IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AEIIII?EE I?IIENEIAINO?

OAeE 338.46

E?aia?aiei Aaeeia Ieaenaiae??aia

I?AAI?CAOe?EII-AEIIII?*IEE IAOAI?CI OI?AAE?IIss AEEOEIAI-EIIOIAEUeIEI
EIIIEAENII

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.01 — Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy, a?ciano oa
i?aaa (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee) I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

Oea/aiei Aieiaeeie? Aiae??eiae/,

i?i?aeoi? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? aeaaeai??

oi?aae?iiy, a?ciano oa i?aaa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieea Aaneeue ?aaiiae/,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo
I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a);

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?iaa?i Aaeaioei A?eoi?iae/,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo

aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI

Oe?a?ie (i. Aeiiaoeuee);

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ae?aaoi Eaii?ae Ieeieaeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee aoae?aieoeoaa

I?eaei?i?ianueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e
(i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie

IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai

?icaeoeo oa ?ici?uaiiy aaeocae nioe?aeueii?

noa?e (i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “17” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.151.01 ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie: 340048, i.Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea,
77.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie: 340048, i.Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea,
77.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “12” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iieeiinueeee O.TH.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca?aeii c ??oaiiyie o?yaeo uiaei
i?enei?aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie oa on?o noa? aeeooy
noni?euenoaa cae?eniaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iiaeiii
caaacia/eoe iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa eiai
aoaeoeaiino?. I?ioa oaia??oi?e iiiaio aeiiii?/iiai noaio Oe?a?ie ia aea?
i?aenoaa aeey oiai, uia aiai?eoe i?i ei??iiee ia?aeii o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo e?a?ie.

Iineaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? aeiiii?ee aeyaeeiny ? o cieaeaii?
ianooaa?a ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeueii? aace i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, ?o oaoi?/ii? iniauaiino?. sseui na?aaeiuei??/i?
oaiie i?e?inoo aeo?ao aea?aeathaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie, ui iai?aaeyeeny ia
?icaeoie aaeocae nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy, o 60-o? ?iee
noaiiaeee 7,6 %, oi o ianooiiiio aeanyoe??//? — 4,5 %, a a ia?o?e
iieiaei? 90-o ?ie?a — 3,7 %.

Oea i?ecaaei aei a?aenoaaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e ii??aiyii c
aeinyaiooei ??aiai ae?iaie/eo nee ? iio?aaaie ianaeaiiy.
Niinoa??aa?oueny cano?e o ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueii? aace ioi?iie caei?ia’y,
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ina?oe oa ?ioeo aaeocae
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. Iniaeeai neaai caaeiaieueiythoueny iio?aae ianaeaiiy
o ieaoieo iineoaao.

Aaaeeeaa ?ieue na?aae aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e iaeaaeeoue
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noao. Ca nai?i ci?noii ? no?oeoo?ith
aiii ? iaeiei c iaeneeaaei?oeo ? aaaaoia?aiieo ia’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy,
iieeeeaieo ae??ooaaoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?
caaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa. O no?oeoo?? ieaoieo iineoa ianaeaiith o 1995
?ioe? ia aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae i?eiaaea? 41 %. Ca?ac o iueiio
caeiyoi 0,8 iei. /ieia?e, aa?o?noue iniiaieo oiiae?a o 1995 ?ioe? neeaea
400 iei.a?i.

I?ioa aeinyaiooee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ua
ia caaeiaieueiy? iio?aa ianaeaiiy, a iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca oe???
noa?e aeaeaea a?ae aeineiiaeino?.

A aeiiii?/ieo ioae?eaoe?yo inoaii?o ?ie?a, i?enay/aieo ?icaeoeo
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, ui ooo neeaeeny, caeiiii??iinoae, ?? i?noey ? cia/aiiy o
caaeiaieaii? iio?aa ianaeaiiy ? ?ica’ycaii? nioe?aeueieo caaaeaiue. Oeei
ieoaiiyi i?eae?eaii oaaao o ?yae? iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? noaoae
I.A.Nieiaeeiaa, A.I.?oooaeca?a, A.I.Ei?/aa?ia, ?.I.AEeeueoeiaa,
?.I.Aoea?aa, A.O.Iiiiaa, A.I.?aaiiaa, E.?Eeianiia, I.Ae.I?ieiiaiea,
A.A.O?iaa?ia oa ?i. Ieoaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?aeiioaaiiy, ?aa?iiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo oa oi?aae?iiy ?icaeyiooi o aeayeeo iiiia?ao?yo ? noaooyo
A.A.Aaaiaaayia, AeE.Aeeianueeiai. A.I.Ayoe?ii?, I.A.*oia/aiea,
I.?.?aaiiaa, I.A.?na?ai?, A.A.E?noaiiaa, A.I.Eaa?ia, I.A.Ianoa?iaa,
I.A.Oeeoeeia oa ?i. Iai?yiee ?aaeeeaeueii? ?aoi?ie an??? nenoaie
ieaioaaiiy, ui ca?ac ?icai?oa?oueny, aena?oeththoueny a ?iaioao
A.A.Iiiiaa, I.I.Oiaeueiaa, I.I.Aeiaa, I.?.Aiioe, A.A.Aoaianue?aa,
A.A.Aaa?eeaiea, A.I.*a?eiaoey, I.?.Eiieiaa, O.IE?noaiao?oa,
A.?.Iai/aiea, A.I.Ni?oiaa, ss.I.O?einiia, A.E.Iaiooiaa, N.N.Aioaea?y,
A.I.A??aiaa?aa, O.TH.Iieeiinueeiai oa ?i.

Aeine?aeaeaiith oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo aniaeo?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy aaeocaaiai ieaioaaiiy, i?iaeai iiaoaeiae oa ?aae?caoe??
aca?iiiia’ycaieo nenoai iiaeaeae aeey ae??oaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue
ia?niaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo aaeocae ? aaaaoiaaeocaaeo eiiieaen?a i?enay/ai?
?iaioe E.Ae.A?iaenueei?, TH.A.Iaeiaiia, A.A.Aie/eiaa. ?.?.??ueii?ia,
A.I.Eooe?e?ia, I.O.E?aia?a, IE .Eaiaoaaa, A.A.Iae?iao?aa, AA.Nie?iiaa,
TH.I.Oei/oea, O.?.?aaeieeiiaa oa ?i. I?iUeeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a
oi?aae?iiy ?aa?iiaeueieie ainiiaea?nueeeie nenoaiaie oa ?o neeaaeiaeie a
oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?icaeyioo? a ?iaioao A.?.Aeia?aa,
ss.A.Aa?nooeueeiai, A.A.Aeceny, I.?.Aeie?oiueiai, A.I.Eaen?ia,
?.?Eoe?iiaa, A.?.Ieee, ?.O.Iiiiia?ueiaa, A.A.Oea/aiea, I.A.*oia/aiea oa
?ioeo a/aieo.

Aea ieoaiiy ieaioaaiiy aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee caeeoathoueny iaeiaea/aieie. A?aenooi? ioae?eaoe??,
ye? i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ye
iiai? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e, oiaoi a oiio eiai ye?niiio
noai?, eio?iai aiii iaaoaa? ca oiia ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
Niinoa??aa?oueny iaaiee aeao?oeeo oai?aoe/ii? caaacia/aiino?
ainiiaea?nueei? i?aeoeee c ieoaiue iioei?caoe?? i?iii?oe?e aaeocaaiai ?
oa?eoi??aeueiiai aniaeo?a ieaioaaiiy iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, iaae
oi?aae?inueeeo naiaiae ?aa?ii?a oa niiioeaeueieo iioea?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia oeueiio ??ai?, iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa i?noeaai? ?i?oe?aoeae) aca?iicaeaaeiino? ae?iaie/iai ? nioe?aeueiiai
aniaeo?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Iio?aaothoue aeiaeaoeiaiai
oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe ?aa?iiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy aaeocyie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. Aeieeiaiiy aaeeeeo o ianooaaao
?aeiio aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e ii-iiaiio oi?ioeth? oi?aae?inuee?
caaaeaiiy ia?aae ?aa?iiaeueieie i?aaiaie i?noeaai? aeaaee oa i?aaiaie
oi?aae?iiy ia eiie?aoieo i?aei?e?inoaao, ui ? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith
oe??? aaeoc?.

Na?eiciee aeenaaeain aeyaeaii o iaae?iaie/?e noa?? ?aa?ii?a. Aaeocaaee
i?eioeei caeeoeiaiai ?iaanooaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??e a
cii? ae?? i?aei?e?inoa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno

i?eca?a aei ?noioieo ia?aein?a o eiai ?icaeoeo ia o?eueee i?ae ??cieie
?aa?iiaie, aea e o na?aaeei? eiaeiiai c ieo ia eiie?aoieo
i?aei?e?inoaao. Oea caaino?th? iaiao?aei?noue ii?aoethaaiiy aoaeoeaiiai
iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa,
caaacia/aiiy i?iii?oe?eiino? ?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e.

Iei?oiy ia?aaoaeiaa i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo? aenooia?
eia?/iei aeaiaioii o i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Cae?eniaiiy oe??? ?ai?aai?caoe?? aeiaaa?
a?aei?aoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? iaoiaeieia??, e?eoa???a ioe?iee ?o
aoaeoeaiino?.

Aeiei??ii? ci?ie a?aeaoaathoueny o ieaioaaii? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, yea
ia? ana a?eueo aeiaaio?eaaeee oa?aeoa?. I?aeaeuothoueny aeiiae aei
iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiaaio?eaaeiai ieaioaaiiy aeiiii?ee oa
ii?aoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo eiioeaioe?e. I?eioeeiiai iiaeo aeanoeainoae
iaaoaa? oe?eueiaa i?ia?aioaaiiy, yea o ii?aeiaii? c eiiieaenieie ieaiaie
?icaeoeo oa?eoi??e ia?aoai?th?oueny ia aieiaiee ?ino?oiaio oi?aae?iiy o
?aa?ii?.

Aeooaeuei?noue cacia/aieo oai?aoe/ieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo oa
iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?iaeai c o?aooaaiiyi iiai? aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a
Oe?a?i? oa ?? ?aa?iiao aecia/eea iaoo ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
iia’ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?aaeaa/aieo ieaiii
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ii aeiaiai?ao ? 301/25-1, ? 301/25-2 oa
?301/30-3, ui noaee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
Oe?a?ie «E?eoe/i? oaoiieia??» (?icae?e 1. Oaoiieia?? aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie) ? iniiaith ieaio IAeAeE? Aea?aeaaiiai aaciaiai
oeaio?o e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? «E?eooaoiao»,

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
? ii?aoethaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue,
iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e noai?aiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiionoeiino? oa aoaeoeaiino? iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? a oiiaao oeea?e?ciaaieo ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? ae??oothoueny oae?
caaea/?:

aecia/aiiy i?noey ia’?eo?a iaae?iaie/i? noa?e a nenoai? noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa; nooiino? i?iii?oe?eiino? oa ?? i?iyao o ?icaeoeo
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaii? i?iii?oe?eiino?
o ?icaeoeo ie?aieo ?? i?aei?e?inoa;

ii?aoethaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ye ie?aiiai i?aei?e?inoaa;

i?aeaeuaiiy eiiieaeniino? ieaioaaiiy, oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a
ii?aeiaiiy aaeocaaiai ? oa?eoi??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
caaeainiaaiino? ieai?a, oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ieaiiaeo iieaciee?a;

oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, aaeaeaaoii? ??aith ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa ? oa?aeoa?o
ae??ooaaieo caaaeaiue; eii?aeeiaoe?y ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy, ni?yiiaaieo ia
caaacia/aiiy ocaiaeaeaii? aca?iiae?? i?aei?e?inoa o na?aaeei? eiiieaeno,
iiaiaeaeai?noue aaeocaaeo ? oa?eoi??aeueieo ?ioa?an?a; eiioeaio?aoe?y
ae?iaie/i-oaoi?/iiai ? ?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo a ?aieao ie?aieo
ia’?aeiaiue ? i?aei?e?inoa, i?aeaeuaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai iioaioe?aeo; ii?aoethaaiiy
i?eioeeiiai iiai? noaie oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii a
oe?eiio;

aiae?c ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e iaae?iaie/i? noa?e; ia?ae?e
?aeiiaiaeiaaieo iieaciee?a aeey aiae?co ? ieaioaaiiy caoiae?a ii
oaeineiiaeaiith oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ca
??aiyie oi?aae?iiy; eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?icaeoeo iniiaieo aeaiaio?a ?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy a oe?eiio; oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie iieaciee?a ieaio
oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy; aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? caoiae?a
ii oaeineiiaeaiith oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii;

anoaiiaeaiiy e?eoa???a oa nenoaie iieaciee?a ieaioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e; oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoai ? iaoiae?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ieaioaaiiy ia an?o ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy,
iie?ioaiiy iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ieaiiaeo ?ic?iaie, iineeaiiy aieeao
iaoee ia aoaeoeai?noue oa iioeiaeuei?noue ieaiiaeo ??oaiue oa
oe?eani?yiiaai?noue ieai?a aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo;

ii?aoethaaiiy aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a ? iiaeaeae ieaioaaiiy
?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e; iiooe oeyo?a, i?aeoiae?a aei aiae?co
ae?iaie/eo neooaoe?e, i?ioeano i?eeiyooy ??oaiue i?e iioeiaeueiiio
ieaioaaii?; iiaoaeiaa aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ieaioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? c a?aeiia?aeiei aeai?eoi?/iei
caaacia/aiiyi; aecia/aiiy iaoiae?a iiaeieaiiy ianoi?nieo iaiaaeaiue o
caaea/ao ia?niaeoeaiiai ? iioi/iiai ieaioaaiiy; ?icaeyae ?yaeo iiaeaeae
iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaeanoeaeo caaea/ e?i?eiiai ?
aeioeeiai i?ia?aioaaiiy;

ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e a oiiaao ?ioaineo?eaoe??
aeiiii?ee; ieaioaaiiy ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a (o?oaeiaeo,
iaoa??aeueieo), iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano; ieaioaaiiy oaii?a ?
i?iii?oe?e ?icaeoeo; ieaioaaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo i?iii?oe?e oa aoaeoeaiino?
?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoeei-eiioeaiooaeuei?, iaoiaeieia?/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa i?eeeaaei?
aniaeoe ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa iaae?iaie/i? noa?e o ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy oeei
i?ioeanii. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ye
noeoii?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, i?ae yeeie ?icoi?thoue
eiie?aoi? i?aei?e?inoaa iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. ?yae aniaeo?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa aiae?co?oueny ia
i?eeeaae? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?. Ae?th/? o ?aa?ii? iie?oe/i?,
aeiiii?/i? ? nioe?aeuei? iaoai?cie aeine?aeaeothoueny o ?aeiino?,
aca?iieo ca’yceao oa aca?iiaieea?. Ocaaaeueiaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny ia aac?
?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co, aea/aiiy no/anieo i?ioean?a, a oaeiae
i?iaiicieo ?ic?iaie c o?aooaaiiyi oeea?e?ciaaieo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? iieiaeaiiy oai??? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, iaoeia?
i?aoe? a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a, o yeeo aena?oeaii ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iieiaeaiiy
oai??? ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??aeueieo ainiiaea?nueeeo nenoai, oi?ioaaiiy
?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy,
?ie? aea?aeaae a aeiiii?oe?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia oai?aoe/iiio
iieiaeaii? i?i oa, ui a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy iinoa? caaaeaiiy i?aeneeaiiy eiiieaenii? ae?? ieaio,
aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a ? noeioe?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy aenieeo e?ioeaaeo
?acoeueoao?a ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ?ioaineaieo, ye?nieo oaeoi??a
c?inoaiiy, aeey i?enei?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, iie?ioaiiy
yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? (?ia?o, iineoa), i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa iaae?iaie/i? noa?e.

Iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?? ca?oiiaaii iaaeiei aeae?eueeio iniiaieo
eiioeaioe?e, eio?? neeaaeathoue aaciaee iaa?? ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
?ino?oiaio?a, iieeaaeaieo a ?? iniiao, cie?aia, eiioeaioe?? ieaioaaiiy
oa oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii ye ?aeeiith oe?e?niith
nenoaiith a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

I?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeaiue i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aecia/ea /eneaiiee niaeo? iaoiae?a, iieeaaeaieo a
eiai iniiao: caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo (iaoiae nenoaiiiai aiae?co, neioac
iiaeaethaaiiy, oi?iae?caoe?y, i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?i? aeiiii?/i? ioe?iee,
ea?oia?ao?/iee), eiie?aoii aeiiii?/ieo (aaeainiaee, ii?iaoeaiee,
noaoenoe/i? aea??ee, noaoenoe/i? a?oioaaiiy), aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai?
aeoe Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ? Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, iaoa??aee
I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, oi?aae?iiy noaoenoeee
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?, I?i?noa?noaa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, iaeanieo ? i?nueeeo oi?aae?iue aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai ?aa?iio, aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

canoiniaaii eiiieaeniee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee i?aeo?ae aei oi?aae?iiy
?ioaa?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie i?e oi?ioaaii? iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo?, yeee iieyaa? a
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/iiio caaacia/aii? nenoai oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?
niaoeeo?ee ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei;

noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy «aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen» ye noeoiiino?
aca?iiiia’ycaieo ? aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo noa’?eo?a ? aeae?a ae?yeueiino?,
i???ioiaaieo ia iiceoeaio aeeiai?eo ??aiy oa yeino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy, ui
caaacia/o? noaa?eueio, caaeainiaaio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io i???ioaoe?th
iioaioe?aeo i?aea?aeii/eo oa?eoi??e, ?ice?eoi aaaeeea?
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nuee? ? nioe?aeuei? caaaeaiiy, ui noiyoue ia?aae iei;

i?iaiae?ciaaii aieea ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia i?ioeane oa?eoi??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ye nenoaie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a;

cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, a iniiao yeiai iieeaaeaii ?eieia?
a?aeiineie, ?aa?iiaeueia oi?aae?iiy ? no?oeoo?io o?ainoi?iaoe?th aaeocae
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, oa?eoi??aeueio i?aai?caoe?th noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa;

aeine?aeaeaii ? iiaeeaeaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
iniiae oi?aae?iiy a ?aa?iiaeueieo ainiiaea?nueeeo nenoaiao iaae?iaie/i?
noa?e ye noeoiiino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a c o?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? no?oeoo?ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? nenoai ?
iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy, ?icaeyiooi niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, eiai i?noea ? ?ieue o
nenoai? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao ?eieo;

ii?aoeueiaaii iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ii
anueiio aeeoo?aiio oaoiieia?/iiio oeeeeo i?ioean?a ? i?ioeaaeo?,
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ? ioe?ieo iiaeeeaino? o?ainoi?iaoe??
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e,
cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeae? oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe??
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? nenoaio eiai oi?aae?iiy i?ae aieeaii
i?ioean?a ?eieiooai?aiiy.

Eiioeaio?aoe?y ae?iaie/i-oaoi?/iiai ? ?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo o ?aieao
ie?aieo ia’?aeiaiue ? i?aei?e?inoa ia’?eoeaii coiiaeth? iiyao iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-no?oeoo?ieo oi?i, ye? ?icaeyiooi o aeai?e ?iaio?.
Ii?aoeueiaaia i?eioeeiiai iiaa noaia oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei
eiiieaenii ni?ey? ?noioiiio i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy ?iaioe aea?aeaaieo ?
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo, a oaeiae
caaacia/o? i?aai?/ia ii?aeiaiiy aaeocaaeo ? oa?eoi??aeueieo iaoiae?a
ieaioaaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy iaae?iaie/ith
noa?ith ia aac? oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a oa ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee aeey anaa?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
ieaiiaeo ??oaiue. Aeei?enoaiiy aaeaeaaoiiai aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai
?ino?oiaioa??th noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ia?aoiaeo aei a?eueo
aeineiiaei? oaoiieia?? ieaioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ca oiia
?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeiiii?ee ? aea? ciiao ?aaeueii ii?aeioaaoe i?eioeeie
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ieaioaaiiy, iiaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai ?ic?aooieo oa
?eieiaee iaoai?ci ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

O aeena?oaoe??, aeoiaey/e c ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae
oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith, ?icaeyiooi i?iaeaio ieaioaaiiy ?ioaineo?eaoe??
aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a. Aeey aiae?co oa ioe?iee ?ioaineo?eaoe?? noa’?eo?a
oi?aae?iiy cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio aeeoa?aioe?eieo iieaciee?a, ?icaeyiooi
iai?yiee ?ioaineo?eaoe??, iaeaaaeeea?o? /eiieee. C o?aooaaiiyi aiae?co
iniiaieo iieaciee?a ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ii
i?aeaaeocyo aea/aii ia?niaeoeao eiai ?icaeoeo, iiaeeeaino? iine?aeiaiiai
iie?ioaiiy ia?aiao??a oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ? yeino? i?iaeoeoe??.

Iniaeeao oaaao iaaeaii e?ea?aeaoe?? aeeni?iii?oe?eiino?, ui oneeaaeith?
i?ioean a?aeoai?aiiy noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?th
ia’?eo?a iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ?icaeyaea?oueny o
iai?yieo caaeainiaaiino?, ui aenooia? ia?aaeoiiaith c?inoaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeaeuaiiy oaii?a ?o aeiiii?/ii?
ia?aaoaeiae. Caaacia/aiiy caieaiiaaieo i?iii?oe?e ?icaeoeo ?icaeyiooi ia
i?eioeeiiai iia?e iniia? — aeei?enoaii? ia?aaaaeii aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a
ainiiaea?nueeiai ea??aieoeoaa. Oe? iaoiaee aeei?enoai? o ieaioaaii? ? a
oi?aae?ii? iaae?iaie/ith noa?ith a oiiaao ?eieo.

Cae?eniaii iia? i?aeoiaee aei ieaioaaiiy i?aeaaeocaaeo i?iii?oe?e
?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno c o?aooaaiiyi ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. sse aieiai? iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoai?cio aeine?aeaeaii ieoaiiy e?ea?aeaoe?? a?aeii/i? ???a?o?? oa
ia?aoiaeo aei oe?eueiaiai ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a /a?ac nenoaio oiiae?a,
i?aai?ciaaieo ca oa?eoi??aeueiei i?eioeeiii. ?aeiiaiaeiaaii caeo/aiiy
aea?aeaaieo eioo?a cae?enithaaoe /a?ac nenoaio caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo
i?ia?ai ?icaeoeo aoae?aieoeoaa ? ?iciiae?eo aeeoea, ia’?eo?a
eiioiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. Ca ?aooiie oeeo eioo?a iiaeiia
caaacia/oaaoeny ?aae?caoe?y nenoaie ii?iaoeaieo iieaciee?a ?icaeoeo
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, i?aai?ciaaii? o ?aeeiee eiiieaeniee
noaiaea?o oiia aeeooy.

Ii?aoeueiaaii aa??aioe ia?aoiaeo aei ia?aaaaeii ?ioaineaiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa c o?aooaaiiyi i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaii?a
c?inoaiiy aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. I???ioaoe?th eai?oaeueieo
aeeaaeaiue iaoe?eaii ia iie?auaiiy aioo??oiueieiiieaenii? oa
i?aei?iaeoeoiai? no?oeoo?, a oaeiae oiia ?eieo. I?aeaaeocaaa
caaeainiaai?noue ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aei?noue i?iaeoeoe??, ui
ae?iaey?oueny eiiieaenii ? i?ecia/a?oueny aeey ae?iaie/iai niiaeeaaiiy,
aei iio?aa o i?e. Aeey oeueiai ieaio?oueny iio?aae o i?iaeoeoe??
(?iaioao, iineoaao) iaae?iaie/i? noa?e iia’ycoaaoe c iiaeeeainoyie
ae?iaieoeoaa. ?icaeyaeath/e iaoiaee aeinyaiaiiy i?iii?oe?eiino? o
i?aeaaeocyo ? ia ?o i?aei?e?inoaao, iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii ia?aoiaeo
ia iiaia naiicaaacia/aiiy ? naiio?iainoaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieo.

Aeinyaiaiiy iiaii? caaeainiaaiino? oa iioeiaeueiino? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e aea/aii ca?aeii c aeiiaaie caeiio ieaiii??iiai
i?iii?oe?eiiai ?icaeoeo ? eaoaai??? aoaeoeaiino? noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. I?e ieaioaaii? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a?aoiaaii eiai no?oeoo?o,
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeee oa aaeocaaee aniaeoe. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeiiao
noaio aca?iica’yce?a ieaio oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno c iniiaieie ?icae?eaie ieaio
aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Ieaioaaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ni?yiiaaii ia ?aaeeeaeueia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a i?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Ae??oaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai, caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ianaeaiiy o
iineoaao iaae?iaie/i? noa?e o iaiao?aei?e e?eueeino?, yeino? oa
ani?oeiaio? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii cae?enithaaoe a?aeiia?aeii aei ?aoe?iiaeueieo
ii?i.

C iaoith ?noioiiai iie?ioaiiy ieaioaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiiieaeno
cai?iiiiiaaii nenoaio iieaciee?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oa c?inoaiiy.
?ic?iaeaii iaoiae ii?iaoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c?inoaiiy
?acoeueoao?a ae?iaieoeoaa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno oa eiai
iieaoe, ui aeicaiey? iia’ycoaaoe iaoa??aeueii-?a/iao ? aa?o?nio noi?iie
i?ioeano a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa o ?aa?ii?.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?icaeoeo
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, iaa?oiooaaii?
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii oaeineiiaeaiith iaoai?cio eiai

?aaoethaaiiy ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy oa o?aooaaiiy iaeiie/aieo na?oiaeo
?ic?iaie oa i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue
aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ii?aoeueiaai? a i?e oai?aoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy ? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?aae?caoe?? neeaaeiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy ? ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e oi?ioaaii? aea?aeaaii?
?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, a aeiiii?ei-aiae?oe/i?e oa i?iaiinoe/i?e ?iaio?
?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy i?e ae??oaii? i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii?
iioei?caoe?? eiiiiiaioii? oa i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo? oa?eoi??aeueiiai
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? ?aa?iiaeueii? ainiiaea?nueei?
nenoaie, ii?aoethaaii? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai, oaeineiiaeaii?
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy, eii?aeeiaoe?? i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ae?iaeaii? aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo iineoa.

