1

?INOEOOO IAAeAAIA?EE ? INEOIEIA?? I?IOAN?EII?

INA?OE

AEAAeAI?? IAAeAAIA?*IEO IAOE OE?A?IE

NIEIEIAA ??eia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 378.02

I?AAI?CAOe?ss AEOIAII? ?IAIOE IA O?EIEIA?*IEO

OAEOEUeOAOAO AEUEO CAEEAAe?A INA?OE

13.00.04 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

AeENA?OAOe?? IA CAeIAOOOss IAOEIAIAI NOOIAIss

EAIAeEAeAOA IAAeAAIA?*IEO IAOE

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee : aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Neni?aa Na?oeaia Ieaenaiae??aia,

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/a eaai?aoi???th
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? aeui? oeiee,

i. Ee?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eainueea Aeea Einei?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith nioe?aeueii?
iaaeaaia?ee, i. Ee?a;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Iao?iae/ Aaea??e Noaiaiiae/,

Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee,

noa?oee aeeeaaea/ eaoaae?e
nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee, i. Eooeuee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:AEeoiie?nueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo
?i.?.ss.O?aiea,

eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. AEeoiie?.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 15 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.451.01 a ?inoeooo?
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
254060, i.Ee?a, aoe. I.Aa?eeinueeiai, 9, 5-ee iiaa?o, cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie (254060,
i.Ee?a, aoe. I.Aa?eeinueeiai, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” eeiiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Oeeaoeuenueea A. I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?iaeaia
i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie ? iaei??th c
iaeaeooaeuei?oeo o iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? oa i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe. O iieiaeaiiyo Aea?aeaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
“Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia XXI noie?ooy”), Caeii? Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”,
Eiioeaioe?? aeoiaaiiy ae?oae oa iieiae? o iaoe?iiaeuei?e nenoai? ina?oe,
i?eeiyoi? I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie o 1996 ?ioe?, aecia/aii iaoo,
ci?no, i?eioeeie ? iniaeeaino? aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? ia ??cieo ??aiyo
ina?oe. O ??oaii? eieaa?? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie a?ae 28.10.98 ?.
“I?i noai oa i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii-a?iiaaenueeiai aeoiaaiiy o aeueo
caeeaaeao inaoe” eaeaoueny i?i iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace uiaei ea??aieoeoaa aeoiaiith ?iaioith o
caeeaaeao ina?oe. Aiaeii/an o aea?aeaaieo aeieoiaioao
i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui i???ioaoe?y eeoa ia ina?oi?e eiiiiiaio i?ecaaea
aei a?aeoiaeo cia/ii? /anoeie nooaeaio?a oa aeeeaaea/?a a?ae
a?iiaaenueei? ae?yeueiino?, aei ianiaiai cai?oaiiy iicaiaa/aeueii?
?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe. Iicaaoaeeoi?ia ?iaioa, ye i?aaeei,
i?iaiaeeoueny noeo?eii, ia?aaaaea? iaeiiiai?oi?noue oi?i ??
i?aai?caoe??. Iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? coiiaeth?oueny
iecueeei ??aiai ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe, i?iaaeeiaie a ?o oai?aoe/ieo ciaiiyo uiaei
iniaeeainoae aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie oa ?? i?aai?caoe?? o
iicaaoaeeoi?iee /an.

Iiooee aoaeoeaieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i iicaaoaeeoi?ii? ?iaioe ?c
nooaeaioaie o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe a?oioothoueny ia aoiai?noe/ieo
?aeaaeao, iiaac? aei iniaenoino?, iaiao?aeiino? caaacia/aiiy ianooiiino?
oa iine?aeiaiino? aeoiaieo aieea?a ??cieo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a, a
oaeiae aacia?a?aiino? i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy. A i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe aeioe?eueii a?aoiaoaaoe no/ani?
iciaee nooaeaionueei? aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie; ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
nooaeaionoa? ye nioe?aeuei?e a?oi?, a oaeiae noia?a/eea?noue i?ioean?a
aoiaeaeaiiy iieiaei? ethaeeie a ?aae?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue o noni?euenoa?.

Ca oaeeo oiia aeieea? ia’?eoeaia iio?aaa ?ic?iaee i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e, ci?noo ? ooieoe?e ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy
iicaaoaeeoi?iith aeoiaiith ?iaioith o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe oa
aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ?? i?aai?caoe?? ?c nooaeaioaie c o?aooaaiiyi
a?o/eciyiiai ? ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo.

I?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o caeeaaeao ina?oe
i?eaa?oathoue oaaao aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a. Caaaeuei? aniaeoe
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?icaeyaeaee A.I.Aeaenthe, I.?.Aieaee??a,
TH.E.Aaaainueeee, N.I.Aa?aiia, A.C.Aoeueoia, A.I.Aaeoceinueeee,
A.E.Eainueea, A.N.Eiaca?, I.TH.E?aniaeoeueeee, I.I.Eiiae?aothe oa
?io?.

Aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue, ui aei
iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo ? neeaaeieo i?iaeai i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe
?c nooaeaioaie o aeu?e oeie? iiaeia a?aeianoe oae?:
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
(N.A.Ea?iai/oe, A.I.Nooia?ee, I.A.Noaeueiaoiae/ oa ?io?), iaaeaaia?/i?
oiiae i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao
ina?oe (I.A.Aeiineaanueea, O.I.Eo?eeaiei, I.O.I?eiea?anueeee,
?.A.Nie?iia, O.A.Noaio?a, ?.?.Oa?aiia), ae?yeuei?noue eo?aoi?a
aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie, ui ni?yiiaaia ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? nooaeaioa
(A.Ae.Aaceeaae/, I.?.Eina??aa, E.A.O?e?inueea oa ?io?), i?aai?caoe?ei?
oi?ie aeoiaiiai aieeao ia iniaeno?noue (I.?.Ee?e/oe, A.A.Eocue,
A.ss.Ii?oieo oa ?io?), aiae?c aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa
(A.I.Aaciaeueei, C.E.Aa?aaianueeee, ss.?.Ao?eaea, I.A.Aeoaanaithe,
A.N.I?eaeueia, N.I.Neni?aa, A.I.Neanoueii?i, A.A.O?ioeei); nioe?ieia?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy no/aniiai nooaeaionoaa ye noa’?eoa aeoiaii? ?iaioe o
aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe (A.?.Anoaoiaa, I.?.Aiaee, I.I.Naoaiue,
O.ss.Noa?/aiei, I.I.Noiyi, I.A.Oa?/aa, I.I.sseoaa oa ?io?).

I?ioa i?iaeaia i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia
o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe ua iaaeinoaoiuei
aeine?aeaeaia o oai?aoe/iiio aniaeo?, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? an?o noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy aeoiaiith ?iaioith:
ea??aiee?a, aeeeaaea/?a, eo?aoi??a oa nooaeaionueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeuei?noue aecia/aii? i?iaeaie oa ia’?eoeaio
iio?aao o oi?io- aaii? nioe?aeueii aeoeaii?, aoiai?noe/ii ni?yiiaaii?
iniaenoino? — a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie, iaaeinoaoith ?ic?iaeai?noue
i?iaeaie, oaiith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii: “I?aai?caoe?y
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe”.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei
oaiaoe/iiai ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie ca oaiith:
“Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? ci?noo
ae?yeueiino? aeui? oeiee a Oe?a?i? (oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aniaeo)”
(?E ? 0196E008876).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — nenoaia aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae?
ina?oe.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — iicaaoaeeoi?ia aeoiaia ?iaioa ia
o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe III oa IV ??ai?a
ae?aaeeoaoe??.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? oa oai?aoe/iiio
iaa?oiooaaii? i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e, ci?noo oa ooieoe?e ae?yeueiino?
noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy iicaaoaeeoi?iith aeoiaiith ?iaioith, aeyaeaii?
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo oiia i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aoaeoeaiino? ia
o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe.

Caaaeueia a?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe
iaaoaa? aoaeoeaiino? ca oiia: a?aooaaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ? niaoeeo?ee
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o noni?euenoa?, aoiai?noe/ii?
ni?yiiaaiino? iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
/eiiee?a, ui coiiaeththoue aoaeoeai?noue noa’?eo — noa’?eoii? aca?iiae??
o nenoai? “aeeeaaea/ — nooaeaio”; oe?eani?yiiaaii? i?aeaioiaee
aeeeaaea/?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe.

Caaaeueia a?iioaca ciaoiaeeoue na?e i?iya o /anoeiaeo a?iioacao,
a naia:

1. Iaoiaee/ia i?aeaioiaea aeeeaaea/a aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe aei
i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ni?yiiao?oueny ia ci?io oa?aeoa?o
aca?iiae?? ?c nooaeaioaie: a?ae noa’?eo-ia’?eoii? aei noa’?eo-noa’?eoii?
aca?iiae??, ui aeyaey?oueny o ci?i? ci?noo oa iiiaeaii? oi?i
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe.

2. Iicaaoaeeoi?ia aeoiaia ?iaioa ?c nooaeaioaie aeueo caeeaae?a
ina?oe ia? ieaioaaoeny oa cae?enithaaoeny c o?aooaaiiyi nooiaiaaino?,
ianooiiino?, oaoo i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, iniaeeainoae no/aniiai
nooaeaionoaa, ui coiiaeaii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie ia?aoai?aiiyie o
noni?euenoa?.

3. Iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy a iniaeno?nii-?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
(caaeiaieaiiy nooaeaioaie aeaniei nioe?aeueiei noaoonii,
aca?iia?aeiioaiiyie o i?e?ina?aaeiaeu?; i??a aeia??e aei eo?aoi?a;
??aaiue ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoi?nueeeo oa eiioi?eaoeaieo cae?aiinoae) oa
a?oiiaeo (aeoeai?noue, cao?oiaai?noue) iieacieeao ?icaeoeo aeaaeai?/ii?
a?oie aecia/athoue aoaeoeai?noue i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei i?aaeiaoa, iaoe oa a?iioace aecia/aii iniiai?
caaaeaiiy aeine?ae- aeaiiy:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie o nioe?aeuei?e ?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oa a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

2. Aeyaeoe oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe eiiiiiaioe nenoaie
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe.

3. ?ic?iaeoe, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o,
ci?no oa ooieoe?? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy iicaaoaeeoi?iith
aeoiaiith ?iaioith o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe.

4. Aeyaeoe i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? iicaaoaee- oi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo
oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe.

5. ?ic?iaeoe oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe ci?no iaoiaee/ii?
i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe
?c nooaeaioaie.

6. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe aeey nooaeaio?a, aeeeaaea/?a ? ea??aieo
no?oeoo? aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue: o?einionuee?
iieiaeaiiy i?i nooi?noue aeoiaaiiy ye niaoe?aeueii? oi?ie noni?eueii?
ae?yeueiino?, ?icoi?iiy aeoiaii? ?iaioe ye nioe?aeueii-iioeaiaaiiai oa
ii?aeueii-coiiaeaiiai i?ioeano aca?iiae?? noa’?eo?a aeoiaaiiy;
eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy oai??? oi?aae?iiy; iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaiee
oa nenoaiii-ae?yeuei?niee i?aeoiaee aei ?icaeyaeo nenoaie
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue:

— iaoeia? canaaee i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe (A.I.Aeaenthe,
TH.E.Aaaainueeee, N.I.Aa?aiia, N.O.Aii/a?aiei, A.E.Eainueea,
N.A.Ea?iai/oe, I.I.Eiiae?aothe, A.A.E?ooaoeueeee, E.?.?oa?inueeee,
O.?.Nouaiei oa ?io?);

— eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy uiaei oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei
i?ioeanii o caeeaaeao ina?oe (A.?.Aiiaea?, TH.A.Aaneeue?a,
I.E.Eieii?inueeee, A.N.Eiaca?, A.N.Ianeia, A.N.I?eaeueia, I.I.Iioaoiee,
I.N.Noioeia, ?.O.Oaeo?ia oa ?io?);

— ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith aeoiaaiiy
(A.A.Ea?aeianueeee, I.A.Eocuei?ia, I.TH.E?aniaeoeueeee oa ?io?),
aeoiaiith ?iaioith o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe (C.I.Ceeiaa,
?.?.Eiaeeyoeueeee, ?.A.Nie?iia, O.?.Noa?/aiei, E.A.O?e?inueea oa ?io?);

— ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniaeeaino? aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa
(E.I.Ao?aa, I.A.Aeoaanaithe, A.A.Naie/aiei, A.A.Neanoueii?i,
A.I.O?ioeei) oa eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe
(A.Ae.Aaceeaae/, ?.A.Aeiineaanueea, I.?.Iiii/iaiee, I.I.Eieaniee,
I.?.Eina??aa, O.I.Eo?eeaiei, A.A.Na?iei); iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe (I.?.Aiaee,
C.?.A?eioniaa, A.I.Cioia, E.A.Eiiae?aoiaa, A.N.Iao?iae/,
I.E.Iiaeaa?acnueeee, O.ss.Noa?/aiei, I.I.Noiyi).

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue,
ia?aa??ee a?iioace aoee aeei?enoai? iaoiaee: a) oai?aoe/i?:
nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee (eeaneo?eaoe?y, nenoa- iaoecaoe?y, iiaeaethaaiiy),
?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co, ii??aiyiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy, i?aeneiao?e/i?
(aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo ?iaioe, aiae?c aeieoiaio?a); a)
aii??e/i?: i?iaiinoe/i? (iaoiae aenia?oieo ioe?iie, ?aiaeoaaiiy),
cioe?ieia?/i?, iana?aaoe?ei?, eiinoaooth/ee oa oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaioe.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aiae?coaaeeny a?ao?/ii.

I?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny o o?e
aoaie i?ioyaii 1992 — 1998 ?ie?a.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1992-1994 ?iee) aea/aany noai ?ic?iaee aeaii?
i?iaeaie a ?? oai?aoe/iiio ? i?eeeaaeiiio aniaeoao. Aoei ?ic?iaeaii
i?ia?aio ? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aenoiooi caaaeueio a?iioaco,
noi?ioeueiaaii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/aii i?ia?aio iiaeaeueoi? aeine?aeii? ?iaioe.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1994-1996 ?iee) aoei eiie?aoeciaaii iaoiaeeee
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, aianaii ei?aeoeae o oi?ioethaaiiy /anoeiaeo
a?iioac aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiaii iniiaio aenia?eiaioaeueio /anoeio
aeine?aeaeaiiy, nenoaiaoeciaaii, i?iaiae?ciaaii oa ocaaaeueiaii iniiai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? o oai?aoe/iiio ? i?eeeaaeiiio aniaeoao, a oaeiae
ai?iaaaeaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo ?iaioe
Ia??oiieuenueeiai aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1996-1998 ?iee) aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii
iaoa??aee oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo, ocaaaeueiaii eiai ?acoeueoaoe,
nenoaiaoeciaaii ? ocaaaeueiaii aanue aeine?aeiee iaoa??ae oa aeeeaaeaii
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a iaeiiin?aiiio iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo aeey
aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae aeueo caeeaae?a
ina?oe [1].

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa ae- eiioaaeany o Ia??oiieuenueeiio
aoiai?oa?iiio ?inoeooo? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
Aa?aeyinueeiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?. Anueiai aeine?aeaeaiiyi aoei
ioiieaii 1420 nooaeaio?a, 44 eo?aoi?e aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi, 104 aeeeaaea/a
aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui:

— aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii ci?no iaoiaee/ii?
i?aeaioiaee ae- eeaaea/?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe aei i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie; eiiiiiaioe aeoiaii?
ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe;

— iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ae?noaee i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe; iaoiaeeee
aea/aiiy oa e?eoa??? aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe; ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? canaaee ae?yeueiino?
eo?aoi?a aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui:

— ooi/iaii nooi?noue iiiyoue: “aeoiaia ?iaioa”, “iicaaoaeeoi?ia aeoiaia
?iaioa”, “i?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe”, “nenoaia
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe”;

— iaa?oioiaaii eiiiiiaioe nenoaie iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o
aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe (ci?noiaiee, noa’?eoiee, i?ioeanoaeueiee,
oi?aae?inueeee, ??aiaaee, ae?yeuei?nii-iia?aoe?eiee);

— ?ice?eoi iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeoooo eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo
a?oi o

nenoai?

iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia iniia? iiiaeaiiy ci?noo oa oi?i eiai
ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao ?aae?caoe?? aoiai?noe/ii? ia?aaeeaie
iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe;

— iaa?oioiaaii eiiiiiaioe ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi?a ye noa’?eoa oi?aae?iiy
iicaaoaee- oi?iith aeoiaiith ?iaioith ia ??ai? nooaeaionueei?
aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie (aiinoe/iee, i?iaeoeaiee, eiino?oeoeaiee oa
eiioi?eaoeaiee), ci?no oa ooieoe?? eiai ae?yeueiino? (aiae?oe/ia,
i?aai?caoi?nueea, eiioi?eaoeaia oa nioe?ae?caoe??).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui
?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii:

— iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe ?c noo- aeaioaie aeey ea??aiee?a oa aeeeaaea/?a aeueo caeeaae?a
ina?oe;

— iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oi?aae?iiy aeoiaiith ?iaioith o
na?aaei?o caeeaaeao ina?oe aeey aeeeaaea/?a, nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo
niaoe?aeueiinoae aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe, a/eoae?a oa ea??aiee?a oe?e;

— i?ia?aio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai nai?ia?o-i?aeoeeoio c i?iaeai
i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie aeey
aeeeaaea/?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe;

— ?icae?e i?ia?aie c iaaeaaia?ee ”Oi?aae?iiy aeoiaiith ?iaioith o oeie?”
aeey aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe.

— Iieiaeaiiy i?i ae?yeuei?noue eo?aoi?a aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie aeui? oeiee a
oiiaao ?icaeoo iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe ia aoiai?noe/ieo canaaeao
aeey ea??aieo no?oeoo? oa aeeeaaea/?a aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe;

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?i- aioe ?c nooaeaioaie aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue ia o?eieia?/iiio oa- eoeueoao? Ia??oiieuenueeiai
aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?- neoaoo.
I?ioyaii onueiai ia??iaeo oai?aoeei-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aeena?oaio
iniaenoi a?aa o/anoue a ai?iaaoe?? ? i?aeoe/i?e ?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaieo
iieiaeaiue oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, caeiath/enue aeeeaaeaoeueeith oa
iaoiaee/iith ae?yeuei?noth, a oaeiae i?aa- i?caoe??th iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe (Aeo i?i
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?762/01-28/01 a?ae 12.04.1999 ?.). Oea aeaei ciiao cia/ii
iie?ioeoe noai aeoiaii? ?iaioe a aeaaeai?/ieo a?oiao ia o?eieia?/iiio oa
oaeoeueoao? ?iicaiieo iia Ia??oiieuenueeiai aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo;
e??i oiai aaeaeiny aeinyaoe c?inoaiiy ??aiy oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii?
i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a iaea?aeaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a
iieyaa? o:

— ?ic?iaoe? oa oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? eiiiiiaio?a,
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oa e?eoa???a ?icaeoeo nenoaie iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe;

-aeyaeai? oa iaa?oiooaaii? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo oiia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo
oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe;

— aecia/aii? ci?noo oa ooieoe?e ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo
a?oi c ia?oiai aei inoaiiueiai eo?no iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a o aeuiio
caeeaae? ina?oe;

— ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c
nooaeaioaie o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoao?a.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/aia
iaoiaeieia?/iei iaa?oioo- aaiiyi eiai aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue, nenoaiiei
aiae?cii oai?aoe/iiai ? aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo; canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno
iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo ia’?eoo, i?aaeiaoo, iao? oa caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ee aeey aenia?eiaioaeueii?
?iaioe; noaoenoe/ieie iaoiaeaie ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo;
ii?aeiaiiyi e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai aiae?co caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a, a
oaeiae iiceoeaieie iane?aeeaie uiaei ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1. Eiiiiiaioe nenoaie iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae?
ina?oe.

