OA?III?EUeNUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI?
AIEIAeEIE?A AIAOTHEA

*OEEI NA?A?E ?IIAIIAE*

OAeE — 37(09)

I?AAI?CAOe?ss IAA*AEUeIIAI I?IOeANO

A E?OeAssO OE?A?IE

(O?O — IA?OA IIEIAEIA OO NO.)

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaaeaaia?ee Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AEO?OU Aiaoie?e Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Oa?iii?euenueeee aenia?eiaioaeueiee ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?/ii?

ina?oe, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

iaaeaaia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

NOOIA?EE Aiaaeai Ieoaeeiae/,

I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee;

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

EO?EssE ??eia ?aaai?aia,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?. O?aiea,

eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie,
eaai?aoi??y ?noi???

oa oai??? iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 21 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.58.053.01 i?e
Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea ca aae?anith: 282027, i. Oa?iii?eue,
aoe.I.E?eaiiina,2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe?
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea ca aae?anith: 282027, i. Oa?iii?eue,
aoe.I.E?eaiiina,2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 20 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I. I. IAOI*OE

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiei??ii? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
on?o noa?ao no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, coiiaeththoue iia?
oaiaeaioe?? oa iai?yie ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ? i?aeoeee. Oea
ni?ey? aeoea?caoe?? oai?/iai iiooeo aoaeoeaieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ia?ainieneaiith iaoe ? ci?noo
aeoiaaiiy. Ia’?eoeai? caeiiii??iino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai,
iie?oe/iiai ? aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa aeiaaathoue ye?niiai
iiiaeaiiy ?nioth/i? nenoaie ina?oe.

Iaei??th c ia?oeo iciae ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?eueieoeoaa ? iiyaa a Oe?a?i?
?iiiaaoe?eieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a: e?oea?a, a?iiac?e, eieaaeae?a.
Aeina?ae ?o ?iaioe aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe ooaa?aeaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?? aei
aeoeaiiai i?iiaaoaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy e?aueo o?aaeeoe?e ?a?iiaenueei? oa
a?o/eciyii? ina?oe.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo e?oea?a, a?iiac?e,
eieaaeae?a ni?eyoeia ?ica’ycaiith i?iaeaie aoiai?caoe?? ina?oe,
ooieoe?iioaaiith ? noaiiaeaiith caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio. Aaaeeeao ?ieue
i?e oeueiio a?ae?a?a? iaeaaeia i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a
oaeeo caeeaaeao. Aiaeii/an ?c iaoith caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo cae?aiinoae o/i?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy aeioe?eueiei aoaea
aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino? e?oea?a – ae?oa?ieo oe?e, ye? ae?yee
a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii XIX – ia?oi? iieiaeie XX no. Oea ni?eyoeia
?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e ina?oe e oeiee,
iiiaeaiith ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, i?eiiiaeaiith
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo noni?euenoaa.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Ieoaiiy noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
e?oea?a i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano i?eaa?oathoue oaaao ye a?o/eciyieo, oae
? ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a. ??ciiiai?oiei aniaeoai ae?yeueiino?
E?aiaiaoeueeiai (1805 – 1833 ??.), I?aeeinueeiai (1820 – 1875 ??.)
oa ??oaeue?anueeiai (1817 – 1865 ??.) e?oea?a aoee i?enay/ai? ?iaioe
I.Aaothoeiaa, I.Aeaaeeie?nueeiai-Aoaeaiiaa, I.Aaneeaiea,
I.Eaa?ianueeiai, O.Eieioue, ?.Ieoiaae/a, I.ssi?ea oa ?i. O ieo
aena?oeththoueny ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy, aieiai? iai?yie oa
i?aai?caoe?ei? canaaee ae?yeueiino? oeeo caeeaae?a, ie?aneaii niaoeeo?eo
?oiueiai ina?oiueiai noaoono. I?ioa a?eueo?noue i?aoeue ia a?aeia?aaea?
oe?e?nii? ea?oeie ?icaeoeo e?oea?a a Oe?a?i?. O i?aeai?iiee /an
iii?oiee aianie o aea/aiiy oe?ieiai niaeo?o ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c
iniaeeainoyie iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo e?oeayo,
cie?aia a E?aiaiaoeueeiio (1920 – 1939 ??.), c?iaeee iieuenuee?
iaoeiaoe? (A?ioeinueeee E., Aeaieeaae/-Cae?inueea I., Aeia?iaieuenueeee
N., Iauae O., Naaa?ei N., O?oo?i N.). I?i iniaeeaino?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe a iieuenueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo e?oeayo
Aaee/eie ? Aieei? eoeiny o /eneaiieo noaooyo, ye? ae?oeoaaeeny a oie /an
o aeo?iaeao “Gimnazium i Liceum”, “Oswiata i wychowanie”, “Zycie
Kremienieckie”, “??aeia oeiea”, “Oe?a?inueea oeiea”. Ui?ieo oae?
caeeaaee aeioneaee “Ca?aeiieaiiy” – ca?o i?i ae?yeuei?noue ca oie /e
?ioee oe?eueiee ??e. O ?aaeyinuee?e iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe?, ca
oiia o?aeooaaiiy e?oea?a ye “ao?aeoacieo” iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a,
ia’?eoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy icia/aii? i?iaeaie aoei iaiiaeeeaei.

Inoaii?i /anii o a?o/eciyi?e iaaeaaia?oe? c’yaeythoueny iaoeia? i?aoe?
oa ioae?eaoe??, o yeeo aena?oeai? iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a
e?oeayo Oe?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai? (Aeo?iia A., A?eaae/ A., Ai?enia I.,
Aeaeeoi Ae., Inoai/oe I., Naciiaiei A., Nieiaoa A., Oaiao I.).
??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? a?o/eciyieo e?oea?a o
ieioeiio aeeaiei i?iaiae?ciaaii a ?iaioao N.Eieyaeaiei, A.Eiioo?anueei?,
A.Naiieeaiei, A.Nooia?eea, A.*a?ieo?anueeiai, A.*eaeaanueeiai oa ?i.

O oie aea /an ?yae ieoaiue aeiaaa? aeiaeaoeiaiai aea/aiiy.
Cie?aia, ?aoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aaothoue oae? yaeua a ?noi???
a?o/eciyiiai oe?eueieoeoaa, ye /ieia?/? (ia?oa iieiaeia XIX no.) oa
ae?ii/? (e?iaoeue XIX – ii/aoie XX no.) e?oea? Aaee/eie a nenoai?
ina?oe Aano?i-Oai?ueie, a oaeiae ia?aaea caaaeueiiina?oi?o, oaoiaeo ?
iaaeaaia?/ieo e?oea?a, ye? ae?yee ia oa?aiao Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie a
i?aeai?iiee /an.

Iaaeinoaoi? aena?oeaiiy oeeo ieoaiue aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe
a?aenooi?noue ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
oai??? aeaoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
e?oea?a a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii XIX – ia?oi? iieiaeie XX no. ye
caeiiii??iiai, ia’?eoeaii coiiaeaiiai ? oe?e?niiai i?ioeano. Ia
aecia/aii oaeiae caaaeuei? aeey aeaiiai ia??iaeo oa?aeoa?i? ?ene
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? a?o/eciyieo e?oea?a, ?o i???ioaoe?y ia
?a?iiaenuee? ina?oi? o?aaeeoe??.