Ii?aoeueiaai? o aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe
ia?aaeieaiiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? eiiieaeniiai ieaioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo
ainiiaea?noa iaea?aeaee ai?iaaoe?th o eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae 1997-2000 ?ie?a oa o ii?aeiaii? c
eieaeueieie oe?eueiaeie eiiieaenieie i?ia?aiaie c iniiaieo iai?yie?a
?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy i?i i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoieo
?eieiaiio ainiiaea?nueeiio iaoai?cio ?aa?iiaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo?, ui aeeeaaeai? o aeine?aeaeaii?,
ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy o ?ic?iaoe? aaia?aeueieo noai oi?aae?iiy i?noa
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea ? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?, ii?aeiaii? ?o o
i?eioeeiiai iiao ?aeeio Aaia?aeueio noaio oi?aae?iiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii oa eiai i?aei?e?inoaaie.

Aeena?oaoe?ei? ?ic?iaee c ieoaiue ooieoe?iioaaiiy oi?aae?inueeiai
aia?aoo ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?a aeei?enoaii i?e noai?aii? no?oeoo?
ae?iaie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno i?noa
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea ? ii?aoethaaii? i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe
aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aei iniiaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ye?
noaiiaeyoue iniaenoee caeiaooie aeena?oaioa ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
iaeaaeaoue oae?:

1. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aecia/aiiy «i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee
iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e» a oiiaao
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

2. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy eaoaai??? «aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen»,
eiai no?oeoo?ecaoe?y ? eiioeaioe?y aaiethoe?? ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo
iineoa.

3. Iaoiaeeea ? ioe?iea o?ainoi?iaoe?? oa?eoi??aeueii-i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a oiiaao aca?iiae?? i?ioean?a
?eieiooai?aiiy.

4. Iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy
iaae?iaie/ith noa?ith ca oiia noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?
ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a o ia?niaeoea?.

5. Iiaeaeue nioe?aeueiiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii, ?aeay, i?noea ?aeeiiai
eiiieaeniiai noaiaea?oo oiia aeeooy ? iaoai?ci eiai ?aae?caoe??.

6. Iaoiaeeea ? ooieoe?iiaeueii-aeai?eoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iieaciee?a
aiae?co oa ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa iaae?iaie/i? noa?e.

7. Iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie, iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy ? iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe??
?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai o noa?? iineoa, iiaeaeue iioeiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo
athaeaeaoieo ?ano?n?a ia ?o o?iainoaaiiy.

8. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy eaoaai??? «?aeeiee eiiieaeniee noaiaea?o
oiia aeeooy».

9. Eiioeaioe?y oa iaoiaeeea no?aoaa?/iiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy ?
eii?aeeiaoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ye iniiae ?aae?caoe??
i?inoi?iai? no?aoaa?? o iaae?iaie/?e noa?? ? ?icaeoeo ?? i?aeaaeocae oa
ae?iaieoeoa.

10. Nenoaia iaoai?ci?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? oa?eoi??aeueiiai
?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, iniaeeaino? o?iainiai-athaeaeaoiiai,
iiaeaoeiaiai, a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueieo ?
eieaeueieo ?eie?a iineoa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeeny, iaaiai?thaaeeny oa iaea?aeaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo:

ia Ananithci?e oeie? «I?iaeooaaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai eiio?ieth oa
oi?aae?iiy neeaaeieie ia’?eoaie», i. Ooaina, 1986 ?.;

I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y
aeiiii?ee oa ?iaanoeoe?? a Oe?a?i?», i. *a?i?aoe?, 1998 ?.;

iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee: ?ioi?iaoe?eia ? o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?», i. Naaanoiiieue, 1998 ?.;

V i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «O?aioe?y ? Oe?a?ia, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee
aeina?ae a eiioaeno? ae?aeiao iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?. No?aoaa?y
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaeo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie», i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998 ?.;

iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a aeey ieoii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai?», i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998 ?.

Ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii 52 iaoeiaeo i?aoe?, a oiio /ene? 3 iiiia?ao??, c ieo 1
?iaeea?aeoaeueia, 5 a?ioo?, 32 iaoeia? noaoo?, 8 oac aeiiia?aeae ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo. Caaaeueiee ianya ioae?eaoe?e — 82,2 ae?oe.a?e.,
c yeeo iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 60,2 ae?oe.a?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a; caaaeueiee ianya — 406 noi??iie, ui i?noyoue 45
oaaeeoeue, 8 iaethie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae -280
iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?.
Aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iayai?noth /eneaiieo
i?iaeai, iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e. Iniaeeai ianoi?iaeothoue e?ecia? yaeua
a ?iaanoeoe?ei?e oa ?iiiaaoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino?. O ?yae? aaeocae
ae?iaie/i? noa?e ?noioii nei?ioeeiny ae?iaieoeoai, oi/a iaaiith i??ith
oeae oaeoi? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?ia?aneai? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a
aeiiii?oe?. ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ia?aaeiiao iaeaooiueiai aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy a ye?niiio ieai?. I?ioa e?ecia? yaeua a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie
niinoa??aathoueny iianthaeii, ioiiethth/e an? aaeoc? ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Oaea iaae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa cia/ii cieaeo? ??aaiue aeeooy
ia?iaeo, c?inoa? nioe?aeueia iai?oaeaiiy oa a?aeaoaathoueny ?io?
iaaaoeai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? noni?euei? i?ioeane.

Cia/iith i??ith aeaoi?ioaaee no?oeoo?o i?aeaaeocaaeo iioie?a i?ioeane
a?ia??ioeyoe??. Iaea?eueo aenieeie oaiiaie ae?iaieoeoai nei?i/oaaeiny o
aaeocyo, ui i?aoeththoue aaciina?aaeiuei ia niiaeea/ee ?eiie oa
caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieo iio?aa noni?euenoaa (o eaae?e ? oa?/ia?e
i?iieneiaino?, aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noa?, noa?? iineoa oiui).
Aeey i?aaeeueii? ioe?iee i?ioeano ?aoi?i ? iaiao?aeiei eiiieaeniee,
nenoaiiee aiae?c nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio noni?euenoaa.
Cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ia no/aniiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai?
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeeth/a? noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo i?aai?caoe?eieo ? i?aaiaeo
iaoai?ci?a aeiiii?/iiai ? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

O no?oeoo?ieo ci?iao ia iaio aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aecia/aiiy aieeao
aeaoae?ciaaieo noa? ae?iaie/i?, nioe?aeueii? oa ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.
O nenoai? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith ana oea oeeaaeaeiny a
iaeiicia/io aaei?i?no?aoeaii-?iciiae?eue/o noaio. Oa yeui o
i?iieneiaino?, n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? oa aea?aeaai?e ?eieia?e
oi?a?ae? ua iaee i?noea iaiaaeai? ?eieia? a?aeiineie, oi o iaae?iaie/?e
noa??, cie?aia o aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noa?, ?eiie i?aeoe/ii
aoa a?aenooi?e. Ia i?aoethaaa ?eiie oe?iieo iaia??a oa a?ioae, i?aoe? ?
ia?ooiiino?.

Ca?ac a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny aeiaie? ao?oeeaee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie ?eie?a o ??cieo oi?iao, aeanoeaeo ia?ao?aeiiio ia??iaeo. Aea, ia
aeaeue, aiie iiee a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae no/anieo oeea?e?ciaaieo ?eie?a,
ye? neeaeeny ? ooieoe?iiothoue a aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao. Ca iiaeo
oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ieue i?iaiicoaaiiy ?
ieaioaaiiy. Ae?? ?aaoethth/eo ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a iiaeii?
aeiiiaithaaoeny aea?aeaaiei, i?aaiaei oa aeiiii?/iei ?aaoethaaiiyi, aac
/iai oni?oia iiaea?i?caoe?y aeiiii?ee, ?? no?oeoo?ia o?ainoi?ioaaiiy
i?ae ?eieiaee iiieo ? caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieo iio?aa ethaeeie ?
noni?euenoaa ia a?aeaoaeooueny aai cae?enithaaoeiooueny aeoaea aeiaai.

Cia/ia /anoeia noai?thaaiiai noni?euenoaii iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?eaooeo
iai?aaey?oueny aea?aeaaith ia ?icaeoie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. Ianooaae ??
ae?yeueiino? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee aeeaaeaiue. Oae, ca
ia??iae c 1990 ii 1995 ?iee o no?oeoo?? iniiaieo oiiae?a ca?eueoeeanue
/anoea aeeaaeaiue o oeth aaeocue a 1,3 ?aca, o oiio /ene? o
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueia ainiiaea?noai oa iiaooiaa ianeoaiaoaaiiy ianaeaiiy
— a 1,41 ?aca. C?inoaiiy aa?oino? iniiaieo oiiae?a o iaae?iaie/?e noa??
iiynith?oueny, a iniiaiiio, oe?iiaei oaeoi?ii. Nooi?iue ciino o 1995
?ioe? neeaea 37,5 %. 3 ieo o iaae?iaie/?e noa?? -38,2 %, o aeeoeiaiio
ainiiaea?noa? — 42 %, o eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noa? ? iiaooiaiio
ianeoaiaoaaii? ianaeaiiy — 47 %.

A?aeiineie c i?eaiaeo noai?aiiy iineoa o iaae?iaie/eo aaeocyo ?
iaeii/anii a?aeiineiaie noni?eueia i?aai?ciaaiiai niiaeeaaiiy
i?iaeoeoe??, noai?thaaii? o iaoa??aeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?. ?ici?? eioo?a,
ui iai?aaeythoueny o aaeoc? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, aecia/a?oueny iio?aaaie
noni?euenoaa o ?acoeueoaoao ?o ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae ae?iaeaiei
iaoe?iiaeueiei aeioiaeii. Aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy oeeo iio?aa
aenooiathoue caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? o?iainia? ?ano?ne, ye? aeae?eythoueny c
athaeaeaoieo ? iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a. I?ioa iio?aae noni?eueia
cia/ouiai oa?aeoa?o aiane?aeie iaiaaeaiino? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo
?ano?n?a iie?eaathoueny ieie eeoa o ?ici??ao iaiao?aeiiai i?i?ioio ia
i?eioeeiao /anoeiaiai o?iainoaaiiy ca ?aooiie eioo?a aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo. Caaeiaieaiiy oeeo iio?aa iiiaae onoaiiaeaiee ii?iaoeaiee
??aaiue cae?enith?oueny c ?ioeo o?iainiaeo aeaea?ae, o oiio /ene? c
eioo?a ianaeaiiy.

Na?aae aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e aaaeeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio ainiiaea?noao. I?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y
aeia?aaeaeath/iai oaiio c?inoaiiy ianyao ieaoieo iineoa o oe?e aaeoc?
ii??aiyii ?c caaaeueiei ianyaii iaaeaieo ieaoieo iineoa, ?o /anoea o
no?oeoo?? oaeeo iineoa ci?ieeany c 16,1 % o 1990 ?ioe? aei 41 %-o 1995
?ioe?. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i i??i?eoaoiee ?icaeoie aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno.

A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa ia??oioiao?oueny aeiionoei?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue
ae?yeueiino? iiai? i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueei? no?oeoo?e —
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. Aaeocaaa i?aai?caoe?y oeueiai
eiiieaeno ? /anoeiith i?aai?caoe?? anueiai noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ?e
i?eoaiaii? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy oa
?icaeoeo, nai? oi?ie. Aea/eaoe caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, iiaeia i?aeoe/ii ?aaoethaaoe oeae
neeaaeiee i?ioean, aeiaeaath/enue iioeiaeueii? i?iii?oe?eiino? o
?icaeoeo ie?aieo i?aeaaeocae ? o e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo — aaee/acii?
aeiiii?? cao?ao noni?eueii? i?aoe?. Aea a ae?yeueiino? eiiieaeno iii?oi?
oae? iaaaoeai? yaeua, ye oa?eoi??aeueia ?icina?aaeaeai?noue
i?ae?icae?e?a, ?o iaaei?aaaeaii aaeeea ?icae??aiai?noue, a?aeii/a
?ic’?aeiai?noue, ui ii?ooo? i?eeiyoi? i?iii?oe?? i?ae aaeocyie
iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? iaae?iaie/ith noa?ith.

Iaee?au? ?acoeueoaoe i?e oi?ioaaii? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
aeinyaathoueny, yeui nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a ?icaeaa?oueny,
aeia?aaeaeath/e oaiie ?icaeoeo anueiai ainiiaea?noaa. O iaeaeeae/? ?iee
ci?oeiaiiy iaae?iaie/i? noa?e noaia iaeiei c oaeoi??a ?ioaineo?eaoe??
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. C oeei iia’yco?oueny iaiao?aei?noue
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, yea aeicaieeei 6 ae??oeoe
i?iaeaie o oe?e aaeoc?.

