.

Організація управління малими та середніми підприємствами з використанням інформаційних технологій: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / Г.В. Чумаченко,

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I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

NO?AeIIOE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OAeE 65.012.3:681.3+65.017:681.3

*OIA*AIEI

Aaeeia Aaea???aia

I?AAI?CAOe?ss OI?AAE?IIss IAEEIE OA NA?AAeI?IE I?AeI?E?INOAAIE C
AEEI?ENOAIIssI ?IOI?IAOe?EIEO OAOIIEIA?E

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.02 – I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Eoaainuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?th aeeiiaii o No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Eoaainuee).

Iaoeiaee ea??aieeaeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?a/ Aaeaioei Aiaoie?eiae/,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?iaeoiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo oa aeiiiiao???.Io?oe?ei?
iiiiaioe:aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oea/aiei Aieiaeeie? Aiae??eiae/,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueea Aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy, a?ciano oa i?aaa, i?i?aeoi? (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee);eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

AEeoiee Iaaei ?aaaiiae/,

canooiiee oi?aaeyth/iai Eoaainueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy AE I?eaaoaaieo (i.
Eoaainuee).I?ia?aeia onoaiiaaOa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee
i?aei?e?inoaa oa iaiaaeaeiaioo (i. Oa?e?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 4 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 29.051.01 o No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
91034, Eoaainuee-34, ea. Iieiae?aeiee, 20 A.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 91034, Eoaainuee-34, ea.
Iieiae?aeiee, 20 A.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 4 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eica/aiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? i?eionea?
aeoeaiee ?icaeoie i?eaaoiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, noai?aiiy i?aei?e?inoa
iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. Ia oea iaoe?eaii ?yae caeiiiaeaa/eo oa
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, ye? aecia/athoue oi?ioaaiiy iaeiai a?ciano oa
?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo.

I?aei?e?inoaa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ? aeinoaoiuei niaoeeo?/iei
ia’?eoii oi?aae?iiy. Aei ?o iniaeeainoae a?aeiinyoueny iaaaeeeee ianooaa
ae?yeueiino?, ?? iia?euei?noue, a?aeiinii iaaaeeeee
na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/iee oa?i?i ?nioaaiiy, neaaea no?ee?noue aei aieeao
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Iaeiei c /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoue aeeoo?caeaoi?noue i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai
a?ciano, ? iaaiei /eiii i?aai?ciaaia oi?aae?iiy ieie, yea iiaeiii
aacoaaoeny ia no/anieo aeinyaiaiiyo iaoee oi?aae?iiy, o oiio /ene? a
aaeoc? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. A no/ani?e niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo??,
yeo i?enay/aii oi?aae?iith, iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie
iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ?icaeyioo? iaaeinoaoiuei. I?aeoe/i?
iin?aieee c iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa i?noyoue, a
iniiaiiio, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?aai?caoe?? iiaeaoeiai?, o?iainiai? oa
ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?. Oae? ieoaiiy, ye i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy
iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e, ua ia io?eiaee naiai eiiieaeniiai ??oaiiy. Oea aecia/eei
iaiao?aei?noue a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy e ?ic?iaee ieoaiue iiaoaeiae
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano,
canoinoaaiiy a oi?aae?ii? ieie no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e.

?ioi?iaoe?y a i?ioean? i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue caaaeaee
a?ae?a?a? eeth/iao ?ieue. Aac ?icaeoeo oa noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace aoaeoaaoe ae??caeaoio nenoaio oi?aae?iiy, ye ie?aiei
i?aei?e?inoaii, oae ? a?oiith i?aei?e?inoa, iaiiaeeeai. Ae??oeoe oeth
i?iaeaio iiaeeeai ia iniia? oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ye? aeicaieythoue ia eeoa i?aeaeueoe
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? oi?aae?inueeiai ia?niiaeo, aea e iaaeathoue
ye?nii iia? ni?iiiaeiino? uiaei cai?o, ia?iaoe? oa caa??aaiith
?ioi?iaoe??, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaii, i?eeiaoe
oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy ia i?aenoaa? iioei?caoe?? ?ic?aooie?a, oi?aaeyoe
ia’?eoii a ?aaeueiiio ?aaeei? /ano. A oaia??oi?e /an aaeineiiaeaiiy
aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaaie
iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ? aaaeeeaei naiino?eiei caaaeaiiyi, ui
aeiaaa? niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaie uiaei eiai ae??oaiiy.

Iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee onueiai eiiieaeno ieoaiue, ui iia’ycai? ?c
oi?ioaaiiyi nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
i?ia?ano a aaeoc? oi?aae?iiy ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e,
aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ?? nai?/ani?noue oa
cia/aiiy aeey i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeiia?aea? oaiaoe/iei ieaiai eaoaae?e
i?iaeoiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo oa aeiiiiao??? No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. *anoeio aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiaii a ?aieao
aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie AA-7-96 “Noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee a aeiiii?oe?”,
/aoaa?oee ?icae?e “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ciai?oi?o oa aioo??oi?o iniaeeainoae
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ye ia’?eoo
canoinoaaiiy no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e”, a oaeiae a ?aieao
?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe?? ?aa?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie i?aeo?eiee iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o Eoaainuee?e iaeano? o 1997-1998 ?ieao.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?eioeeie,
niiniae oa i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e i?e
i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano.
Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aacith aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a ? i?aei?e?inoaa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, ye?
?icoaoiaai? a Eoaainueeo oa Eoaainuee?e iaeano?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c aeei?enoaiiyi
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o
?aae?caoe??, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aeai?eoio
a?aeai?o ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e i?e oi?ioaaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
oeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
ae??oaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae ?icaeoeo iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?,
ioe?iaii noai ciai?oiueiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey i?aei?e?inoa
aeaiiai eeano; aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i? a no/anieo oiiaao;

nenoaiaoeciaaii oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano;

i?iaiae?ciaaii ianya, aeaee oa iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e i?e i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano;

aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? aieeao aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
oi?aae?iiy ia iieacieee ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano;

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy eiiieaeno aaoiiaoeciaaieo caaaeaiue
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano;

