I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??

ssNA? OAIAI

OAeE 629.735.083.02/06(043.3)

Iioei?caoe?y i?ioean?a oaoi?/iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy

iia?o?yieo noaeai

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.22.14. — “Aenieoaoaoe?y iia?o?yiiai o?ainii?oo”

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeenna?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?aaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? oaoi?/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? e?oaeueieo aia?ao?a
oa aa?aaeaeaoi?a

Ee?anueeiai i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aa?noaoo oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee : eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ao?eaeia Aaaeei ?aaiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oa?ueioe?i Ieaenaiae? Ieaenaiae?iae/,

cai.aee?aeoi?a Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai

o/aiai-na?oeo?eaoe?eiiai oeaio?o
oeea?eueii?

aa?aoe??

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeieo???a Na?a?e Ieaen?eiae/

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aa?aoe?eieo
aeaeaoi?a

EIOOeA

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa : Ee?anueeee ?inoeooo AIN

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 15.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.062.03 i?e Ee?anueeiio
i?aeia?iaeiiio oi?aa?neoao? oeea?eueii? aa?aoe?? ca aae?anith: 252058,
i. Ee?a-58, i?iniaeo Einiiiaaoa Eiia?iaa 1, EIOOeA.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? EIOOeA.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” 05 . 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Caii?iaeaoeue I.?.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe : O ae??oaii? aieiaieo caaea/ OeA ii caaacia/aiith
aaciaee iieueio?a ? aeniei? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy AT i?ia?aeia
i?noea iaeaaeeoue nenoai? OI?? IN. Aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie OI?? IN aaaaoi
a /iio aecia/a?oueny aenieoaoaoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie AT, no?aoaa?yie
OI??, ye?noth i?iaaaeaiiy i?io?eaeoe/ieo ?ia?o, aeei?enoiaoaaieie
caniaaie ? iaoiaeaie eiio?ieth oa ae?aaiinooaaiiy ia’?eo?a aenieoaoaoe??
.

A i??o oneeaaeiaiiy eiino?oeoe?? IN, ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ae?iaie/eo
i?ioean?a, canoinoaaiiy iiaeo cania?a ? iaoiae?a eiio?ieth oaoi?/iiai
noaia ae?ia?a AT, ye?noue OI /eiaeae? neeuei?oa noaea aecia/aoeny
aeanoeainoyie ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo.

Ni?iae a?aoiaoaaoe ethaenueeee oaeoi? o?aaeeoe?eii a?aeiineeeny aei
?iaioe eueioiiai ae?iaaea, ? iaei ?icaeyaeaeeny o? aniaeoe ethaenueeiai
oaeoi?a, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei ia?niiaeo, yeee cae?enith? OI IN oa
eiio?ieue yeino? aeeiiaieo ?ia?o. Oea na?eicia aaaea, ine?eueee iiieeea
ethaeeie i?e OI IN cae?enith? oaeee aea e?eoe/iee aieea ia aaciaeo
aeeiiaiiy iieueioo, ye ? iiieeee i?eio?a aai aeeniao/a??a oi?aae?iiy
iia?o?yiei ?ooii.

Oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii oaoi?/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? IN i?noeoue o nia?
ae??oaiiy aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo i?iaeai, aei yeeo, cie?aia, a?aeiinyoueny:
iaoaiaoe/ia caaacia/aiiy oaoi?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy AT, iaoiaee
aecia/aiiy ia??iaee/iino? ? aeeaeie ?aaeaiaioieo ?ia?o, ?ic?iaea
caoiae?a uiaei OI IN, aaeaioiaaieo aei ?aaeueieo oiia aenieoaoaoe??,
o?aooaaiiy ineoio?c?ieia?/ii? e aiioe?eii? iai?oaeaiino? aa?aoe?eieo
oao?aoe?a oiui.

Aeey oaeineiiaethaaiiy i?ioean?a aenieoaoaoe?? neeaaeieo nenoai AT,
caa??aaiiy eueioii? i?eaeaoiino? IN ? caaacia/aiiy yeino? OI
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a ISO na??? 9000 ?
iaiao?aeiith ?ic?iaea iiaeaeae, iaoiae?a ? iaoiaeee iioei?caoe??
i?ioean?a OI AT ?c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeaino? ?AN.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue : Iaoith aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
iiaoaeiaa e iioei?caoe?y iiaeaeae OI ae?ia?a AT, ye? a?aoiaothoue
iiaeeea?noue iiieeie ianeoaiaoth/iai oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo, oa
?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ?oiueiio caiia?aaiith.