Aecia/aeueiith oiiaith noai?aiiy nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaiiai ?eieo a
Oe?a?i? ? aeeth/aiiy o oiaa?ii-a?ioia? a?aeiineie oaei? aaaeeeai? noa?e
aeiiii?ee, ye aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen, ui ?aae?co? ?ioa?ane
eiaeii? ethaeeie. Ooo caeiyoi iaeaea 15% i?aoethth/iai ianaeaiiy. Ieoiia
aaaa eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue o aeeoeiaa aoae?aieoeoai neeaaea? 20,9 % ?o
caaaeueii? aa?oino?. AEeoeiaee oiiae noaiiaeoue iiiaae 25 %
a?aeoai?thaaiiai ia?ooiiiai iaeia.

Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a?
aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/ii iaa?oioiaaii? i?iii?oe?eiino? ?icaeoeo ie?aieo
i?aeaaeocae aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno o eiaeiiio ?aa?ii?. Ia
ia?oee ieai ii i??? c?inoaiiy ianooaa?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
oa oneeaaeiaiiy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae eiai i?aeaaeocyie ? ae?iaieoeoaaie
aenoaa?oueny iaiao?aei?noue iie?ioaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?, ioaea,
aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeii? caaeainiaaiino? o ?icaeoeo. Ca?aene aeieea?
i?iaeaia ii?aoethaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy,
ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaeia aoei a aaciiieeeiai ?aaoethaaoe i?ioeane
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. Ianya eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue ? aa?o?noue iniiaieo
oiiae?a ii i?aeaaeocyo iiaeooue neoaoaaoe /aoaie oa?ac?a i?e aecia/aii?
??aiy eiai oa?eoi??aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

AEO AO AO

—- * IOAE + —- * IOA + —— * IOA + …

AEI AI AI

EIAEEE =
—————————————————————— ,

IOAE + IOA + IOA + …

aea EIAEEE — eiao?oe??io i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaaeocae
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno; AEO, AO, AO — iaoo?aeuei? iieacieee,
ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaeoe/iee ??aaiue caaacia/aiino? ianaeaiiy
ia’?eoaie aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno — aeeoeii, aiaeith, aioaeyie
oiui; AEI, AI, AI — oa ae, ca ii?iith; IOAE, IOA, IOA — aa?o?noue
iniiaieo oiiae?a ii i?aeaaeocyo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

Aeina?ae e?a?i c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith iieaco?, ui
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ? eeth/iaei eiiiiiaioii aoaeue-yei?
aeiiii?ee oa aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a oe?eiio. A?i iiaea i?e
iaa?oioiaai?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e iie?oeoe? aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a
yeino? ?oo?y aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy.

?icae?e 2. Iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. C?inoaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo
oa?eoi??e, ?o no?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy oa ?io? ainiiaea?nuee? oni?oe ?
aaaeeeaith, a o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao — ? ae??oaeueiith oiiaith
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?icaeoeo. ?aa?iiaeueia iie?oeea aea?aeaae — oea
iie?oeea iaaeiiouaiiy ? caeaaeaeoaaiiy ??ceeo oa?eoi??aeueieo
aeeni?iii?oe?e. Ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?aa?ii?a aea?aeaaa i?aoeth?
ia?aaaaeii a ?aaeei? «i?aeo?eiee», a ia «?icaeoeo». I?ioa no/ania
«i?aeo?eiea» c aeayeeo ia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei ia ni?ey? aeoiaeo ?aa?ii?a c
oyaeeiai iieiaeaiiy. I?e i?iaaaeaii? ?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee iaiao?aeiei
n aeaaaeaiee aaeain oeaio?ae?caoe?? ? aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??, aea?aeaaiino?
oa aaoiiiiiino?, i?e?iaeieo a?aei?iiinoae ? iaieio/iai i?aaethaaiiy.

I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e — oea
noeoii?noue aca?iiiia’ycaieo oa aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioeaaeo? ? noa? ae?yeueiino?, iniiaiith iaoith
yeeo ? ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a noni?eueiiai naii?icaeoeo.

Ine?eueee aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ? aaaeeeaith /anoeiith
aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a oe?eiio, eiaeiee ?aa?ii ? eiaeia
ioi?oeeiaeueia ooai?aiiy iiaeii? iaoe eiie?aoio ? ?aae?noe/io i?ia?aio
?icaeoeo c /?oei ie?aneaieie oe?eyie. Iiaa eaea i?i no?aoaa?/i? i?ia?aie
ae?e ?aa?iiaeueii? oa i?noeaai? aeaaee, cia/iith i??ith ?ic?aoiaai? ia
aeei?enoaiiy aeanieo ?ano?n?a. ?icaeoie ? iiaoaeiaa ?eieo aeeoea
iiaeeea? ca aeiei??iii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei o
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen?. Aei oaeeo oiia a?aeiinyoueny:
a?aeiia?aeia caeiiiaeaa/a aaca, ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei? oaeoi?e,
iae?iaeiiii?/i? oiiae, o?iainiai-e?aaeeoi? oaeoi?e,
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? oa ineoieia?/i? oiiae, ?icai?iooa ? aeinooiia
?ioi?iaoe?y.

AEeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen — oea noeoii?noue aca?iiiia’ycaieo ?
aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo i?aei?e?inoa ? aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, i???ioiaaieo ia
iiceoeaio aeeiai?eo ??aiy oa yeino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy, ui caaacia/othoue
noaa?eueio, caaeainiaaio nioe?aeueio i???ioaoe?th iioaioe?aeo
i?aea?aeii/eo oa?eoi??e.

Aea?aeaaa i?eeiyea i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a ?yae caeiiiaeaa/eo ?
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ui ni?eythoue ?eieiaei ia?aoai?aiiyi o
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen?. Aieiaiei iai?yieii eiai ?icaeoeo
iiaeiia noaoe iie?oeea aoaeoeaiiai iiieoo ia aeeoei, ?? ?aae?caoe?y
iiaeeeaa ca oiia ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. ci?ie
?nioth/iai niiniao o?iainoaaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa, aeoioeyoe?? ??cieo
aeaea?ae eiai ?icaeoeo.

Ia no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao aeiiii?ee aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
aaeeeith i??ith aieeaa? aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy. Oea ao?o/aiiy
aeioe?eueia o ca’yceo c o?iainiaith i?aeo?eieith i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a
o na?aaeei? eiiieaeno oa iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.
Aea?aeaaa ca aeiiiiiaith iaoai?cio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, iaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo
i?euea ? aeae?eaiiy athaeaeaoieo noaneae?e niiioea? noa’?eoe
ainiiaea?thaaiiy aei cae?eniaiiy oaeeo aa??aio?a ae?yeueiino?, eio??
caaeiaieueiyoeiooue ?ioa?ane oa iio?aae noni?euenoaa.

Iecueea aoaeoeai?noue athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy ye iaeiiai c
?aaoeyoi??a aeiiii?ee coiiaeea eiai ??cea cieaeaiiy a oiiaao
e?aa?ae?caoe?? oe?i; aeioaoe?? caa?aaeeny eeoa ia iaai? eaoaai???
oiaa??a. Oae, o aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeao? Oe?a?ie ia 1997 ??e o noaoo?
«O?iainoaaiiy caoiae?a, iia’ycaieo ?c cae?eniaiiyi aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy oe?i» caeeaaeaii 338.340 oen.a?i. (aai 1,23 % aeo?ao), o
oiio /ene? ia aac i?e?iaeiee, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny ianaeaiiyi — 1,13%;
ia aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueia ainiiaea?noai (aiaeiiinoa/aiiy, i?nueeee
aeaeo?io?ainii?o, aiaeia?aeaaaeaiiy, oaieiiinoa/aiiy, aeeoeiaa
ainiiaea?noai) — 0,03 %.

?acii c oei iiaeeeaino? aeiaeaoeiaiai aeae?eaiiy eioo?a c athaeaeaoo
iino?eii nei?i/othoueny aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo. Caeeoeiaee i?eioeei
o?iainoaaiiy ca oeeo oiia eeoa oneeaaeith? neooaoe?th. Oiio iio??aii
ia?aaeyiooe ae?th/ee ii?yaeie eiooi?eniiai ieaioaaiiy. Ana oea coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue ii?aoethaaiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
oaeineiiaeaiiy o?iainiaiai iaoai?cio o iaae?iaie/?e noa?? a oe?eiio.

Aecia/aeueiei iai?yieii ae?yeueiino? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee ?
?ic?iaea ? cae?eniaiiy ieai?a aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ia
i?aea?aeii/?e oa?eoi???. Aeo?aoe ?aa?iiaeueieo athaeaeao?a iathoue
oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy o ca’yceo ?c c?inoaiiyi ? oneeaaeiaiiyi
i?noeaaiai ainiiaea?noaa, ?icoe?aiiyi iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, i?aeaeuaiiyi
aa?oino? iniiaieo oiiae?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno oa ??aiai
eiai oaoi?/ii? iniauaiino?. ?icaeoie o?aai?caoe?? ca?eueoo? iio?aae
iaoeaioe?a iaeeo ? aaeeeeo i?no, naeeu oa n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue, aea o
ana a?eueoeo ianooaaao ?icaeaa?oueny aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen.

A oiiaao ?icoe?aiiy naiia?yaeoaaiiy ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a c?inoa? cia/aiiy
i?noeaaeo Athaeaeao?a, c yeeo cae?enith?oueny o?iainoaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo,
nioe?aeueieo ? eoeueoo?ieo caoiae?a. I?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee naiino?eii
ii?aoeueiaothoue, caoaa?aeaeothoue ? aeeiiothoue nai? athaeaeaoe. O
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieo an? naiino?ei? eaiee athaeaeaoii? nenoaie
iiaeii? noaoe aeoeaieie ?ino?oiaioaie ia?a?iciiae?eo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeioiaeo aeey caaeiaieaiiy caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo iio?aa, aieeao ia
iie?ioaiiy aa?o?nieo i?iii?oe?e noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ?icaeoeo
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ? caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e a?iiaaeyi.

Ieaioaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy — iaeaaaeeea?o? aeaiaioe na?aeiiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie. Aiie aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeey aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo i?iii?oe?e ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee. O
aeena?oaoe?? aaeeeo oaaao iaaeaii ieaioaaiith ae?yeueiino?
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, aeei?enoaiith i?ia?aneaieo iaoiae?a
ieaioaaiiy, ioe?iee ??oaiue, aaaaoiaa??aioiino? ?ic?aooie?a ia iniia?
canoinoaaiiy iia?oiuei? oaoi?ee. Aeey oii?yaeeoaaiiy i?ioean?a
ieaioaaiiy anth ??ciiiai?oi?noue ia’?eo?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno ?iciiae?eythoue ia i?aeaaeoc?. Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeiinyoueny
i?aeaaeoc?, eio?? aaciina?aaeiuei caaacia/othoue iaaiee ??aaiue
eiioi?oiino? i?iaeeaaiiy o aeeoeiaiio oiiae?: aiaeiiinoa/aiiy,
eaiae?caoe?y, oaieiiinoa/aiiy, aaceo?eaoe?y, aeaeo?e/i? ia?aae? ?
nai?oa?ia i/enoea. Aei ae?oai? a?oie aoiaeyoue i?aeaaeoc?
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, aeey yeeo ? oa?aeoa?iith aaciina?aaeiy
a?aenooi?noue ca’yceo c aeeoeiaei aoae?aieoeoaii.

Eai?oaeuei? aeeaaeaiiy, ui iai?aaeythoueny ia ?icaeoie
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, ia?aaeaa/aii aea?aeaaiei athaeaeaoii
e?a?ie. Iieacieee ??aiy eiioiaeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia/eneththoueny ye
ioe?iea oa iaa?oiooaaiiy aa??aio?a ieaio eiioiaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ?
iathoue, ye i?aaeei, iaoo?aeueiee oa?aeoa?. O eiiieaeniiio ieai?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeooy ia?iaeo ia?niaeoeae
eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ciaoiaeyoue a?aeaeooy o ?yae? neioaoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee (aaeain a?ioiaeo aeioiae?a ? aeo?ao ianaeaiiy, ?aaeuei?
aeioiaee ianaeaiiy, caaaeueiee ianya niiaeeaaiiy iineoa ianaeaiiyi,
niiaeea/ee athaeaeao, caaaeueiee ianya niiaeeaaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeaa oa
iineoa) o aa?o?ni?e oi?i?. ?nioth/a i?aeoeea ieaioaaiiy ia caaacia/o?
ni?anoaaeaiiy iaoo?aeueieo ? aa?o?nieo iieaciee?a ??aiy eiioiaeueiiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? iiaeeeaino? aca?iiiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaeieo aei ?ioeo.
Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ia?aaeaa/a?
iie?ioaiiy ?ic?iaee i?iaeo?a ieai?a ?icaeoeo aaeocae o oa?eoi??aeueiiio
?ic??c? oa ?icaeyae ?o ni?eueii c iaeanieie aaei?i?no?aoe?yie, a oaeiae
iia?aeiieaiiy ?i eiio?ieueieo oeeo?, iniiaieo iieaciee?a i?iaeo?a ?
caoaa?aeaeaieo ieai?a ii i?aei?e?inoaao, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia oa?eoi???
?aa?iio, oa i?aai?caoe?yo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno.