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy on?/aieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy ia
i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ca oiia aeei?enoaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e;

oaeineiiaeaii aeai?eoi aeai?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c o?aooaaiiyi ?o iniaeeainoae oa ??aiy ?icaeoeo;

i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aeai?eoio a?aeai?o
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oa i?aai?caoe?? c ?o aeei?enoaiiyi oi?aae?iiy
iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie;

aecia/aii ciie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
aeoiaey/e ?c noaae?e aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo iaeiai /e na?aaeiueiai
i?aei?e?inoaa oa eiai i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee;

cae?eniaii i?iieneiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiaeee, ye? ?ic?iaeaii ia iniia?
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Oai?aoe/iith oa
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith i?iaaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiue
noaee ?iaioe i?ia?aeieo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo o aaeoc?
i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie oa aeei?enoaiiy a oi?aae?ii?
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Iaa?oioiaai?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
iaoiiaeaii canoinoaaiiyi nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo, noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a
aiae?co, ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/ieo aeieoiaio?a c ieoaiue i?aai?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy, noai?aiiy i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano,
iaoiaee/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy a oi?aae?ii? i?ia?aiieo
i?iaeoeo?a.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue oa i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? canoiniaoaaeeny noaoenoe/i?,
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee aiae?co, neooaoe?eiee aiae?c oa eia?/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiee iaoeiaee
?acoeueoao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?icaeoeo iaoiaee/ieo oa
i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie
i?aei?e?inoaaie c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe iieyaa? o oaeiio:

cae?eniaii nenoaiaoecaoe?th ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano, ca yeith aeae?eaii aeiee ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e c
aecia/aiiyi ci?noo eiiieaeno caaaeaiue oa i?ia?aiieo cania?a eiaeiiai
aeieo;

anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c o?aooaaiiyi aeyaeaieo oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae
i?aei?e?inoa aeaiiai eeano oa neeaaeiino? i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ia
oeeo i?aei?e?inoaao;

?ic?iaeaii ea?oia?ao?/iee iaoiae oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, ui ia?aaeaa/a? iiaoaeiao
ea?o canoiniaiino? ooieoe?iiaeueieo caaaeaiue ia i?aei?e?inoaao c
??cieie ianyaaie ae?iaieoeoaa oa ??ciiiai?oieo noa? ae?yeueiino?;

aaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo iiaoaeiae on?/aieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy ia
i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, ui ia??oioiao?
?aoe?iiaeuei? iaaee on?/aiiy i?e aeei?enoaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
c o?aooaaiiyi iayaieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a oi?aae?iiy ia i?aei?e?inoa?;

aecia/aii iaae? aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy ??cieo aeae?a ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e ca aeiiiiiaith iiaoaeiae ii?iaoeaii? iao?eoe? canoiniaiino?
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e c o?aooaaiiyi i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo
iniaeeainoae i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano oa noaae?e ?o
aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo;

aecia/ai? ciie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
??ciiai eeano a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, aeoiaey/e c ianya?a i?iaeaaeo oa noaae?e
aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?aei?e?inoaa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?
i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oa
iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo iaoiaee/ii? aace oi?aae?iiy oeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie.
Aaoi?ii nenoaiaoeciaai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, ui canoiniaothoueny a
oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano; aeyaeai?
caeiiii??iino? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a
oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaaie aeaiiai eeano. Cai?iiiiiaaii ea?oia?ao?/iee
iaoiae oi?ioaaiiy eiiieaeno caaaeaiue c oi?aae?iiy, ui
aaoiiaoecothoueny; aaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo aeai?o oa iiaoaeiae on?/aieo
no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy i?e aeei?enoaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e;
cai?iiiiiaaii ?ino?oiaioa??e aeai?o a?eueo ni?eyoeeaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e aeey i?aei?e?inoa iaaiiai eeano.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? oai?aoe/ieo
ieoaiue i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oa aecia/aii?
aieeao ai?iaaaeaeaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia e?ioeaa? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo
i?aeoiae?a aei canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c o?aooaaiiyi
??cieo noai i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia iniia? oi?iae?ciaaiiai
aeai?o eiiieaeno caaaeaiue oi?aae?iiy, ui i?aeeyaathoue aaoiiaoecaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaeai?
a aeena?oaoe?? i?aeoiaee, niiniae oa iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy yaeythoue niaith oai?aoe/io oa iaoiaee/io iniiao
canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e i?e ??cieo noaiao i?aai?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. Aiie
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe eiiieaen ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, yeee
o?aoiao? iniaeeaino? ae?yeueiino? iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa,
caaacia/o? iaea?eueoee aoaeo a?ae ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? o oaeiio:

aecia/ai? e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a
oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, ye?
o?aoiaothoue noa?o ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa, aeicaieythoue iioei?coaaoe
aeo?aoe ia i?eaeaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e;

?ic?iaeaia ii?iaoeaia iao?eoey canoiniaiino? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
ia iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoaao a caeaaeiino? a?ae ianooaao ?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? oa noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo aeicaiey? aanoe a?aea??
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aai?caoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?aei?e?inoaa oa noaiai? eiai ?icaeiooino?;

aecia/ai? oiiae aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ye?
canoiniaothoueny i?e iiaoaeia? ia ?oi?e iniia? on?/aieo no?oeoo?
oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano;

cai?iiiiiaaiee ea?oia?ao?/iee iaoiae iiaoaeiae ooieoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe eiiieaen caaaeaiue, ui i?aeeyaathoue aaoiiaoecaoe?? ia iniia?
no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai eiiieaeno caaaeaiue,
ui aaoiiaoecothoueny, aeei?enoai? i?e aaeineiiaeaii? i?aai?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy oaeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie, ye OIA “Eoaaineea i?ii?ano?nu”, OIA
“Eieea?e”, OIA “NithcAaoi” oa o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Oeaio?o
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
i?e aea/aii? aeenoeeie?i “Eiii’thoa?ia oaoi?ea oa i?ia?aioaaiiy”,
“Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa”, “Iaiaaeaeiaio”, “Oi?aae?iiy iaoa??aeueieie
?ano?naie”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe oa ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny e io?eiaee noaaeaiiy
ia iino?eii ae?th/i? iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oi?aa?neoao oa ?aa?ii”
(Eoaainuee, 1996, 1997 oa 1998 ??.), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aeaeo?iiii? i?iieneiaino? o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae”
(Eoaainuee, 1998 ?.), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe??” (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999 ?.).

?iaioe, ye? iioae?eiaaii ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??, neeaaeathoue 11
iaeiaioaaiue caaaeueiei ianyaii 5,37 ae.a., c yeeo iniaenoi aaoi?o
iaeaaeeoue 4,22 ae.a. O oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo iioae?eiaaii 7 ?ia?o
caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,07 ae.a., c yeeo iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 2,57
ae.a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ye? aeeeaaeaii ia 168 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai
oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 8 oaaeeoeue oa 22 ?enoie?a. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae c 173 iaeiaioaaiue iaaaaeaii ia 12 noi??ieao ? 7 aeiaeaoe?a ia
36 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiue a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
caoeuathoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy.