Aeooaeuei?noue ? iaaeinoaoiy iaoeiaa ?ic?iaeai?noue i?iaeaie coiiaeee
aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy – “I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano a e?oeayo Oe?a?ie (XIX – ia?oa iieiaeia XX no.)”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
A?aeia?aaeaiee o ?iaio? iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith eiiieaeno i?ia?ai iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? oa iiooeiai?
ae?yeueiino? Oa?iii?euenueeiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, cie?aia a?aeiia?aea? ieaio ?iaioe i?iaeaiii?
iaoeiai? a?oie “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae i?aeaioiaee ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
ae?oe a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao”.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy: ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee i?ioeano iaa/aiiy a
e?oeayo Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii X?X – ia?oi? iieiaeie XX no.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: anoaiiaeoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
a?o/eciyieo e?oea?a o eiioaeno? iniaeeainoae i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano, i?iaiae?coaaoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe i?aai?caoe?ei? canaaee,
ci?no ? iai?yiee e?oeaeii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aoee aecia/ai? ianooii? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aeyaeoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?, noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oa
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae iiyae ? ?icaeoeo e?oea?a a
Oe?a?i?;

— ?ice?eoe ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aniaeo oi?ioaaiiy ci?noo
e?oeaeii? ina?oe;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe caaaeaiiy, ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
a a?o/eciyieo e?oeayo o eiioaeno? aeei?enoaiiy ?a?iiaenueeeo
ina?oi?o o?aaeeoe?e;

— ?ic?iaeoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe ia??iaeecaoe?th ?noi??? ?icaeoeo
e?oea?a a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue oai??y iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy, caaaeueiio?einionuee? iieiaeaiiy i?i aca?iica’ycie oa
aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue yaeu o noni?euenoa?, i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio,
aeaoa?i?i?cio, iaoeiaino?, nenoaiiino?, eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ?aeay i??i?eoaoii? ?ie? ina?oe a
oeueiio i?ioean?.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo ?noi?ee?a
Ae.Aei?ioaiea, ?.Ia??iea, I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, I.Noaoaeueiiai,
iaoeia? i?aoe? c i?iaeai ?noi??? ina?oe (Aaneeaiei I.,
Aeaieeaae/-Cae?inueea I., Eo?eye ?., Eiioo?anueea A., Iioethe A.,
Nooia?ee A.).

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeei?enoaii
oae? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: aea/aiiy oa aiae?c aeaea?ae ? iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e (?o eeaneo?eaoe?y, oeiieia?caoe?y ? iiaeaethaaiiy),
ii??aiyeueii-c?noaaiee aiae?c iaa/aeueieo ieai?a ? i?ia?ai, oe?eueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, nenoaiaoecaoe?y oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue oiiaee Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a), Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao o Eueaia?, Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao
Oa?iii?euenueei? iaeano?, a?aeae?eo noa?iae?oe?a Oeaio?aeueii?
iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee IAI Oe?a?ie ?i. A.Aa?iaaenueeiai,
Euea?anueei? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee IAI Oe?a?ie ?i. A.Noaoaieea, iaoeiai?
a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.O.Oaa/aiea,
a?ae?ioaee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(oiiae E?aiaiaoeueeiai e?oeath). Aeei?enoaii oaeiae noaoenoe/i?
a?aeiiino?, ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a, ca?oe i?i ae?yeuei?noue e?oea?a
Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia ? iaaeaaia?/ia
i?ana, iaoa??aee iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, aeia?aeeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/ia
e?oa?aoo?a, ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cia/ia /anoeia
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, ?ioeo ia?oiaeaea?ae oia?oa aaaaeaia a iaoeiaee
ia?a, ui aeaei ciiao cae?enieoe ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c icia/aii? i?iaeaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue o o?e aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1995 – 1996 ??.) cae?enithaaany aea?? ia’?eoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aany nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie,
a?aeaoaaeiny caaaeueia iciaeiieaiiy c aeaea?aeaie ? iaoeiaith
e?oa?aoo?ith.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1996 – 1997 ??.) eiie?aoecoaaeeny oaia, iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, o?eaaei ii?aoethaaiiy
aeaea?ae oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e. C?a?ai? aeai?
nenoaiaoecoaaeenue, ocaaaeueithaaeenue.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1998 – 1999 ??.) ai?iaiaoaaeeny ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, inienethaaeeny oa ocaaaeueithaaeeny io?eiai? oi?iaeiaae
iiia?aaei?o aoai?a aeai?, iaa?oioiaoaaeeny aeniiaee, ioi?iethaaeany
aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa oa aaoi?aoa?ao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o
oiio, ui:

— cae?eniaii nenoaiiee aiae?c ae?yeueiino? e?oea?a a ?noi???
a?o/eciyii? oeiee;

— a?aeoai?aii niaoeeo?eo ?icaeoeo e?oeaeii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? XIX —
ia?oi? iieiaeie XX noie?oue, aecia/aii aieiai? oaiaeaioe?? oeueiai
i?ioeano, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii eiai ia??iaeecaoe?th;

— aeyaeaii iaeaaaeeea?o? iniaeeaino? ci?noo ina?oe, oi?ie, i?eioeeie ?
iaoiaee iaa/aiiy a e?oeayo Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, ye?
i?eoaiaii? caeeaaeai ae?oa?iiai oeio;

— aaaaeaii o iaoeiaee ia?a iiaee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, yeee aea? ciiao
noai?eoe ia’?eoeaia oyaeaiiy i?i caeiiii??iino? ? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene
ae?yeueiino? e?oea?a o nenoai? a?o/eciyii? ina?oe XIX – ia?oi? iieiaeie
XX noie?oue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oei, ui ii?aoeueiaaiee ?
ocaaaeueiaiee iaoa??ae, iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee ni?eyoeiooue caa?aaeaiith
? ia?aaea/? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo. Aiie iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e /eoaii? eo?n?a iaaeaaia?ee, ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee,
a?o/eciyii? ?noi??? o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, i?iaaaeaii?
niaoeeo?n?a c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe, i?e iaienaii?
iaa/aeueieo i?ae?o/iee?a oa iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a, o i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? o/eoae?a na?aaei?o caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, a oaeiae i?e
i?aai?caoe?? e?oea?a.

A??ia?aei?noue ? iaa?oioiaai?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/othoueny iaoiaeieia?/iith ? oai?aoe/iith iniiaith eiai
aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue, canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo
iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai iiooeo a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ? caaaeaiue
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aeei?enoaiiyi oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace,
e?euee?niei oa ye?niei aiae?cii c?a?aiiai iaoa??aeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo , i?aeaoc?anueeeo
iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, oaeeo ye “Iaoe?iiaeueia
oeiea Oe?a?ie: caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo” (Oa?iii?eue,
1996), “Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae ?icaeoeo oai?/eo cae?aiinoae
iniaenoino?” (Oa?iii?eue, 1998), “I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano a a?iiac?yo Oe?a?ie” (Oa?iii?eue, 1998). Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe. Iaienaia ia iniia? iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiieo?nia ?iaioa aoea a?aecia/aia aeeieiiii ca ia?aiiao
a ?? Anaoe?a?inueeiio eiieo?n? ?iai? A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai ia e?au?
nooaeaionuee? oa ani??aionuee? ?iaioe o aaeoc? noni?eueieo oa
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe, i?aai?ciaaiiio iaoeiaei aeo?iaeii “Iie?oe/ia
aeoiea” oa ?inoeoooii iinoeiioi?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa (Ee?a, 1997).
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? ? /eoaii?
iaa/aeueiiai eo?no c ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee oa noai?aii? iocath “?noi??y
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee” a Oa?iii?euenueeiio aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ?inoeooo?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? o ainueie
ioae?eaoe?yo: 1 iiiia?ao?? oa 7 noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeaea?ae oa
iniiaii? aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (232 iiceoe??, c ieo 51 ?iicaiiith
iiaith), 21 aeiaeaoeo. O oaeno? i?noeoueny 13 oaaeeoeue, 3 noaie, 6
ae?aa?ai, 2 a?ao?ee. Ianya ?iaioe — 207 noi??iie, iniiaia /anoeia
— 163 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EIIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo oa caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, iaoiaee e iniiai? aoaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi aeaea?aeueio aaco, aeiaaaeaii iaoeiao
iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, a??ia?aei?noue ?
iaa?oioiaai?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i
ai?iaaoe?th io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i? iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy
e?oeaeii? ina?oe” ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oeeo
caeeaae?a o ?a?ii? a?ae iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei no/aniino?,
aiae?cothoueny nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae iiyae ? ?icaeoeo
e?oea?a a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii O?O no.

