee ianya – 406 noi??iie, ui i?noyoue 45
oaaeeoeue, 8 iaethie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae -280
iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?.
Aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iayai?noth /eneaiieo
i?iaeai, iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e. Iniaeeai ianoi?iaeothoue e?ecia? yaeua
a ?iaanoeoe?ei?e oa ?iiiaaoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino?. O ?yae? aaeocae
ae?iaie/i? noa?e ?noioii nei?ioeeiny ae?iaieoeoai, oi/a iaaiith i??ith
oeae oaeoi? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?ia?aneai? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a
aeiiii?oe?. ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ia?aaeiiao iaeaooiueiai aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy a ye?niiio ieai?. I?ioa e?ecia? yaeua a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie
niinoa??aathoueny iianthaeii, ioiiethth/e an? aaeoc? ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Oaea iaae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa cia/ii cieaeo? ??aaiue aeeooy
ia?iaeo, c?inoa? nioe?aeueia iai?oaeaiiy oa a?aeaoaathoueny ?io?
iaaaoeai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? noni?euei? i?ioeane.

Cia/iith i??ith aeaoi?ioaaee no?oeoo?o i?aeaaeocaaeo iioie?a i?ioeane
a?ia??ioeyoe??. Iaea?eueo aenieeie oaiiaie ae?iaieoeoai nei?i/oaaeiny o
aaeocyo, ui i?aoeththoue aaciina?aaeiuei ia niiaeea/ee ?eiie oa
caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieo iio?aa noni?euenoaa (o eaae?e ? oa?/ia?e
i?iieneiaino?, aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noa?, noa?? iineoa oiui).
Aeey i?aaeeueii? ioe?iee i?ioeano ?aoi?i ? iaiao?aeiei eiiieaeniee,
nenoaiiee aiae?c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio noni?euenoaa.
Cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ia no/aniiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai?
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeeth/a? noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo i?aai?caoe?eieo ? i?aaiaeo
iaoai?ci?a aeiiii?/iiai ? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

O no?oeoo?ieo ci?iao ia iaio aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aecia/aiiy aieeao
aeaoae?ciaaieo noa? ae?iaie/i?, nioe?aeueii? oa ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.
O nenoai? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith ana oea oeeaaeaeiny a
iaeiicia/io aaei?i?no?aoeaii-?iciiae?eue/o noaio. Oa yeui o
i?iieneiaino?, n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? oa aea?aeaai?e ?eieia?e
oi?a?ae? ua iaee i?noea iaiaaeai? ?eieia? a?aeiineie, oi o iaae?iaie/?e
noa??, cie?aia o aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noa?, ?eiie i?aeoe/ii
aoa a?aenooi?e. Ia i?aoethaaa ?eiie oe?iieo iaia??a oa a?ioae, i?aoe? ?
ia?ooiiino?.

Ca?ac a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny aeiaie? ao?oeeaee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie ?eie?a o ??cieo oi?iao, aeanoeaeo ia?ao?aeiiio ia??iaeo. Aea, ia
aeaeue, aiie iiee a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae no/anieo oeea?e?ciaaieo ?eie?a,
ye? neeaeeny ? ooieoe?iiothoue a aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao. Ca iiaeo
oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ieue i?iaiicoaaiiy ?
ieaioaaiiy. Ae?? ?aaoethth/eo ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a iiaeii?
aeiiiaithaaoeny aea?aeaaiei, i?aaiaei oa aeiiii?/iei ?aaoethaaiiyi, aac
/iai oni?oia iiaea?i?caoe?y aeiiii?ee, ?? no?oeoo?ia o?ainoi?ioaaiiy
i?ae ?eieiaee iiieo ? caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieo iio?aa ethaeeie ?
noni?euenoaa ia a?aeaoaeooueny aai cae?enithaaoeiooueny aeoaea aeiaai.

Cia/ia /anoeia noai?thaaiiai noni?euenoaii iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?eaooeo
iai?aaey?oueny aea?aeaaith ia ?icaeoie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. Ianooaae ??
ae?yeueiino? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee aeeaaeaiue. Oae, ca
ia??iae c 1990 ii 1995 ?iee o no?oeoo?? iniiaieo oiiae?a ca?eueoeeanue
/anoea aeeaaeaiue o oeth aaeocue a 1,3 ?aca, o oiio /ene? o
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueia ainiiaea?noai oa iiaooiaa ianeoaiaoaaiiy ianaeaiiy
– a 1,41 ?aca. C?inoaiiy aa?oino? iniiaieo oiiae?a o iaae?iaie/?e noa??
iiynith?oueny, a iniiaiiio, oe?iiaei oaeoi?ii. Nooi?iue ciino o 1995
?ioe? neeaea 37,5 %. 3 ieo o iaae?iaie/?e noa?? -38,2 %, o aeeoeiaiio
ainiiaea?noa? – 42 %, o eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noa? ? iiaooiaiio
ianeoaiaoaaii? ianaeaiiy – 47 %.