?icae?e 1. Aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano.

I?aei?e?inoaa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ? aaaeeeaei ?aca?aii
icaei?iaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio oa a
Eoaainueeiio ?aa?ii? cie?aia. Noai?aiiy iiaeo ? ?icaeoie iaeeo oa
na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa, ui aaea ?niothoue, aeicaieyoue aeiaea?aeaoe aai
ae?noaoe iia? ?iai/? i?noey, ui ? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii ae??oaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, ye? aino?i noiyoue ia?aae aea?aeaaith. Ia
nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue a Oe?a?i? e?euee?noue iaeeo oa na?aaei?o
i?aei?e?inoa ia 1000 /ieia?e ianaeaiiy neeaaea? aeecueei 3,6 iae., a oie
/an, ye a ?in?? – 6, a e?a?iao ?a?iiaenueeiai Ni?aoiaa?enoaa – 45,
ssiii?? – 49,6, NOA – 74,2 iae. *anoea oeeo i?aei?e?inoa a aaeiaiio
aioo??oiueiio i?iaeoeo? Oe?a?ie neeaaea? a iei?oi?e /an iaeaea 9%, oiae?
ye a e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie – 50-67%, NOA – 52%, ssiii?? – 55%, ui
iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 1.

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????-????-??????????? yyy????D
?????ue???????????-? ???u?????????”????-?????????
???????yyy????????????$?O??EU??en. 1. E?euee?noue iaeeo
oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa ia 1000 aeeoae?a e?a?ie.

No/aniee noai aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a/aieie-aeiiii?noaie ioe?ith?oueny ye
iani?eyoeeaee aeey ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano.
An? aiie a?aecia/athoue iani?eyoeea?noue, neeaaei?noue i?aaiaiai,
o?iainiaiai oa aeiiii?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ?iaioe iaeeo oa na?aaei?o
i?aei?e?inoa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia ?iaioo
i?aei?e?inoa aeaiiai aeaeo a Eoaainuee?e iaeano? i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iiae?ai?
aeniiaee. Aenieee ??aaiue iaae?iiy ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa iicaaaey? iae? oa
na?aaei? i?aei?e?inoaa ?aaeueiiai ?eieo caooo nai?o oiaa??a oa iineoa,
aea c ?ioiai aieo, aaaeea noaiiaeua aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa
aeicaiey? i?aei?e?inoaai iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano caeiyoe a?euei?
i?o? ia ?eieo ca oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aeoeaii? ?eieiai? no?aoaa?? oa
cae?eniaii? ?aoaeueii caaaeaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Oea iiaeeeai ca oiia
aenieiai ??aiy i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, yeee iiaeeeai caaacia/eoe, cie?aia, ia iniia?
aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a oa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
oi?aae?iiy.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?aei?e?inoaa iaeiai a?ciano, ye
ia’?eoe oi?aae?iiy, iathoue ?yae niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae. Oe?
iniaeeaino? i?iyaeythoueny a oiio, ui i?aei?e?inoaa ioiieththoue ??ci?
noa?e ae?yeueiino?, aiie iaei aeeaa?neo?eiaai?, niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia
iaaieo aeaeao ?ia?o aai iineoa, ui aeeiiothoueny, i?iaeoeoe??, iathoue
a?aeiinii iaaaeeeo /enaeuei?noue i?aoethth/eo oa aa?o?noue caeiyoeo
ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a, aio/ei ?aaaothoue ia ci?ie iiieoo oa i?iiiceoe?? ia
?eieo, oaeaeei aeieeathoue ? cae?eaathoueny. Oaeei /eiii, i?aei?e?inoaa
iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano aeinoaoiuei iia?euei? a ?aaeoe?? ia ci?ie
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Neeaaei? aeiiii?/i? oiiae ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano a Oe?a?i?, aino?ee aeao?oeeo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ?iaeyoue
iniaeeai aeooaeueiei ?aoe?iiaeueia ?oi? aeei?enoaiiy, a oiio /ene?, e a
oi?aae?ii?. A oie aea /an, aeiiii?y ia oi?aae?inueeeo aeo?aoao, o oiio
/ene? ia ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?yo, iiaea i?ecaanoe aei iiaii?
aeanoaa?e?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano, ?oiueiai ?ici?thaaiiy. Iaiao?aeia ae??oaiiy aeai?aeeiiai
caaaeaiiy: caaacia/eoe aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie oi?aae?iiy oa oieeiooe
caeaeo aeo?ao ia ?? cae?eniaiiy oa iino?eia oaeineiiaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?aei?e?inoaa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano
i?aoeththoue o noeo?eiiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio iie?, ui neeaeinue, oa
naiino?eii iaiaaathoueny noi?ioaaoe ?aoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo caaacia/aiiy
iaiao?aeiith ?ioi?iaoe??th. I?e oeueiio niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei
iiooeo /enoi eiia?oe?eii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia, iaoiaee/ia,
oi?aae?inueea ?ioi?iaoe?y aeei?enoiao?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei, ui iaaaoeaii
a?aeaeaa?oueny ia aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe aeaieo i?aei?e?inoa. Oae,
iai?eeeaae, no?oeoo?a ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace iaeeo oa na?aaei?o
i?aei?e?inoa, ye? caeiathoueny ae?iaieoeoaii aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, o
oiio /ene? no/anieo, ia 80% neeaaea?oueny ?c eiia?oe?eii? ?ioi?iaoe??,
12-15% – oi?aae?inueei? ? o?eueee 5-8% – iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?. Oaea
no?oeoo?a ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiey ia aeicaiey? i?eeiaoe aeinoaoiuei
iaa?oioiaai? oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy, iniaeeai no?aoaa?/iiai ii?yaeeo.
I?e/eiith oaeiai noaio ?c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?? ? ia?ic?iaeai?noue
onueiai eiiieaeno ieoaiue uiaei ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, a?aenooi?noue
oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy oa nenoaie i?aeo?eiee i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, ui a
iiaee o ?aaeueiiio ?aaeei? /ano eiio?iethaaoe iniiai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
iioiee, oi?ioaaoe ?aoe?iiaeueio ?ioi?iaoe?eio aaco oi?aae?iiy oa a
c?o/iiio aeey ei?enooaa/?a aeae? iaaeaaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th, yea caaacia/o?
i?eeiyooy aoaeoeaieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

A nenoaiao oi?aae?iiy, ye? noai?aii ia aaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, ui
iathoue noaa?eueio i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o, iaa?? oi?i oa niinia?a
ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue oi?aae?iiy, ieoaiiy canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e ?ic?iaeythoueny oa ae??oothoueny aeinoaoiuei o?eaaeee ia??iae
/ano, ii/eiath/e c 70-o ?ie?a, eiee ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny ia?o?
aaoiiaoeciaai? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy. Iae? oa na?aaei? i?aei?e?inoaa ?
iiaei yaeuai o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe?. Aiie iathoue ?yae niaoeeo?/ieo
iniaeeainoae, o oiio /ene? ? a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy. Oiio ?ic?iaee,
ui ?niothoue, uiaei aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia aaeeeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao, ia iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? o iiaiiio ianyc? a
oi?aae?ii? iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie oa aeiaaathoue iiaaaeii?
aaeaioaoe?? aei oiia ?o ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

?icae?e 2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ?c canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia
i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano caeaaeeoue a?ae
iiaeeeainoae i?aei?e?inoaa oa aeiia aei caaacia/aiiy ?oiuei?
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?.