2. I?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a, ci?no oa ooieoe?? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a
oi?aae?iiy iicaaoaeeoi?iith aeoiaiith ?iaioith o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe.

3. I?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao, ye?
aeeth/athoue iaiao?aei?noue ?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaii? oa oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii? oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe, a oaeiae iaoiaee/io i?aeaioiaeo aeeeaaea/?a uiaei i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe.

4. Ci?no iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiae aeeeaaea/?a aei i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe III oa IV
??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae- aeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Aeiiaann e I?eaciauea: i?iaeaiu nioeeaeueiiai,
iaoeeiiaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey” (i.Ia??oiieue, 1993?.); “Aenie?
oaoiieia?? aeoiaaiiy” (i.Oa?e?a,1995?.); “Eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy ? oeyoe ?? ?aae?caoe??” (i.Caii??aeaey,1995?.); i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia-A?aoe?y: ?noi?e/ia niaaeueia ?
ia?niaeoeae ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa” (i.Ia??oiieue, 27-29 o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo);
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea
a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a o eiioaeno? aoiai?caoe?? oa aoiai?oa?ecaoe??
aeui? ina?oe” (i.Ee?a, 1999 ??e). Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo a/aii? ?aaee
Ia??oiieuenueeiai aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (1995, 1996, 1998 ?iee).

Ca oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii 11 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
caaaeueiei ianyaii iniaenoiai aianeo – 6,54 aaoi?nueeeo ae?oeiaaieo
a?eoo?a, o o./. — 1 iaeiiin?aiee iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee oa 6 noaoae o
i?ia?aeieo iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a aei eiaeiiai ?icae?eo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, 11 aeiaeaoe?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii ia 187 noi??ieao. 11
aeiaeaoe?a caeiathoue 39 noi??iie. ?iaioa i?noeoue 16 oaaeeoeue ia 9
noi??ieao oa 8 ?enoie?a ia 6 noi??ieao. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
aeeth/a? 191 iaeiaioaaiiy, c ieo 4 — ?iicaiiith iiaith.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? i?iaeaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo,
caaaeaiiy, a?iioaco oa iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi eiai
iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a, noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “I?aai?caoe?y aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo
caeeaaeao ina?oe ye nioe?aeueia oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeaia”-
aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aiae?co aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, i?iaiae?ciaaii ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/io e?oa?aoo?o ? aea?aeaai?
aeieoiaioe uiaei ci?noo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c
nooaeaioaie o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe; aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?? uiaei
?ic?iaee oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo iai?yi?a
ia?aii? i?iaeaie o iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe?; aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy
no/aniiai noaio i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeu?e oeie?. C
o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai ooi/iaia nooi?noue iiiyoue: “aeoiaia ?iaioa”,
“iicaaoaeeoi?ia aeoiaia ?iaioa”, “i?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe”, “nenoaia iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe”.

Ia iniia? aiae?co no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy ina?oith o eieeoiueiio
?aaeyinueeiio Nithc?, aea/aiiy ?? ii?iaoeaii? aace ca ia??iae c 1917 aei
1987 ?ieo (a?eueoa 350 ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe N?N?,
a i?ney a?aeiia?aeii? ?ai?aai?caoe??- I?i?noa?noaa aeui? ina?oe N?N?),
cae?eniaii aiae?c aea?aeaaieo eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeu?e oeie?. C?iaeaii
aeniiaie, ui ia an?o aoaiao ?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueei? aeui? oeiee oi?ie oa
iaoiaee aeoiaaiiy aecia/aeeny a?aeiia?aeii aei iie?oeee Eiioi?noe/ii?
ia?o??. Aeoiaia ?iaioa o aeu?e oeie? ni?yiiaoaaeany ia eiioi?noe/ia
aeoiaaiiy iieiae? a oiiaao aaoi?eoa?iiai ?aaeeio oa iaeiiia?o?eii?
nenoaie. Cia/iith i??ith ?aii?oaaeeny iniaeeaino? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? oa o?aaeeoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy.
?nioth/ee oioae?oa?iee ?aaeei aeaaee i?eca?a aei ?nioaaiiy aiieiaaoe/ii?
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie ina?oe, yea ni?eyea oi?ioaaiith iieiaei?
ethaeeie cacaeaeaa?aeue caaeaiiai oeio ? cia/iith i??ith ?aii?oaaea
?ioa?ane oa iio?aae iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo iaeaooiueiai oao?aoey.
I?aai?caoe?y ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy iicaaoaeeoi?iith
aeoiaiith ?iaioith o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe (?inoeooo eo?aoi??a,
nooaeaionueea naiia?yaeoaaiiy, a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??, aeaaeai?/i?
a?oie) cae?enithaaeanue a oiiaao ?aaeaiaioiaaiino?, iie?oecaoe?? oa
?aeaieia?caoe?? ci?noo oa oi?i ?o ae?yeueiino?. Ana oea ii?iaeaeoaaei
aaoi?eoa?io iiceoe?th aeeeaaea/a ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia’?eoo oi?aae?iiy
— nooaeaionueei? a?oie (/e ie?aii? iniaenoino?).

Aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e iieacaei, ui o 60 —
90-o ?ieao aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ??ci? aniaeoe i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe
?c nooaeaioaie o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe, a oaeiae i?iaeaie, ye?
iia’ycai? c ae?yeuei?noth iaaeaaia?a-ianoaaiee?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
?icaeoie oai??? aeoiaaiiy o cacia/aiee iaie ia??iae. O 60-o? ?iee cia/ia
oaaaa o aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a i?eae?eyeany:
?ic?iaoe? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe;
ci?noo aeoiaaiiy, ni?yiiaaiiai ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e
nooaeaionoaa, ?o noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoeaiino? a oiiaao ?icaeiaiiai
nioe?ae?cio; ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae noa’?eo-ia’?eoiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aeoiaaiiy); aecia/aiith e?eoa???a ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi??a
iaa/aeueieo a?oi a?aeiia?aeii aei canaae eiioi?noe/iiai aeoiaaiiy:
eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaeiino?, ia?o?eiino?, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoeaiino?
ia’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy, yeei aaaaeaeiny nooaeaionoai (I.I.Eieaniee,
I.I.Eiiae?aothe, I.O.Eo?ae?i, I.A.Ioae?ee). O 70-o? ?iee caeeaaea?oueny
ooiaeaiaio nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo a aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy
ye neeaaeii? ea?iaaii? nenoaie (A.C.Aoeueoia, E.?.Iia?eiaa,
A.I.O?eiiiaa). O oeae /an c’yaeythoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai
i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie iaaeaaia?/ieo ?inoeooo?a ia
canaaeao: ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ii? oa i?ioan?eii? ni?yiiaaiino? iaa/aeueii? ?
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? ?iaioe, ?aeiino? iaoeiai?, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? oa
niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a (I.I.A?anoiaa, I.I.E?eaei,
A.I.?a/eiaa, O.N.?aa/eithe). O oeae ia??iae aoei aecia/aii e?eoa???
aoaeoeaiino? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe, a naia: ??aaiue
nioe?aeueii? c??eino? nooaeaio?a, “ei?eni?noue aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie” ye
eieaeoeaiiai ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy ia?o?eieie oa eiiniiieuenueeeie
i?aai?caoe?yie aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe (I.I.Eieaniee, I.I.??anoiaa,
?a/eiaa A.I., ?.?.Eiaeeyoeueeee oa ?io?). O 80-o? ?iee ii/eia?oueny, c
iaeiiai aieo, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo canaae a oi?aae?iiy ina?oith
ia an?o ??aiyo, a, c ?ioiai, aiii iaiaaeo?oueny i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaei
i?aeoiaeii aei oi?aae?iiy aeoiaiith ?iaioith o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe
(C.I.Ceeiaa, I.?.Ee?e/oe, O.I.Eo?eeaiei, A.A.Iaeaoea??y,
E.?.?oa?inueeee, O.?.Noa?/aiei, ?.A.Nie?iia, I.A.O?ieia, I.Ae.Oa?aiia,
A.A.Oniainueeee oa ?io?). E??i oiai, a icia/aiee ia??iae i?iaiaeyoueny
aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aecia/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a noa’?eo?a
oi?aae?iiy aeoiaiith ?iaioith (?.?.Eiaeeyoeueeee, A.?.Noaoiaae/,
I.A.*a?i?inueeee oa ?io?); ?ic?iaeythoueny i?aai?caoe?ei? canaaee
ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi?a iaa/aeueii? a?oie (A.I.Iaeneiiaa, A.O.Iaiueoee,
O.I.Eo?eeaiei, A.A.Na?iei).

Ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a aeine?aeaeothoueny ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?
aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi?a aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie (?.A.Aeiineaanueea,
I.?.A?aee, E.TH.Ai?ae?i, E.A.Eiiae?aoiaa, A.I.Ei?ioia); iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiaiai na?oiaeyaeo nooaeaio?a (I.?.Aiae?ouaiei,
A.E.A?aai?ia, ?.I.sseoaa, A.E.Aoeueonii, C.I.Iaeueeiaa oa ?io?);
?ic?iaeythoueny ie?ai? e?eoa??? aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe oa aecia/athoueny iniiai? iai?yie
aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? aeaeaiao?a oa eaoaae? (TH.A.Aaneeue?a,
A.?.Ei?ioy?a, I.O.I?eiea?anueeee, ?.?.Oa?aiia, I.I.Onoaiei,
A.?.*ea??iia).

No/ani? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aeoiaii? ?iaioe a?oioothoueny ia
iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaieo eiioeaioe?yo aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a
aeui? oeiee, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue aoiai?noe/io ni?yiiaai?noue aeoiaii?
?iaioe, i??i?eoao caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?iiinoae,
eio?? ni?eythoue iaaoooth iieiaeei iieie?iiyi nioe?aeueiiai aeina?aeo oa
oi?ioaaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ? eoeueoo?iiai iioaioe?aeo iaoe??
(?.A.Cycthi, A.E.Eainueea, I.E.Iiaeaa?acnueeee, I.A.Nooiieeinueea oa
?io?).

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e o
?icae?e? aoei c?iaeaii aeniiaie: a i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c
nooaeaioaie iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui aeuee caeeaae ina?oe ?
nioe?aeueiei ?inoeoooii noni?euenoaa c i?eoaiaiieie eiio niaoeeo?/ieie
iciaeaie (i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue noni?eueiei iio?aaai, nea?iaai?noue ia
aeeiiaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caiiaeaiiy noni?euenoaa, ea?iaai?noue ia
aea?aeaaiiio oa eieaeueiiio ??aiyo, iayai?noue iaaieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ye?
ni?eythoue ?aeiino?, ianooiiino? oa iine?aeiaiino? aeoiaieo aieea?a
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano oa iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie aeueo
caeeaaeao ina?oe, ?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo aeaee ciiao
iaa?oiooaaoe iniaeeaino? no/aniiai nooaeaionoaa ye nioe?aeueii? a?oie oa
iniiai? iciaee aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie, ye? aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue
i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe.

O ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei
aecia/aiiy iiiyoue “aeoiaia ?iaioa”, “iicaaoaeeoi?ia aeoiaia ?iaioa” oa
“i?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe” (TH.E.Aaaainueeee,
N.I.Aa?aiia, A.I.Aaeoceinueeee, I.A.?aooo, I.I.Eiiae?aothe, I.?.Ee?e/oe,
A.A.E?ooaoeueeee, ?.I.Einee, I.E.Eieii?inueeee, ?.I.I?aeeanee,
A.A.Neanoueii?i, A.?.Noaoiaae/, A.I.Nooia?ee, O.?.Nouaiei oa ?io?),
i?inoaaeaii aca?iica’ycie eaoaai??e “aeoiaia ?iaioa” ? “aeoiaia
ae?yeuei?noue” (I.A.Aeoaanaithe, A.A.O?ioeei).

Aiae?c iieaco?, ui iiiyooy “aeoiaia ?iaioa” o
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?a- oo?? o?aeoo?oueny ii-??ciiio. sse
i?aaeei, aiii ?icaeyaea?oueny ye: i?aai?caoe?y ??cieo aeae?a
ae?yeueiino? (i?ciaaaeueii?, o?oaeiai?, anoaoe/ii?, nii?oeaii? oiui);
can?a aeoiaaiiy o nenoai? i?aai?ciaaieo oe?eani?yiiaaieo iicaaoaeeoi?ieo
caiyoue; i?ioean i?aai?caoe?? ianiaeo ? a?oiiaeo oi?i ?iaioe; oi?ie
i?aai?caoe?? a?aeii/eieo iieiae? (ao?oeiaa, oo?enoe/ia ? e?a?ciaa/a,
o?ceoeueoo?ii-nii?oeaia ?iaioa); nenoaia ae- oiaieo caoiae?a.

Aeoiaio ?iaioo o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe ie aecia/a?ii ye
iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaio iaaeaaia?/io aca?iiae?th noa’?eo?a aeoiaaiiy,
iaoith ? i??ith aoaeoeaiino? yei? ? iniaeno?niee ? i?ioan?eiee ?icaeoie
iieiaei? ethaeeie, oi?ioaaiiy o ia? ?en a?iiaaeyieia nai?? aea?aeaae.
Iicaaoaeeoi?ia aeoiaia ?iaioa ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye i?aenenoaia
aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe, ci?no ? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie
yei? coiiaeai? niaoeeo?eith i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai
oao?aoey. Aeey iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe i?eoaiaii?: oe?e?ni?noue
oa aacia?a?ai?noue; oe?eani?yiiaai?noue aeoiaiiai aieeao; oai?/ee
oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? o/aniee?a aeoiaiiai i?ioeano; iayai?noue ia’?eoeaieo
(nioe?aeuei?, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/i?) oa noa’?eoeaieo oiia ??
i?aai?caoe?? (ciaiiy, ai?iiy oa iaae/ee noa’?eo?a aeoiaaiiy, iiceoeaia
iioeaaoe?y ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?).

I?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
noeoii?noue i?ioean?a, oe?eani?yiiaaieo ae?e noa’?eo?a (eo?aoi??a,
nooaeaionueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi, nooaeaio?a oiui) o
iicaiaa/aeueiee /an ca?aeii c oaoiieia?yie, ye? a?aoiaothoue
iniaeeaino? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai oao?aoey ?
caaacia/othoue ?aae?caoe?th iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaii? iiaeae? aca?iiae??
o/aniee?a aeoiaiiai i?ioeano.

O ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co no/aniiai noaio oa
aeina?aeo ?iaioe aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe Oe?a?ie uiaei i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie.

Aea/aiiy iioea?a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?, noni?eueii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, ?o ?ioa?an?a oa iio?aa ni?eyei aecia/aiith
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo iniia aeoiaii? ii- caaoaeeoi?ii? ?iaioe, a
oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeeei aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. O
?icae?e? aecia/aii: nioe?aeuei? (nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy o
noni?euenoa?; no/ani? iniaeeaino? oa iio?aae nooaeaionoaa ye
nioe?aeueii? a?oie; iciaee aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie oa ??aaiue ?? ?icaeoeo) ?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? (noa’?eo-noa’?eoiee oa?aeoa? iaaeaaia?/ii?
aca?iiae??, oiiae oa e?eoa??? aoaeoeaiino? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe, oai?/ee oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? noa’?eo?a aeoiaaiiy) iniiae
i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “I?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? oiiae
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia
o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe” — ?ic?iaeaii oa
oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oaoiieia?th oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe; aecia/aii ?? eiiiiiaioe,
iiiaeai? oi?ie iicaaoaeeoi?ii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie, ?ic?iaeaii oa
oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii ooieoe??, no?oeoo?o oa e?eoa??? aoaeoeaiino?
ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi, aecia/aii ci?no
iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a
ina?oe, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo.

Ia aeaiiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui nenoai?
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?aaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe i?eoaiaii? oae?
iciaee: ea?iaai?noue, oe?- e?ni?noue eiiiiiaio?a, ?ioaa?aoeai?noue,
ooieoe?iiaeueia ?icaeiai?noue oa aeeiai?/i?noue ?icaeoeo. O ?icae?e?
aecia/aii, ui nenoaia iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeui- io
caeeaae? ina?oe aeeiio? ooieoe??: ?ioaa?oth/o, ?aaoethth/o oa
?icaeaaeueio. Ia?oa c ieo caaacia/o? i?ioean ?ioaa?aoe?? ?ic’?aeiaieo,
iaocaiaeaeaieo aeoiaieo aieea?a an?o noa’?eo?a aeoiaaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith. Ooieoe?y ?aaoethaaiiy ni?yiiaaia ia ocaiaeaeaiiy
oi?aae?inueeeo ae?e noa’?eo?a aeey aoaeoeaii? i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe. ?icaeaaeueia ooieoe?y caaacia/o?
aeeiai?/iee iinooiiaee ?icaeoie oa aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe. O oiae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui aeaea?aeaie ?icaeoeo nenoaie
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe, ye?
aecia/athoue iai?yie ? ci?no ae?yeueiino? an?o ?? noa’?eo?a, ?:
nioe?aeueia caiiaeaiiy ia aeioneieea-oao?aoey; caeiiiaeaa/?,
?ino?oeoeaii-iaoiaee/i? aeieoiaioe; oaoi?ei-?ioi?iaoe?ei? nenoaie
(iaoeiaa e?oa?aoo?a, caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, eiii’thoa?ia ia?aaea);
iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeoeea ? iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe; aiae?c noaio nenoaie ia iae?i- oa
i?e?i??aiyo oi?aae?iiy. O ?icae?e? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii eiiiiiaioe
nenoaie iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe
(??aiaaee, noa’?eoiee, ci?noiaiee, oi?aae?inueeee,
ae?yeuei?nii-iia?aoe?eiee, i?ioeanoaeueiee) ? ?ice?eoi ?o ci?no.

Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe
?icaeyaea?oueny ye oe?eani?yiiaaiee oa oeeee?/iee i?ioean ?aae?caoe?? ??
noa’?eoaie iia?aoe?eieo ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy (aiae?c oa i?iaiicoaaiiy,
ieaioaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?y, eiio?ieue, eii?aeeioaaiiy oa ei?eaoaaiiy), ui
ni?ey? eiie?aoecaoe?? oe?eae aeoiaaiiy ia ??ai? oaeoeueoao?a,
aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi; ?icoe?aiith iai?yi?a aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaai-
a?/iiai oa nooaeaionueeiai eieaeoea?a; aeei?enoaiith ??cieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i aeoiaii? oa iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe; ?icaeoeo aeoeaiino?
noa’?eo?a aeoiaaiiy; ai?iaaaeaeaiith ?iiiaaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeaia oa ai?iaiaaia oaoiieia?y
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
ooieoe?? eiaeiiai c noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy; iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai?
oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy e?i?eii-i?aai?caoe?eii?
iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy iicaaoaeeoi?iith aeoiaiith ?iaioith; ai?iaaaeeoe
aeaiaioe i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiai? i?aai?caoe?? (i?e?ia?oie, oai?/? a?oie,
?aaee ni?aa, ?iai/? a?oie aeey i?aeaioiaee oa i?iaaaeaiiy aeoiaieo
caoiae?a oiui), ye? caaacia/othoue o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? cia/ii?
e?eueeino? noa’?eo?a.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy aeine?aeieo iaoa??ae?a c?iaeaii aeniiaie,
ui ?inoeooo eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi ? iaeiei ?c noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe, aca?iiae?? c ?ioeie
noa’?eoaie ? caaacia/o? i?aai?caoe?th iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o
aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe ia ??ai? aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie. Ia iniia? aiae?co ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy iiaeeeainoae eiaeiiai aoaio iaa/aiiy uiaei i?ioan?eiiai
noaiiaeaiiy ? iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo nooaeaio?a o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe
(?ioi?iaoe?eii-i?ciaaaeueiee, a?aeoai?thth/ee, oai?/i-i?iaeoeoeaiee)
aecia/aii ci?no ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi?a uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie ia?oeo — i’yoeo eo?n?a a oiiaao ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe ia aoiai?noe/ieo canaaeao. O ?icae?e?
aeiaaaeaii, ui ?aae?caoe?y eo?aoi?ii ci?noo ? ooieoe?e ae?yeueiino?
aeoiaaoaey ni?ey? i?ioeano nioe?ae?caoe?? iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e
(A.I.Aaciaeueei, C.E.Aa?aaianueeee, I.A.Aeoaanaithe, A.N.I?eaeueia,
N.I.Neni?aa, A.I.Neanoueii?i, A.A.O?ioeei) aecia/aii eiiiiiaioe aeoiaii?
ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe (aiinoe/iee,
i?iaeoeaiee, eiioi?eaoeaiee, i?aai?caoi?nueeee, eiino?oeoeaiee) ?
a?aeiia?aei? ciaiiy oa ai?iiy, ui caaacia/othoue oni?oia aeeiiaiiy ieie
iniiaieo ooieoe?e eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi: aiae?oe/ii? (ieaioaaiiy
oa i?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe c aeaaeai?/iith a?oiith
ia ae?aaiinoe/i?e iniia?), i?aai?caoi?nueei? (iaaeaiiy iaiao?aeii?
aeiiiiiae nooaeaionueeiio naiia?yaeoaaiith, oai?/ei a?oiai oiui a
i?aai?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueiiai aeica?eey nooaeaio?a, caeo/aii? ?o aei
??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?), eiioi?eaoeaii? (noai?aiiy
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oiia aeey aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aeaaeai?/ii?
a?oie) oa nioe?ae?caoe?? (i?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a aei anooio a iaaia
nioe?aeueia ioi/aiiy, ni?eyiiy oi?ioaaiith ?o eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? a
o iiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o noni?euenoa?). O
?icae?e? a?aoiaioiaaii aeiaaaeaii, ui ?aae?caoe?y eo?aoi?ii ooieoe??
nioe?ae?caoe?? a iniaeno?nii i???ioiaai?e aca?iiae?? “iaaeaaia-nooaeaio”
ni?ey? canai?iith oa i?eeiyooth aeoiaaioeyie noni?eueieo ii?i,
oe?iiinoae, aeio?eiaiith canaae aeooiaii iiaiioe?iiiai aoooy ethaeeie.
Aiaeii/an iaaeaaia nai aenooia? noa’?eoii nioe?ae?caoe??, oiio ui
i?eeia? oa ia?a?iaeth? nioe?aeueiee aeina?ae, iin??i yeiai ?
nooaeaionoai. Oiaoi iicaaoaeeoi?io aeoiaio ?iaioo ?c nooaeaioaie o
aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?aai?ciaai? aai
ciiaeaeueiaai? eo?aoi?aie “neooaoe?? nioe?aeueiiai aeina?aeo
iiaaae?iee”.

O ?icae?e? c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui o i?ioean? i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie eo?aoi? ?aae?co? oae?
iiaeae? iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaieo aca?iia?aeiinei: eo?aoi?-iii?/iee,
eo?aoi?-iina?aaeiee, eo?aoi?-caoeniee i?aa nooaeaio?a oa
eo?aoi?-eii?aeeiaoi? ? ?ice?eoi oaoiieia?th aca?iiae?? c aeaaeai?/iith
a?oiith: i?aeaioiaea aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe;
?aae?caoe?y iinoaaeaieo aeoiaieo caaaeaiue o i?ioean? canoinoaaiiy
??cieo oi?i aeoiaii? ?iaioe, i?aeaaaeaiiy i?aenoie?a, aiae?c aeanii
oi?aae?inueeeo ae?e oa ei?eaoaaiiy i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a o
iicaaoaeeoi?iee /an. O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi aoaeoeai? oi?ie
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie ia o?eieia?/ieo
oaeoeueoaoao oa aeiaaaeaii, ui ?? i?aai?caoe?y ia? nai? iniaeeaino?, ye?
iia’ycai? ?c niaoe?ae?caoe??th oa i?ioan?iiae?caoe??th i?aeaioiaee
iaeaooi?o oao?aoe?a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ae?yeuei?noue eo?aoi?a aeaaeai?/ii?
a?oie o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe nooo?ai aieeaa? ia o?eueee ia ??aaiue
ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? nooaeaio?a, aea e ia ?o noni?eueio aeoeai?noue,
a?aeiioaiiy aei iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, iaeaooiuei? i?ioan??, cie?aia
iaaeaaia?/ii?. O ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo
nooaeaionueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy o nenoai? oi?aae?iiy iicaaoaeeoi?iith
aeoiaiith ?iaioith. Aeyaeaii ia’?eoeai? (ci?ie a iiaeyaeao nooaeaio?a ia
a?iiaaenueeo ?iaioo a no/anieo oiiaao; a?aenooi?noue ?aaeueieo
iaoai?ci?a ii?aeueiiai oa iaoa??aeueiiai noeioethaaiiy a?iiaaenueei?
aeoeaiino? nooaeaio?a; iaaecia/ai?noue no?oeoo?e aca?iiae?? c
eo?aoi?aie oa ?ioeie oi?aae?inueeeie eaieaie) oa noa’?eoeai?
(iaaeinoaoiueth noi?iiaai? oi?aae?inuee? oi?iiy o nooaeaio?a; iecueeee
??aaiue iioeaaoe?? nooaeaio?a uiaei o/ano? o noni?euei?e ae?yeueiino?)
/eiieee, ye? aaeueiothoue ?icaeoie nooaeaionueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy o
aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe. Ia aeaiiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii oa
ai?iaaaeaeaii Iieiaeaiiy i?i eo?aoi?a aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie, o yeiio
aecia/aii ooieoe??, ci?no oa e?eoa??? eiai ae?yeueiino? ?c
nooaeaioaie I-Y eo?n?a.aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui i?aeaioiaea
aeeeaaea/?a aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c
nooaeaioaie cae?enith?oueny o i?ioean? iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe, yea
?icaeyaea?oueny ye oe?eani?yiiaaia ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy
aeoiaiith ?iaioith uiaei caaacia/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aeui? oeiee aei aeoiaaiiy nooaeaionueei?
iieiae?. Aeyaeai? aeiiae aei i?aai?caoe?? iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c
iaaeaaiaaie o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe (ooieoe?iiaeueia oe?e?ni?noue
neeaaeiaeo: no?oeoo?a, ci?no, i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie, iaoiaee aeoea?caoe??
i?ciaaaeueii? aeoeaiino? neooa/?a, ?acoeueoao; ea?iaai?noue oa
aeeiai?/i?noue ?icaeoeo) oa aei ?? ci?noo ? oi?i: ieaiia?noue oa
nenoaii?noue canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo (eieaeoeaieo, a?oiiaeo,
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo) oi?i; i?aai?caoe?y ?? ia ae?aaiinoe/i?e iniia?;
aa??aoeai?noue iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a; nenoaiaoe/i?noue aea/aiiy ??
aoaeoeaiino?.

O ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii, ui i?aeaioiaea aeeeaaea/?a aeueo caeeaae?a
ina?oe aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ? aoaeoeaiith,
yeui aiia cae?enith?oueny ca oaeeie iai?yiaie: iiaeeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
ciaiue aeeeaaea/?a aeui? oeiee c ieoaiue i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c
nooaeaioaie; oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue ieaioaaoe aeoiaio ae?yeuei?noue,
aiae?coaaoe ?? ?acoeueoaoe, cae?enithaaoe iaaeaaia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?; oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue uiaei oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia ??ai? aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy o?oaeiiu?a
aeeeaaea/?a aeui? oeiee uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii i?ia?aio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai
nai?ia?o-i?aeoeeoio c i?iaeai i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o
iicaaoaeeoi?iee /an. Aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c aeeeaaea/aie
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii.Iiceoeaia c?ooaiiy o ??aiyo iaoiaee/ii?
eiiiaoaioiino? aeeeaaea/?a uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe noaiiaeei — 1,3%. I?e oeueiio ?ica?aei?noue i?ae naiiioe?ieith oa
aenia?oiith ioe?ieith — 0,2%. I?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii?
?iaioe niinoa??aaeany iiceoeaia aeeiai?ea o ci?iao iioea?a eo?aoi??a (44
?aniiiaeaioe) uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c
nooaeaioaie: 83% i?ney caaa?oaiiy aenia?eiaioo iaee /?oei aecia/aio
iiceoeaio iioeaaoe?th ia aeoiaio ae?yeuei?noue o aeuiio caeeaae?
ina?oe. Ia ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo — 50% ?aniiiaeaio?a. O ?icae?e?
iaaaaeaii oaeineiiaeai? aaoi?ii iaoiaeeee ioe?ithaaiiy ??aiy
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/a aeui? oeiee aei
i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iniaeeainoae i?aoe? iaaeaaiaa (A.?.Aiiaea?,
I.?.Ee?e/oe, A.A.Naie/aiei, A.I.Neanoueii?i oa ?i.), iiaeae?
ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa aeui? oeiee (I.A.Eocuei?ia) aeyaeaii eiiiiiaioe
(aiinoe/iee, i?iaeoeaiee, eiioi?eaoeaiee, eiino?oeoeaiee) ? ??ai?
(?ai?iaeoeoeaiee; eiino?oeoi?nueeee; aeine?aeieoeueeee) aeoiaii?
ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe. ?ai?iaeoeoeaiee ??aaiue
ia?aaeaa/a?, ui iaaeaaia-ianoaaiee aieiae?? oai?aoe/ieie ciaiiyie
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie;
iaoiaeaie ? i?eeiiaie iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy, aea, ye i?aaeei,
i?aoeth? ca c?aceii ? iaoiaee/ieie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie. Eiino?oeoi?nueeiio
??aith a?aeiia?aea? ae?yeuei?noue iaaeaaiaa, ye?e i?eoaiaii? oae?
iciaee: eiino?othaaiiy iniaenoeo aa??aio?a ae??oaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo
caaaeaiue, canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia?e i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaiiy
eieaeoeaieo oai?/eo ni?aa, “ianoaiaea?oieo oi?i” iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo caieo?a nooaeaionoaa, a oaeiae
iiaea?i?caoe?y i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i aeoiaii? ?iaioe c a?oiith.
Aeine?aeieoeueeee ??aaiue ia?aaeaa/a?, ui oi?ie ? iaoiaee aeoiaaiiy,
i?eeiie iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy, ye? canoiniao? eo?aoi?,
caaacia/othoue ni?eyoeea? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo
eieaeoeao nooaeaionueei? a?oie oa iniaenoino? eiaeiiai nooaeaioa.
Noai?aia iaaeaaiaii nenoaia iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe
a?ae??ciy?oueny iiaeciith ? aenieith ?acoeueoaoeai?noth.

O ?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee
aoaeoeaii? ae?yeue- iino? ?inoeoooo eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi o
nenoai? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iai- oe aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe. O
aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo ocaaaeueiai? a 13
oaaeeoeyo oa o 5 ?enoieao.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii e?eoa??? aoaeoeaiino? i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia ??ai? aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie. A
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaaeai?/ieo a?oiao aoaeoeai?noue i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe aecia/aeany: aeoeai?noth ?
cao?oiaai?noth aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie, a?oiiaith eiioi?eaoeai?noth ??
/eai?a; ci?iaie o i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoieao oa nioe?aeueiiio noaoon?
/eai?a eieaeoeao; ?icaeoeii i?aai?caoi?nueeeo oa eiioi?eaoeaieo
cae?aiinoae nooaeaio?a, i??ith aeia??e nooaeaio?a aei eo?aoi?a
aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie; ci?iith ??ai?a aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a.

?acoeueoaoe iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaaeai?/ieo a?oiao na?ae/aoue i?i iiceoeaio aeeiai?eo iieaciee?a
aeoeaiino? ? cao?oiaaiino? nooaeaio?a, ??ai?a caaeiaieaiiy
aca?iia?aeiineiaie oa aeaniei nioe?aeueiei noaoonii. An? icia/ai?
iieacieee a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao cia/ii aeu?, i?ae a eiio?ieueieo
(a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao — 8,1; a eiio?ieueieo — 6,1 aae?a).
Iieacieee caaeiaieaiino? aca?iia?aeiineiaie a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao
ciaoiaeyoueny a ?ioa?aae? 5,1- 8,1; a eiio?ieueieo — 5,1-6,1 aae?a.
Aeoeai?noue nooaeaio?a a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao — 5,8 (na?aaei?e
??aaiue), a eiio?ieueieo — 4,6 (na?aaei?e ??aaiue). Cao?oiaai?noue
nooaeaio?a a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao — 5,0 (na?aaei?e ??aaiue), a
eiio?ieueieo — 4,0 (iecueeee ??aaiue). ??aaiue caaeiaieaiino?
nooaeaioaie nioe?aeueiei noaoonii a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao — aenieee
(6,95); a eiio?ieueieo — na?aaei?e (5,71). O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeey aecia/aiiy ??aiy caaeiaieaiino? nooaeaioaie i?ioeanii
iaoi?iaeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy c eo?aoi?ii aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie,
anoaiiaeaiiy i??e aeia??e nooaeaioa aei iaaeaaiaa-ianoaaieea iaie
aoei aeei?enoaii iaoiaeeeo cai??o eiioi?eaoeaieo aeenoaioe?e (AIE).
Iieacieee caaeiaieaiino? ni?eeoaaiiyi nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa
eiio?ieueieo a?oi c eo?aoi?aie ciaoiaeyoueny a ?ioa?aae? na?aaei?o
aaee/ei, aea a?ae??ciythoueny ca aaniethoiei cia/aiiyi. Aeey
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi — a?ae 30 aei 67, aeey eiio?ieueieo — a?ae
22 aei 45 iaeeieoeue. I?aenoieiaee eiao?oe??io uiaei iieacieea
“caaeiaieaiiy ni?eeoaaiiyi” ia ??ai? “y-eo?aoi?” anoaiiaeth?
“eiioi?eaoeaio aeenoaioe?th” aeey aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi — 55,9, a
aeey eiio?ieueieo a?oi — 35,1 iaeeieoeue. Uiaei ??ai?a ?icaeoeo
a?oi, oi i?aenoieiaa ioe?iea iieacieea ?icaeoeo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi aeua ia 10,3 %.

E??i oiai, o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao niinoa??aaeiny aaeaeoaea noaaeaiiy
/eai?a iaeei aei iaeiiai, a?aenooi?noue i?aaiaiiy aei ni?eueii?
ae?yeueiino?, a?aenooi?noue oi?iue o aeoeao ieaioaaoe oa i?aai?ciaoaaoe
ae?yeuei?noue eieaeoeao oiui).

Ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe anoaiiaeaii, ui
?iciiae?e eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi ca ??aiyie aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?
oaeee: an? eo?aoi?e, ye? i?aoethaaee o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao, oa eo?aoi?
iaei??? aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie iathoue ?ai?iaeoeoeaiee ??aaiue
ae?yeueiino?; eo?aoi? iaei??? aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie —
aeine?aeieoeueeee ??aaiue; eo?aoi?e o?ueio aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi —
eiino?oeoi?nueeee.

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao aeeeaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ii?
oa iaoiaee/ii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie ia o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a
ina?oe.

AENIIAEE

1. Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe oa aea/aiiy noaio ?? ?aae?caoe?? a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe aeicaieeee c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie iaaeinoaoiuei
a?aoiaothoueny nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy o noni?euenoa?,
ci?uaiiy i??i?eoao?a o aeooiaieo ? ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoyo, ci?ie o
na?oini?eeiaii?, noni?euei?e i???ioaoe?? iieiae?, o ?? i?ioan?eiiio
naiiaecia/aii?, a oaeiae ?ioa?ane oa caieoe nooaeaionoaa ye nioe?aeueii?
a?oie ? iniaeeaino? no/aniiai ?icaeoeo nooaeaionueei? aeaaeai?/ii?
a?oie. O aaaaoueio aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe i?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe caiaeeoueny, ye i?aaeei, aei aeei?enoaiiy aacnenoaiieo
aeoiaieo caoiae?a oa i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i.

2. ?ic?iaeai? ? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? eiiiiiaioe nenoaie
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe (ci?noiaiee,
??aiaaee, noa’?eoiee, ae?yeuei?nii-iia?aoe?eiee, i?ioeanoaeueiee,
oi?aae?inueeee) a?aeia?aaeathoue ci?no ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo iia?aoe?eieo
ooieoe?e noa’?eoaie oi?aae?iiy iicaaoaeeoi?iith aeoiaiith ?iaioith:
aeeeaaea/aie, eo?aoi?aie, nooaeaionueeei naiia?yaeoaaiiyi,
nooaeaionueeeie aeaaeai?/ieie a?oiaie, nooaeaioaie.