Iaoith ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?
aeinyaiaiiy ii?iaoeaieo iieaciee?a caaacia/aiino? iineoaaie c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o oa?eoi??aeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oa iaiao?aeieo
i?iii?oe?e o ?icaeoeo ie?aieo i?aeaaeocae. Nooi?iue iaaeeaeaiiy ??aiy
ieaiiaeo iieaciee?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy aei
a?aeiia?aeieo ii?iaoeaieo cia/aiue niooo? iniiaiei e?eoa???i
ii??aiyeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo aa??aio?a ieaio i?e caaeaieo ?ano?nieo
iaiaaeaiiyo. Oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie ieaiiaeo iieaciee?a aeeth/a? oe?eee
eiiieaen caoiae?a, iaeaaaeeea?oeie c yeeo ?: i?aeneeaiiy ?ie?
iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue e?ioeaa? ?acoeueoaoe ?icaeoeo ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a, i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy aca?iii? iiaiaeaeaiino?
iieaciee?a ii aeaeao ieai?a ? noaae?yo ieaioaaiiy, ?icae?eao ieaio,
eiiieaenao ieaiiai-aeiiii?/ieo caaea/ ? aeaeao iieaciee?a;
oaeineiiaeaiiy neeaaeo ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo oa
caoaa?aeaeoaaieo iieaciee?a; noai?aiiy aioo??oiueieiiieaenii?
aaaaoi??aiaai? nenoaie aca?iiiia’ycaieo iieaciee?a. Iaeaaaeeea?oei
iai?yieii i?aeaeuaiiy eiiieaeniino? ieai?a ?icaeoeo
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a
ii?aeiaiiy aaeocaaiai ? oa?eoi??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
caaeainiaaiino? ieai?a.

?icae?e 3. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy ieaioaaiiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a oiiaao iiaiaaaaeaiue. Ca?ac
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueia ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie oa?eoei a aoai ?aaeeeaeueiiai
?aoi?ioaaiiy. Eiai iaiao?aei?noue coiiaeaia, c iaeiiai aieo, aaee/aciei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia athaeaeaoe an?o ??ai?a aeioaoe??
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, a c ?ioiai, aacaae?aniith, ii noo?,
nenoaiith aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee ianaeaiiy. Oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy iaae?iaie/ith noa?ith
noai?th? iaiao?aei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey iaea?eueo iiaiiai ? oaeaeeiai
?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy o na?aaeei? nenoaie,
iiaeeea?noue iaeneiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo ?aca?a?a. E?ioeaaeie
?acoeueoaoaie ?aoi?i iiaeii? noaoe: caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ianaeaiiy e?a?ie
o iineoaao aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ia ??ai? onoaiiaeaieo
noaiaea?o?a yeino? i?iaeeaaiiy; caaacia/aiiy aeinooiiino? aeeoea aeey
oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy; aeeth/aiiy o iiaiiio ianyc? ?eieiaeo
iaoai?ci?a o i?ioean? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeocae aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno; ia?ao?ae aei iiaiiai o?iainoaaiiy aaeocc? ca ?aooiie
ieaoaae?a ianaeaiiy c iaaeaiiyi aeeoeiaeo noaneae?e oei, ooi oeueiai
iio?aao?.

I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei
eiiieaenii yaey? niaith neeaaeiee aaaaoiieaiiaee ? aeeiai?/iee i?aai?ci,
ui neeaaea?oueny c aca?iiiia’ycaieo eaiie, oiio iaiao?aeiith oiiaith
eiai oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeiii noaoe eiiieaenia, ocaiaeaeaia
oaeineiiaeaiiy an?o eiai neeaaeiaeo.

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie caaino?eeeny ?nioth/? ?ai?oa oa aeieeee iia?
aeeni?iii?oe?? o ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. ??aaiue eiai
?icaeoeo, i?aai?caoe?y, ye?noue ? iaae?ei?noue ?iaioe ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue no/aniei aeiiaai. O aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii noaio
oi?aae?iiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aeai-, a c o?aooaaiiyi iiaea?eiiai
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa — o?e??aiaao nenoaio. Iniiaieie eaieaie
noathoue ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy ? aaeee? i?aei?e?inoaa
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Ioaea, o aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen? aoaea ae?yoe oaea aaia?aeueia
noaia i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aae?iiy: aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee
eiiieaen — ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy iaeanoae — i?nuee? ? ?aeiii?
aaaaoiaaeocaa? ia’?aeiaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno (?en. 1).
Iiaee ainiiaea?nueeee iaoai?ci oe??? noa?e ainiiaea?thaaiiy iiaeiai
i???iooaaoeny ia ?ioa?ane niiaeeaa/a, ia i?aeneeaiiy oaaae aei
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caiiaieea ? yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy. ?aoi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy, ni?yiiaaia ia iiaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a ie?aieo eaiie
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, ye iieaco? aeina?ae, o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeicaiey?
ci?ieoe oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae ieie, i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue ?o aca?iiae??. Iino?eia oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy ? iaaaeueiith
iaiao?aei?noth o no/anieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ia? aooe aeei?enoaia ?aeiiaiaeiaaia o
aeena?oaoe?? nenoaia iieaciee?a, ui ?ice?eaathoue iniaeeaino? eiai
?icaeoeo ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Ca aeiiiiiaith
cai?iiiiiaaieo iieaciee?a noa? iiaeeeaith eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?icaeoeo
iniiaieo aeaiaio?a ? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
o oe?eiio.

Nenoaia iieaciee?a oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii ia?aaeaa/a? ?aei?noue
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ii?, iaoiaeieia?/ii? ? oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee o oe?e
aaeoc?. Aeaia nenoaia iieaciee?a iaaiith i??ith caaacia/o? ?aae?caoe?th
i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ii oaeineiiaeaiith
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei
eiiieaenii oeyoii o?aooaaiiy ?o aieeao ia aia?ao oi?aae?iiy ? ia
ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeciaii ca iaiao?aeia cae?eniaiiy ?aoi?ie
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno o ?aaeei? oa a ?aieao i?ioeano
i?enei?aiiy aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. A?aecia/aii,
ui ?aoi?ia iiaeiia aooe ?aaeeeaeueiith, aeeaieith, oaeith, ui eiiieaenii
ae??oo? eiei an?o ieoaiue ia?aaoaeiae ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio ye
oe?e?nii? nenoaie. Aieiaiei /eiieeii, yeee aecia/a? iaaaeuei?noue
ia?aoiaeo aei i?eioeeiiai iiaiai i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio,
? ea?aeeiaeueii iia? caaaeaiiy, ye? iaiao?aeii ae??ooaaoe a oiiaao
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Ia’?aeiaiiy, i?aei?e?inoaa

Aaeocaa? oa?eoi??aeuei? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo
ia’?aeiaiue

I?aei?e?inoaa, ye? ia aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo i?nueeeo ia’?aeiaiue

I?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ia’?aeiaiue

Ae?iaie/? ae?eueieoe? ii aaeocyo

?en. 1. I?eioeeiiaa noaia oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii
Oe?a?ie

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yie?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ieaioaaiiy
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? i?aeneeaiiy oe?eani?yiiaaiino? ieai?a
eiai aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

O no/anieo oiiaao iniaeeai aeooaeueiei noa? caaaeaiiy iaa?oiooaaiiy
nenoaie oe?eae ieaio, aeio?eiaiiy ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ioa?an?a i?e
aecia/aii? ?ano?n?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey ?o aeinyaiaiiy. Eiiieaenia nenoaia
iieaciee?a oeeo ieai?a aea? iiaeeea?noue ioe?ithaaoe ??aaiue
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a, aeicaiey? i?noeaaei
ainiiaea?nueeei i?aaiai ie?anethaaoe i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a ? oeyoe
?o ?ica’ycaiiy, ciaoiaeeoe ?ano?ne aeey caaeainiaaiiai, aa?iii?eiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, ?icaeaath/e aaeoc? iaoa??aeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. No?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a
Oe?a?i? ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? cae?enith?oueny o oi?i? i?iaiic?a, ye?
aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo eiiieaeniiai i?iaiico nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo e?a?ie ye eiai ?icae?ee. Ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? oaeiae
neeaaeathoueny i?ia?aie ? ieaie ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno. Ii?aoethaaiiy ieaiiaeo aeieoiaio?a ia ioi?oeeiaeueiiio ??ai?
a?aeaoaa?oueny c aeae?eaiiyi ia’?eo?a ieaioaaiiy ca oi?iaie aeaniino?.

?icae?e 4. Aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee ? iiaeae? o ieaioaaii?
ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. Oe?eueia? onoaiiaee
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee o aaeocyo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, caoiaee uiaei ?o
aeinyaiaiiy iaoa??ae?cothoueny o ??cieo ieaiiaeo aeieoiaioao, o oiio
/ene? o aea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueieo oa i?noeaaeo athaeaeaoao,
aea?aeaaieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo oe?eueiaeo i?ia?aiao. Ieaioaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? eiai i?aeaaeocae,
i?aei?e?inoa, ye? noaiiaeyoue neeaaeiao /anoeio ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
ieaioaaiiy, iiaeiii cae?enithaaoeny a?aeiia?aeii aei
caaaeueiiiaoiaee/ieo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith. I?aai?caoe?? oa
i?aei?e?inoaa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno naiino?eii
ii?aoeueiaothoue o?iainia? ieaie. Aeey neeaaeaiiy eiooi?en?a ye aeo?aei?
aeai? aeei?enoiaothoueny eiio?ieuei? oeeo?e oa aeiiii?/i? ii?iaoeae.

Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei ieaioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
iieyaa? o aecia/aii? eiaeiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ye aeaiaioa
aioo??oiueieiiieaenii? i?aenenoaie c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia, ui aenoaathoueny
aei ?icaeoeo oe??? i?aenenoaie. O naith /a?ao, eiaeia oaea i?aenenoaia
iinoa? ye aeaiaio i?aenenoaie a?eueo aenieiai ii?yaeeo, ? oae aei oeo
i??, aeiee o yeino? ?aeeii? nenoaie ia ?icaeyaeaoeiaoueny aanue
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen. O oaeee niin?a aeinyaa?oueny iiaiioa
ae?aaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeiia aei ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa, a
???a?o?/ia no?oeoo?a oaeeo aeiia coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aaaaoi??aiaai?
i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ieaioaaiiy.

I?e eiino?othaaii? iioei?caoe?eieo iiaeaeae o aeena?oaoe?? o?aoiaoaaeeny
iaai? ianoaaeie. Aiae?c aca?iica’yce?a aeaiiai aaaaoiaaeocaaiai
eiiieaeno o nenoai? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iieaco?, ui ??ci? noa?e
aeiiii?ee i?aeaaeocae, c iaeiiai aieo, iaiaeiaeiai ?aaaothoue ia ci?ie
aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e ? aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
eiiieaeno, c ?ioiai — ni?aaeythoue ??ciee aieea ia iieacieee eiai
?icaeoeo oa aoaeoeai?noue. Caaaeueiei e?eoa???i ioe?iee ae?yeueiino?
iaae?iaie/i? noa?e ? nooi?iue caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa o a?aeiia?aei?e i?iaeoeoe?? (?iaioao, iineoaao).
Iiaeaethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?
iaeiei c iaea?eueo nooo?aeo oa aeooaeueieo caaaeaiue, ui ?aae?cothoueny
ia iaoeiieo eiiieaenao.

I?aeoeea ?ica’ycaiiy ae?iaie/eo caaea/ ieaioaaiiy aeeeeeaea
iaiao?aei?noue ii?aoethaaiiy oai??? oa iaoiae?a aiae?co iaaeanoeaeo
caaea/ iaoaiaoe/iiai i?ia?aioaaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaaii
iiiyooy iaaeanoeai? caaea/?, caaea/?, yea ia ia? aeanoeaino?
iaeii/aniiai ?ica’ycoaaiiy i?yii? oa iiaea?eii? caaea/ ? ni?aiaaeaiiy ?o
iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue. Aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy ??oaiiy iaaeanoeai? caaea/?
e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy ei?eaothoueny ye nenoaia iaiaaeaiue, oae ? naia
ooieoe?y.

Noia?a/eea? oai?aoe/i? iiaeae?, canoiniaoaai? i?e ieaioaaii?
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee a?aeaeaathoue neeaaei? nioe?aeuei? oa oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?
neooaoe??. I?e/eie, ui aeeeeeathoue ianoi?ni?noue caaea/ iioeiaeueiiai
ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, oiiaii ?icaeoi
ia aea? a?oie: ia’?eoeai? (neeaaeiee oa?aeoa? ae?iaieoeoaa, ui ii?aeio?
??ci? i?aeaaeoc? c? neeaaeieie aca?iica’yceaie; iayai?noue cii
iaaecia/aiino? o oiae? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, aeyaeaiiy
iaeiio?ieueiaaieo ciai?oi?o ae?e ia o?ae ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia i?ioean
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue i?e ieaioaaii?; ia’?eoeaia iaiiaeeea?noue iiaii?
a?aeiia?aeiino? ieaio ? oa?aeoa?o eiai aeeiiaiiy) ? noa’?eoeai?
(a?aenoaaaiiy o /an? iaea?aeaiiy o iiaiiio ianyc? iaiao?aeii? oa
aeinoia??ii? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey iioeiaeueiiai
ieaioaaiiy; a?aenooi?noue iiaii? ocaiaeaeaiino? ?ioa?an?a ie?aieo i?ae
aaeocae, ?o i?ae?icae?e?a ? an??? nenoaie a oe?eiio; iaaeineiiae?noue
?nioth/eo iiaeaeae, iaoiae?a, aeai?eoi?a iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy oa
a?aenooi?noue iaiao?aeiiai aca?iica’yceo ieaioaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy, ui
ia aeicaiey? i?aaeeueii ioe?ithaaoe aeaye? aecia/aeuei? ia?aiao?e
aaeocaaiai eiiieaeno; iayai?noue noa’?eoeaieo ioe?iie o i?ioean?
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue i?e ieaioaaii? ae?yeueiino? aaeocaaiai eiiieaeno, eiee
/anoi caaeuothoueny aioo??oi? ?aca?ae ae?iaieoeoaa).