A?aeiineie c i?eaiaeo noai?aiiy iineoa o iaae?iaie/eo aaeocyo ?
iaeii/anii a?aeiineiaie noni?eueia i?aai?ciaaiiai niiaeeaaiiy
i?iaeoeoe??, noai?thaaii? o iaoa??aeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?. ?ici?? eioo?a,
ui iai?aaeythoueny o aaeoc? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, aecia/a?oueny iio?aaaie
noni?euenoaa o ?acoeueoaoao ?o ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae ae?iaeaiei
iaoe?iiaeueiei aeioiaeii. Aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy oeeo iio?aa
aenooiathoue caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? o?iainia? ?ano?ne, ye? aeae?eythoueny c
athaeaeaoieo ? iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a. I?ioa iio?aae noni?eueia
cia/ouiai oa?aeoa?o aiane?aeie iaiaaeaiino? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo
?ano?n?a iie?eaathoueny ieie eeoa o ?ici??ao iaiao?aeiiai i?i?ioio ia
i?eioeeiao /anoeiaiai o?iainoaaiiy ca ?aooiie eioo?a aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo. Caaeiaieaiiy oeeo iio?aa iiiaae onoaiiaeaiee ii?iaoeaiee
??aaiue cae?enith?oueny c ?ioeo o?iainiaeo aeaea?ae, o oiio /ene? c
eioo?a ianaeaiiy.

Na?aae aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e aaaeeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noao. I?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y
aeia?aaeaeath/iai oaiio c?inoaiiy ianyao ieaoieo iineoa o oe?e aaeoc?
ii??aiyii ?c caaaeueiei ianyaii iaaeaieo ieaoieo iineoa, ?o /anoea o
no?oeoo?? oaeeo iineoa ci?ieeany c 16,1 % o 1990 ?ioe? aei 41 %-o 1995
?ioe?. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i i??i?eoaoiee ?icaeoie aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno.

A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa ia??oioiao?oueny aeiionoei?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue
ae?yeueiino? iiai? i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueei? no?oeoo?e –
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. Aaeocaaa i?aai?caoe?y oeueiai
eiiieaeno ? /anoeiith i?aai?caoe?? anueiai noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ?e
i?eoaiaii? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy oa
?icaeoeo, nai? oi?ie. Aea/eaoe caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, iiaeia i?aeoe/ii ?aaoethaaoe oeae
neeaaeiee i?ioean, aeiaeaath/enue iioeiaeueii? i?iii?oe?eiino? o
?icaeoeo ie?aieo i?aeaaeocae ? o e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo – aaee/acii?
aeiiii?? cao?ao noni?eueii? i?aoe?. Aea a ae?yeueiino? eiiieaeno iii?oi?
oae? iaaaoeai? yaeua, ye oa?eoi??aeueia ?icina?aaeaeai?noue
i?ae?icae?e?a, ?o iaaei?aaaeaii aaeeea ?icae??aiai?noue, a?aeii/a
?ic’?aeiai?noue, ui ii?ooo? i?eeiyoi? i?iii?oe?? i?ae aaeocyie
iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? iaae?iaie/ith noa?ith.

Iaee?au? ?acoeueoaoe i?e oi?ioaaii? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
aeinyaathoueny, yeui nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a ?icaeaa?oueny,
aeia?aaeaeath/e oaiie ?icaeoeo anueiai ainiiaea?noaa. O iaeaeeae/? ?iee
ci?oeiaiiy iaae?iaie/i? noa?e noaia iaeiei c oaeoi??a ?ioaineo?eaoe??
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. C oeei iia’yco?oueny iaiao?aei?noue
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, yea aeicaieeei 6 ae??oeoe
i?iaeaie o oe?e aaeoc?.

Aecia/aeueiith oiiaith noai?aiiy nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaiiai ?eieo a
Oe?a?i? ? aeeth/aiiy o oiaa?ii-a?ioia? a?aeiineie oaei? aaaeeeai? noa?e
aeiiii?ee, ye aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen, ui ?aae?co? ?ioa?ane
eiaeii? ethaeeie. Ooo caeiyoi iaeaea 15% i?aoethth/iai ianaeaiiy. Ieoiia
aaaa eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue o aeeoeiaa aoae?aieoeoai neeaaea? 20,9 % ?o
caaaeueii? aa?oino?. AEeoeiaee oiiae noaiiaeoue iiiaae 25 %
a?aeoai?thaaiiai ia?ooiiiai iaeia.

Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a?
aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaii? i?iii?oe?eiino? ?icaeoeo ie?aieo
i?aeaaeocae aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno o eiaeiiio ?aa?ii?. Ia
ia?oee ieai ii i??? c?inoaiiy ianooaa?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
oa oneeaaeiaiiy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae eiai i?aeaaeocyie ? ae?iaieoeoaaie
aenoaa?oueny iaiao?aei?noue iie?ioaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?, ioaea,
aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeii? caaeainiaaiino? o ?icaeoeo. Ca?aene aeieea?
i?iaeaia ii?aoethaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy,
ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaeia aoei a aaciiieeeiai ?aaoethaaoe i?ioeane
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. Ianya eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue ? aa?o?noue iniiaieo
oiiae?a ii i?aeaaeocyo iiaeooue neoaoaaoe /aoaie oa?ac?a i?e aecia/aii?
??aiy eiai oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

AEO AO AO

—- * IOAE + —- * IOA + —– * IOA + …

AEI AI AI

EIAEEE =
—————————————————————— ,

IOAE + IOA + IOA + …

aea EIAEEE – eiao?oe??io i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaaeocae
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno; AEO, AO, AO – iaoo?aeuei? iieacieee,
ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaeoe/iee ??aaiue caaacia/aiino? ianaeaiiy
ia’?eoaie aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno – aeeoeii, aiaeith, aioaeyie
oiui; AEI, AI, AI – oa ae, ca ii?iith; IOAE, IOA, IOA – aa?o?noue
iniiaieo oiiae?a ii i?aeaaeocyo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

Aeina?ae e?a?i c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith iieaco?, ui
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ? eeth/iaei eiiiiiaioii aoaeue-yei?
aeiiii?ee oa aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a oe?eiio. A?i iiaea i?e
iaa?oioiaai?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e iie?oeoe? aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a
yeino? ?oo?y aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy.