O ?iaio? iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/? :

aiae?c /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ye?noue OI, ? eeaneo?eaoe?y iiieeie
oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo;

iiaoaeiaa iiaeaeae ci?ie oaoi?/iiai noaio aa?aoe?eieo a?aaoe/ieo
nenoai ;

iioei?caoe?y ?aaeei?a OI a?aaoe/ieo nenoai;

?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo no?aoaa?e OI a?aaoe/ieo nenoai ? oi?aae?iiy ye?noth
OI?? AT;

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

aeine?aeaeaii aieiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ethaeeie ye aeaiaioa nenoaie
«ethaeeia-iaoeia» ? iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ci?i aeanoeainoae
ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?yaeo aenieoaoaoe?eieo
oaeoi??a;

?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th iiieeie oaoi?/iiai aa?aoe?eiiai ia?niiaeo ?
anoaiiaeaiee ?oi?e ?iciiae?e ii oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?yo, aeeiioaaieo
i?e OI IN;

?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino? nenoai IN,
ui a?aoiao? aeae ? ye?noue aeeiiaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e c OI IN;

cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ei?aeooaaiiy ia??iaee/iino? i?iaaaeaiiy
?aaeaiaioieo ?ia?o c o?aooaaiiyi ae?yeueiino? ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo
? yeino? i?iaaaeaiiy ?ia?o;

?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoiae OI ?aca?aiaaieo nenoai ( aeueoa?ioth/ee iaoiae
OI), yeee ni?ey? nei?i/aiith aeo?ao ia OI ? ciaioaiith /enea a?aeiia
nenoai AT o iieueio? c aeie ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe:

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao oi?ioaaiiy e oaeineiiaethaaiiy
i?ia?ai OI?? AT, ni?yiiaaieo ia caaacia/aiiy iaeaaeii? yeino? OI
neeaaeieo ?aca?aiaaieo nenoai aa?aoe?eii? oaoi?ee ? caa??aaiiy eueioii?
i?eaeaoiino? IN a aenieoaoaoe??;

noai?aii aaco aeey ea?oaaiiy ?aaeeiaie ?aaeaiaioieo ?ia?o, aaeaioiaaieo
aei caaeaieo oiia aenieoaoaoe??, iai?oaeaiino? ?iaioe ? eaae?o?eaoe??
ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aeiiia?aeaeeny aaoi?ii ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao EIOOeA.

Ioae?eaoe?? : Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 8 iaoeiaeo noaoae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
ia?aaeiiae, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e ?c 96
iaeiaioaaiue. Ianya ?iaioe neeaaea? 140 iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo 31 ?enoie?a
7 oaaeeoeue.

Ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

O anooi? ?ice?eoa aaaeeea?noue ? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiue, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
aeacaia iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenieoaoaoe?? IN, ?oi?o
ooieoe?iiaeueieo nenoai, no/anieo eiioeaioe?e oi?aae?iiy oaoi?/iei
noaiii neeaaeieo nenoai IN, aeine?aeaeai? iaoiaee ? iiaeae? iioei?caoe??
?aaeei?a oaoi?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy aaciaee iieueio?a ia? a?aaoe/iee
aniaeo iaae?eiino?, ui a?aoiao? o/anoue ethaeeie ye o ooieoe?iioaaii?,
oae ? a oaoi?/iiio ianeoaiaoaaii? nenoai AT.

O iaoeiaiio ia?ao ethaenueeee oaeoi? ?icaeyaea?oueny caeaa?eueoiai ye
/eiiee, iia’ycaiee ?c ?iaioith eueioiiai ae?iaaeo, a oie /an ye aniaeoe
ae?yeueiino? ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo ia io?eiothoue iaeaaeii? oaaae.

O neeo niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae iiieeee oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo i?e OI IN
aeyaeythoueny o oi?i?, a?aei?iii? a?ae oiai, ye oea a?aeaoaa?oueny a
eaa?i? eueioiiai ae?iaaea aai a cae? aeeniao/a??a oi?aae?iiy iia?o?yiei
?ooii .

C?inoath/a neeaaei?noue IN, aaaaoie?aoia ?aca?aoaaiiy nenoai oa ?oiy
aaoiiaoecaoe?y ciaioothoue iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eueioiee ae?iaae, i?ioa
i?aeaeuothoue aeiiae aei oaoi?/ieo oao?aoe?a, ui ianeoaiaothoue IN .

Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?a?iciiae?eo iiieeie a?ae iaei??? eaoaai???
ethaeae aei ?ioi?, ui noai?th? iioaioe?eio iiaeeea?noue aa?aoe?eieo
iiae?e /a?ac niieo/aiiy i?ioeaaeo?ieo aai oaoi?/ieo a?aeiia ?c iiieeeaie
aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ia?niiaeo, yea, o naith /a?ao, iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
cieaeaiiy ??aiy AI, yeui nai?/anii ia aaeeoe caoenieo caoiae?a.

Ca ae?oao iieiaeio 80-o ?ie?a /enei aa?aoe?eieo iiae?e, iia’ycaieo ?c
oaoi?/iei ianeoaiaoaaiiyi, c?inei ia 65% o ii??aiyii? c ia?oith
iieiaeiith oeueiai aeanyoee?ooy. Ca ia?o? o?e ?iee 90-o ??. iaee i?noea
25 iiae?e, iia’ycaieo ?c oaoi?/iei ianeoaiaoaaiiyi. Aeey ii??aiyiiy: ca
ia?o? o?e ?iee 80-o ??. ?o aoei n?i.

I?e/eiaie iiae?? ??aeei aoaathoue aeiyoeiai iiieeeia? ae??
aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ia?niiaeo, aiie ? ?acoeueoaoii aca?iicaeaaeiiai aieeao
oe?eiai ?yaeo /eiiee?a, oaea iayaieo o aeai?e nenoai?.

I?e ?icaeyae? iiae?e, i?e/eiith yeeo aoea iiieeea ethaeeie, ie noeeuei?
ieneeoe a oa?i?iao, ui noinothoueny ie?aieo iniaenoinoae, a ia
eieaeoea?a. Aiane?aeie oeueiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeai i???ioiaai? ia
eiie?aoieo ethaeae, “iia?aoi??a ia?aaeiueiai e?ath”, /a?ac ui
caoooiaothoueny iioaei? i?aai?caoe?ei? iiieeee, ye? o a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a ? ? ia?oii?e/eiaie oaeeo iiae?e.

Iniaeeao aino?ioo i?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy AO
io?eio? ?c iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi a aenieoaoaoe?th e?oae?a: OO-204, EE-96-300,
AI-218, AI-70, AI-140, AI-124, EE-114, OO-334. C?inoa? ??ciiiai?oi?noue
ooieoe?e, aeeiioaaieo ?oi?ie nenoaiaie, o ca’yceo c /ei ??cei
c?inoathoue o?oaeiiu? caaacia/aiiy ?oiuei? iaae?eii? ?iaioe, ine?eueee
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? eiiieaeooth/eo aeaiaio?a EA a ?yae? aeiaaee?a
aeia?aaeaea? ??no iieaciee?a ?oiuei? aaca?aeiiaiino?, ui i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ca?eueoaiiy /ano ? cania?a ia i?iaaaeaiiy ye iioi/iiai ?aiiioo, oae
? i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a.

Ia /anoeo OI?? e?oae?a e?a?i NIAe i?eiaaea? 25-30% caaaeueii? noie
aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao. Oiio caaea/a i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? IOA e?oae?a aeey aa?aeiiiai?? iaaoaa? iniaeeai? aaae.

Aiae?c iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieo iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae i?io?eaeoee iieaco?,
ui aiie aeicaieythoue ioe?ithaaoe aieea caoiae?a ii oi?aae?iith
nenoaiith o?eueee ia ie?ai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? aeanoeaino? oaoi?/ieo
ono?i?a, i?e aeiiouaiiyo, ui ia oe?eeii a?aeaeaathoue oiiae
aenieoaoaoe?? ae?ia?a AT. Oae, o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao, oa?aeoa?enoeee
aaca?aeiiaiino? nenoai ? aeaiaio?a aecia/athoue o ooieoe?? eeoa iaei???
ia??iaee/iino? aeeiiaiiy OI, i?e oeueiio iiaiioa OI, aoaeoeai?noue
eiio?ieth ? ye?noue ?ia?o ia a?aoiaothoueny. Ia ae?iaao AT ia? i?noea
aaaaoiaoaiia OI, ? eiaeai aeae a?ae??ciy?oueny nai?i cia/aiiyi iiaiioe
a?aeiiaeaiiy ? ia??iaee/i?noth aeeiiaiiy OI.