Aeiiii?/i? iiaeeeaino? oa caoe?eaaeai?noue o aeei?enoaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e aecia/athoueny ciai?oi?ie oiiaaie ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoaa oa
eiai aioo??oi?ie iio?aaaie, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?yaeii /eiiee?a. Aei
iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoue noai ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua,
iaeaaeaoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee ??aaiue ?ic?iaie a aaeoc? eiii’thoa?ieo
oaoiieia?e oa i?ia?aiieo cania?a, oe?ia ia ieo, ianya oa aeeiai?ea
?ioi?iaoe??, ui ni?eeia?oueny oa ia?iaeth?oueny, noaa?euei?noue
iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, eiieo?aioi? iiceoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa ia
?eieo, iniaeeaino? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeaiiai aeaeo ae?yeueiino?
aai naeoi?a ?eieo, ?icaeoie eiioi?eaoe?e, ianya i?iiiceoe?e
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia ?eieo iineoa.

Aiae?c ie?iaiai aeine?aeo oa aeine?aeo ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, i?aoethth/eo ye a Oe?a?i?, oae ? a Eoaainuee?e
iaeano?, iieaco?, ui ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
aeicaieeoue oeei i?aei?e?inoaai iiai?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe nai?
iiaeeeaino?, oaeaeoa caiiaithaaoe a?euei? i?o? ia ?eieo, a?eueo aenieeie
oaiiaie aeinyaoe caaeaieo iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui caaaeueia
oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ni?yiiaaia ia cieaeaiiy
ieoiieo aeo?ao ia ?o aeei?enoaiiy oa ca?eueoaiiy ei?eniiai aoaeoo ia
iaeeieoeth canoinoaaiiy eiii’thoa?ii? oaoiieia?? /e eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo
cania?a. Oea ?iaeoue canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia iaeeo oa
na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoaao aeinooiiei ana a?eueo oe?ieiio eieo
i?aei?e?inoa, iioe?th? oaoiieia?/i? iiaeeeaino? oaoi?ee, ?iaeoue
?aaeueiei aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, oaeeo, ye
nenoaie i?aeo?eiee i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue oa aenia?oi?
nenoaie.

C iaoith ioe?iee iaae aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano
aoei aea/aii 197 iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa Eoaainueea oa
Eoaainueei? iaeano?. Aei a?oie i?aei?e?inoa, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny,
oa?eoee i?aei?e?inoaa, ui caeiathoueny ae?iaie/ith, eiia?oe?eiith oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ae?yeuei?noth. O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeyaeaii
oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa a?ae ianyao
aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy.
Ia?aeiiee aiae?c noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo yaii
i?inoaaeo?oueny caeaaei?noue ianyao ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a oa iineoa ?
/enaeueiino? i?aoethth/eo ia i?aei?e?inoa? a?ae canoiniaiino?
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Ia ?en. 2, 3, 4 iaaaaeaii caeaaeiino? i?ae
ianyaii ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? oa ianyaii ?ioi?iaoe??, ui
aeei?enoiao?oueny, aa?oino? eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a oa aa?oino?
i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a. Aeyaeai? caeaaeiino? na?ae/aoue i?i iayai?noue
aeinoaoiueiai ca’yceo i?ae iieacieeaie ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa oa ianooaao
canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy.

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?en. 2. Iiea ei?aeyoe?? caeaaeiino? ianyao ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a oa iineoa
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3. Iiea ei?aeyoe?? caeaaeiino? /enaeueiino? i?aoethth/eo a?ae aa?oino?
eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a ia ae?iaie/eo i?aei?e?inoaao.