Iiiyooy “i?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe” o aeuiio
caeeaae? ina?oe a?aeia?aaea? niaoeeo?eo, oa?aeoa? ? iniaeno?nii
i???ioiaaia ni?yioaaiiy noa’?eo- noa’?eoii? aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/a oa
nooaeaioa, ui aeyaey?oueny o ci?no? oa ooieoe?yo ?o aeoiaii?
ae?yeueiino?. Aecia/aiiy ci?noo oa ooieoe?e ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae?
ina?oe (?aeoi?ao, aeaeaiao, ?inoeooo eo?aoi??a, aeaaeai?/ia a?oia,
nooaeaionueea naiia?yaeoaaiiy, nooaeaioe oiui) ni?ey? ?icoi?iith
noni?eueiiai i?ecia/aiiy aeoiaii? ?iaioe oa i?aoe? iaaeaaiaa-ianoaaieea,
?acoeueoaoii aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? yeiai ? oi?ioaaiiy o nooaeaio?a
nioe?aeueii? i???ioaoe?? oa iiaaae?iee, canai?iiy e i?eeiyooy
aeoiaaioeyie noni?eueieo ii?i, oe?iiinoae, aeio?eiaiiy ieie canaae
aeooiaii iiaiioe?iiiai aoooy.

3. Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia?
cae?enithaaoeny c o?aooaaiiyi oaeeo oiia: nioe?aeueieo (“aeoiaia
na?aaeiaeua” aeuiai caeeaaeo ina?oe, aeaea?aeueia aaca ?icaeoeo nenoaie,
aeyaeaiiy no/anieo iniaeeainoae nooaeaionoaa ye nioe?aeueii? a?oie oa
iciae aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie); i?aai?caoe?eieo (aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith, ?o ci?noo oa
ooieoe?e ae?yeueiino?); iaaeaaia?/ieo (??aaiue ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a, ci?no iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c aeeeaaea/aie aeuiai
caeeaaeo ina?oe uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe).

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo oiia aoaeoeaii?
i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe (no?oeoo?a,
oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe;
i?aeaioiaea aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaionueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy uiaei ??
i?aai?caoe??; iiceoeaia iioeaaoe?y ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi??a oa
nooaeaio?a) ni?ey? aecia/aiith eiiiiiaio?a aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?
aeeeaaea/a (aiinoe/iee, i?iaeoeaiee, eiioi?eaoeaiee, eiino?oeoeaiee),
ooieoe?e eo?aoi?a (aiae?oe/ia, i?aai?caoi?nueea, eiioi?eaoeaia ?
nioe?ae?caoe??) oa ??ai?a eiai ae?yeueiino? (?ai?iaeoeoeaiee,
eiino?oeoi?nueeee, aeine?aeieoeueeee). O aeine?aeaeaii? aeiaaaeaii:
iaoiaee/ia i?aeaioiaea aeeeaaea/?a c i?iaeai i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith ?? aoaeoeaiino? o
aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe ca oiiae, ui ?? ci?no ni?yiiao?oueny ia ci?io
oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/?a ?c nooaeaioaie a?ae noa’?eo-ia’?eoii?
aei noa’?eo-noa’?eoii? aca?iiae??, ui aeyaey?oueny o aeei?enoaii?
iiiaeaiieo oi?i iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe.

Iniiaieie oi?iaie iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe ?: nai?ia?e-i?aeoeeoie,
iaoeia? eiioa?aioe??, oai?/? ca?oe, iaoiaee/i? eiinoeueoaoe?? oiui.
Aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe uiaei
i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe
aecia/a?oueny ??aiai noi?iiaaiino? ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie c oai??? ?
i?aeoeee aeoiaii? ?iaioe; iiaieie aai /anoeiaeie oneeaaeiaiiyie o
aeeeaaea/?a uiaei aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?; ci?iaie o iioeaaoe?ei?e noa??
iaaeaaiaa a?aeiinii cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a o aeuiio
caeeaae? ina?oe.

5. Oai?aoe/ii oa iaoiaee/ii iaa?oioiaai? iieiaeaiiy uiaei i?aai?caoe??
iicaaoaeeoi?- ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ?c nooaeaioaie, ae?yeueiino? ?inoeoooo
eo?aoi??a ye no?oeoo?ii? eaiee oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith o aeuiio caeeaae?
ina?oe, ci?noo iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c aeeeaaea/aie aoei iieeaaeaii a
iniiao ?ic?iaeaiiai Iieiaeaiiy i?i eo?aoi?a aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie aeuiai
caeeaaeo ina?oe, i?ia?aio ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai nai?ia?o-i?aeoeeoio,
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee
nooaeaio?a IY-Y eo?n?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui
aeo?aeia iaoiaeieia?y ? i?a- aeeueiith, aecia/ai? caaaeaiiy ?aae?ciaai?,
iaoo aeinyaiooi, noeoii?noue iaea?aeaieo iaoeiaeo aeniiae?a oa
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey oai??? aeoiaaiiy ?
iaoiaeeee i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao
ina?oe. ?aae?caoe?y iniiaieo iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?yiiao?oueny ia
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia i?aai?caoe??
aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo cae- eaaeao ina?oe, ?ic?iaeo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo canaae ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi?a aeaaea-i?/ii? a?oie
a oiiaao aoiai?oa?ecaoe?? oa aoiai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? aeui? oeiee,
?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? aeneiaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
I?i?noa?noao ina?oe Oe?a?ie:

— ni?eyoe ae?yeueiino? ?inoeoooo eo?aoi??a o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe,
ai?iaaaeeoe nenoaio a?aeiia?aeiiai iaoa??aeueiiai ? ii?aeueiiai
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi;

— aea/aoe, ocaaaeueithaaoe aeina?ae ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a, eo?aoi??a,
nooaeaionueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy uiaei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe oa ni?eyoe eiai iioe?aiith a iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaeoeaao
aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe an?o ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??;

— i?aai?coaaoe eiiieaeni? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai iieiae?aeiiai
nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo a no/anieo nioe?aeueieo oiiaao ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa;

— aenooieoe i?aai?caoi?ii ?ic?iaee iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiaeee uiaei
aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe III oa
IV ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??.

Aei iiaeaeueoeo iai?yi?a aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? aaaeeeai? i?iaeaie
aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia a?aeianoe oae?: iaoeia? canaaee oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe;
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee i?aeaioiaee iaiaaeaea??a a ina?o? (ia
iniia? aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo); aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? o iieiae? a i?ioean? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe
o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o 11 ioae?eaoe?yo
caaaeueiei ianyaii — 6,6 aaoi?nueeeo a?eoo?a, na?aae yeeo:

Iaoiaee/i? iin?aieee:

1. Nieieiaa ?.A. Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith aeoiaii? ?iaioe o oeie?:
Iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee aeey aeeeaaea/?a oa nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo
niaoe?aeueiinoae aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe, ea??aiee?a oe?e, iaaeaaia?a.-
E.: Ciaiiy,1998.-50n. -3,63 aao. a?e.

2. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?aaiecaoeee e niaea?aeaieth
iaaeaaiae/aneie i?aeoeee nooaeaioia IV- V eo?nia / Nino. E.A Nieieiaa,
E.A Aeoiaa?. — Ia?eoiieue: IAE AeiiAo, 1997.-37 n. — 2,2 aao. a?e.
(aaoi?nueeeo- 1,1 a?e).

Iaoeia? noaoo?:

3. Nieieiaa ?.A. Oi?aae?iiy aeoiaiei i?ioeanii a no?oeoo?i?e iiaeae?
?inoeoooo eo?aoi??a o aoc? // I?iaeaie no/aniiai ienoaoeoaa ? eoeueoo?e.
I?ioan?eia ina?oa oa ienoaoeoaiciaanoai.- E.: OIA “I?aeia?iaeia
o?iainiaa aaaioe?y”.- 1998. — N.61-65.- 0,21 aao.a?e.

4. Nieieiaa ?.A. ?inoeooo eo?aoi??a o aoc? // Ina?oa ? oi?aae?iiy.-
1998.- ? 4.- O.2.-N.74-82.- 0,38 aao.a?e.

5. Nieieiaa ?.A. Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? iciaee no/anii? aeaaeai?/ii?
a?oie //Cioe?ae?caoe?y iniaenoino?: I?aeeaoaae?aeueiee ca??iee iaoeiaeo
noaoae.- E.: IIO.- 1999.- Aeione 1.- N.42-47.- 0,21 aao.a?e.

6. Nieieiaa ?.A. I?aeaioiaea aeeeaaea/?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aei
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao // I?iaeaie no/aniiai
ienoaoeoaa ? eoeueoo?e. I?aeaioiaea eaae??a aeey iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo
caeeaae?a.- O.: “Ea?aaaea”.- 1998. — N.12-15. — 0,2 aao. a?e.

7. Nieieiaa E.A. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea, nioeeaeueiua oneiaey
yooaeoeaiinoe ?acaeoey e oi?aaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiie ainieoaiey a
aoca // I?iaeaie no/aniiai ienoaoeoaa ? eoeueoo?e. Ienoaoeoaiciaanoai oa
oai??y ? i?aeoeea ina?oe.- E.: OIA ”I?aeia?iaeia o?iainiaa aaaioe?y”. —
1998. — N.45- 48.- 0,2 aao. a?e.

8.Nieieiaa ?.A. I?aai?caoe?y aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe ye
nioe?aeueia oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeaia //Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??. Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y :
Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue.-Oa?e?a: Eieae.aeaeaaieoeoai “Ea?aaaea”.-1999.-? 1.-
N.59-65 – 0,25 aao.a?e.