Aa?aoe?ei? a?aaoe/i? nenoaie (AN) ? neeaaeieie ?aca?aiaaieie
aaaaoioaciaeie, aaaaoi??aiaaeie, oaeeie, ui a?aeiiaeththoueny, ?c
??ciiiai?oieie aeaeaie a?aeiia ye oaoi?/iiai, oae ? ethaenueeiai eaiie
nenoaie.

Iaea?eueoa ?ic?iaeaiei aiae?oe/iei iaoiaeii ioe?iee iaae?eiino?
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie a AN ? ocaaaeueiaiee no?oeoo?iee. A?i canoiniaiee
aeey nenoai, o yeeo iiaeeeaa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia ioe?iea ?iia??iino?
aaciiieeeiaiai ? nai?/aniiai aeeiiaiiy aeai?eoio. (Oaa. 1)

Iniaeeaa i?noea a oaeineiiaeaii? OI?? AT iin?aeathoue ieoaiiy noai?aiiy
ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey ?iaioe oaoi?/iiai neeaaeo ? ei??iiiai iie?ioaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? e ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy i?ioean?a OI??, i?e oeueiio
e??i caaaeueieo aeiia aenoaathoue ?yae niaoe?aeueieo:

— o?aooaaiiy ?aaeueii? no?oeoo?e nenoaie, aca?iiae?? i?aenenoai ?
?aaeei?a ?iaioe;

Oaaeeoey 1

Oeie YN Oi?ioee

1. A?aaoe/i? nenoaie c iaeiiiainiaaieie

iiieeeaie iia?aoi??a ? a?aeiiaaie oaoi?ee Py n 1 (t0 ,t) = PT (t0
,t) P0 (t)

2. A?aaoe/i? nenoaie c eiiiainaoe??th

iiieeie iia?aoi??a. Py n 2 (t0 ,t) = PT ( t0 ,t) {P0 (t) +

}

3. A?aaoe/i? nenoaie c eiiiainaoe??th

iane?aee?a a?aeiia oaoi?/ieo nenoai. Py n 3 (t0 ,t) = P0 (t) [PT (t0
, t) +

)]

4. A?aaoe/i? nenoaie c eiiiainaoe??th

}

)]

I?ei?oea:

) .

— ni?eueiee aieea ??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a a?aeiia oaoi?ee ? iiieeie
ethaeeie;

— aieea oiia aenieoaoaoe??, ae?e ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo e o?aooaaiiy
?oiueiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio;

— o?aooaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e i?aei?e?inoa OI e
oaeineiiaethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iioie?a i?ae no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie;

— iiaeeea?noue ei?aeooaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iaoiae?a ioe?iee;

— iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaee ??ciiiai?oieo caoiae?a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino?;

— ioe?iea ae?iaie/eo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao c iaoith a?aeooeaiiy

iiaeeeaino? ?oiueiai ciaioaiiy oiui.

I?iaeaia yeino? OI ae?ia?a AT ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo neeaaeiaeo
/anoei i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy eueioii? i?eaeaoiino? IN a aenieoaoaoe??.

Ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo o aeine?aeaeaii? caaea/ i?iaaaeaii a?aeiia?aeii
aei noaie, iiaeaii? ia ?en. 1

?en.1. Noaia aeine?aeaeaiue

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?co niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae iiieeie
oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo oa aeyaeaiith aieeao eiiieaeno oaeoi??a ia ye?noue
OI, yea aecia/a? nooi?iue caa??aaiiy eueioii? i?eaeaoiino? IN a
aenieoaoaoe??.

Noiniaii aei o?ainii?oieo e?oae?a OeA iia?aoeai? ? ia??iaee/i? aeaee OI
ooai?ththoue oie eiiieaen ieaiiaeo iiia?aaeaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a, ca
aeiiiiiaith yeiai caaacia/othoueny ni?aai?noue ia?eo e?oae?a, aaciaea ?
?aaoey?i?noue iieueio?a ?, ioaea, aoaeoeai?noue ?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Oaoi?/iee ia?niiae yaey? niaith /anoeio nenoaie, yea ia? aooe a?aoiaaia
i?e ae?iaeaii? caaaeueii? eiioeaioe?? OI AT . Ni?eueia aea/aiiy
eiino?oeoeaieo aeanoeainoae ia’?eo?a aenieoaoaoe?? ? yeino? OI ni?ey?
?ic?iaoe? ? oi?ioaaiith iioeiaeueieo i?ia?ai OI??.