?icae?e 2. Iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. C?inoaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo
oa?eoi??e, ?o no?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy oa ?io? ainiiaea?nuee? oni?oe ?
aaaeeeaith, a o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao – ? ae??oaeueiith oiiaith
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?icaeoeo. ?aa?iiaeueia iie?oeea aea?aeaae – oea
iie?oeea iaaeiiouaiiy ? caeaaeaeoaaiiy ??ceeo oa?eoi??aeueieo
aeeni?iii?oe?e. Ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?aa?ii?a aea?aeaaa i?aoeth?
ia?aaaaeii a ?aaeei? “i?aeo?eiee”, a ia “?icaeoeo”. I?ioa no/ania
“i?aeo?eiea” c aeayeeo ia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei ia ni?ey? aeoiaeo ?aa?ii?a c
oyaeeiai iieiaeaiiy. I?e i?iaaaeaii? ?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee iaiao?aeiei
n aeaaaeaiee aaeain oeaio?ae?caoe?? ? aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??, aea?aeaaiino?
oa aaoiiiiiino?, i?e?iaeieo a?aei?iiinoae ? iaieio/iai i?aaethaaiiy.

I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e – oea
noeoii?noue aca?iiiia’ycaieo oa aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioeaaeo? ? noa? ae?yeueiino?, iniiaiith iaoith
yeeo ? ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a noni?eueiiai naii?icaeoeo.

Ine?eueee aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ? aaaeeeaith /anoeiith
aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a oe?eiio, eiaeiee ?aa?ii ? eiaeia
ioi?oeeiaeueia ooai?aiiy iiaeii? iaoe eiie?aoio ? ?aae?noe/io i?ia?aio
?icaeoeo c /?oei ie?aneaieie oe?eyie. Iiaa eaea i?i no?aoaa?/i? i?ia?aie
ae?e ?aa?iiaeueii? oa i?noeaai? aeaaee, cia/iith i??ith ?ic?aoiaai? ia
aeei?enoaiiy aeanieo ?ano?n?a. ?icaeoie ? iiaoaeiaa ?eieo aeeoea
iiaeeea? ca aeiei??iii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei o
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen?. Aei oaeeo oiia a?aeiinyoueny:
a?aeiia?aeia caeiiiaeaa/a aaca, ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei? oaeoi?e,
iae?iaeiiii?/i? oiiae, o?iainiai-e?aaeeoi? oaeoi?e,
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? oa ineoieia?/i? oiiae, ?icai?iooa ? aeinooiia
?ioi?iaoe?y.

AEeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen – oea noeoii?noue aca?iiiia’ycaieo ?
aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo i?aei?e?inoa ? aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, i???ioiaaieo ia
iiceoeaio aeeiai?eo ??aiy oa yeino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy, ui caaacia/othoue
noaa?eueio, caaeainiaaio nioe?aeueio i???ioaoe?th iioaioe?aeo
i?aea?aeii/eo oa?eoi??e.

Aea?aeaaa i?eeiyea i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a ?yae caeiiiaeaa/eo ?
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ui ni?eythoue ?eieiaei ia?aoai?aiiyi o
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen?. Aieiaiei iai?yieii eiai ?icaeoeo
iiaeiia noaoe iie?oeea aoaeoeaiiai iiieoo ia aeeoei, ?? ?aae?caoe?y
iiaeeeaa ca oiia ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. ci?ie
?nioth/iai niiniao o?iainoaaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa, aeoioeyoe?? ??cieo
aeaea?ae eiai ?icaeoeo.

Ia no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao aeiiii?ee aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
aaeeeith i??ith aieeaa? aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy. Oea ao?o/aiiy
aeioe?eueia o ca’yceo c o?iainiaith i?aeo?eieith i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a
o na?aaeei? eiiieaeno oa iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.
Aea?aeaaa ca aeiiiiiaith iaoai?cio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, iaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo
i?euea ? aeae?eaiiy athaeaeaoieo noaneae?e niiioea? noa’?eoe
ainiiaea?thaaiiy aei cae?eniaiiy oaeeo aa??aio?a ae?yeueiino?, eio??
caaeiaieueiyoeiooue ?ioa?ane oa iio?aae noni?euenoaa.

Iecueea aoaeoeai?noue athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy ye iaeiiai c
?aaoeyoi??a aeiiii?ee coiiaeea eiai ??cea cieaeaiiy a oiiaao
e?aa?ae?caoe?? oe?i; aeioaoe?? caa?aaeeny eeoa ia iaai? eaoaai???
oiaa??a. Oae, o aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeao? Oe?a?ie ia 1997 ??e o noaoo?
“O?iainoaaiiy caoiae?a, iia’ycaieo ?c cae?eniaiiyi aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy oe?i” caeeaaeaii 338.340 oen.a?i. (aai 1,23 % aeo?ao), o
oiio /ene? ia aac i?e?iaeiee, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny ianaeaiiyi – 1,13%;
ia aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueia ainiiaea?noai (aiaeiiinoa/aiiy, i?nueeee
aeaeo?io?ainii?o, aiaeia?aeaaaeaiiy, oaieiiinoa/aiiy, aeeoeiaa
ainiiaea?noai) – 0,03 %.