Aeey iiaeieaiiy o?oaeiiu?a, ui aeieeathoue o oiae? iioei?caoe?? ieai?a
ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao ianoi?niino?, i?iaiaeeee iiooe iiaeo oeyo?a,
i?aeoiae?a aei aiae?co ae?iaie/eo neooaoe?e, i?e iioeiaeueiiio
ieaioaaii?. C iaoith iai/iino? oa caaaeueiiai aeeeaaeaiiy i?ioeaaeo?
ei?eaoaaiiy noia?a/eeai? nenoaie iaiaaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei
iiaeieaiiy ianoi?niino? o caaea/ao ia?niaeoeaiiai ? iioi/iiai ieaioaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno iiaea?oueny ia i?eeeaae?
iiaeaeae caaea/ ieaioaaiiy ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny ?yae iiaeaeae iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaaeanoeaeo caaea/ e?i?eiiai oa aeioeeiai i?ia?aioaaiiy.
sse ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?aeaaeocae
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno — nenoaia i?nueeaeaeo?io?ainii?oo
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?. Iniiaia aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
caaea/? ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

EQ \s\do10(max) \i\fc\S(n = 1,3,) \i\fc\S(s = 1,5,)\s\do10( c\s(s,1n)
y\s(s,1n)) \s\do10(+) \i\fc\S(m = 1,2,) \i\fc\S(s = 1,5,)\s\do10(
c\s(s,2m) y\s(s,2m))

aea EQ y\s(s,1n) , EQ y\s(s,2m) (n = \x\to(1\, 3); s = \x\to(1\,
5) , EQ m = \x\to(1\, 2); s = \x\to(1\, 5)) -ooeaiee ianya
ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiue (o?aiaae, o?ieaeaon) o a?aeiia?aeiiio i?no? o
S-io ?ioe?; EQ c\s(s,1n) , EQ
c\s(s,2m)  ( n = \x\to(1\, 3);   s = \x\to(1\, 5) ) , EQ ( m =
\x\to(1\, 2); s = \x\to(1\, 5) ) — aeioiae, iaea?aeoaaiee a?ae
ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiue (o?aiaae, o?ieaeaon) o a?aeiia?aeiiio i?no? o
S-io ?ioe?. Iaiaaeaiiy ia aeo?aoe aeey i?aai?caoe?? ianaaee?nueeeo
ia?aaacaiue (o?aiaae, o?ieaeaon) ii iaeano? ca aanue ia??iae ieaioaaiiy
aecia/athoueny ca oi?ioeaie:

EQ \i\fc\S(n = 1,3,) \i\fc\S(s = 1,5,)\s\do10( a\s(s,1n) y\s(s,1n))
\s\do10(( (\s\do5(1)) , EQ \i\fc\S(m = 1,2,)
\i\fc\S(s = 1,5,)\s\do10( a\s(s,2m) y\s(s,2m)) \s\do10(( (\s\do5(2)) ,

aea EQ (\s\do5(1) , EQ (\s\do5(2) — aeo?aoe (o?aiaae, o?ieaeaon) o
oe?eiio ii iaeano? ca aanue ia??iae ieaioaaiiy; EQ a\s(s,1n) , EQ
a\s(s,2m) — nia?aa?o?noue ia?aaacaiiy 1000 ianaaee??a (o?aiaae,
o?ieaeaon) o S-io ?ioe?. sse i?aaeei, oey caaea/a ? ianoi?niith, oiio
aeey ioe?iee i??e ianoi?niino? ?ica’yco?oueny ianooiia caaea/a:

EQ min {j\s\do5(1) + j\s\do5(2) + l\s\do5(1) + l\s\do5(2)} ,

aea i?e?iuaiiy EQ j\s\do5(1) , EQ j\s\do5(2) , EQ l\s\do5(1) , EQ
l\s\do5(2) aeiaeaii aei oeo iieaciee?a, ye? ca ci?noii caaea/?
i?aeeyaathoue ei?aeooaaiith. O ?acoeueoao? ?ica’ycaiiy iaea?aeaii?
noi?nii? caaea/? ia/eneth?oueny iioeiaeueiee ieai ianya?a ianaaee?nueeeo
ia?aaacaiue ii eiaeiiio ia’?eoo, aeaeo ia?aaacaiue oa ieaiiaaiiio ?ieo.
Aeioiae (N), iaea?aeoaaiee a?ae aeeiiaiiy oeueiai ieaio, ia/eneth?oueny
o oaeee niin?a:

EQ \s\do10(N = )\i\fc\S(n= 1,3,) \i\fc\S(s= 1,5,) \s\do10( c\s(s,1n)
\o(y,~)\s(s,1n) +) \i\fc\S(m= 1,2,) \i\fc\S(s= 1,5,) \s\do10( c\s(s,2m)
\o(y,~)\s(s,2m)) .

I?ney ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy ianya?a
ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaeanoeaeo caaea/ e?i?eiiai
i?ia?aioaaiiy iaea?aeaii iioeiaeuei? ieaie, aecia/aii iaeneiaeueia
cia/aiiy aeioiaeo ca oiiaaie caaea/?, ?icaeyiooi iiaeeea?noue aeeiiaiiy
ianya?a ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiue i?e aeae?eaieo oiiaeao ia aeo?aoe oa
anoaiiaeaieo aa?oi?o oa ieaei?o iaae ia ianyae ianaaee?nueeeo
ia?aaacaiue, a oaeiae ciaeaeaii cia/aiiy, ui aeicaieythoue i?eaanoe
aeiiii?/i? iieacieee o a?aeiia?aei?noue aei aeae?eaieo oiiae?a ?
iiaeeeainoae aeaeo?io?ainii?oo iaeano?.

O aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae ?icaeyiooi aaeocaao iiaeaeue iioeiaeueiiai
ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. Caaea/a
iieyaa? a oiio, uia a?aeiaeoe cia/aiiy ci?iieo Ooe, oiaoi aea?aoe oae?
aa??aioe ?icaeoeo i?aeaaeocae, ye? caaacia/othoue iaeiaio? aeo?aoe ?
a?aeiia?aeathoue oae?e nenoai? iaiaaeaiue: ianya aeioneo i?iaeoeoe??
(ae?ia?a, iineoa) ia iaioa iio?aae o i?e:

ianya aeioneo i?iaeoeoe?? (ae?ia?a, iineoa) ia iaioa iio?aae o i?e:

EQ \i\fc\S(i = 1,m,) \i\fc\S(j = 1,n,) \s\do10(P\s\do5(ijrt)
x\s\do5(ij) ( P\s\do5(rt)\, r = 1\,…\, q; t = 1\,…\, T;)

?ano?ne eiaeiiai aeaeo iaiaaeai? aeae?eaiith e?euee?noth:

EQ \i\fc\S(i = 1,m,) \i\fc\S(j = 1,ni,) \s\do10(S\s(k,ijt)
x\s\do5(ij) ( S\s(k,t)\, k = 1\,…\, l; t = 1\,…\, T;)

Oe?eueiaa ooieoe?y — caaaeueia noia aeo?ao i?i?iaeueia:

EQ \s\do10(z = )\i\fc\S(i = 1,m,) \i\fc\S(j = 1,ni,)
\s\do10(c\s\do(ij) \( P\s\do5(ijr)\, x\s\do5(ij) \) ( min)