C iaoith iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oa aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a e?oeayo ?icaeyiooi ?noi?e/iee aniaeo
oi?ioaaiiy e?oeaeii? ina?oe. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?icaeoie e?oea?a a
Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii icia/aiiai ia??iaeo ? ia’?eoeaii coiiaeaiei,
caeiiii??iei ? oe?e?niei i?ioeanii, yeee iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe
a eiioaeno? oi?ioaaiiy caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeeo o?aaeeoe?e e?oeaeii?
ina?oe. Aecia/aiiy oaeiai i?aeoiaeo coiiaeei anaa?/iee aiae?c
aeeaeaeoe/ieo iniia i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a e?oeayo.

O aeine?aeaeaii? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ii/aoie O?O no. noaa
ae??oaeueiei aoaiii ooaa?aeaeaiiy e?oea?a iiai? aeiae,
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy yeeo aoei coiiaeaia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa
eoeueoo?ieie ci?iaie a ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao. A?aeiia?aeii aei
aeyaeaieo iniaeeainoae i?ioeano ?icaeoeo e?oeaeii? ina?oe
anoaiiaeaii, ui o nenoai? ina?oe e?oea? aeeiioaaee ??ci?
ooieoe??: iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai aeaaeai?/iiai oeaio?o (e?eae
A??noioaey), ae?oa?ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a i?aeaeuaiiai oeio
(Oai?nueea ei?ie?anoai, ?in?enueea ?iia??y o OV???-O?O no.),
aeueo oe?e aeey ae?a/ao (Aano?i-Oai?ueia, I?ia//eia, Aaeuea?y a
O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no.), iniiaiiai oeio caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
na?aaeiuei? oeiee (?oae?y, Iieueua, O?aioe?y, O?ieyiae?y,
Ii?ooaae?y, A?aoe?y, ?oioi?y) oa na?aaei?o i?ioan?eieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a (Iieueua, ?oioi?y, O?aioe?y oa ?i.).

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ? ni?anoaaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo ieai?a
?a?iiaenueeeo e?oea?a O?O-OO noie?oue anoaiiaeaii, ui oae?
caeeaaee /anoi a?aecia/aeeny aenieei, iaaeeaeaiei aei
oi?aa?neoaonueeiai, ??aiai ci?noo ina?oe, o?eaaeee /an ii?yae c
oi?aa?neoaoaie aeeiioaaee ooieoe?? oeaio??a i?aeaioiaee
?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe noni?euenoaa, oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny i???ioaoe??th
ia ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy oa
aoiai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy, i??i?eoaoii iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
e?oea?no?a, iayai?noth iaiao?aeieo oiia aeey ?icaeoeo ?o oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae.

O ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui a?aenooi?noue aeanii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaae iaaaoeaii aieeioea ia eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e noai
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, noaea aieiaiei /eiieeii iioe?aiiy
nenoai oe?eueieoeoaa ?iicaiiiai c?acea (aano??enueei?,
?in?enueei?). A oiiaao i?iaaaeaiiy ia ii/aoeo O?O no.
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i a ?in??, ooo, c iaoith ?ica’ycaiiy
?nioth/eo i?iaeai na?aaeiuei? oa aeui? ina?oe, a?aee?eaathoueny
iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee c iniaeeaei noaoonii — e?oea? ? a?iiac??
aeueo iaoe.

Aaaaoee aeina?ae ?icaoaeiae a?o/eciyii? na?aaeiuei? ? aeui?
ina?oe, eiai i?aai?caoe?eio ?aei?noue ?c o?aaeeoe?yie ?icaeoeo
?a?iiaenueei? oeiee, ie ?icaeyaea?ii ye iaeei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
oaeoi??a oiai, ui ?c oanoe iaea?eueo a?aeiieo e?oea?a
?in?enueei? ?iia??? ieioeiai noie?ooy iieiaeia ae?yea ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie: ??oaeue?anueeee a Iaean? (noaoon e?oeath a?ae
1817 aei 1865 ??.), Aieeinueeee a E?aiaioe? (1818-1833 ??.) ?
eiycy Aacai?iaeueea a I?aeei? (1832-1875 ??.).

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia oa, ui niaoeeo?ea
ae?yeueiino? e?oea?a Oe?a?ie O?O no., ye? ae?yee a nenoai?
?in?enueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa, aecia/aeanue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?ie iio?aaaie oeo ?aa?ii?a, ye? aiie
i?aaenoaaeyee: E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie (I?aeeinueeee e?oeae),
I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie (??oaeue?anueeee e?oeae), Aieei? oa
I?aaiaa?aaeaey (E?aiaiaoeueeee e?oeae). E?oea? ia noaee iniiaiei,
ianiaei oeiii iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ?, ia a?aei?io a?ae
ia?ao?aeueieo ? iia?oiaeo o/eeeu, a oaeiae a?iiac?e oa
oi?aa?neoao?a, ia io?eiaee /?oei aecia/aiiai i?noey a iia?e
nenoai? ina?oe. Aieiaieie e?eoa??yie, ye? aecia/aee iniaeeaee
noaooo e?oea?a Oe?a?ie icia/aiiai ia??iaeo, aoee: ii?aeiaiiy ?en
na?aaeiuei? oa aeui? oeiee, iayai?noue i?aai?caoe?eieo canaae
iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo ae?oa?iiai oeio. I?aeaiooaaaoe aaaaoueio
aecia/ieo a iaeaooiueiio ae?y/?a iaoee, iie?oeee, ina?oe ?
eoeueoo?e, ??oaeue?anueeee, I?aeeinueeee oa E?aiaiaoeueeee e?oea?
oni?oii aeeiioaaee aaaeeeaa caaaeaiiy — aiooaaee ?ioaeaeooaeueio
ae?oo noni?euenoaa.