Ia aaciaeo iieueio?a aieeaa? ??aaiue i?aai?caoe?? ? caaacia/aiiy
iieueio?a, ye?noue ? iiaiioa ?ino?oeoe?e ? iin?aiee?a c aenieoaoaoe??,
?aaeaiaio?a ? oaoiieia?? OI e ?aiiioo AT, nooi?iue aaoiiaoecaoe?? ?
iaoai?caoe?? i?ioean?a oaoi?/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? oa ?i.

Ia i?ioeaaao “?aaeueii-/aniaiio” oa?aeoa?o iiieeee eueioiiai ae?iaaea,
iiieeea i?e OI aeoaea /anoi ia aeyaey?oueny i?ae /an ?? a/eiaiiy. O
aeayeeo aei aaeeao oaoi?e, ui ianeoaiao? e?oae, i?eiee ia ae?cia?oueny
i?i aeiiouaio iioeaeo, oiio ui ?? aeyaeaiiy iiaea a?aeaooeny /a?ac
aeae?eueea aei?a, i?nyoe?a aai iaa?oue ?ie?a. O aeiaaeeo a?aeiiae aeenea
aeaeaoia ia e?oaeo DC-10 aa?aeiiiai?? “No-N?o?” o 1989 ?ioe?, i?eiouaia
iiieeea i?e ?iniaeoe?? iia?o?yiiai noaeia aoea a/eiaia ca n?iiaaeoeyoa?i
i?nyoe?a aei iiae??.

Iane?aeeii iiieeie iniaiaiai neeaaeo ?AN ? iani?aaiino? aa?aoe?eii?
oaoi?ee, iaoiiaeai? iaiiaiei ? iaye?niei aeeiiaiiyi ?aaeaiaio?a OI,
iaiiaiei aai iaye?niei onoiaiiyi aeyaeaieo aeaoaeo?a, iaye?niei ?aiiioii
AT ? o.ae. ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iiieeee ?AN aecia/aeany c aeo?a
?icne?aeoaaiiy, ea?oie iae?eo iani?aaiinoae, caien?a cania?a
ia’?eoeaiiai eiio?ieth, ?ioeo aeieoiaio?a, ye? i?noeee a?aeiiino? i?i
i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy a?aeiia AT, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei aa?aoe?eieo iiae?e
aai ?ioeeaeaio?a.

Ia ?en.2. iiaeai? ?iciiae?ee iiieeie oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo a caeaaeiino?
a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaeoi??a, io?eiai? iaoiaeaie ei?aeyoe?eiiai
aiae?co.

Iiieeee aa?aoe?eiiai ia?niiaeo, eeaneo?eiaai? iaie ca oaeeie
oaoiieia?/ieie iia?aoe?yie :

I — ia aeyaeaia iani?aai?noue;

2 — aianaiee noi?iii?e i?aaeiao;

3 — iai?aaeeueii c?a?aiee, anoaiiaeaiee ( ia anoaiiaeaiee) aa?aaao,
aocie, aeaoaeue, caaeooea;

4 — anoaiiaeaii aa?aaao (aeaoaeue), ui ia a?aeiia?aea? oaoi?/iei oiiaai;

5 — ia i?iieoi aa?aaao, aocie, aeaoaeue, ia i?iaeoo? o?oaee;

6 — ia aeioyaiaia (ia?aoyaiaia) c’?aeiaiiy;

7 — ia caeiio?aii c’?aeiaiiy;

8 — ia cae?eo? caiee, e?aie, e?eoee;

9 — iai?aaeeueii a?ae?aaoeueiaaiee aa?aaao;

10 — ooeiaeaeaiee (iieaiaiee) aa?aaao, aocie, aeaoaeue i?e OI;

11 — ia aeicai?aaeaia nenoaia, ia ciauaii aa?aaao, ia ia?aa??aiee
a?aeno?e ? ye?noue III;

12 — ia aeeiiaiee atheaoaiue, aeac?aea, ?ino?oeoe?y.

a)
a)

a)
a)

ae)
a)

(a). Ci?ia iiieeie oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ciai?oiueiai
iia?o?y.