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Iiea ei?aeyoe?? caeaaeiino? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a?ae aa?oino? i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a. Ai?ieneiaoe?y anoaiiaeaieo caeaaeiinoae ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co aeicaieeea aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? oa iayai?noue noaeiai aca?iica'yceo i?ae ianyaaie ?aae?caoe??, /enaeuei?noth i?aoethth/eo, i?iaeoeoeai?noth i?aoe? oa ianyaaie ?ioi?iaoe??, aa?o?noth eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a, aa?o?noth i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a. Aeaee iaea?aeaieo caeaaeiinoae iieaciee?a ae?yeueiino? ae?iaie/eo i?aei?e?inoa a?ae ianyao aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e iaaaaeaii o oaae. 1. Oaaeeoey 1. ?acoeueoaoe ei??aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiiai aiaeeco caeaaeiinoae iieaciee?a ae?yeueiino? ae?iaie/eo i?aei?e?inoa a?ae ianyao aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy YXEiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe??Aeae caeaaeiino?Ianya ?aae?caoe??Ianya ?ioi?iaoe??0,687y=175328Ln(x)-435043Aa?o?noue eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a0,704y=151287Ln(x)-1E+0,6Aa?o?noue i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a0,695y=158675Ln(x)-1E+0,6*enaeuei?noue Ianya ?ioi?iaoe??0,682y=48,746Ln(x)-124,39i?aoethth/eoAa?o?noue eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a0,654y=79,977Ln(x)-833,96Aa?o?noue i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a0,648y=89,898Ln(x)-798,1I?iaeoeoea-i?noue i?aoe?Ianya ?ioi?iaoe??0,694y=-1E-14x4+2E-0,9x3-8E-0,5x2+1,0551x+7102,4Aa?o?noue eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a0,683y=-7E-1x4+5E-12x3-1E-0,6x2+0,0928x+9438,4Aa?o?noue i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a0,689y=-1E-14x4+2E-0,9x3-8E-0,5x2+1,0551x+7102,4 Aiae?c oa?aeoa?o caeaaeiinoae iieacaa iayai?noue oaeeo caeiiii??iinoae. Aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, a?aeiia?aeieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a aieeaa? ia ia'?ii? iieacieee ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoaa ca i?eioeeiii aoaeoeaiino?, ui oaoaa?. ?c c?inoaiiyi aa?oino? i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a, aa?oino? eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a oa ianyao ?ioi?iaoe??, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny, niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy ianyao ?aae?caoe??, ui niia?eueith?oueny, i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao. Oea iiynith?oueny c?inoaiiyi ia?aaaioaaeaiino? ea??aiee?a oa niaoe?ae?no?a caeaith ?ioi?iaoe??th oa a?aeaa?iaiiyi o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ia ?? io?eiaiiy, caa??aaiiy oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy. Oaea caeiiii??i?noue oa?aeoa?ia aeey an?o aeae?a i?aei?e?inoa, oi/a ? oaiie cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ??ci?. Ia /enaeuei?noue i?aoethth/eo canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oaeiae aieeaa? ?c iaaiith noaeith caeiiii??i?noth. Ia ia?oeo aoaiao ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy /enaeueiino? i?aoethth/eo /e niia?eueiaiiy ?? oaii?a ?inoo. Ia ianooiieo aoaiao aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, /enaeuei?noue ia?niiaeo c?inoa?. Oaea caeaaei?noue aecia/a?oueny c?inoaiiyi o?oaeii?noeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy aaeeeeo ianya?a ?ioi?iaoe??, i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a oa eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a ?, a?aeiia?aeii, ca?eueoaiiyi /enaeueiino? oi?aae?inueeiai (ianeoaiaoth/iai) ia?niiaeo. Iaae? aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano i?iiiio?oueny aecia/aoe ca oa?aeoa?ii aieeao aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? i?aoethth/eo. I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee aieeao ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia iieacieee ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa na?ae/aoue, ui ?nio? aeno?aiaeueia oi/ea, ui aecia/a? ?aoe?iiaeueiee ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Oey ?aoe?iiaeueia oi/ea aecia/a? iaeanoue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ianyao aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Aeoiaey/e ?c iaea?aeaieo caeaaeiinoae oa ?ic?aooieiai? oi/ee aeno?aioio aecia/athoueny ei?aeiii? cia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ia?iuoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny oa oie noa?oiaee i?i?ioi, iaiao?aeiee aeey ii/aoeo ii?iaeueii? ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoaa. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia iieacieee ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano oa iaea?aeai? caeiiii??iino? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy oeeo oaoiieia?e aeicaieeee noi?ioaaoe ii?iaoeaio aaco iiaeaethaaiiy neooaoe?e i?e i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue c ianooaao aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, noai?thaaoe aaeaeaaoi? nenoai? i?aeo?eiee i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ia iniia? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a oa oaoi?/ieo cania?a, ui ?niothoue. ?icae?e 3. I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio i?aeoiaeeoe aei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy oaeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue oi?aae?inueei? i?aoe?, ae??ooaaoe aiae?oe/i? caaaeaiiy, ?ioaa?oaaoe aeeiiaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e. Aeoiaey/e c iiaeo iiaeeeainoae, ye? a?aee?eaathoue ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, oi?ioaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? oa i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano iaiao?aeii aoaeoaaoe ia ?io?e iaoiaee/i?e oa ii?iaoeai?e aac?. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ia iniia? iiaoaeiae on?/aieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy. I?e on?/ai?e no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy ia naiiio i?aei?e?inoa? ia aeeiio?oueny /anoea iaia'yceiaeo ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy. Oe? ooieoe?? ?aae?cothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith caeo/aiiy niaoe?ae?no?a c aieo. Aeioe?euei?noue iiaoaeiae on?/aieo no?oeoo? a oi?aae?ii? iaeei aai na?aaei?i i?aei?e?inoaii c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e aecia/a?oueny ??aiai eaae?o?eaoe?? ia?niiaeo oa ??aiai iniauaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieie oaoiieia?yie, ui aeicaieythoue aeeiioaaoe ie?ai? ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy o ?aaeueiiio ?aaeei? /ano oa c aenieith aoaeoeai?noth. Aeey iiaoaeiae on?/aieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy iaiao?aeii iaaienii a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae /anoee caaaeaiue oa ooieoe?e, ui ae??oothoueny aaciina?aaeiuei niaoe?ae?noaie, ye? i?aoeththoue ia i?aei?e?inoa?. I?e iiaoaeia? on?/aii? i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano iiaeeea? ??ci? i?aeoiaee. O ?iaio? aeae?eaii aeaa i?eioeeiiaeo i?aeoiaee aei oi?ioaaiiy on?/aii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie - ooieoe?iiaeueiee oa oi/a/iee. Ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae ia?aaeaa/a?, ui aeaye? ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy aeeiiothoueny noi?iii?ie i?aai?caoe?yi. I?e oi/a/iiio i?aeoiae? caaaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy, ye? aoiaeyoue aei ie?aieo ooieoe?e, ia?aaeathoueny aeey aeeiiaiiy noi?iii?i oao?aoeyi. Oea aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe aenieee ??aaiue oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue, caiia?aoe ia?aoe?iiaeueieo aeo?ao ia oo?eiaiiy aeanieo eaae?o?eiaaieo oao?aoe?a, ye? ia iathoue iiaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, oa ?ic?inoaiiy no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy. Canoinoaaiiy on?/aieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie i?eionea? iayai?noue iaaieo i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia oa ioe?ieo aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino? ?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy. I?e oeueiio ianooaa oa aa??aioe on?