?acii c oei iiaeeeaino? aeiaeaoeiaiai aeae?eaiiy eioo?a c athaeaeaoo
iino?eii nei?i/othoueny aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo. Caeeoeiaee i?eioeei
o?iainoaaiiy ca oeeo oiia eeoa oneeaaeith? neooaoe?th. Oiio iio??aii
ia?aaeyiooe ae?th/ee ii?yaeie eiooi?eniiai ieaioaaiiy. Ana oea coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue ii?aoethaaiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
oaeineiiaeaiiy o?iainiaiai iaoai?cio o iaae?iaie/?e noa?? a oe?eiio.

Aecia/aeueiei iai?yieii ae?yeueiino? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee ?
?ic?iaea ? cae?eniaiiy ieai?a aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ia
i?aea?aeii/?e oa?eoi???. Aeo?aoe ?aa?iiaeueieo athaeaeao?a iathoue
oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy o ca’yceo ?c c?inoaiiyi ? oneeaaeiaiiyi
i?noeaaiai ainiiaea?noaa, ?icoe?aiiyi iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, i?aeaeuaiiyi
aa?oino? iniiaieo oiiae?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno oa ??aiai
eiai oaoi?/ii? iniauaiino?. ?icaeoie o?aai?caoe?? ca?eueoo? iio?aae
iaoeaioe?a iaeeo ? aaeeeeo i?no, naeeu oa n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue, aea o
ana a?eueoeo ianooaaao ?icaeaa?oueny aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen.

A oiiaao ?icoe?aiiy naiia?yaeoaaiiy ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a c?inoa? cia/aiiy
i?noeaaeo Athaeaeao?a, c yeeo cae?enith?oueny o?iainoaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo,
nioe?aeueieo ? eoeueoo?ieo caoiae?a. I?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee naiino?eii
ii?aoeueiaothoue, caoaa?aeaeothoue ? aeeiiothoue nai? athaeaeaoe. O
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieo an? naiino?ei? eaiee athaeaeaoii? nenoaie
iiaeii? noaoe aeoeaieie ?ino?oiaioaie ia?a?iciiae?eo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeioiaeo aeey caaeiaieaiiy caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo iio?aa, aieeao ia
iie?ioaiiy aa?o?nieo i?iii?oe?e noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ?icaeoeo
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ? caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e a?iiaaeyi.

Ieaioaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy – iaeaaaeeea?o? aeaiaioe na?aeiiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie. Aiie aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeey aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo i?iii?oe?e ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee. O
aeena?oaoe?? aaeeeo oaaao iaaeaii ieaioaaiith ae?yeueiino?
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, aeei?enoaiith i?ia?aneaieo iaoiae?a
ieaioaaiiy, ioe?iee ??oaiue, aaaaoiaa??aioiino? ?ic?aooie?a ia iniia?
canoinoaaiiy iia?oiuei? oaoi?ee. Aeey oii?yaeeoaaiiy i?ioean?a
ieaioaaiiy anth ??ciiiai?oi?noue ia’?eo?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno ?iciiae?eythoue ia i?aeaaeoc?. Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeiinyoueny
i?aeaaeoc?, eio?? aaciina?aaeiuei caaacia/othoue iaaiee ??aaiue
eiioi?oiino? i?iaeeaaiiy o aeeoeiaiio oiiae?: aiaeiiinoa/aiiy,
eaiae?caoe?y, oaieiiinoa/aiiy, aaceo?eaoe?y, aeaeo?e/i? ia?aae? ?
nai?oa?ia i/enoea. Aei ae?oai? a?oie aoiaeyoue i?aeaaeoc?
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, aeey yeeo ? oa?aeoa?iith aaciina?aaeiy
a?aenooi?noue ca’yceo c aeeoeiaei aoae?aieoeoaii.

Eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy, ui iai?aaeythoueny ia ?icaeoie
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, ia?aaeaa/aii aea?aeaaiei athaeaeaoii
e?a?ie. Iieacieee ??aiy eiioiaeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia/eneththoueny ye
ioe?iea oa iaa?oiooaaiiy aa??aio?a ieaio eiioiaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ?
iathoue, ye i?aaeei, iaoo?aeueiee oa?aeoa?. O eiiieaeniiio ieai?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ia?iaeo ia?niaeoeae
eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ciaoiaeyoue a?aeaeooy o ?yae? neioaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee (aaeain a?ioiaeo aeioiae?a ? aeo?ao ianaeaiiy, ?aaeuei?
aeioiaee ianaeaiiy, caaaeueiee ianya niiaeeaaiiy iineoa ianaeaiiyi,
niiaeea/ee athaeaeao, caaaeueiee ianya niiaeeaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeaa oa
iineoa) o aa?o?ni?e oi?i?. ?nioth/a i?aeoeea ieaioaaiiy ia caaacia/o?
ni?anoaaeaiiy iaoo?aeueieo ? aa?o?nieo iieaciee?a ??aiy eiioiaeueiiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? iiaeeeaino? aca?iiiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaeieo aei ?ioeo.
Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ia?aaeaa/a?
iie?ioaiiy ?ic?iaee i?iaeo?a ieai?a ?icaeoeo aaeocae o oa?eoi??aeueiiio
?ic??c? oa ?icaeyae ?o ni?eueii c iaeanieie aaei?i?no?aoe?yie, a oaeiae
iia?aeiieaiiy ?i eiio?ieueieo oeeo?, iniiaieo iieaciee?a i?iaeo?a ?
caoaa?aeaeaieo ieai?a ii i?aei?e?inoaao, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia oa?eoi???
?aa?iio, oa i?aai?caoe?yo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