O ?iaio? a?aeia?aaeaii aieea ae?yeueiino? e?oea?a ia noai?aiiy
ia?aaeoiia aeey oi?ioaaiiy ia ?o iniia? iiaeo ina?aaee?a aeui?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i?. Aecia/aii, ui aiie ?icaeaaeeny ca ianooiiith
iine?aeiai?noth o?ueio ina?oi?o ??ai?a (a?iiac?y aeueo iaoe —
e?oeae — oi?aa?neoao) ? aoee a ??ciee /an ia?aoai?ai? ia aeu?
iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee: ??oaeue?anueeee e?oeae — ia Iaeanueeee
oi?aa?neoao, I?aeeinueeee — ia iaeiieiaiiee ?noi?eei-o?eieia?/iee
?inoeooo, a ia iniia? E?aiaiaoeueeiai e?oeath aoa a?aee?eoee
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao na. Aieiaeeie?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeeaeaeoe/i? iniiae i?aai?caoe?? e?oeaeii?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.”
?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ci?noo ina?oe a e?oeayo
Oe?a?ie, ye? ae?yee a oiiaao nenoaie oe?eueieoeoaa ?in?enueei?
?iia???, a?aeia?aaeai? aieiai? oaiaeaioe?? i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a e?oeayo Aaee/eie.

Anaa?/iee aiae?c iaa/aeueieo ieai?a, i?ia?ai oa i?ae?o/iee?a
aeicaieea aecia/eoe ye niaoeeo?/i? ?ene ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?
ie?aieo caeeaae?a, oae ? caaaeuei? iniaeeaino? ci?noo ina?oe
e?oea?a Oe?a?ie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey e?oea?a, ye? ae?yee a oiiaao ?in?enueei?
nenoaie ina?oe, aoee i?eoaiaii? ni?euei? ? a?aei?ii? ?ene ye
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano caaaeii, oae ? ci?noo ina?oe
cie?aia (?en.1).

?en.1. Noaia ci?noo ina?oe a e?oeayo Oe?a?ie (O?O no.).

Oiiai? iicia/aiiy:

I — iai?yi ci?noo ina?oe I — i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/iee

A — caaaeueiiaoiai?oa?iee A — aeiiii?/iee

TH — noni?eueii-th?eaee/iee I — iaaeaaia?/iee O — o?eieia?/iee

Caeiiii??iino? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? I?aeeinueeiai e?oeath
aecia/aeeny oei, ui, i?aai?ciaaiee ?c a?iiac?? aoiai?oa?iiai
iai?yio, a?i aoa aeuei niaoe?aeueiei iaa/aeueiei caeeaaeii
nii/aoeo i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/iiai, a i?ci?oa th?eaee/iiai
i?io?eth. A?aecia/aii oa?aeoa?ia ia?aaaaeaiiy ooo
i?aeoe/ii-oaoiaiai eiiiiiaioa iaa/aiiy iaae caaaeueiiina?oi?i, a
oaeiae ?aaeueiiai iaae eeane/iei. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ci?noo,
oi?i ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy aeiaiaeeoueny, ui a I?aeeinueeiio
e?oea? aoea ?ic?iaeaia ? ae?yea nai???aeia iaoiaeeea
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai ae?aaiinooaaiiy iniaenoino? o/i?a, yea
ni?eyea ?icaeoeo ?o ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae.

O aeine?aeaeaii? iieacaii, ui E?aiaiaoeueeee e?oeae, ia a?aei?io
a?ae I?aeeinueeiai, aoa yne?aaei c?aceii caaaeueiiina?oiueiai
iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo aoiai?oa?iiai oeio. sse aeaeii ?c ae?aa?aie
cia?aaeaii? ia ?en. 2, oea, ianaiia?aae, noinoaaeiny ieae/iai
a?aeae?eo, aea ia iaieiae?iiy ciaiiyie, ai?iiyie oa iaae/eaie ?c
aeenoeeie?i aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo a?aeaiaeeeiny 90% iaa/aeueiiai
/ano (c ieo 85% — ia iiaio i?aeaioiaeo). Iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy
iia iaei ia iao? noeioethaaiiy a o/i?a i?ioyaii ia?oiai
ia??iaeo iaa/aiiy iai’yo? ye ia?oiiniiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy a
iiaeaeueoiio ?ioeo i?ciaaaeueieo cae?aiinoae.

?en. 2. I?io?eue ina?oe a E?aiaiaoeueeiio e?oea? (20-o? ??.O?O no.)

Oiiaii iicia/ai? ina?oi? i?io?e?:

O — o?eieia?/ii-aoiai?oa?iee

N — noni?eueii-aoiai?oa?iee

I — i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/iee

Iaa/aeueiee ieai E?aiaiaoeueeiai e?oeath a?aecia/aany /?oeith
no?oeoo?ith ? a?aeia?aaeaa caaaeueio aeeaeaeoe/io no?aoaa?th ia
iine?aeiaia aeieiaa canai?iiy i?ia?aiiiai iaoa??aeo. sseui o/i?
/ioe?ueio eean?a ieae/iai a?aeae?eo aea/aee iaei? ? o? ae
aeenoeeie?ie, oi eiaeai ?c o?ueio eo?n?a aeuiai a?aeae?eo iaa
naith i?aaeiaoio niaoe?ae?caoe?th.

I?iaiae?ciaaii oaeiae aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?
??oaeue?anueeiai e?oeath, aeey yei? oa?aeoa?iei aoa iinooiiaee
ia?ao?ae a?ae canaae a?iiac?eiiai iaa/aiiy aei ooaa?aeaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae oi?aa?neoaonueeiai ci?noo ina?oe. A?aecia/aii, ui,
yeui i?ioyaii ia?oiai ia??iaeo ?nioaaiiy (1817-1837 ??.)
??oaeue?anueeee e?oeae aeaaaa na?aaeith aoiai?oa?io i?aeaioiaeo,
oi i?ae /an ianooiiiai (1837-1865 ??.) a?i ia?aoai?eany ia aeuee
iaa/aeueiee caeeaae aaaaoii?io?eueii? ina?oiuei? niaoe?ae?caoe??.

Aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia i???ioaoe?? ci?noo iaa/aiiy a e?oeayo ia
?a?iiaenuee? ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/i? o?aaeeoe??, o eiioaeno? /iai
ie aeae?ey?ii ianooii? aniaeoe, a yeeo ii?aeioaaeeny
iniaeeaino?, i?eoaiaii? aeey ci?noo ina?oe e?oea?a Oe?a?ie oa
?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa ieioeiai noie?ooy:

— ni?yiiaai?noue ia i?aeaioiaeo ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe
noni?euenoaa;

— aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iaa/aiiy;

— aoiai?caoe?y ina?oe, ?? i???ioaoe?y ia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? oi?ie
iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae??;

— aenieee, iaaeeaeaiee aei oi?aa?neoaonueeiai, ??aaiue iaa/aeueieo
ieai?a ? i?ia?ai;

— i?io?eueia niaoe?ae?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano;

— ii?aeiaiiy eeane/ii? oa ?aaeueii? ina?oe;

— i??i?eoao aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i, ye? oi?iothoue aeooiaio noa?o
iniaenoino?, ?icaeaathoue ?? oai?/o iaaea?iaai?noue.

O ?icae?e? anaa?/ii aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue aaeeoeueeeo
e?oea?a, ye? ooieoe?iioaaee a oiiaao aano??enueei? nenoaie
oe?eueieoeoaa i?ioyaii O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. Iieacaii, ui, ye ?
a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???, e?oea? Aaee/eie ia noaee iniiaiei oeiii
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, a iaee iniaeeaee noaoon. Ia
i?aenoaa? aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a on?
aaeeoeuee? e?oea? icia/aiiai ia??iaeo ie iiae?ey?ii ia o?e
a?oie:

1) /ieia?/? e?oea? ia?oi? iieiaeie O?O no.;

2) Euea?anueeee e?oeae (1805-1817 ??.);

3) ae?ii/? e?oea? ii/aoeo OO no.