aea ? — iiia? i?aeaaeoc?, ? = 1,2,…m; j — iiia? aa??aioa ?icaeoeo
i?aeaaeoc?, j = 1,2,…, n; k — iiia? aeaeo aeei?enoiaoaaiiai ?ano?no, k
= 1,2,…, l; r — aeae i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeionea?oueny aeey
aaaaoii?iaeoeoiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, r = 1,2,…, g; t — iiia? ?ieo
ieaiiaiai ia??iaeo, t = 1,2,…,T. Ci?ii?: xij — aaee/eia ( 0,5 aai < 0,5, caeaaeii a?ae oiai, i?eeia?oueny aai a?aeoeey?oueny j - e aa??aio ii ? - e i?aeaaeoc?. I?aa? /anoeie iaiaaeaiue: ? - iio?aaa o i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeionea?oueny (?iaioe, iineoae); Sk - aaee/eia aeae?eaieo i?aeaaeocyi ?ano?n?a k - oiai aeaeo. C o?aooaaiiyi ?icoeo?iaee aeaieo ii ?ieao ieaiiaaiiai ia??iaeo oe?eueiaa ooieoe?y iaaoaa? aeaeyaeo: EQ \s\do10(z = )\i\fc\S(i = 1,m,) \i\fc\S(j = 1,ni,) \i\fc\S(t = 1,T,)\s\do10(c\s\do(ijt) \( P\s\do5(ijrt)\, x\s\do5(ijt) \) ( min) O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caaea/ ieaioaaiiy ianya?a ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiue i?aei?e?inoaaie i?nueeaeaeo?io?ainii?oo iaeano? aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? aeaio aa??aio?a ?icaeoeo (?aeiino?oeoe?y oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/i? caoiaee c oaoi?/iiai ia?ainiauaiiy aaeoc?) aeinyaa?oueny cia/ia aeiiii?y aeo?ao (7,8 %). ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeeeny c aeei?enoaiiyi ?aaeueieo aeaieo ca aeaeaie ia?aaacaiue. ?icae?e 5. Ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. AEeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ? iaei??th c i?ia?aeieo aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. AEeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei noa? aieiaiei /eiieeii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano. Aeey aiae?co ? ioe?iee ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno canoiniao?oueny oe?iea nenoaia ??ciiiai?oieo iieaciee?a, ui coiiaeaia ye niaoeeo?eith aaeoc?, oae ? a?aenooi?noth iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy aoaeue-yeiai ?aeeiiai iieacieea. AEeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ian ana iaiao?aeia aeey aeeiai?/iiai oa noaeiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee (oaae. 1). Oaaeeoey 1 Aenieoaoaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai ?aa?iio ? i/i Iieacieee Iaeeieoey aei??o 1995 ?. 1996 ?. Ci?ie iieaciee?a 1996 ?. aei 1995 ?., % 1 Ia?aaacaii ianaaee??a i?nuee-aeaeo?io?ainii?oii - anueiai iei ./ie. 376,8 474,5 125,9 o oiio /ene?: o?aiaa?i -"- 241,0 252,2 104,7 o?ieaeaonii -"- 135,8 222,3 163,7 2 Ae?iaieoeoai oaieiai? aia?a?? oen. Aeae 8577 9772 113,9 3 A?aeione aiaee niiaeeaa/ai iei. i3 554,9 537,4 96,8 4 I?iioneaiiy no?/ieo aiae -"- 472,8 466,6 98,7 5 ?aae?ciaaii ea?o?a iei.oo. 4,8 2,0 41,7 6 Iaaeaii e?aeei-i?noeue aioaeyie iei .e/aeiao 0,36 0,12 32,7 7 Caaaeueia ieiua aeeoeiaeo i?ei?uaiue iei. i 2 24,5 26,1 106,5 8 Ieiua i?aiaeiaaieo i?ei?uaiue -"- 0,9 0.8 88,9 Oae, caaaeueiee ianya i?iaeoeoe?? (?ia?o, iineoa) o 1996 ?ioe? o aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai ?aa?iio neeaa 536,1 iei.a?i„ a oiio /ene? o ?ic?aooieo ia 1 i?nueeiai aeeoaey - 152,1 a?i. Caeoee - 175,3 iei.a?i. Ae?ia?oie ia iaeiiai i?aoe?aieea (oiiaiee) ? 1577 a?i. i?ioe 5947 o 1995 ?ioe?. Aeo?aoe ia 1 a?i. aeioiae?a - 1,37 a?i., oiiaeia?aeaea/a - 0,7 a?i., o oiio /ene? o i?iieneiaino? - 1,32 a?i. Ianya eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue o 1997 ?ioe? neeaa 147,5 iei.a?i. I?ioa aeyaeaii oe?eee ?yae iaaeie?e?a ? iaaaoeaieo yaeu, i?eoaiaiieo ooieoe?iioaaiith aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. Iai?eeeaae, ieoiia aaaa ?ia?oiee?a, caeiyoeo ?o/iith i?aoeath neeaaea? a?eueoa 60 %. Iaeaaaeeea?oith i?iaeaiith aeey i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e n oiiaeia?aeaea/a, ui noaiiaeoue 12-14 eii. Caeeoathoueny aenieeie aioo??oiueici?ii? aeo?aoe ?iai/iai /ano (a?ae 14 aei 17 %), aaeeea e?euee?noue caeoeiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. An? oe? iiiaioe iaoe?eththoue ia ia?ai???iooaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno c e?euee?nieo ia ye?ni? /eiieee c?inoaiiy, oiaoi ia?aaaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee ia ?ioaineaiee oeyo ?icaeoeo. Cia/ou?noue aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e c?inoa? o ca'yceo c ae??oaiiyi caaaeaiue ?ioaineo?eaoe?? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ?noioiiai i?aeaeuaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino? ia iniia? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano. Na?aae aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e iaeaaaeeea?oa ?ieue a?aeaiaeeoueny aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaeno, yeee o ?icaeiooiio noni?euenoa? noa? i?iaeoeoeaiith neeith, a a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei -iaeaaaeeea?oei /eiieeii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano. Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ??ci?. Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae ieo caeiathoue i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a, cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeii?noeino?, aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue, oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? oiui. Ia i?eeeaae? i?ia?aeieo i?aeaaeocae aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?icaeyiooi aeooaeuei? caaaeaiiy ? iai?yiee ?o ?icaeoeo, oni?oia ae??oaiiy yeeo aoaea ni?eyoe eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?. A iniiao ieaiiaeo ??oaiue ii aeei?enoaiith o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen? iieeaaeaii i?eioeei iino?eiiai c?inoaiiy ?o aoaeoeaiino?. Oe?a?ia a?aeiineoueny aei aea?aeaa c iaiaaeaieie o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie, oiio ia ia?oee ieai aeoiaeeoue caaaeaiiy cieaeaiiy iio?aa ??cieo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa o ?iai/?e nee?, a oiio /ene? a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen?. ?ioaineaiee aa??aio ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ia?aaeaa/a? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeii?noeino? noni?eueiiai i?iaeoeoo. I?aei?e?inoaaie oa i?aai?caoe?yie aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno i?iaiaeeoueny iaaia ?iaioa ii ?aoe?iiaeueiiio ? aa?aaeeeaiio aeo?a/aiith iaoa??aeueieo ? iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a, cieaeaiith iaoa??aeii?noeino? ae?iaieoeoaa ia i?aenoaa? i?enei?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ano?ni- ? aia?aicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e, iaoei oa onoaoeoaaiiy, a?eueo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aoi?eiieo ?ano?n?a ? a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa. Ieai i?aeaeuaiiy oaoi?/iiai ??aiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno noi?iiaaii ii oeio oe?eueiai? eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie, ui caaacia/o? eiai aeo?ae ia iaai? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? ?oaaae?. Aiae?c ?icaeoeo no/anii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie na?ae/eoue i?i oiia?eueiaiiy oaii?a ?? c?inoaiiy, iaaeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue ca a?eueo?noth iieaciee?a, iineaaeaiiy i?iii?oe?eiino?. O iaae?iaie/?e noa?? oea aeyaeeiny o a?aenoaaaii? aaeocae, iia?eueiiio i?aeaeuaii? oaoi?/iiai ??aiy i?iaeoeoe??, iecueeeo oaiiao ?? c?inoaiiy o ??cieo aaeocyo ? o aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen?. Iaea?eueo /?oei a?ae?ea aa?o?nieo i?iii?oe?e a?ae i?iii?oe?e ae?iaieoeoaa aeyaeany o cieaeaii? iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? oiaa??a ia ?eieo. C?inoathoue ui??/i? ?ici??e athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo. Athaeaeao /a?ac o?iainia? ?ano?ne cae?enith? aieea ia o?iainoaaiiy iioeiaeueieo i?iii?oe?e o i?ioean? o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy aeo?ao ? noeioethaaiiy aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo, o?oaeiaeo ? o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aoe?iiaeueieo i?iii?oe?e, oiaoi iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueia oa?eoi??aeueia ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee. O aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiio eiiieaen? Oe?a?ie noai?th?oueny i?aeoe/ii iiaee i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie, ia'?aeiaiiyie oa i?aai?caoe?yie, ui aeicaiey? o?nii iia'ycoaaoe ?o ?ioa?ane c ?ioa?anaie aea?aeaae. C iaoith e?ea?aeaoe?? iacaaeainiaaiino? i?ae iiieoii ? i?iiiceoe??th acyoi eo?n ia aeia?aaeaeath/? oaiie c?inoaiiy ieaoieo iineoa. Aieiaiei iai?yieii oaeineiiaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno oa an??? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e iiaeii? noaoe onoiaiiy a?aeii/ino? ? ia?ao?ae aei oe?eueiaiai ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a /a?ac nenoaio oiiae?a, i?aai?ciaaieo ca oa?eoi??aeueiei i?eioeeiii. O ia?niaeoea? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii oi?ioaaiiy oiiae?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo (i?noeaaeo, ?aa?iiaeueieo ? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo) iiaeii? neoaoaaoe aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? ii ?aeiiao a?ae?aooaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e ca aeei?enoaiiy i?noeaaeo ?ano?n?a. Ca ?aooiie eioo?a aea?aeaae iiaeiia caaacia/oaaoeny ?aae?caoe?y nenoaie ii?iaoeaieo iieaciee?a ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, i?aai?ciaaii? a ?aeeiee eiiieaeniee noaiaea?o oiia aeeooy. Oaeee noaiaea?o ia? i?noeoe ?acii ?c caaacia/ai?noth aeeoeii iieacieee aeinooiiino? nenoai eiioiaeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy (aiaeiiinoa/aiiy, aiaeia?ae aaaeaiiy, i?nueeaeaeo?io?ainii?o, oeaio?aeueia iiaeaiiy, aioae? oiui). ?aeeiee eiiieaeniee noaiaea?o oiia aeeooy - oea eiiieaen ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo iieaciee?a ??aiy ?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e ye i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, ui aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? ca oa?eoi??aeueieie oiiaaie ? aeeth/athoue nenoaio nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e i?aa a?iiaaeyi ia aeeoei, a?aeii/eiie, ioi?iio caei?ia'y, ina?oo oiui. Aeinyaiaiiy eiiieaeniiai noaiaea?oo iiaeiii noaoe iniiaiei i?eioeeiii ieaioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, oi?ioaaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae. Ieaie ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??e, ?ioaa?iaai? a nenoaio ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai ieaioaaiiy, iieeeeai? neoaoaaoe aieiaiei ?ino?oiaioii i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? eiiieaeniiai noaiaea?oo. I?iii?oe?ei?noue aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno iaiao?aeii ieaioaaoe c iaia'yceiaei o?aooaaiiyi i?aeaaeocaaeo i?iii?oe?e oa ca'yce?a. Iniiaia iaoa ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ia ia?niaeoeao noi?ioeueiaaia o aeaeyae? caaaeaiiy ii noai?aiith ia oa?eoi??? aea?aeaae eiiieaenii?, ?iaeono??aeueia iniauaii? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace ia'?eo?a aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, caeaoii? caaacia/eoe iiaia caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ? iiieoo an?o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?oi ianaeaiiy ia iineoae. Aaaeeeaith oiiaith i?aeaeuaiiy i?aeaaeocaai? i?iii?oe?eiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? a?aeiia?aei?noue ??ai?a ?icaeoeo i?aeaaeocae. Ocaaaeueithth/ei iieacieeii ??aiy ?icaeoeo i?aeaaeocae aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno iiaeiia aooe aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa. Aeinyaiaiiy iiaii? caaeainiaaiino? oa iioeiaeueiino? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? ni?eueiith aeiiaith caeiio ieaiii??iiai i?iii?oe?eiiai ?icaeoeo ? eaoaai??? aoaeoeaiino? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea aoaeoeai?noue aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a?aeia?aaea?, ianaiia?aae, ??aaiue caaeiaieaiiy noni?eueieo iio?aa o e?ioeaa?e i?iaeoeoe?? (iineoaao), a oaeiae nenoaio neioaoe/ieo iieaciee?a, ui ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie ?acoeueoaoaie ae?yeueiino? eiiieaeno. Ieaioaaiiy oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii aeiaaa? iioeiaeueiiai aeey eiaeiiai aoaio ii?aeiaiiy oeaio?ae?caoe?? ea??aieoeoaa ? ainiiaea?nueei? naiino?eiino? eiaeiiai i?aei?e?inoaa eiiieaeno a oe?eiio. An? caoiaee uiaei iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeeiiaiiy ieaiiaeo caaaeaiue oa aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo oe?eae o iaaeao iayaieo ?ano?n?a ii?aoeueiaothoueny naiei ia'?eoii. I?e oeueiio o yeino? iaiaaeoaa/?a aenooiathoue caaaeuei? ?ano?ne aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno, eio?eie a?i aoaea ?icii?yaeaeaoeny o ieaiiaaiiio ia??iae?, ? caaaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? a?i iiaeiai iaea?aeaoe a e?ioe? oeueiai ia??iaeo. I?aeaeuaiiy noeioethth/i? ?ie? ieaioaaiiy iiaeeeaa ia i?aenoaa? aca?iica'yceo c?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiiii?ee ?aa?iio ? ?ano?n?a, ui aeae?eythoueny ia ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? noa?e ? a oiio /ene? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. Iaiao?aeii oaeiae caaacia/oaaoe iaoa??aeueii-o?iainiao caaeainiaai?noue ieai?a ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a, ea?aeeiaeueia oaeineiiaeaiiy aaeainiaiai ?icae?eo oa?eoi??aeueiiai ieaio. ?ic?aooiie o ?aa?iiaeueiiio ieai? ?ioaa?aeueieo iieaciee?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oa c?inoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe i?yio oa'yceo aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icae?e?a ieaio, cae?enithaaoe iane??cia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. AENIIAEE Noi?ioeueiaaia o aeena?oaoe?? eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo noa'?eo?a iaae?iaie/i? noa?e o no/anieo oiiaao ia?aaeaa/a? ?o aaiethoe?th ye ?aeeii? oe?e?nii? nenoaie, ui ? neeaaeiaith i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aaeocyie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e. Ioe?iea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio noni?euenoaa, oiaeo ?aoi?i a Oe?a?i? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ia no/aniiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai? aeiaaa? noai?aiiy aoaeoeaiiai i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ae??oaii oae? i?iaeaie: 1. Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii eiioeaioe?th iiaiai i?aeoiaeo o oai??? iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy neeaaeiaeie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ? ii?aoeueiaaii iaoiaeieia?th i?aai?caoe?eiiai i?iaeooaaiiy iaoai?cio iia?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa ia?niaeoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a ye noeoiiino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? ianoaa?eueiino? nioe?aeueiiai oa aeiiii?/iiai na?aaeiaeua iiainoai?aiiai aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith Oe?a?ie. 2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaiie ?ai?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueieo no?oeoo? oa ?inoeooo?a o ianooaaao aea?aeaae o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae - iaeneeaaei?oa ? ooiaeaiaioaeueia i?iaeaia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aae?iiy noni?euenoaii. Iieacaii, ui eiiieaeniee ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie yaey? niaith caaeainiaaio i?iii?oe?eio aeeiai?eo ae?iaie/i? ? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e ainiiaea?noaa ?aa?ii?a, ui aaco?oueny ia i??i?eoaoiiio ?icaeoeo aaeocae niaoe?ae?caoe?? i?e iaeii/aniiio eiia?iiaaiiio ?icaeoeo aca?iiiia'ycaieo aaeocae oa ae?iaieoeoa. AEeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ye iaeei c aeaiaio?a eiiieaeniiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae ?icaeaa?oueny iiae?aii aei neeaaeii? ???a?o?/ii? nenoaie ? iieeeeaiee aaciina?aaeiuei ae??ooaaoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie noni?euenoaa. Aa?iii?eia ae?yeuei?noue aoaeue-yeiai ?aa?iio noa? iiaeeeaith eeoa oiae?, eiee aeinyaa?oueny i?iii?oe?eiee eiiieaeniee ?icaeoie an?o eiai aaeocae, ooiio /ene? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. A ?aoe?iiaeueia caaeainiaai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeeeainoae, ni?eyoeeaeo /eiiee?a oa oiia ?aa?iio ? aacith aeey i?enei?aiiy oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?e aenie?e aoaeoeaiino? anueiai noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. 3. O ?iaio? iaaiith i??ith ?aae?ciaaii iaeio c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caeiiii??iinoae oai??? oi?aae?iiy - caaacia/aiiy iino?eii? a?aeiia?aeiino? noa'?eoa oa ia'?eoa iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Iieacaii, ui nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia na?aaeiaeua ? iianyeaeaiiith aeiiii?