(a). Caeaaei?noue a?aenioea iaaaaeaiiai /enea iiieeie ia iaeio
ethaeeii-aiaeeio a?ae o?oaeii?noeino? ?iaioe.

(a). ?iciiae?e iiieeie oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo ca a?eii.

(a). ?iciiae?e iiieeie oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo ii /anao ?iaioe a ci?i?.

(ae). Caeaaei?noue iiieeie aeeiiaaoe?a a?ae neeaaeiino? ?iaioe.

a). Caeaaei?noue iiieeie oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo a?ae eiao?oe??ioo
aeinooiiino?.

?en.2. Ci?ia iiieeie oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaeoi??a.

Ia ?en. 3. iiaeaiee ?iciiae?e oiiaii? ?iia??iino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaoiieia?/ii? iiieeee aeeiiaaoe?a.

Aeey ?ic?iaee caoiae?a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? OI oaoiieia?/i? iiieeee
oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo ca?oiiaai? o 3 aeaee, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?oiueiai
aieeao ia aenieoaoaoe?eio iaae?ei?noue oaoi?/ii? nenoaie IN. ?en.4

?en.3. ?iciiae?e oiiaii? ?iia??iino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo
iiieeie aeeiiaaoe?a.

?en.4. Noaia aieeao iiieeie oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo ia aenieoaoaoe?eio
iaae?ei?noue nenoaie IN.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeaii? noaie (?en.4) io?eiaii iaoaiaoe/iee ae?ac
ioe?iee iaae?eiino? nenoaie IN o iieueio? caeaaeii a?ae yeino?
aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e OI:

O oaaeeoe? 2. iiaeaii ?iciiae?e oiiaii? ?iia??iino? iiieeee oaoi?/iiai
ia?niiaeo caeaaeii a?ae ca?oiiaaieo aeae?a oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e ii
OI IN.

Oaaeeoey 2.

Aeae oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e OI Oiiaia ?iia??i?noue iiieeee aeeiiaaoe?a

Ae?aaiinooaaiiy ? eiio?ieue noaio AT

Onoiaiiy ooeiaeaeaiue ? a?aeiia ae?ia?a AT

Iaye?nia OI AT 0.25 -0. 29

0.28 –0,34

0.38 -0. 46

Oaeei /eiii, o aeaiiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaia ? iiaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y
iiieeie ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo, a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeeiioaaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e i?e OI ae?ia?a AT, ye? ca oa?aeoa?ii aieeao ia
aenieoaoaoe?eio iaae?ei?noue oaoi?/ieo nenoai ca?oiiaai? o 3 aeaee;
aeaaaeaia ?ic?aooieiaa oi?ioea ioe?iee iaae?eiino? nenoai IN.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny iaoiaeeea ei?aeooaaiiy
ia??iaee/iino? i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeno ?aaeaiaioieo ?ia?o aeaiiai aeaeo OI
c o?aooaaiiyi iaae?eiino? ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo.

Iiaeae? i?io?eaeoeee caniiaai? ia i?eiouaii? i?i iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy
nenoai AT i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy OI ? ia a?aoiaothoue oo ianoaaeio, ui ?iaioe
c OI a nooiai?, yeee ia iiaeia ciaaaaeeoe, ii?iaeaeothoue iia? aeaea?aea
a?aeiia ? ooeiaeaeaiue. A?eueoa 20% ?ioeeaeaio?a c aeie ianeoaiaoth/iai
ia?niiaeo a?aeaoeeny i?e aeeiiaii? oaeeo i?inoeo iia?aoe?e, ye
a?aee?eaaiiy ? cae?eaaiiy nooeie aenieoaoaoe?eieo ethe?a ? iao?/iee?a,
ciyooy caaeooie oa ?i.

Aeey oaoi?/ieo ono?i?a aa?aoe?eii? oaoi?ee aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai
ia??iaeo i?iaaaeaiiy i?io?eaeoe/ieo ?ia?o aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe ca
iaoiaeii, ui a?aoiao? anth niaoeeo?eo ?iaioe oe??? oaoi?ee. Aa?aoe?eia
oaoi?ea a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? iaiaeii?aciai a?aeiiaeth?oueny,
iaae?ei?noue ?? ?iaioe iaeo?ni?oei /eiii iia’ycaia ?c caaacia/aiiyi
aaciaee iieueio?a; aoaeoeai?noue aeeiiaiiy iieueioieo caaaeaiue o
a?eueo?e i??? iia’ycaia c e?euee?noth oni?oieo e?oaei-aeeueio?a, ai?ae
?c /anii aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe ie?aieo oaoi?/ieo ono?i?a.