*ieia?/? e?oea? Aaee/eie ia?oi? iieiaeie O?O no. aeeiioaaee
ooieoe?? aeueo aoiai?oa?ieo oe?e aeey thiae?a ? ii?aeioaaee
o?einionueea oa oaieia?/ia a?aeae?eaiiy c aeai??/iei eo?nii
iaa/aiiy. Caeiath/e ca ina?oi?i nooiaiai i?ii?aeia noaiiaeua i?ae
a?iiac??th oa oi?aa?neoaoii, oe? caeeaaee oiniaethaaee c?acie
ae?oa?ieo oe?e.

O eiioaeno? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano Euea?anueeee
e?oeae, yeee aeiee aiane?aeie oei/aniai? ?ai?aai?caoe??
iaeii?iaiiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, cia/ii a?ae??ciyany a?ae ?ioeo,
?nioth/eo o oie /an aano??enueeeo e?oea?a. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy 4
a?aeae?eaiue, 18 eaoaae?, oe?iea caeo/aiiy aei aeeeaaeaoeueei?
?iaioe i?ioani??a oa aeieoi??a iaoe, ?aeaioe/i?noue iaa/aeueieo
ieai?a ? i?ia?ai th?eaee/iiai oa oaieia?/iiai a?aeae?eaiue c
aiaeia?/ieie ieaiaie ? i?ia?aiaie oi?aa?neoaonueeeo oaeoeueoao?a —
ona oea aecia/aei niaoeeo?eo i?aai?caoe?? ooo iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano ? noaei ia’?eoeaiith ia?aaeoiiaith a?aeiiaeaiiy o 1817
?. ia aac? e?oeath Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaeiei ?c iane?aee?a iie?oeee aano??enueeiai o?yaeo a aaeoc?
?icaoaeiae ae?ii/iai oe?eueieoeoaa noaea iiyaa a Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo
OO no. i?eaaoieo e?oea?a — iaiiaieo na?aaei?o ina?oi?o caeeaae?a
aeey ae?a/ao ?c oanoe??/iei eo?nii iaa/aiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aenieiai ??aiy oai?aoe/ia aoiai?oa?ia i?aeaioiaea aaeeoeueeeo
e?oea?noie iaea /?oeo i???ioaoe?th ia i?aeoe/i? iio?aae
noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oaeineiiaeaiiy oai??? ? i?aeoeee iaa/aiiy
a e?oeayo cao?aeieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie (1920-1939 ??.)” caa?oa?oueny
oaaaa ia iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
e?oeayo, ye? ae?yee a i?aeai?iiee /an o nenoai? ina?oe
Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae.

Aiae?cothoueny iieiaeaiiy ?aoi?ie ina?oe a Iieueu? a?ae 11 n?/iy
1932 ?. Aecia/aii, ui aieiaiei aniaeoii iiai? ?aoi?ie aoea
?ai?aai?caoe?y na?aaeiueiai oe?eueieoeoaa, a iaeiei ?c iaoai?ci?a
?? ?aae?caoe?? — cai?iaaaeaeaiiy e?oea?a ye ?aeeieo caeeaae?a,
ui aa?aiooaaee io?eiaiiy iiaii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe. ?aoi?ia
oi?eioeany on?o a?eie iieuenueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa:
caaaeueiiina?oiueiai, oaoiaiai oa iaaeaaia?/iiai. Aiane?aeie ??
?aae?caoe?? ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo (Aaee/eia ? Aieeiue)
ii/aee ae?yoe caaaeueiiina?oi? na?aaei? oeiee aeaio nooiai?a:

1) /ioe?e??/ia a?iiac?y aai iaea a?iiac?y;

2) aeai??/iee e?oeae.

O ?icae?e? aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia iaaaoeaieo aniaeoao aieeao
?aoi?ie ia ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa a ?aa?ii?.
Io?oe?eio iiceoe?th Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae noiniaii ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe a?aeia?aaea? ieae/aiiaeaia
ae?aa?aia (?en. 3), yea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oiai/anio i???ioaoe?th ia
?icaoaeiao i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a oe?eueieoeoaa iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei.

?en. 3 Ae?aa?aia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?eaaoieo ? aea?aeaaieo e?oea?a
o Iieueu? (1937-1938 ??.)

Oiiai? iicia/aiiy:

I — i?eaaoi? Ae — aea?aeaai?

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a 1937-1938 iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe? i?e 24
oe?a?inueeeo a?iiac?yo Aaee/eie ? Aieei? ii/aa ae?yoe 21
caaaeueiiina?oi?e e?oeae (onueiai a Iieueu? aoei a?aee?eoi 691
oaeee caeeaae). Aiae?c noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo aeicaieea eiinoaooaaoe
e?eciaee noai oe?a?inueei? na?aaeiuei? oeiee a Iieuenuee?e
aea?aeaa?. sseui ca ia?aienii ianaeaiiy a 1931 ?. oe?a?ioe?
noaiiaeee 14% a?ae caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? aeeoae?a Iieueu?, oi
aiaeia?/ia /anoea iaoe?iiaeueieo na?aaei?o oe?e (a?iiac?e ?
e?oea?a) — eeoa 3%.

O ?iaio? aecia/aii iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i? ?ene ina?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo e?oea?a o 1937-1939 ??. Ii-ia?oa, e?oea?
aoee aeuei nooiaiai na?aaeiuei? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee c
aeai??/iei oa?i?iii iaa/aiiy ? aeaaaee i?aai caeiaoooy aeui?
ina?oe. On? aiie ae?yee i?e /ioe?e??/ieo caaaeueiiina?oi?o
a?iiac?yo, noaiiaeee c inoaii?ie i?aai?caoe?eio ?aei?noue
(na?aaeiy oanoe??/ia oeiea), aea th?eaee/ii aoee ie?aieie
iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie.

Ii-ae?oaa, e?oea? a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? 30-o ?ie?a
aoee ?aeeieie caaaeueiiina?oi?ie oeieaie, o yeeo i?aeoeeoaaeany
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano oa i?io?eueia
niaoe?ae?caoe?y ci?noo ina?oe /ioe?ueio iai?yi?a: eeane/iiai,
aoiai?oa?iiai, o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiai oa i?e?iaeie/iai.

Ii-o?ao?, iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano a oe?a?inueeeo e?oeayo aoei iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy
iieiae? oa iiioey?ecaoe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?. ? oi/a oe?
caeeaaee e aoee i?aai?ciaai? ca i?eioeeiaie caaaeueiiiieuenueeiai
oe?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ona ae aiie ?acii ?c a?iiac?yie, i?e
yeeo ae?yee, a oiiaao ?aaeoe?eii? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? iie?oeee
Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae aeeiioaaee i?n?th ina?aaee?a oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?no ina?oe a oiai/anieo
caaaeueiiina?oi?o e?oeayo aecia/aany ni?a?aeiioaiiyi nooiaiy
aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?i aoiai?oa?iiai oa i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/iiai
oeeeeo i?e caa?aaeaii? caaaeueiiai ia?aaaaeaiiy eiai aoiai?oa?ii?
iniiae. Aeii?ioaaiiy oaei? oaiaeaioe?? a?aeia?aaea? ?en. 4.

?en. 4. Ci?no ina?oe a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caaaeueiiina?oi?o
e?oeayo (1937-1939 ??.)

Oiiaii iicia/ai? i?aaeiaoe:

A — aoiai?oa?i?