Iaoith ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?
aeinyaiaiiy ii?iaoeaieo iieaciee?a caaacia/aiino? iineoaaie c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o oa?eoi??aeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa iaiao?aeieo
i?iii?oe?e o ?icaeoeo ie?aieo i?aeaaeocae. Nooi?iue iaaeeaeaiiy ??aiy
ieaiiaeo iieaciee?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy aei
a?aeiia?aeieo ii?iaoeaieo cia/aiue niooo? iniiaiei e?eoa???i
ii??aiyeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo aa??aio?a ieaio i?e caaeaieo ?ano?nieo
iaiaaeaiiyo. Oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ieaiiaeo iieaciee?a aeeth/a? oe?eee
eiiieaen caoiae?a, iaeaaaeeea?oeie c yeeo ?: i?aeneeaiiy ?ie?
iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue e?ioeaa? ?acoeueoaoe ?icaeoeo ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a, i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy aca?iii? iiaiaeaeaiino?
iieaciee?a ii aeaeao ieai?a ? noaae?yo ieaioaaiiy, ?icae?eao ieaio,
eiiieaenao ieaiiai-aeiiii?/ieo caaea/ ? aeaeao iieaciee?a;
oaeineiiaeaiiy neeaaeo ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo oa
caoaa?aeaeoaaieo iieaciee?a; noai?aiiy aioo??oiueieiiieaenii?
aaaaoi??aiaai? nenoaie aca?iiiia’ycaieo iieaciee?a. Iaeaaaeeea?oei
iai?yieii i?aeaeuaiiy eiiieaeniino? ieai?a ?icaeoeo
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a
ii?aeiaiiy aaeocaaiai ? oa?eoi??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
caaeainiaaiino? ieai?a.

?icae?e 3. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy ieaioaaiiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a oiiaao iiaiaaaaeaiue. Ca?ac
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueia ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie oa?eoei a aoai ?aaeeeaeueiiai
?aoi?ioaaiiy. Eiai iaiao?aei?noue coiiaeaia, c iaeiiai aieo, aaee/aciei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia athaeaeaoe an?o ??ai?a aeioaoe??
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, a c ?ioiai, aacaae?aniith, ii noo?,
nenoaiith aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee ianaeaiiy. Oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy iaae?iaie/ith noa?ith
noai?th? iaiao?aei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey iaea?eueo iiaiiai ? oaeaeeiai
?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy o na?aaeei? nenoaie,
iiaeeea?noue iaeneiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo ?aca?a?a. E?ioeaaeie
?acoeueoaoaie ?aoi?i iiaeii? noaoe: caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ianaeaiiy e?a?ie
o iineoaao aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ia ??ai? onoaiiaeaieo
noaiaea?o?a yeino? i?iaeeaaiiy; caaacia/aiiy aeinooiiino? aeeoea aeey
oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy; aeeth/aiiy o iiaiiio ianyc? ?eieiaeo
iaoai?ci?a o i?ioean? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeocae aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno; ia?ao?ae aei iiaiiai o?iainoaaiiy aaeocc? ca ?aooiie
ieaoaae?a ianaeaiiy c iaaeaiiyi aeeoeiaeo noaneae?e oei, ooi oeueiai
iio?aao?.

I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei
eiiieaenii yaey? niaith neeaaeiee aaaaoiieaiiaee ? aeeiai?/iee i?aai?ci,
ui neeaaea?oueny c aca?iiiia’ycaieo eaiie, oiio iaiao?aeiith oiiaith
eiai oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeiii noaoe eiiieaenia, ocaiaeaeaia
oaeineiiaeaiiy an?o eiai neeaaeiaeo.

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie caaino?eeeny ?nioth/? ?ai?oa oa aeieeee iia?
aeeni?iii?oe?? o ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. ??aaiue eiai
?icaeoeo, i?aai?caoe?y, ye?noue ? iaae?ei?noue ?iaioe ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue no/aniei aeiiaai. O aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii noaio
oi?aae?iiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aeai-, a c o?aooaaiiyi iiaea?eiiai
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa – o?e??aiaao nenoaio. Iniiaieie eaieaie
noathoue ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy ? aaeee? i?aei?e?inoaa
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Ioaea, o aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen? aoaea ae?yoe oaea aaia?aeueia
noaia i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aae?iiy: aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee
eiiieaen – ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy iaeanoae – i?nuee? ? ?aeiii?
aaaaoiaaeocaa? ia’?aeiaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno (?en. 1).
Iiaee ainiiaea?nueeee iaoai?ci oe??? noa?e ainiiaea?thaaiiy iiaeiai
i???iooaaoeny ia ?ioa?ane niiaeeaa/a, ia i?aeneeaiiy oaaae aei
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caiiaieea ? yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy. ?aoi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy, ni?yiiaaia ia iiaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a ie?aieo eaiie
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, ye iieaco? aeina?ae, o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeicaiey?
ci?ieoe oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae ieie, i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue ?o aca?iiae??. Iino?eia oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy ? iaaaeueiith
iaiao?aei?noth o no/anieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ia? aooe aeei?enoaia ?aeiiaiaeiaaia o
aeena?oaoe?? nenoaia iieaciee?a, ui ?ice?eaathoue iniaeeaino? eiai
?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Ca aeiiiiiaith
cai?iiiiiaaieo iieaciee?a noa? iiaeeeaith eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?icaeoeo
iniiaieo aeaiaio?a ? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
o oe?eiio.