I?ia?aia OI?? iiaeiia iaeacoaaoe iiia?aaeaeoaaeueia OI oei aoceai ?
aa?aaaoai IN, a?aeiiaa yeeo aieeaa? ia aaciaeo iieueio?a, ? iayaia
iiaeeea?noue nai?/aniiai aeyaeaiiy iiyae aeaoaeo?a ? ooeiaeaeaiue, — ?
ia ia?aaeaa/aoe iiia?aaeaeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia?aaeon?i aeey oeo
aa?aaao?a, a?aeiiaa yeeo ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino?
nenoai IN, aai caoiaee ii oia?aaeaeaiith ana iaeii ia caiia?aathoue
iiyaai a?aeiia.

:

aea m — na?aaeiy e?euee?noue aeeiiaieo ?aaeaiaioieo ?ia?o aeaiiai aeaeo
ia iaeio iiieeeo oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo, a ?acoeueoao? yei? a?aeaoany
?ioeeaeaio.

Ia ?en. 5. iiaeaii oa?aeoa? ci?ie ia?aiao?a iioieo a?aeiia o caeaaeiino?
a?ae ia??iaee/iino? i?iaaaeaiiy aeaeo ?aaeaiaioieo ?ia?o.

caeaaeii a?ae ia??iaee/iino? i?iaaaeaiiy ?aaeaiaioieo ?ia?o.

Ae??ooth/e ??aiyiiy uiaei T1 aeey aeiiii?/ii aea?aei?oi? no?aoaa??
(T1max) iaea?aeeii:

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? ei?aeooaaoe ia??iaee/i?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeno ?aaeaiaioieo ?ia?o aeaiiai aeaeo OI i?e
aeei?enoaii? no?aoaa?? OI ca ??aiai iaae?eiino? aeey ae?ia?a AT c
o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeainoae ?ON oa yeino? i?iaaaeaiiy OI.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? iiaiai iaoiaeo OI aa?aoe?eieo
a?aaoe/ieo nenoai, caeaoiiai eiiiainoaaoe iiaeeea? iiieeee oaoi?/iiai
ia?niiaeo ? iane?aeee a?aeiia AT c aeie ethaeeie .

Anoaiiaeth?oueny ianooiiee ii?yaeie OI neeaaeii? nenoaie IN, ui
neeaaea?oueny c i iaeiioeiieo i?aenenoai, ye? i?aoeththoue o
iaaaioaaeaiiio ?aaeei?.

I?ney a?aei?aoethaaiiy On aiaeei (oaeo OI) cae?eniththoueny
iiia?aaeaeoaaeuei? eiio?ieueii-i?io?eaeoe/i? ?iaioe o?eueee ia iaei?e ?c
i?aenenoai. Oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?ioeo i?aenenoai cae?enith?oueny
ii/a?aiai i?ney a?aei?aoethaaiiy ianooiieo oaeo?a On aiaeei. (?en. 6).

I?aenenoaie(n)

?en.6. Noaia aeueoa?ioth/iai iaoiaea OI

Oaeei /eiii, aeei?enoiao?oueny /a?aiaaia i?io?eaeoeea ?aca?aiaaieo
i?aenenoai, cae?enithaaia /a?ac oaeo OI aeey eiaeii? i?aenenoaie ie?aii,
a ia??iaee/i?noue OI i?aenenoaie (oeeee OI) neeaaea On = n . Oc aiaeei
ia?ia?oeo.

Ia?aaaaa aeaiiai iaoiaeo OI iieyaa? a oiio, ui iiieeea ianeoaiaoth/iai
ia?niiaeo i?e OI iaei??? c i?aenenoai ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy
i?aoeacaeaoiino? neeaaeii? nenoaie a iieueio?, a a?aeiiaa i?aenenoaie
aoaea aeyaeaia o iieueio? e onoiooa i?e i?iaaaeaii? iia?aoeaieo aeae?a
OI.

aeeiiaiiy oeeo iiae?e aoaea oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy
eiiieaeno nenoai. sseui t aaeeea, oi ca iieaciee i?eeia?ii a?aieoeth

Aaee/eia ?iia??iino? aeeiiaiiy caaea/?, yea aecia/a?oueny ca oe??th
??ai?noth, caeaaeeoue a?ae caeii?a ?iciiae?eo a?aeiia?aeii aei yeeo
i?ecia/athoueny iiiaioe i?iaaaeaiiy ieaiiaeo a?aeiiaethaaeueieo ?ia?o.