I-I — i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/i?

? — ?io? (?ae?a?y oa a?enueeiai-nii?oeai?)

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo iieaciee?a
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo e?oea?a i?iaaaeaii ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th.
Onueiai ooieoe?iioaaei 5 aea?aeaaieo ? 16 i?eaaoieo caeeaae?a
oaeiai oeio c oe?a?inueeith iiaith iaa/aiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei
ia?aaaaeath/iai eiiiiiaioo ci?noo ina?oe o 20 ?c ieo ae?yee
aoiai?oa?i? a?aeae?ee, o 7 — i?e?iaeie/?, ua o 4 —
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/i? ? eeane/i?.

O ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny iaa/aeuei? ieaie, i?ia?aie, i?ae?o/ieee;
aecia/ai? aieiai? i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a
oe?a?inueeeo caaaeueiiina?oi?o ? oaoiaeo e?oeayo. Anoaiiaeaii
nooi?noue ia?aaeoiia, ye? aecia/eee iaiiaeeea?noue i?aai?caoe??
oe?a?inueeeo iaaeaaia?/ieo e?oea?a. Anaa?/ii i?iaiae?ciaaii
??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? o 1920-1939 ??. E?aiaiaoeueeiai
e?oeath, ?ice?eoi niaoeeo?eo eiai noaoono ye oi?eaeueiiai
ina?oiueiai eiiieaeno.

O aeine?aeaeaii? iieacaii, ui o i?aeai?iiee /an ia oa?aiao
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie aoea noi?iiaaia aoaeoeaia nenoaia na?aaeiueiai
oe?eueieoeoaa e?oeaeiiai oeio. Ooo ae?yee iieuenuee? (1920-1939
??.) oa oe?a?inuee? (1935-1939 ??.) e?oea? a Aaee/ei? ?
Aieei?, a oaeiae ooieoe?iioaaea ia?aaea ?oioinueeeo e?oea?a ia
oa?eoi??? Aoeiaeie (1920-1940 ??.). A inoaii?e ia?aaeai?iiee ??e
aoei ?ic?iaeaii i?iaeo cai?iaaaeaeaiiy e?oea?a ia Caea?iaoo?.

Aaiacen i??i?eoaoieo oaiaeaioe?e i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo e?oeayo aecia/aany, ianaiia?aae, iiaeeaeaiith
aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano oa i?io?eueiith
niaoe?ae?caoe??th ci?noo ina?oe. Aaaeeeaeie oaiaeaioe?yie
ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? e?oea?a aoee: i???ioaoe?y ia oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo a e?oea?no?a, iaae/ie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei?,
iiooeiai? oa oai?/i? ?iaioe; iino?eiee iiooe oa ?ioaineaia
canoinoaaiiy iiaeo oi?i, iaoiae?a oa iai?yi?a iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano.

I?iaaaeaia ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? i?aenoaae aeey
oaeeo aeniiae?a:

1. Aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie e?oea?a a Oe?a?i? aoee ia’?eoeaii
coiiaeai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie, iie?oe/ieie,
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieie ia?aaeoiiaaie, ye? neeaaeaeeny a
noni?euenoa? i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. Iiceoeaio ?ieue
a?ae?a?aee iayai?noue aaaaoeo ina?oiuei-iaaeaaia?/ieo o?aaeeoe?e
oe?a?ioe?a, i?eoaiaiieo ?i o XVI-OVII? no., a oaeiae i?iaaaeaiiy
?yaeo i?ia?aneaieo ?aoi?i o aea?aeaaao, aei neeaaeo yeeo
aoiaeeee oe?a?inuee? caie?.

2. I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy e?oea?a a Oe?a?i? iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe a
eiioaeno? ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeeo ina?oi?o
o?aaeeoe?e. Iniaeeai /?oeee i?iya oaea oaiaeaioe?y iaea o noa??
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai aecia/ai?
i??i?eoaoe a?o/eciyii? e?oeaeii? ina?oe, iaeaaaeeea?oeie na?aae
yeeo ?: iiaeeaeaia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano;
i?io?eueia niaoe?ae?caoe?y ci?noo ina?oe; aoiai?caoe?y iaa/aiiy;
oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a
iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae??; ii?aeiaiiy eiiiiiaio?a eeane/ii? oa
?aaeueii? ina?oe; i???ioaoe?y ia aea/aiiy i?aaeiao?a, ye?
oi?iothoue aeooiaio noa?o iniaenoino?, ?icaeaathoue ?? oai?/o
iaaea?iaai?noue; aenieee ??aaiue iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

3. Niaoeeo?ea ?icaeoeo e?oea?a i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo
caeaaeaea a?ae ?ie? oeeo caeeaae?a ye iiooaeieo ina?aaee?a
iaoeiaiai oa ina?oiueiai aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa,
aecia/aeany aeeiiaiiyi ieie ooieoe?? oeaio??a i?aeaioiaee
?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?oe. Aaaaoia?aiia ae?yeuei?noue e?oea?a, ui
?nioaaee ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a O?O — ia?o?e iieiaei? OO
noie?oue, aoea ?acoeueoaoii ?ioaa?aoe?? ??cieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
eoeueoo? ? iaea aaaeeeaee iiceoeaiee aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy
a?o/eciyieo o?aaeeoe?e na?aaeiuei? ? aeui? oeiee.

4. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ci?noo ina?oe a na?aaeiaeu? oe?a?inueeeo
e?oea?a aoee coiiaeai? aeii?ioth/eie iio?aaaie noni?euenoaa,
ciaoiaeeee na?e i?iya o ii?aeiaii? canai?iiy aoiai?oa?ieo,
i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/ieo oa ienoaoeueei-anoaoe/ieo aeenoeeie?i,
aecia/aeeny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi caaaeueiiina?oiuei?, i?aeoe/ii-oaoiai?
oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? i?aeaioiaee e?oea?no?a, a oaeiae
i???ioaoe??th ia oai?/ee ?icaeoie iniaenoino? o/iy.

5. ?noi??th ?icaeoeo e?oea?a a Oe?a?i? iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia
i’youe iniiaieo ia??iae?a:

1) ia??iae ae?oa?ieo e?oea?a (1805-1875 ??.);

2) ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae (1875-1920 ??.);

3) i?aeai?iiee ia??iae cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo e?oea?a (1920-1939
??.);

4) ia??iae caai?iie e?oea?a (1940-1990 ??.);

5) iia?oi?e ia??iae ?icaeoeo e?oea?a iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie (c 1990
?.).

Ci?no ia?oiai ia??iaeo a?aeia?aaeaiee, ianaiia?aae, o
ae?yeueiino? /ioe?ueio iaea?aeii?oeo ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie
e?oea?a: Euea?anueeiai (1805-1817 ??.), ??oaeue?anueeiai a
Iaean? (1817-1865 ??.), E?aiaiaoeueeiai (1818-1833 ??.) oa
I?aeeinueeiai (1832-1875 ??.). O oeae /an ae?yeuei?noue e?oea?a
aoea ni?yiiaaia ia ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai aeui? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.
Ca nai?i noaoonii oe? caeeaaee caeiaee i?ii?aeia noaiiaeua i?ae
a?iiac??th c iaeiiai aieo oa oi?aa?neoaoii c ?ioiai. Ii?yae c
Oa?e?anueeei, a i?ci?oa ? Ee?anueeei oi?aa?neoaoaie e?oea?
aeeiioaaee ooieoe?? iaeaaaeeea?oeo ina?aaee?a iaoeiai-ina?oiueiai
aeeooy ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

Oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie e?oea?a ae?oaiai ia??iaeo aoee
i??i?eoaoi?noue ?aaeueii? ina?oe, aoiai?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano, eiai i???ioaoe?y ia i?aeoe/i? iio?aae noni?euenoaa.
Aaaeeeaith iiae??th ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ? aeieeiaiiy ?
ae?yeuei?noue ia?oiai a ?noi??? a?o/eciyiiai oe?eueieoeoaa e?oeath
c oe?a?inueeith iiaith iaa/aiiy — i?eaaoiiai e?oeath oiaa?enoaa
“?onueeee ?inoeooo aeey ae?a/ao” o Ia?aieoe?.