Nenoaia iieaciee?a oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii ia?aaeaa/a? ?aei?noue
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ii?, iaoiaeieia?/ii? ? oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee o oe?e
aaeoc?. Aeaia nenoaia iieaciee?a iaaiith i??ith caaacia/o? ?aae?caoe?th
i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ii oaeineiiaeaiith
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei
eiiieaenii oeyoii o?aooaaiiy ?o aieeao ia aia?ao oi?aae?iiy ? ia
ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeciaii ca iaiao?aeia cae?eniaiiy ?aoi?ie
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno o ?aaeei? oa a ?aieao i?ioeano
i?enei?aiiy aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. A?aecia/aii,
ui ?aoi?ia iiaeiia aooe ?aaeeeaeueiith, aeeaieith, oaeith, ui eiiieaenii
ae??oo? eiei an?o ieoaiue ia?aaoaeiae ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio ye
oe?e?nii? nenoaie. Aieiaiei /eiieeii, yeee aecia/a? iaaaeuei?noue
ia?aoiaeo aei i?eioeeiiai iiaiai i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio,
? ea?aeeiaeueii iia? caaaeaiiy, ye? iaiao?aeii ae??ooaaoe a oiiaao
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Ia’?aeiaiiy, i?aei?e?inoaa

Aaeocaa? oa?eoi??aeuei? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo
ia’?aeiaiue

I?aei?e?inoaa, ye? ia aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo i?nueeeo ia’?aeiaiue

I?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ia’?aeiaiue

Ae?iaie/? ae?eueieoe? ii aaeocyo

?en. 1. I?eioeeiiaa noaia oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii
Oe?a?ie

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yie?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ieaioaaiiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? i?aeneeaiiy oe?eani?yiiaaiino? ieai?a
eiai aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

O no/anieo oiiaao iniaeeai aeooaeueiei noa? caaaeaiiy iaa?oiooaaiiy
nenoaie oe?eae ieaio, aeio?eiaiiy ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ioa?an?a i?e
aecia/aii? ?ano?n?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey ?o aeinyaiaiiy. Eiiieaenia nenoaia
iieaciee?a oeeo ieai?a aea? iiaeeea?noue ioe?ithaaoe ??aaiue
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a, aeicaiey? i?noeaaei
ainiiaea?nueeei i?aaiai ie?anethaaoe i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a ? oeyoe
?o ?ica’ycaiiy, ciaoiaeeoe ?ano?ne aeey caaeainiaaiiai, aa?iii?eiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, ?icaeaath/e aaeoc? iaoa??aeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. No?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a
Oe?a?i? ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? cae?enith?oueny o oi?i? i?iaiic?a, ye?
aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo eiiieaeniiai i?iaiico nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo e?a?ie ye eiai ?icae?ee. Ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? oaeiae
neeaaeathoueny i?ia?aie ? ieaie ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno. Ii?aoethaaiiy ieaiiaeo aeieoiaio?a ia ioi?oeeiaeueiiio ??ai?
a?aeaoaa?oueny c aeae?eaiiyi ia’?eo?a ieaioaaiiy ca oi?iaie aeaniino?.

?icae?e 4. Aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee ? iiaeae? o ieaioaaii?
ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. Oe?eueia? onoaiiaee
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee o aaeocyo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, caoiaee uiaei ?o
aeinyaiaiiy iaoa??ae?cothoueny o ??cieo ieaiiaeo aeieoiaioao, o oiio
/ene? o aea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueieo oa i?noeaaeo athaeaeaoao,
aea?aeaaieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo oe?eueiaeo i?ia?aiao. Ieaioaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? eiai i?aeaaeocae,
i?aei?e?inoa, ye? noaiiaeyoue neeaaeiao /anoeio ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
ieaioaaiiy, iiaeiii cae?enithaaoeny a?aeiia?aeii aei
caaaeueiiiaoiaee/ieo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith. I?aai?caoe?? oa
i?aei?e?inoaa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno naiino?eii
ii?aoeueiaothoue o?iainia? ieaie. Aeey neeaaeaiiy eiooi?en?a ye aeo?aei?
aeai? aeei?enoiaothoueny eiio?ieuei? oeeo?e oa aeiiii?/i? ii?iaoeae.

Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei ieaioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
iieyaa? o aecia/aii? eiaeiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ye aeaiaioa
aioo??oiueieiiieaenii? i?aenenoaie c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia, ui aenoaathoueny
aei ?icaeoeo oe??? i?aenenoaie. O naith /a?ao, eiaeia oaea i?aenenoaia
iinoa? ye aeaiaio i?aenenoaie a?eueo aenieiai ii?yaeeo, ? oae aei oeo
i??, aeiee o yeino? ?aeeii? nenoaie ia ?icaeyaeaoeiaoueny aanue
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen. O oaeee niin?a aeinyaa?oueny iiaiioa
ae?aaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeiia aei ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa, a
???a?o?/ia no?oeoo?a oaeeo aeiia coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aaaaoi??aiaai?
i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ieaioaaiiy.

I?e eiino?othaaii? iioei?caoe?eieo iiaeaeae o aeena?oaoe?? o?aoiaoaaeeny
iaai? ianoaaeie. Aiae?c aca?iica’yce?a aeaiiai aaaaoiaaeocaaiai
eiiieaeno o nenoai? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iieaco?, ui ??ci? noa?e
aeiiii?ee i?aeaaeocae, c iaeiiai aieo, iaiaeiaeiai ?aaaothoue ia ci?ie
aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e ? aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno, c ?ioiai – ni?aaeythoue ??ciee aieea ia iieacieee eiai
?icaeoeo oa aoaeoeai?noue. Caaaeueiei e?eoa???i ioe?iee ae?yeueiino?
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e ? nooi?iue caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa o a?aeiia?aei?e i?iaeoeoe?? (?iaioao, iineoaao).
Iiaeaethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?
iaeiei c iaea?eueo nooo?aeo oa aeooaeueieo caaaeaiue, ui ?aae?cothoueny
ia iaoeiieo eiiieaenao.