/iith ?aaeuei?noth, o ye?e ae?? ?iaeea?aeooi. Oea iaeiaeiai noino?oueny ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aai?caoe??, onoaiiae, aaeoc?, an?o, ooi caeiyoee ae?iaieoeoaii. ?iciiae?eii ? aeei?enoaiiyi noeoiiiai noni?eueiiai i?iaeoeoo. Ia?ao?ae aeiiii?ee oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ieaioaaiiy aei ?eieo icia/a? iiaio ci?io nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai eiioaenoo, ui coiiaeth? iiaaae?ieo eiaeiiai noa'?eoa ainiiaea?thaaiiy. O ca'yceo c oeei aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa?, ui iaeii/anii aeeth/a? iaeao ??oaiue o /anoei?: ?aoi?ie i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aaeocyie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e; iaoiaeieia?? ieaioaaiiy aiane?aeie aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo oa iineaaeaiiy aieeao aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii; ii?aoethaaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiai? noaie oi?aae?iiy eiiieaenii, aea iniiaieie eaieaie noathoue ae?iaie/? ia'?aeiaiiy oa i?aei?e?inoaa; iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie iieaciee?a, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ia ??cieo ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy; oii?yaeeoaaiiy naiiai noa'?eoa oi?aae?iiy c o?aooaaiiyi i?enei?aii? ?ic?iaee aoaeoeaieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. 4. Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae o ieaioaaii? ae?yeueiino? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno iieyaa? o ?icaeyae? eiaeiiai eiai i?aei?e?inoaa ye aeaiaioa aioo??oiueieiiieaenii? i?aenenoaie. ?nioth/a ???a?o?/ia no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aaaaoi??aiaai? i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ieaioaaiiy. I?aeoeea ?ica'ycaiiy ae?iaie/eo caaaeaiue ieaioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno iieacaea iaiao?aei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai i?ia?aioaaiiy. Caaaeyee aeina?aeo ?iaioe ?c noia?a/eeaeie iiaeaeyie, c iaaeanoeaeie caaea/aie io?eiaii ??ci? eiino?oeoe??, ui a?aeaeaathoue a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee neeaaei? nioe?aeuei? ? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? neooaoe??. ?icaeyaeath/e aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ye aaoiiiiiee ainiiaea?nueeee iaoai?ci, iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui ?nioth/? iniaeeaino? eiai ae?yeueiino? oa i?aeoeea ieaioaaiiy, ui neeaeany) aeeeeeathoue ianoi?ni?noue ?yaeo caaea/ iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy. O ?iaio? aena?oeaii i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy oeueiai yaeua) iaoiaee iiaeieaiiy ianoi?nieo iaiaaeaiue o caaea/ao ia?niaeoeaiiai ? iioi/iiai ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? eiiieaeno. 5. Ca?ac aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen ia? o ?icii?yaeaeaii? ana iaiao?aeia aeey aeeiai?/iiai ? noaa?eueiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, i?ioa eiai aenoaineaiee oa?aeoa? a oiiaao c?inoath/eo ianooaa?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? oneeaaeiaieo ainiiaea?nueeeo ca'yce?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e a aeiiii?oe?. O ca'yceo c oeei o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ii?aoeueiaaii iiaee i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aaeocyie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e, cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino?. Ia i?eeeaae? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeothoueny iai?yiee oaoi?/iiai ia?aica?i?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa, i?enei?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ca ?aooiie oaeaeeiai iiiaeaiiy eiai iaoa??aeueii? aace, aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee o ae?iaieoeoa?. Iiaee i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaa/a? caaacia/aiiy caieaiiaaieo i?iii?oe?e o ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ia i?aenoaa? canoinoaaiiy ia?aaaaeii aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a ainiiaea?nueeiai ea??aieoeoaa. 6. Ii?aoeueiaaiee i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy caaacia/o? ?icaeoie noa'?eo?a iaae?iaie/i? noa?e ca?aeii ?c oe?eueiaeie caaaeaiiyie ieaio. Oea aeicaiey? ocaiaeaeoaaoe ?ioa?ane i?aeaaeocae ? i?aei?e?inoa eiiieaeno c ?ioa?anaie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa aieeaaoe ia oi?ioaaiiy aaeocaaeo i?iii?oe?e c iaoith ?o a?aeiia?aeiino? noni?eueiei iio?aaai, aeiiaai aoaeoeaiiai ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio ainiiaea?thaaiiy. ?aae?caoe?y nenoaie ii?iaoeaieo iieaciee?a ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno aecia/a?oueny ?aeeiei eiiieaeniei noaiaea?oii oiia aeeooy. Ioaea, aeinyaiaiiy eiiieaeniiai noaiaea?oo noa? iniiaiei i?eioeeiii ieaioaaiiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno) oi?ioaaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae. Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii iio?aao? iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy c ainiiaea?nueeith naiino?ei?noth oa ?i?oe?aoeaith a oe?eiio. O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo? iaae?iaie/i? noa?e i?iaaaeeoe ii anueiio oeeeeo "iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaee - ?iaanoeoe?? - caoo -ianeoaiaoaaiiy". O eiioaeno? oeeo caoiae?a o?aaa ?icai?iooe ?iaioo ii i?aeii?yaeeoaaiith i???ioiaaieo ia i?noeaaee ?eiie na?aaei?o ? ae??aieo i?aei?e?inoa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ?aa?iiaeueiei i?aaiai aeaaee; aaanoe iiaee ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeao?a, ca?aeii c yeei aei i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ca ii?iaoeaaie aiineoueny /anoeia eioo?a ca aeei?enoai? i?aei?e?inoaaie o?oaeia? oa i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne) a oaeiae oo?aoe ca caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. C iineaaeaiiyi ao?o/aiiy ?c oeaio?o ? ?icoe?aiiyi oa?eoi??aeueieo oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e i?aeaeuo?oueny cia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai eiiieaeniiai ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. O oeueiio iai?yieo ?icaeaa?oueny aeiaaino?ieiaa oe?eueiaa eiiieaenia i?ia?aioaaiiy) ui aenooia? iaeiei c aeaiaio?a ?aa?iiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy. 7. Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?? oe?e?nia iaoiaeieia?/ia eiioeaioe?y oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy ia an?o ??aiyo ?icaeoeo aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e aaco?oueny ia iiaeo iaoeiaeo i?aeoiaeao ? ?acoeueoaoao aeine?aeaeaiiy) ye? noaee iniiaith: ii?aoethaaiiy oa ai?iaaoe?? iiaeo iiaeaeae i?aai?caoe?eii? iiaoaeiae iaoai?ci?a iia?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy oaeeo nenoai; ai?iaaoe?? eiioeaioe?? i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a iia?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a i?aei?e?inoaa ye neeaaeiai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie; iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a o iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy; iaa?oiooaaiiy eiioeaioe?? oa ai?iaaoe?? iaoiaeieia?? ieaioaaiiy oa iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia iniia? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i??i?eoao?a; ?ic?iaee ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeaeae i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo? oa iaoai?ci?a iia?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a aeene?aoiiai oa?aeoa?o aeey no/anieo oiia ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?; iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoai?cio ia?aoiaeo a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo aei iiaeo) a?eueo aoaeoeaieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a iia?aoeaiiai ? ia?niaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieie no?oeoo?aie oe?ieiai niaeo?a ae?yeueiino?. Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue caeiaoaa/a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? E?aia?aiei A.A. ?uiie: iai?iecaiaenoaaiiay noa?a iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. - Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. - 230 n. 2. E?aia?aiei A.A. Iai?iecaiaenoaaiiay noa?a a nenoaia iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. - Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee, 1997. - 80 n. 3. E?aia?aiei A.A. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey. - Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. -1997.-58 n. 4. E?aia?aiei A.A., Oea/aiei A.A. Ieaie?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee a oneiaeyo iiaiaaaaeaiee. - Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. - 1998. - 74 n. Iniaenoee aianie: ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo canaae oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio ieaioaaiiy ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a i?aei?e?inoa aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno. 5. E?aia?aiei A.A. Yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee a ieaie?iaaiee aeayoaeueiinoe iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. - 1997. - 70 n. 6. E?aia?aiei A.A. ?ieue iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea // Aeaaeai?/iee iaeyae. - 1997. -?1-2.-N. 112-114. 7. E?aia?aiei A.A. Oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiue iaoaieci iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u // Aeaaeai?/iee iaeyae. - 1998. - ?1. - N. 47-53. 8. E?aia?aiei A.A. Ieaie?iaaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ?acaeoey aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai eiiieaena // Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia Iaoeeiiaeueiie ai?iie aeaaeaiee Oe?aeiu. - 1998. - O.7. - N. 143-146. 9. E?aia?aiei A.A. Iaoiaee/aneea iniaaiiinoe oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ieaie?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai eiiieaena // Aeaaeai?/iee iaeyae. - 1998. - ? 2. - N.65-70. 10. E?aia?aiei A.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u e oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai eiiieaena // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. - 1998. - .? 59 (126). -N. 8-12. 11. E?aia?aiei A.A. Iai?iecaiaenoaaiiay noa?a e aa ianoi a nenoaia iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. -1998.-?60 (127).-N .99-103. 12. E?aia?aiei A.A. Oeiainiaue iaoaieci io?aneae iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. -1998. - ?61 (128). - N. 5-9. ?C. E?aia?aiei A.A. Oa??eoi?eaeueiue iiaeoiae e ?oeiaiaenoao iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?ie // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. -1998.-?62 (129).-N. 106-111. 14.E?aia?aieiA.A. I naaeaine?iaaiiii ieaie?iaaiee aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai eiiieaena // I?aaiecaoeey e ieaie?iaaiea io?aneae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. - 1989. - ? 96. - N. 70-74. 15.E?aia?aieiA.A. Iiaeaee?iaaiea iieacaoaeae aeayoaeueiinoe aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai eiiieaena a oneiaeyo eioaineoeeaoeee yeiiiieee. // Iaoea e oaoieea a ai?iaeneii oicyenoaa. - 1988. - ? 69. - N. 84-87. AIIOAOe?ss E?aia?aiei A.I. I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiei eiiieaenii. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.01 - Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa. - ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie, Aeiiaoeuee, 1998. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aaeocyie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, oi?ioaaiiy o ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie ?eieo iineoa, ui iaaea? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ? iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio iieaciee?a ieaioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo? aaeocae iaae?iaie/i? noa?e i?ae aieeaii i?ioean?a ?eieiooai?aiiy. Noi?iiaaii iiaeaeue ieaioaaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai eiiieaeno ? eiai i?aei?e?inoaaie ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iaaeanoeaeo caaea/ e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy. Ii?aoeueiaaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe??? aaeoc? aeiiii?ee, i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoethaaiiy: ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a, oaii?a ? i?iii?oe?e ?icaeoeo, i?aeaaeocaaeo i?iii?oe?e, no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy ? eii?aeeiaoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, aoaeoeaiino? ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae oe?iiaiai iaoai?cio. Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoai?ci, ?aaoethaaiiy, ieaioaaiiy, i?aeaaeocaa? i?iii?oe?? ?icaeoeo, aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiee eiiieaen, i?ioeane ?eieiooai?aiiy, i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci. AIIIOAOeEss E?aia?aiei A.A. I?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci oi?aaeaiiy aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiui eiiieaenii. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.01. - Yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa. - Einoeooo yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe IAI Oe?aeiu, Aeiiaoee, 1998. Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo oai?aoe/aneea e iaoiaeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey io?aneyie iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee, oi?ie?iaaiey a ?aaeiiao Oe?aeiu ?uiea oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiui eiiieaenii, i?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea e iainiiaaia nenoaia iieacaoaeae ieaie?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeo no?oeoo? io?aneae iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u iiae aeeyieai i?ioeannia ?uieiia?aciaaiey. (noi?ie?iaaia iiaeaeue ieaie?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoueth aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiiai eiiieaena e aai i?aaei?eyoeyie ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ianianoaaiiuo caaea/ eeiaeiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey. ?ac?aaioaiu oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/aneea iniiau i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneiai iaoaiecia eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iaoaieciia ?aaoee?iaaiey: eioaineoeeaoeee eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia, oaiiia e i?iii?oeee ?acaeoey, iaaeio?aneaauo i?iii?oeee ?acaeoey, no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey e eii?aeeiaoeee eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, yooaeoeaiinoe ?acaeoey, a oaeaea oeaiiaiai iaoaiecia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoaieci, ?aaoee?iaaiea, ieaie?iaaiea, iaaeio?aneaaua i?iii?oeee ?acaeoey, aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiue eiiieaen, i?ioeannu ?uieiia?aciaaiey, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci. SUMMARY Kramarenko G.A. Organizational economic mechanism of management of housing communal complex. - manuscript. The thesis for a doctor's degree by speciality 08.06.01 - Industrial economy and production organisation. - Institute of Industrial Economy of National Academy of Sciences of Ukranian - Donetsk, 1998. The thesis deals with theoretical and methodological investigations of organizational economic mechanism of management of nonproduction branches in transitional economic environment) service market formation in different regions of Ukraine, presented by housing communal complex. Methods and indices system of planning organisational economic structures of nonproduction branches under the influence of marketforming processes have been substantiated. Planning and management model of the housing -communal complex activity and its enterprises has been worked out on the basis of nonproper linear programming tasks. Theoretical and methodological basis of organizational economic mechanism of their functioning and suggestions on perfection of the functional mechanisms of their regulation; intensification of resource use, tempos and proportions of development, interbranch proportions of development, strategic planning and coordination of investment activity, development effectiveness and also target market mechanism have been developed. Key words; mechanism, regulation, planning, interbranch proportions of development, housing-communal complex, market formation processes, organizational economic mechanism. PAGE 24 Eaa?iao I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie I?i?noa?noai Iaeani? ?aaee ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy AEEE iaeanoae I?nueea ?aaea ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a I?nuee? ia’?aeiaiiy AEEE ?aeiii? ?aaee ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a ?aeiii? ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy (oi?aae?iiy) AEEE

Похожие записи