I?ioyaii o?aoueiai ia??iaeo aiane?aeie ?aae?caoe?? oe?eueii?
?aoi?ie 1932 ?. a Iieueu? ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo
c’yaey?oueny oe?iea ia?aaea caaaeueiiina?oi?o, oaoiaeo oa
iaaeaaia?/ieo e?oea?a. O inoaii?e ia?aaeai?iiee ??e i?iaeo
noai?aiiy e?oea?a ia Caea?iaoo? aoa ?ic?iaeaiee o?yaeii iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae “Ea?iaonueea Oe?a?ia”. Iii?oiei yaeuai o?aoueiai
ia??iaeo ? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue E?aiaiaoeueeiai
e?oeath, a iniia? yei? aoea ?aae?ciaaia ?aeay ina?oiueiai
eiiieaeno iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Ae?yeuei?noue a oiiaao ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee oe?a?inueeeo e?oea?a
? a?iiac?e c ?o neeueieie iaoe?iiaeueieie o?aaeeoe?yie oa
i???ioaoe??th ia aeoiaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiinoae ? oai?/ee ?icaeoie
iniaenoinoae ia iaea aeiaeieo ia?niaeoea ? oe? caeeaaee aoee
caai?iiai?.

O 1990 ?. ?icii/aany iiaee, i’yoee ia??iae a ?noi??? ?icaeoeo
e?oea?a a Oe?a?i?. Iiee ui ?aii ?iaeoe aeniiaee oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy uiaei i?iaeaie iia?oi?o oe?a?inueeeo e?oea?a.
I?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ? ooaa?aeaeaiiy e?oeaeii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?
ua aeaeaeee a?ae caaa?oaiiy. Aea, ye iieaco? aeina?ae ?iaioe
caeeaae?a oaeiai oeio, e?oea? ia eeoa iathoue i?aai ia
?nioaaiiy, a e caeaoi? a?ae?a?aoe aaaeeeao ?ieue o iinooiaeuei?e
aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueei? ina?oe ? oeiee.

6. Aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie e?oea?a a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii O?O – ia?oi?
iieiaeie OO noie?oue ? caeiiii??iei, ia’?eoeaii coiiaeaiei oa
oe?e?niei i?ioeanii, ui a?aeaoaaany o eiioaeno? aeei?enoaiiy
e?aueo a?o/eciyieo ? ?a?iiaenueeeo ina?oi?o o?aaeeoe?e.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. E?oea? Oe?a?ie (O?O-OO no.) — Oa?iii?eue: E?eii, 1996. — 140 n.

2. Iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a a e?oeayo
Oe?a?ie O?O noie?ooy // Ina?oyiei. — 1998. — ? 2. — N.11-13.

3. Ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue a?aeiiaeaiiai E?aiaiaoeueeiai e?oeath
(1920-1939) // Ina?oyiei. — 1998. — ? 5. — N. 20-21.

4. Oe?a?inueea na?aaeiy oeiea Aaee/eie ? Aieei? a eiioaeno?
iniaeeainoae caaaeueiiina?oiueiai eiiieaeno “a?iiac?y-e?oeae” (30-o?
??. OO no.) // Ina?oyiei. — 1998. — ? 7. — N. 20-22.

5. Aeeaeaeoe/i? iniiae i?aai?caoe?? ae?ii/i? e?oeaeii? ina?oe a
Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo OO no. // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y 3: Iaaeaaia?ea ?
ineoieia?y.—1998.—? 5.—N.100-102.

6. E?oea? a Oe?a?i?: i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy // A?niee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?/ii?
ina?oe. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. — Oa?iii?eue,
1996. — N.9-10.

7. E?aiaiaoeueeee e?oeae a O?O no. // Oa?iii?eey-96. ?aa?iiaeueiee
??/iee. — Ei. 2.— Oa?iii?eue: Ca?o/, 1996. — N.162—167.

8. E?oea? a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? // Aeine?aeiee. Iaoeiaee aeo?iae.
— Oa?iii?eue: OA?II, e?oeae i.Oa?iiiiey. — 1997. —? 1. — N.7-9.

*oeei N.?. I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a e?oeayo Oe?a?ie
(O?O — ia?oa iieiaeia OO no.). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa
?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. — Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, Oa?iii?eue,1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiio aiae?co i?ioeano
?icaeoeo e?oea?a a Oe?a?i? i?ioyaii O?O — ia?oi? iieiaeie OO
noie?oue o eiioaeno? iniaeeainoae i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano. O ?iaio? a?aeoai?aii oe?e?nio ea?oeio oi?ioaaiiy
e?oeaeii? ina?oe ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, aeine?aeaeo?oueny aaiacen
ci?noo ina?oe, aecia/aii oaiaeaioe?? oa i??i?eoaoe i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aiiy a e?oeayo Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aea/aii?
?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee, o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? o/eoae?a na?aaei?o
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, i?e i?aai?caoe?? a?iiac?e, e?oea?a,
eieaaeae?a, ni?eyoeiooue caa?aaeaiith ? ia?aaea/?
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?oea?, iaa/aeueiee i?ioean, e?oeaeia ina?oa,
Oe?a?ia, ci?no ina?oe, ae?oa?i? oeiee.