I?aeoeea ?ica’ycaiiy ae?iaie/eo caaea/ ieaioaaiiy aeeeeeaea
iaiao?aei?noue ii?aoethaaiiy oai??? oa iaoiae?a aiae?co iaaeanoeaeo
caaea/ iaoaiaoe/iiai i?ia?aioaaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaaii
iiiyooy iaaeanoeai? caaea/?, caaea/?, yea ia ia? aeanoeaino?
iaeii/aniiai ?ica’ycoaaiiy i?yii? oa iiaea?eii? caaea/ ? ni?aiaaeaiiy ?o
iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue. Aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy ??oaiiy iaaeanoeai? caaea/?
e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy ei?eaothoueny ye nenoaia iaiaaeaiue, oae ? naia
ooieoe?y.

Noia?a/eea? oai?aoe/i? iiaeae?, canoiniaoaai? i?e ieaioaaii?
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee a?aeaeaathoue neeaaei? nioe?aeuei? oa oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?
neooaoe??. I?e/eie, ui aeeeeeathoue ianoi?ni?noue caaea/ iioeiaeueiiai
ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, oiiaii ?icaeoi
ia aea? a?oie: ia’?eoeai? (neeaaeiee oa?aeoa? ae?iaieoeoaa, ui ii?aeio?
??ci? i?aeaaeoc? c? neeaaeieie aca?iica’yceaie; iayai?noue cii
iaaecia/aiino? o oiae? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, aeyaeaiiy
iaeiio?ieueiaaieo ciai?oi?o ae?e ia o?ae ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia i?ioean
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue i?e ieaioaaii?; ia’?eoeaia iaiiaeeea?noue iiaii?
a?aeiia?aeiino? ieaio ? oa?aeoa?o eiai aeeiiaiiy) ? noa’?eoeai?
(a?aenoaaaiiy o /an? iaea?aeaiiy o iiaiiio ianyc? iaiao?aeii? oa
aeinoia??ii? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey iioeiaeueiiai
ieaioaaiiy; a?aenooi?noue iiaii? ocaiaeaeaiino? ?ioa?an?a ie?aieo i?ae
aaeocae, ?o i?ae?icae?e?a ? an??? nenoaie a oe?eiio; iaaeineiiae?noue
?nioth/eo iiaeaeae, iaoiae?a, aeai?eoi?a iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy oa
a?aenooi?noue iaiao?aeiiai aca?iica’yceo ieaioaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy, ui
ia aeicaiey? i?aaeeueii ioe?ithaaoe aeaye? aecia/aeuei? ia?aiao?e
aaeocaaiai eiiieaeno; iayai?noue noa’?eoeaieo ioe?iie o i?ioean?
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue i?e ieaioaaii? ae?yeueiino? aaeocaaiai eiiieaeno, eiee
/anoi caaeuothoueny aioo??oi? ?aca?ae ae?iaieoeoaa).

Aeey iiaeieaiiy o?oaeiiu?a, ui aeieeathoue o oiae? iioei?caoe?? ieai?a
ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao ianoi?niino?, i?iaiaeeee iiooe iiaeo oeyo?a,
i?aeoiae?a aei aiae?co ae?iaie/eo neooaoe?e, i?e iioeiaeueiiio
ieaioaaii?. C iaoith iai/iino? oa caaaeueiiai aeeeaaeaiiy i?ioeaaeo?
ei?eaoaaiiy noia?a/eeai? nenoaie iaiaaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei
iiaeieaiiy ianoi?niino? o caaea/ao ia?niaeoeaiiai ? iioi/iiai ieaioaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno iiaea?oueny ia i?eeeaae?
iiaeaeae caaea/ ieaioaaiiy ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny ?yae iiaeaeae iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaaeanoeaeo caaea/ e?i?eiiai oa aeioeeiai i?ia?aioaaiiy.
sse ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?aeaaeocae
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno – nenoaia i?nueeaeaeo?io?ainii?oo
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?. Iniiaia aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
caaea/? ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

EQ \s\do10(max) \i\fc\S(n = 1,3,) \i\fc\S(s = 1,5,)\s\do10( c\s(s,1n)
y\s(s,1n)) \s\do10(+) \i\fc\S(m = 1,2,) \i\fc\S(s = 1,5,)\s\do10(
c\s(s,2m) y\s(s,2m))

aea EQ y\s(s,1n) , EQ y\s(s,2m) (n = \x\to(1\, 3); s = \x\to(1\,
5) , EQ m = \x\to(1\, 2); s = \x\to(1\, 5)) -ooeaiee ianya
ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiue (o?aiaae, o?ieaeaon) o a?aeiia?aeiiio i?no? o
S-io ?ioe?; EQ c\s(s,1n) , EQ
c\s(s,2m)  ( n = \x\to(1\, 3);   s = \x\to(1\, 5) ) , EQ ( m =
\x\to(1\, 2); s = \x\to(1\, 5) ) – aeioiae, iaea?aeoaaiee a?ae
ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiue (o?aiaae, o?ieaeaon) o a?aeiia?aeiiio i?no? o
S-io ?ioe?. Iaiaaeaiiy ia aeo?aoe aeey i?aai?caoe?? ianaaee?nueeeo
ia?aaacaiue (o?aiaae, o?ieaeaon) ii iaeano? ca aanue ia??iae ieaioaaiiy
aecia/athoueny ca oi?ioeaie:

EQ \i\fc\S(n = 1,3,) \i\fc\S(s = 1,5,)\s\do10( a\s(s,1n) y\s(s,1n))
\s\do10(( (\s\do5(1)) , EQ \i\fc\S(m = 1,2,)
\i\fc\S(s = 1,5,)\s\do10( a\s(s,2m) y\s(s,2m)) \s\do10(( (\s\do5(2)) ,

aea EQ (\s\do5(1) , EQ (\s\do5(2) – aeo?aoe (o?aiaae, o?ieaeaon) o
oe?eiio ii iaeano? ca aanue ia??iae ieaioaaiiy; EQ a\s(s,1n) , EQ
a\s(s,2m) – nia?aa?o?noue ia?aaacaiiy 1000 ianaaee??a (o?aiaae,
o?ieaeaon) o S-io ?ioe?. sse i?aaeei, oey caaea/a ? ianoi?niith, oiio
aeey ioe?iee i??e ianoi?niino? ?ica’yco?oueny ianooiia caaea/a:

EQ min {j\s\do5(1) + j\s\do5(2) + l\s\do5(1) + l\s\do5(2)} ,

aea i?e?iuaiiy EQ j\s\do5(1) , EQ j\s\do5(2) , EQ l\s\do5(1) , EQ
l\s\do5(2) aeiaeaii aei oeo iieaciee?a, ye? ca ci?noii caaea/?
i?aeeyaathoue ei?aeooaaiith. O ?acoeueoao? ?ica’ycaiiy iaea?aeaii?
noi?nii? caaea/? ia/eneth?oueny iioeiaeueiee ieai ianya?a ianaaee?nueeeo
ia?aaacaiue ii eiaeiiio ia’?eoo, aeaeo ia?aaacaiue oa ieaiiaaiiio ?ieo.
Aeioiae (N), iaea?aeoaaiee a?ae aeeiiaiiy oeueiai ieaio, ia/eneth?oueny
o oaeee niin?a:

EQ \s\do10(N = )\i\fc\S(n= 1,3,) \i\fc\S(s= 1,5,) \s\do10( c\s(s,1n)
\o(y,~)\s(s,1n) +) \i\fc\S(m= 1,2,) \i\fc\S(s= 1,5,) \s\do10( c\s(s,2m)
\o(y,~)\s(s,2m)) .

I?ney ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy ianya?a
ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaeanoeaeo caaea/ e?i?eiiai
i?ia?aioaaiiy iaea?aeaii iioeiaeuei? ieaie, aecia/aii iaeneiaeueia
cia/aiiy aeioiaeo ca oiiaaie caaea/?, ?icaeyiooi iiaeeea?noue aeeiiaiiy
ianya?a ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiue i?e aeae?eaieo oiiaeao ia aeo?aoe oa
anoaiiaeaieo aa?oi?o oa ieaei?o iaae ia ianyae ianaaee?nueeeo
ia?aaacaiue, a oaeiae ciaeaeaii cia/aiiy, ui aeicaieythoue i?eaanoe
aeiiii?/i? iieacieee o a?aeiia?aei?noue aei aeae?eaieo oiiae?a ?
iiaeeeainoae aeaeo?io?ainii?oo iaeano?.

O aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae ?icaeyiooi aaeocaao iiaeaeue iioeiaeueiiai
ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. Caaea/a
iieyaa? a oiio, uia a?aeiaeoe cia/aiiy ci?iieo Ooe, oiaoi aea?aoe oae?
aa??aioe ?icaeoeo i?aeaaeocae, ye? caaacia/othoue iaeiaio? aeo?aoe ?
a?aeiia?aeathoue oae?e nenoai? iaiaaeaiue: ianya aeioneo i?iaeoeoe??
(ae?ia?a, iineoa) ia iaioa iio?aae o i?e:

ianya aeioneo i?iaeoeoe?? (ae?ia?a, iineoa) ia iaioa iio?aae o i?e:

EQ \i\fc\S(i = 1,m,) \i\fc\S(j = 1,n,) \s\do10(P\s\do5(ijrt)
x\s\do5(ij) ( P\s\do5(rt)\, r = 1\,…\, q; t = 1\,…\, T;)

?ano?ne eiaeiiai aeaeo iaiaaeai? aeae?eaiith e?euee?noth:

EQ \i\fc\S(i = 1,m,) \i\fc\S(j = 1,ni,) \s\do10(S\s(k,ijt)
x\s\do5(ij) ( S\s(k,t)\, k = 1\,…\, l; t = 1\,…\, T;)

Oe?eueiaa ooieoe?y – caaaeueia noia aeo?ao i?i?iaeueia:

EQ \s\do10(z = )\i\fc\S(i = 1,m,) \i\fc\S(j = 1,ni,)
\s\do10(c\s\do(ij) \( P\s\do5(ijr)\, x\s\do5(ij) \) ( min)

aea ? – iiia? i?aeaaeoc?, ? = 1,2,…m; j – iiia? aa??aioa ?icaeoeo
i?aeaaeoc?, j = 1,2,…, n; k – iiia? aeaeo aeei?enoiaoaaiiai ?ano?no, k
= 1,2,…, l; r – aeae i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeionea?oueny aeey
aaaaoii?iaeoeoiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, r = 1,2,…, g; t – iiia? ?ieo
ieaiiaiai ia??iaeo, t = 1,2,…,T. Ci?ii?: xij – aaee/eia ( 0,5 aai

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