9.Nieieiaa ?.A. Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?icaeoeo nenoai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie oa

A?aoe?? a e?ioe? XX noie?ooy // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia-A?aoe?y: ?noi?e/ia niaaeueia ?
ia?niaeoeae ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa (i.Ia??oiieue,27-29 o?aaiy 1999
?ieo)”.-Ia??oiieue: Ia??oiieuenueeee aoiai?oa?iee ?inoeooo.-1999.-
O.2.-N.151-154.- 0,2 aao.a?e.

10.Nieieiaa ?.A. I?aenoieiaee iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c aeoiaii? ?iaioe o
oeie? //Iaoiaee/iee a?niee.- Ia??oiieue: IIIOe.- 1998.-? 1.- N. 20-22.-
0,1 aao. a?e.

11.Nieieiaa E.A. Iiaua iiaeoiaeu e ainieoaieth: aeayoaeueiinoue
inaiaiaeaeaiiuo eeanniuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae // Aanoiee iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneiai
oeaio?a.- Ia?eoiieue: AIIOe.-1994.- ?2.-N.10-12.-0,1 aao. a?e.

Nieieiaa ?.A. I?aai?caoe?y aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo
oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.04- oai??y ? iaoiaeeea
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.- ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoeith i?enay/aii i?iaeai? i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe, yea
?icaeyaea?oueny ye nooo?aa neeaaeiaa ina?oiueiai i?ioeano o aeu?e oeie?.
I?iaiae?ciaaii noai i?iaeaie o nioe?aeuei?e oa ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? ? a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe
Oe?a?ie;. aeyaeaii oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii eiiiiiaioe nenoaie
iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe,
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?eieia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao; ?ic?iaeaii, oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o, ci?no oa ooieoe?? ae?yeueiino?
noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy iicaaoaeeoi?iith aeoiaiith ?iaioith o aeuiio
caeeaae? ina?oe; ooi/iaii nooi?noue iiiyoue: “aeoiaia ?iaioa”,
“iicaaoaeeoi?ia aeoiaia ?iaioa”, “i?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii?
?iaioe”, “nenoaia iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe”. O aeena?oaoe??
?ice?eoi iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeoooo eo?aoi??a aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi
o nenoai? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia iniia? iiiaeaiiy ci?noo oa
oi?i eiai ae?yeueiino?; iaa?oioiaaii eiiiiiaioe oa ooieoe?? ae?yeueiino?
ia ??ai? aeaaeai?/ii? a?oie, a oaeiae ci?no iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiae
aeeeaaea/?a aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeueo
caeeaaeao ina?oe III oa IV ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??.. Aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??aii aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? eo?aoi??a ia o?eieia?/ieo
oaeoeueoaoao, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoeai?noue ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aei i?aai?caoe?? iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe
o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeoiaia ?iaioa, iicaaoaeeoi?ia aeoiaia ?iaioa,
i?aai?caoe?y iicaaoaeeoi?ii? aeoiaii? ?iaioe, nenoaia iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
aeoiaii? ?iaioe o aeuiio caeeaae? ina?oe, ?inoeooo eo?aoi??a, iaoiaee/ia
?iaioa.

Nieieiaa E.A. I?aaiecaoeey ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou ia
oeeieiae/aneeo oaeoeueoaoao aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00. 04 – oai?ey e iaoiaeeea
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey. — Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee e ineoieiaee
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia i?aaiecaoeee aiaaoaeeoi?iie
ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou ia oeeieiae/aneeo oaeoeueoaoao aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee, eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaaony eae nouanoaaiiay ninoaaiay
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna a aunoae oeiea. I?iaiaeece?iaaii
ninoiyiea enneaaeoaiie i?iaeaiu a nioeeaeueiie e
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a e a i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee Oe?aeiu; auyaeaiu e oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaiu
eiiiiiaiou nenoaiu aiaaoaeeoi?iie ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou a aunoeo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaoiaee/aneea oneiaey iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe aiaaoaeeoi?iie ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou ia oeeieiae/aneeo
oaeoeueoaoao; ?ac?aaioaia, oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a, niaea?aeaiea e ooieoeee aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoia oi?aaeaiey
aiaaoaeeoi?iie ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaioie a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo;
ooi/iaii niaea?aeaiea iiiyoee: “ainieoaoaeueiay ?aaioa”, “aiaaoaeeoi?iay
ainieoaoaeueiay ?aaioa”, “i?aaiecaoeey aiaaoaeeoi?iie ainieoaoaeueiie
?aaiou”, “nenoaia aiaaoaeeoi?iie ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou”. A
aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey einoeoooa
eo?aoi?ia aeaaeaie/aneeo a?oii a nenoaia aiaaoaeeoi?iie ainieoaoaeueiie
?aaiou ia iniiaa iaiiaeaiiiai niaea?aeaiey e oi?i aai aeayoaeueiinoe;
iainiiaaiu eiiiiiaiou e ooieoeee aeayoaeueiinoe eo?aoi?ia aeaaeaie/aneeo
a?oi, a oaeaea niaea?aeaiea iaoiaee/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?aiiaeaaaoaeae e
i?aaiecaoeee aiaaoaeeoi?iie ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou a aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaieyo III e IV o?iaiae aee?aaeeoaoeee. Yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aia
yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe einoeoooa eo?aoi?ia ia oeeieiae/aneeo
oaeoeueoaoao, a oaeaea ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie
iiaeaioiaee i?aiiaeaaaoaeae e i?aaiecaoeee aiaaoaeeoi?iie
ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou a aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainieoaoaeueiay ?aaioa, aiaaoaeeoi?iay
ainieoaoaeueiay ?aaioa, i?aaiecaoeey aiaaoaeeoi?iie ainieoaoaeueiie
?aaiou, nenoaia aiaaoaeeoi?iie ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou a aunoai o/aaiii
caaaaeaiee, einoeooo eo?aoi?ia, iaoiaee/aneay ?aaioa.

Sokolova I.V. The organisation of educational work at higher
schools philological departments.- Manuscript.

The dissertation for conferring the Candidate Science
(Pedagogical) Degree on speciality 13.00.04- theory and methods of
vocational training. Institute of Pedagogics and Psychology of
Vocational Training, Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev,
1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the problem of the organisation
of educational work at higher schools philological departments which is
considered to be the important component of the teaching and educational
process there. The thesis covers a wide range of problems referring to
the national system of education in Ukraine. Development of content and
forms of the younger generation upbringing in the former USSR and
Ukraine is investigated. Peculiarities of the communist system of
the educational work are disclosed. The author analyses the content of
educational work and extra-curricular activities at higher educational
establishments from 1917 till 1990. Peculiarities of modern Ukrainian
system of education are emphasised. Ohe organisation of educational work
at higher schools philological departments as the problem in the
historical and pedagogical aspects of its development is analysed. The
problem of educational work at higher schools is a complex one and a
great deal is discussed among Ukrainian scientists. The thesis is
focused on social, economic, organisational and management factors,
which determine content and forms of educational work with students and
the peculiarities of extra-curricular activities at the higher
educational establishments nowadays. Touching upon the problem of
methodological principles of education national system, the author name
them: humanisation, democratisation, variations of forms and methods of
education and younger generation upbringing as well as the scientific
theoretical ground of modern pedagogical management.

A theoretical model of the educational work system and
extra-curricular activities at higher schools is elaborated. Its
components reflect analytical, organisational, communicative functions
of teachers and curators. The theoretical and methodological definitions
of “educational work”, “extra-curricular activities”, “the organisation
of the educational work”, “the system of the educational work” at higher
schools are substantiated. The thesis is focused on social, pedagogical,
psychological, organisational factors which determine content and the
organisation of educational work at the higher schools philological
departments. It is asserted that the main tasks of teaching staff at
higher schools are: to mould the character of the younger generation
despite his (her) nationality; to acquire the younger generation social
experience; to shape their world outlook. Conclusions are made about the
possibility of the use of its modern forms nowadays.

The author has substantiated scientifically the components of the
educational work system: management, subjective, content, processional,
practical activities standards. Detailed analysis of a number of
components influenced actively the system development is presented. The
efficiency of functioning of the proposed model has been tested. The
main functions of the educational work system are: integrating, managing
and stimulating. Management is considered to be the aimed and recurring
process, because of the functions the teachers and students are realised
while organising extra-curricular activities at the higher schools. The
main ones are: analysing, pedagogical conditions forecasting, planning,
organising, controlling, co-ordinating, correcting. The thesis denotes
considerable more attention to the problem of the educational work
system managing, to be more exactly, to the functions of such objects as
teachers, students etc.

It is determined that the institute of curators is considered to be
the leading management structure in the educational work. system at the
higher schools. Four positions of curators’ activity and communication
with the group are described in the dissertation. The content and forms
of the organisation of the educational work at the higher schools
philological departments are determined as well. The peculiarities of
extra-curricular activities are shown. Conclusions are made about the
possibility of the use of different forms of extra-curricular activities
at the higher schools. It is determined that some forms of
extra-curricular activities arose students’ interest, give the
opportunity to enlarge their knowledge of the surroundings, to develop
students’ cognitive interests.

The proper methodical technologies of the training of personnel
are elaborated. The necessity of the formation of curators’ basic
knowledge is disputed. It’s emphasised in the investigation that the
training system of curators foresees not only the methodological
training but the psychological one. The content of teacher’s
professional training and forms are determined as well. Scientifically
substantiated methodical recommendations on the curators’ activity at
higher school are suggested and tested. The methods of students’ groups
investigations are worked out and tested. The main results are
implemented in the system of higher schools and the teacher’s
professional training. Conclusions are made about the efficiency of
the proposed system of the educational work at the higher schools.

Key words are: educational work, extra-curricular activities,
the organisation of educational work, the system of educational work at
the higher schools, the institute of curators, the methodical work.

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