*oeei N.?. I?aaiecaoeey o/aaiiai i?ioeanna a eeoeayo Oe?aeiu (O?O
— ia?aay iieiaeia OO a.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e
enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. — Oa?iiiieuenueeee ainoaea?noaaiiue
iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Aeaaeeie?a Aiaothea, Oa?iiiieue,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneiio aiaeeco i?ioeanna
?acaeoey eeoeaaa a Oe?aeia ia i?ioyaeaiee O?O — ia?aie iieiaeiu
OO aaeia a eiioaenoa iniaaiiinoae i?aaiecaoeee o/aaiiai
i?ioeanna. A ?aaioa ?ai?acaioe?iaaia iaeia ec ia?auo iiiuoie
ainnicaeaiey oeaeinoiie ea?oeiu oi?ie?iaaiey eeoeaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey ia oe?aeineeo caieyo ia i?ioyaeaiee enneaaeoaiiai
ia?eiaea, aiaeece?oaony aaiacen niaea?aeaiey ia?aciaaiey,
ii?aaeaeaiu oaiaeaioeee e i?ei?eoaou i?aaiecaoeee iao/aiey a
eeoeayo Oe?aeiu.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea “Enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe noaiiaeaiey
eeoeaeiiai ia?aciaaiey” enneaaeothony iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey
eeoeaaa a no?aiao Aa?iiu io aioe/iie yiioe aei nia?aiaiiinoe.
Ia iniiaaiee n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca o/aaiuo ieaiia e i?ia?aii
ii?aaeaeaiu oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou, ?ane?uaathuea nouiinoue aa?iiaeneiai
eeoeaeiiai ia?aciaaiey. A niioaaonoaee n aiaeecii auoaoeacaiiiai
i?ioeanna onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua ooieoeee eeoeaaa a ioaeaeueiuo
nenoaiao ia?aciaaiey ia ?aciuo yoaiao eo ?acaeoey:
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee aeaaeaie/aneee oeaio?, yeeoa?iia o/aaiia
caaaaeaiea iiauoaiiiai oeia, aunoay aeaineay oeiea, iniiaiie oei
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie n?aaeiae oeieu, n?aaeiaa i?ioanneiiaeueiia
o/aaiia caaaaeaiea e ae?. Aeoaiei i?iaiaeece?iaaiu enoi?e/aneea,
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea, iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea e
eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiua i?aaeiinueee aicieeiiaaiey eeoeaaa a
Oe?aeia, iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?ane?uoa eiae/aneay acaeiinaycue
iaaeaeo ioa/anoaaiiuie e aa?iiaeneeie o?aaeeoeeyie eeoeaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey. Eceaaaaony nooue i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo i?eioeeiia
aeayoaeueiinoe ioa/anoaaiiuo eeoeaaa i?ioeiai aaea,
ooieoeeiie?iaaaoeo a oneiaeyo nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie
eiia?ee: ?eoaeueaaneiai a Iaeanna, Aieuineiai a E?aiaioea e
aaeeineiai. Eae aeaaiua e?eoa?ee, ii?aaeaeythuea eo iniaaiiue noaoon,
?anniao?eaathony ni/aoaiea iniaaiiinoae n?aaeiae e aunoae oeieu,
iaee/ea i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ia/ae o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey yeeoa?iiai
oeia.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea “Aeeaeaeoe/aneea iniiau i?aaiecaoeee
eeoeaeiiai ia?aciaaiey a Oe?aeia ia i?ioyaeaiee O?O — a ia/aea
OO a.” ?anniao?eaathony iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey niaea?aeaiey
ia?aciaaiey a eeoeayo, aeaenoaothueo ia oe?aeineeo caieyo,
aoiaeyueo a ninoaa ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Iin?aaenoaii
n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca o/aaiuo ieaiia, i?ia?aii, o/aaieeia
ii?aaeaeaiu i?ei?eoaou ia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
?eoaeueaaneiai, E?aiaiaoeeiai e Iaaeeineiai eeoeaaa. Ioia/aaony,
oaeaea, i?eaioaoeey niaea?aeaiey ia?aciaaiey a yoeo caaaaeaieyo
ia o?aaeeoeee aa?iiaeneie oeieu, a /anoiinoe auaeaeaiu
neaaeothuea aniaeou, ?ane?uaathuea nooue eo aeayoaeueiinoe:
iai?aaeaiiinoue ia iiaeaioiaeo eioaeaeooaeueiie yeeou iauanoaa;
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey e i?ioeeueiay niaoeeaeecaoeey o/aaiiai i?ioeanna;
aoiaiecaoeey ia?aciaaiey, i?ei?eoao eco/aiey aeenoeeieei,
oi?ie?othueo aeooiaioth noa?o ee/iinoe, ?acaeaatho aa oai?/aneee
iioaioeeae. Ainnicaeaiu oaeaea aeaaiua oaiaeaioeee i?aaiecaoeee
o/aaiiai i?ioeanna a eeoeayo Aaee/eiu a eiioaenoa
ia?aciaaoaeueiie iieeoeee Aano?i-Aaiaa?neie iiia?oee (O?O — ia/aei
OO aaeia).

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea “Oniaa?oainoaiaaiea oai?ee e i?aeoeee
iao/aiey a eeoeayo caiaaeiuo iaeanoae Oe?aeiu (1920-1939 aa.)”
iniiaiia aieiaiea neiioeaio?e?iaaii ia inaauaiee ?acee/iuo
aniaeoia aeayoaeueiinoe caiaaeiioe?aeineeo iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo
eeoeaaa a oneiaeyo aeiieie?iaaiey iieueneie iaaeaeoaiaiiie nenoaiu
ia?aciaaiey. Eceiaeaiu eeth/aaua iieiaeaiey oeieueiie ?aoi?iu
1932 aiaea a Iieueoa, a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee eioi?ie eeoeae
noaiiayony iniiaiui oeiii iieiie n?aaeiae oeieu. I?iaaaeai
ananoi?iiiee aiaeec niaea?aeaiey, oi?i e iaoiaeia o/aaiiai
i?ioeanna a iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo caaaaeaieyo
oaeiai oeia n oe?aeineei ycueii iao/aiey. Ainnicaeaia niaoeeoeea
aeayoaeueiinoe a 1920-1939 aa. E?aiaiaoeeiai eeoeay eae
oieeaeueiiai ia?aciaaoaeueiiai eiiieaena. Ioia/athony aaaeiaeoea
oaiaeaioeee ioa/anoaaiiiai eeoeaeiiai ia?aciaaiey oiai a?aiaie, a
/anoiinoe, oaeea eae i?eaioaoeey ia oi?ie?iaaiea iaaueia
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie, iieneiaie e oai?/aneie ?aaiou
eeoeaenoia, oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea iiauo oi?i e iaoiaeia o/aaiiai
i?ioeanna.

A aeenna?oaoeee iineaaeiaaoaeueii ionoaeaaaony iieiaeaiea i oii,
/oi aicieeiiaaiea e ?acaeoea ia i?ioyaeaiee O?O — ia?aie
iieiaeiu OO aaeia ioa/anoaaiiuo eeoeaaa — caeiiiia?iue e
oeaeinoiue i?ioeann. ?ac?aaioaia e eceiaeaia ia?eiaeecaoeey
?acaeoey eeoeaeiiai ia?aciaaiey a Oe?aeia.

Iaoa?eaeu enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e eco/aiee
enoi?ee iaaeaaiaeee, a i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe o/eoaeae
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeie, i?e i?aaiecaoeee aeiiacee, eeoeaaa,
eieeaaeaeae, aoaeoo niinianoaiaaoue nio?aiaieth e ia?aaea/a
enoi?eei-iaaeaaiae/aneiai iiuoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeoeae, o/aaiue i?ioeann, eeoeaeiia ia?aciaaiea,
Oe?aeia, niaea?aeaiea ia?aciaaiey, yeeoa?iua oeieu.

Chuyko S.R. Organisation of teaching process in lycees of
Ukraine (XIX century — the first part of XX century). —
Manuscript.

The thesis fon a Candidate of pedagogics degree, speciality
13.00.01 — the theory and history of pedagogics. The V.Hnatyuk
State Pedagogical University of Ternopil, Ternopil, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to historical and pedagogical analysis
of the process of development of lycees in Ukraine during XIX
th and the first part of the XX th centuries. The whole
picture of creating liceum education on the Ukrainian Lands is
depicted in the work, also the thesis considers the genesis of
content aspect of education, determines the tendencies and
priorities of organisation of teaching process in lycees of
Ukraine.

The materials and conclusions drawn from the thesis may be
used in studying history of pedagogics, in teachers’ practical
activity in secondary schools, when organizing gymnasiums,
lycees, colleges, they will contribute to preservation and
transfering of historical and pedagogical experience.

Key words: lycees, teaching process, liceum education, Ukraine,
the concept of education, elite schools.

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