/aiiy ci?iththoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoaa oa iaoe eiai ae?yeueiino?. I?iaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano iieacaee, ui iaei??th c i?iaeai ia oeeo i?aei?e?inoaao ? a?aenooi?noue ii?iaoeaii? aac? c iiaoaeiae ooieoe?iiaeueii? oa i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy. A aeena?oaoe?? c iaoith iiaoaeiae nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e cai?iiiiiaaii oa ?aae?ciaaii ii?iaoeaiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy eiiieaeno caaaeaiue, ui neeaaeathoue ooieoe?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o nenoaie oi?aae?iiy oa i?aeeyaathoue ia?oi/a?aiai? aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Ii?iaoeaia aaca ?aae?ciaaia o aeae? iiaoaeiaaii? ea?oe caaaeaiue. Ea?oa caaaeaiue aecia/a? ?iciiae?e /anoioe cono??/a?iino? caaaeaiue oa ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae noeoiiino? i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa. Ea?oo caaaeaiue iiaoaeiaaii ia iniia? ii?ioaaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo canoinoaaiiy caaaeaiue, ui neeaaeathoue ci?no ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy. Aeey oi?o?eaoe?? i?aeoiaeo an? caaaeaiiy ca?oiiaaii ii caaaeueieo ooieoe?yo oi?aae?iiy. A caeaaeiino? a?ae /anoioe canoinoaaiiy caaaeaiue oa o?oaeii?noeino? ?oiuei? ?aae?caoe?? aeae?eaii /ioe?e eaoaai??? caaaeaiue: caaaeaiiy, ui cono??/athoueny ??aeei oa ia iathoue aeniei? o?oaeii?noeino? canoinoaaiiy a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano; caaaeaiiy, ui cono??/athoueny ai?ciaee/ii, a caeaaeiino? a?ae noa?e ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa oa neooaoe?? o ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu?; caaaeaiiy, ui ae??oothoueny ?aaoey?ii, iathoue aenieo o?oaeii?noe?noue oa nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa; caaaeaiiy, ui ? iaia'yceiaeie aeey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa. Ii?ioaaiiy caaaeaiue cae?eniaii ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, ye? aeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoue oa ai?iaaaeaeothoue ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? oa iathoue iiceoeai? iieacieee nai?? ae?yeueiino?. Aeoiaey/e c oeio caaaeaiue oa oa?aeoa?enoee iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa, ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo ea?o caaaeaiue i?iiiio?oueny aoaeoaaoe ooieoe?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o oa aecia/aoe ia?oi/a?aia? caaaeaiiy, ye? i?aeeyaathoue aaoiiaoecaoe?? ia iniia? canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, aeae?eyoe caaaeaiiy, ui ae??oothoueny o ?aieao i?aei?e?inoaa oa caaaeaiiy, ye? i?aeeyaathoue ia?aaea/? noi?iii?i aeeiiaaoeyi. Ea?oe caaaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? aeey i?aei?e?inoa, ui caeiathoueny ae?iaie/ith, eiia?oe?eiith oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ae?yeuei?noth. Ai?iaaoe?y ?ic?iaeaieo ea?o caaaeaiue ia i?aei?e?inoaao Eoaainueea oa Eoaainueei? iaeano? aeicaieeea aecia/eoe aaeaeaaoi?noue ?ic?iaeaieo ea?o caaaeaiue oei caaaeaiiyi, ui i?aeeyaathoue aaoiiaoecaoe??, ?aaeueiei oiiaai ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoa, a oaeiae aianoe cia/ia iie?auaiiy a i?aai?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy oeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie, caaacia/eoe nenoaii?noue oi?aae?iiy c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. C iaoith aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo i?eaeaoieo aei aeei?enoaiiy a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii ?o nenoaiaoecaoe?th oa ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c. Aeae?eai? oae? iniiai? aeiee ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oi?aae?iiy: aaoiiaoecaoe?y io?no, ?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y ia?iaee aeaieo, ?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y oi?aae?iiy, ?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y i?aeo?eiee i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, ?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y aenia?oieo nenoai, a oaeiae aecia/aii ci?no eiiieaeno caaaeaiue oa i?ia?aiieo cania?a, ye? aoiaeyoue aei eiaeiiai aeieo. Aiae?c i?eaeaoiino? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, yeee aoei i?iaaaeaii ia iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoaao Eoaainueea oa Eoaainueei? iaeano?, aeicaieea ?ic?iaeoe iao?eoeth ia?aaaa canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, o?aaiaio yei? iaaeaii ia ?en. 5. Oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aei?e?inoa?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??Aeae ae?yeueiino?Ianya ?aae?caoe?? (oen. oi. iae.)*enaeuei?noue i?aoethth/eo, /ie.Aaoiiaoeca-oe?y io?no ?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y ia?iaee aeaieo?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y oi?aae?iiy?ioi?iaoe?e-ia oaoiieia?y i?aeo?eiee i?eeiyooy ??oaiue?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y aenia?oieo nenoaiAe?iaie/aaei 100aei 303211131-10032111101-20032111iiiaae 20132111101-500aei 303211131-10032111101-20032211iiiaae 20132211iiiaae 501aei 303221131-1002221101-20033322iiiaae 20133322 ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ??aeei; ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?e, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny /anoi; ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy. ?en. 5. Iao?eoey ia?aaaa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. Iao?eoeth ?ic?iaeaii aeey i?aei?e?inoa, ui caeiathoueny ae?iaie/ith, eiia?oe?eiith oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ae?yeuei?noth. A iao?eoe? i?iiiio?oueny aeae?eeoe o?e ??aiy canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Aei ia?oiai ??aiy a?aeianaii ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, ui cono??/athoueny ??aeei. ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?/ii ia iaa?oioiaaii ? canoiniaothoueny oae? oaoiieia??, a iniiaiiio c ?i?oe?aoeae ea??aieoeoaa i?aei?e?inoaa. Aei ae?oaiai ??aiy canoinoaaiiy a?aeianai? ?aaoey?ii canoiniaoaai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ia i?aei?e?inoaao, ye? i?iaaaeyoue ?aoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo o noa?? i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy. Caeo/aiiy oeeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oi?aae?iiy ia? aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue. O?ao?e ??aaiue canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e - oea ??aaiue ianiaiai, oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Oea ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, ui iiaeii? aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ia an?o i?aei?e?inoaao. ?oi? canoinoaaiiy ia? /?oei aeneiaeaio aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue. Oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa (/enaeuei?noue i?aoethth/eo, ianyae ae?iaieoeoaa, oiui) ci?iththoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae noaae?e eiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo. I?aei?e?inoai ia? noaae?th ca?iaeaeaiiy, noaae?th iiceoeaii? aeeiai?ee c?inoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??, oiaa??a, iineoa, noaae?th noaa?e?caoe?? oa noaae?th niaaeo a?ciano. O ?iaio? iieacaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e aecia/a?oueny oaeiae noaae??th aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?aei?e?inoaa. Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iao?eoe? ia?aaaa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e uiaei aeei?enoaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano o ?iaio? aecia/ai? ciie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?aei?e?inoaa. Oe? ciie iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 6. wmetafile8? ??9???????????????????????????????? ????????????j ??????????????ue??aaa??????-?? ???u?????yyy?"[email protected]@ye/?i –aenUHI5E#A???i©ss!??A ?en. 6 Ciie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae noaae?e aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ae?iaie/iai i?aei?e?inoaa. Ciioaaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ??ciiai aeaeo aecia/a?oueny aeaeii ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa, iio?aaaie a ianyc? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui ia?iaey?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae niaoeeo?ee ae?yeueiino? iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa. Oae, i?aei?e?inoaa, ui caeiathoueny iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ae?yeuei?noth, iathoue a?eueo aenie? aeiiae aei ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, i?ae eiia?oe?ei?, iacaaaeath/e ia a?eueo iecueeee ??aaiue ?aae?caoe?? nai?o iineoa. ?ic?iaeaia iao?eoey ia?aaaa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oa ciie ?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy aeicaieythoue aecia/aoe ?aoe?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o canoiniaoaaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, ieaioaaoe ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe. AENIIAEE A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue cae?eniaii oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy oa i?aeoe/ia ??oaiiy aeooaeueii? i?iaeaie - oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Iniiai? aeniiaee oa ?acoeueoaoe, ye? aeieeaathoue ?c iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, caiaeyoueny aei oaeiai. 1. Iieacaii, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?, i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie cacia? cia/ieo ci?i, aieiaiith c yeeo ? ?aoe?iiae?caoe?y ?o ae?yeueiino?, aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo iaoeiaeo iaoiae?a a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy, i???iooaaiiy oeeo i?aei?e?inoa ia noai?aiiy noaa?eueii i?aoethth/eo iaaaeeeeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?. 2. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ia iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoaao ca?? oa ia?iaea ??cieo aeae?a oi?aae?inueei? ?ioi?iaoe?? cae?enith?oueny iaaoaeoeaii, ui cieaeo? ye?noue oa iia?aoeai?noue ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy. ?nio? ia'?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe oaoi?/ia oa i?ia?aiia iniauaiiy a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. 3. Aecia/aii, ui aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ca ci?noii oa ianyaii icia/aii aeaeii, ianooaaii ae?yeueiino?, /enaeuei?noth caeiyoeo ?ia?oiee?a oa neeaaei?noth caaaeaiue oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. Aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia? nai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaae?, ye? aeoiaeyoue ?c a?aeaea/? eioo?a, aeo?a/aieo ia i?eaeaaiiy, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy oeeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. 4. Anoaiiaeaii caeaaeiino? aieeao ianya?a aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a, aa?oino? i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a ia iieacieee ae?yeueiino? iaeiai aai na?aaeiueiai i?aei?e?inoaa - /enaeuei?noue i?aoethth/eo, ianya ae?iaieoeoaa, i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, oa iaae?, ye? aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeueia c?inoaiiy ianyao aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. 5. Iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue noai?aiiy on?/aieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a oiiaao aeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. 6. C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano aecia/aii caaaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy, ye? i?aeeyaathoue aaoiiaoecaoe??, ? iiaeii? aooe noi?iiaai? c o?aooaaiiyi aii??e/iiai aeine?aeo aeei?enoaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo oa iaaaoiiaoeciaaieo caaaeaiue oi?aae?iiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao. Aeey oi?ioaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? ooieoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e caaaeaiue ia iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoaao ?ic?iaeai? niaoe?aeuei? ea?oe canoiniaiino? caaaeaiue i?e i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, ye? aeicaieythoue ii?ioaaoe oa iioei?coaaoe i?ioean oi?aae?iiy. 7. Aeyaeai? iaae? aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo aeae?a ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, aeoiaey/e ?c aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo, ianooaao ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae /enaeueiino? i?aoethth/eo ia i?aei?e?inoa?. O i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa eiai e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee ci?iththoueny, oiio aeey eiaeiiai aoaio aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?aei?e?inoaa aecia/aii ?aoe?iiaeueio no?aoaa?th oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oa ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace, ye? ni?eythoue i?ioeano i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie. 8. Aeoiaey/e ?c noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo, o ?iaio? aecia/aii ciie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ye? aeicaieyoue ea??aieeai oa caniiaieeai iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa ieaioaaoe ianooaa aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ??ciiai eeano. IA?AE?E INIIAIEO IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. *oia/aiei A.A. Eioi?iaoeey eae oaeoi?, niaeaenoaothuee iaeiio aeciano //A?niee No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1997. - ? 3(7). - N.116-118. 2. *oia/aiei A.A. I no?oeoo?a aac aeaiiuo aeey eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai aeciana //A?niee No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1997. - ? 5(9). - N.155-158. 3. *oia/aiei A.A. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu, eniieuecoaiua i?e i?eiyoee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee a iaeii aeciana //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1999. - N.77-82. 4. Aeeaien A.E., No?the I.O., *oia/aiei A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea ninoiyiey aiaoiae n?aaeu ?aaiou e ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana a Eoaaineie iaeanoe //A?niee No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1998. - ? 6(16). - N.110-114. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy c eii'thieoo?e ?eieo uiaei eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo cania?a oa iaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei ?o iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy a oi?aae?ii? iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie Eoaainueei? iaeano?. Iaaaaeaia aeeiai?ea ci?ithaaiiy oe?i ia eiii'thoa?io oaoi?eo ia o??iao Eoaainueeo. 5. *oia/aiei A.A. Ona/aiiua no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana /Aecian-Eioi?i. - 1999. ? 11-12. N.139-142. 6. *oia/aiei A.A. ?ic?iaea ?aoe?iiaeueii? no?aoaa?? canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e i?e oi?aae?ii? iaeeie oa na?aaei?ie i?aei?e?inoaaie / Aaniee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. - Oa?ueeia: OAIO. - 1999. ? 51. - N.117-121. 7. Aeeaien A.E, *oia/aiei A.A., Eio ?.A. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua aniaeou yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey //A?niee No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1999. - ? 5(20). - N.49-52. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: aeine?aeaeaii ieoaiiy aeinoia??iino? oa aeinoaoiino? ?ioi?iaoe??, yea iaiao?aeia aeey i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ia iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoaao. Cai?iiiiiaai? oeyoe ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie. 8. No?the I.O., *oia/aiei A.A., Eio ?.A. ?ac?aaioea ?aoeeiiaeueiie no?aoaaee i?eiaiaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee i?e oi?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana // Iaoa??aee eiioa?aioe?? "I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??: Ca.: Aeiiii?/iee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? Aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie, o.4 - Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: ?EE IAA Oe?a?ie, 1999. - N.22-24. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: aecia/aii iniiai? i?aeoiaee aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. Iaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a oi?aae?ii? oeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie. 9. Iao?ia A.N., *oia/aiei A.A. Ieaoaaee /a?ac Internet // Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? "I?iaeaie aeaeo?iiii? i?iieneiaino? o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae": Eoaainuee, NOAeO, 1998 ?. N.260-263. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: aecia/ai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy uiaei aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao no/anieo cania?a ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Iaaaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei caa?aaeaiiy eiio?aeaioe?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e canoinoaaii? ia i?aei?e?inoa? aeiaaeueieo n?oae. 10. No?the I.O., *oia/aiei A.A. ?aoeeiiaeueiue iiaeoiae e iino?iaieth e ?acaeoeth nenoai oi?aaeaiey // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Na??y Aeiiii?ea. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee. - 1998. - ? 94(161). - N.39-42. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: aecia/aii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy uiaei aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oa oi?ioaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace i?e iiaoaeia? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy. 11. *oia/aiei A.A. I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiai aeciana // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Na??y Aeiiii?ea. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee. - 1998. - ? 98(165). - N.41-48. AIIOAOe?ss *oia/aiei A.A. I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02 - I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia. - No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Eoaainuee, 1999. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?, aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a no/anieo oiiaao. C iaoith oi?ioaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano nenoaiaoeciaaii oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy uiaei aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, a oaeiae i?iaiae?ciaaii ianya, aeaee oa iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e c i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. Aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? aieeao aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e oi?aae?iiy ia iieacieee ?iaioe oeeo i?aei?e?inoa. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy eiiieaeno aaoiiaoeciaaieo caaaeaiue uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano, a oaeiae aaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy on?/aieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ca oiia aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi aeai?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e a i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c o?aooaaiiyi ?o iniaeeainoae oa ??aiy ?icaeoeo. Aecia/aii ciie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, aeoiaey/e ?c noaae?e aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo iaeiai /e na?aaeiueiai i?aei?e?inoaa oa eiai i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aai?caoe?y, oi?aae?iiy, ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??, iae? oa na?aaei? i?aei?e?inoaa. AIIIOAOeEss *oia/aiei A.A. I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana n eniieueciaaieai eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02 - I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio e ia?eaoeia. - Ainoi/iioe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Eoaaine, 1999. A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?anniio?aiu aii?inu ?acaeoey iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana a Oe?aeia, auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Ioia/aii, /oi eioi?iaoeey a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee anaaaea ea?aao eeth/aaoth ?ieue. Aac ?acaeoey e nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacu iino?ieoue aeaaniiniaioth nenoaio oi?aaeaiey eae ioaeaeueiui i?aaei?eyoeai, oae e a?oiiie i?aaei?eyoee iaaiciiaeii. N oeaeueth oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana nenoaiaoece?iaaiu oai?aoe/aneea e iaoiaee/aneea iieiaeaiey ii i?eiaiaieth i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia e eiiieaena oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iauai, aeaeu e iniaaiiinoe eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee i?e i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana, eiathueie ?acee/iua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia iniiaaiee yoie nenoaiaoecaoeee auaeaeaiu aeiee eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, ii?aaeaeaiu niaea?aeaiea eiiieaena caaea/ e i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia aeey eaaeaeiai aeiea. Auyaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe aeeyiey eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee oi?aaeaiey ia iieacaoaee ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana: iauai i?iaeaae, /eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea. A ?aaioa auaeaeaiu oaeea iniiaiua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee: i?iecaiaenoaaiiue; eiiia?/aneee; iao/ii-oaoie/aneea. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea oi?ie?iaaiey eiiieaena caaea/ oi?aaeaiey, iiaeeaaeaueo aaoiiaoecaoeee ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee. Aeaiiay iaoiaeeea iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaia i?e i?aaiecaoeee eee niaa?oainoaiaaiee nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai iaeiai eee n?aaeiaai aeciana. Iia iicaieyao n iiiiuueth ea?o i?eiaiyaiinoe ooieoeeiiaeueiuo caaea/ ii?aaeaeeoue ooieoeee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iaania/aiey caieiooiai eiioo?a oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai. A ?aaioa oniaa?oainoaiaaia iaoiaeeea oi?ie?iaaiey ona/aiiuo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana a oneiaeyo eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee. I?e oi?ie?iaaiee ona/aiiuo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey i?aaeeiaeaiu aeaa i?eioeeieaeueiuo iiaeoiaea - oi/a/iue e ooieoeeiiaeueiue. Ianooaa e aa?eaiou ona/aiey i?aaeeaaaaony auae?aoue enoiaey ec o?iaiy ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey, aeaea e ianooaaa aeayoaeueiinoe. ?ac?aaioai aeai?eoi auai?a iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee a i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana n o/aoii eo iniaaiiinoae e o?iaiy ?acaeoey. Ii?aaeaeaiu ciiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee enoiaey ec noaaeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea iaeiai eee n?aaeiaai i?aaei?eyoey. Aeey eaaeaeiai oeia e noaaeee ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey a caaeneiinoe io aai ea/anoaaiiuo e eiee/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee i?aaeeiaeai iaai? eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, niiniaiuo iaania/eoue naiaa?aiaiiia e ea/anoaaiiia ?aoaiea caaea/ ii i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai. Ciie?iaaiea eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee ?acee/iiai aeaea a ?aaioa ii?aaeaeyaony aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, eiee/anoaii e ea/anoaii ia?aaaouaaaiie eioi?iaoeee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aaiecaoeey, oi?aaeaiea, eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee, iaeua e n?aaeiea i?aaei?eyoey. ANNOTATION G.V. Chumachenco. Organization of management of the enterprises of small and medium business with use of information technologies. Manuscript. Candidate dissertation for academic degree of the Candidate of Economic Sciences on speciality 08.06.02 - Business, Management, Marketing. - East-Ukrainian State University, Lugansk, 1999. The thesis covers issues of small and medium business development in Ukraine. Peculiarities small and medium enterprises management in present conditions are exposed. Aimed at formation of informational base for small and medium enterprises management, theoretic and method positions are systematize, also volume, types and peculiarities of information systems application in small and medium enterprises management are analyzed. Dependencies of information technologies application and their affect of ration of companies operation are exposed. Methods for formation of automated tasks complex on organization of small and medium enterprises management as well as methods of cut small and medium enterprises management structures formation when using information technologies. The algorithm of most effective information technologies selection in organization of small and medium enterprises is improved taking into account their peculiarities and level of development. Determined are also zones of rational applications of information technologies, basing on stages of life cycle of small and medium enterprises and its organizational and technical characteristics. Key words: organization, management, information technologies, the small and average enterprises. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 28.09.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16 1,05 ae.a. Oe?aae 100 aecaiiey??a. Caeac ? ?ioai?eio NOAeO. 91034, i. Eoaainuee, eaa?oae Iieiae?aeiee, 20A.

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