?iciiae?e /ano aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe neeaaeieo nenoai iiaeia
ai?ieneioaaoe aeniiiaioe?aeueiei ?iciiae?eii, oiio ui eeoa aeey iueiai
iioeiaeueiee a?ao?e ia?aa??ie oaoi?/iiai noaia ae?ia?a ? ?aaeei
ia?aa??ie, cae?enithaaiee /a?ac ??ai? i?ii?aeee /ano, ui ? oa?aeoa?iei
aeey neeaaeieo nenoai AT.

I?e iacaeaaeiino? a?aeiia ia?aeaeueieo i?aenenoai ? (O) ia/eneththoue
ii oaeeo oi/ieo aai iaaeeaeaieo oi?ioeao:

1. I?e iaaaioaaeaiiio ?aca?aoaaii? ? ??ai?e iaae?eiino? i?aenenoai:

aea n — caaaeueia /enei i?aenenoai

k — /enei ?aca?aieo i?aenenoai.

2. I?e iaaaioaaeaiiio ?aca?aoaaii? ? ??ci?e iaae?eiino? i?aenenoai (n=
k+1) :

3. I?e iaaaioaaeaiiio ?aca?aoaaii?, ??aii? iaae?eiino? i?aenenoai ?
??ciith ia?ia?oeith i?aenenoai, ui a?ae?aoiao?oueny i?ney inoaiiueiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy :

O i?eiouaii? aeniei? iaae?eiino? ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?aenenoai AT,
aenieiai nooiaiy i?enoiniaaiino? ?o aei OI ? a?aeiiaeaiiy oiiae
iaci?iiino? iaae?eiino? neeaaeii? nenoaie i?e ?nioth/?e ia??iaee/iino?
OI (O0), io?eiaia oaea iaaeeaeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy:

i ca?aene iiaeia io?eiaoe:

aea:n-/enei ?aca?aiaaieo i?aenenoai o ooieoe?iiaeuei?e nenoai? IN.

k-e?aoi?noue ?aca?aoaaiiy (n = k+1)

O oaaeeoe? 3. iiaeai? eiao?oe??ioe ?ic?aooieo Oc ? OI o caeaaeiino? a?ae
/enea ?aca?aiaaieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?aenenoai i?e OI ae?ia?a AT
aeueoa?ioth/ei iaoiaeii.

Oaaeeoey 3

*enei

I?aenenoai

N Eiao?oe??io

Eiao?oe??io ca?eueoaiiy oeeeeo OI I?ioeaio cieaeaiiy o?oaeii?noeino?
OU ia 1 aiae. Iieueioo

2

3

4

5 0,707

0,550

0,451

0,383 1,414

1,650

1,804

1,915 29,0

39,0

44,5

47,7

Oaeei /eiii, aeei?enoaiiy aeueoa?ioth/iai iaoiaeo OI neeaaeieo
a?aaoe/ieo nenoai ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy aaciaee iieueio?a, ca
?aooiie cieaeaiiy /enea iane?aee?a a?aeiia ?c aeie ianeoaiaoth/iai
ia?niiaeo, ? nei?i/aiith aeo?ao ia OI ia 1 aiaeeio iieueioo, ye ca
?aooiie a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? i?ioean?a OI, oae ?
ca?eueoaiiy ia??iaee/iino? i?io?eaeoe/ieo ?ia?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo
i?aenenoai IN.

Aieiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe

1. O ?iaio? cae?eniaia iiaeaeueoa ?ic?iaea ieoaiue iioei?caoe??
?aaeei?a oaoi?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy neeaaeieo nenoai IN. ?icaeaathoueny
a?aeii? ? i?iiiiothoueny iia? iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy ?aaeeiaie OI c
o?aooaaiiyi aeanoeainoae ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo.

?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaae?eiino? a?aaoe/ieo nenoai,
iienai? iaoiaee ioe?iee iaae?eiino? oaoi?/ieo nenoai c o?aooaaiiyi
ae?yeueiino? oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo ii caa?aaeaiith eueioii? i?eaeaoiino?
IN o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??.

2. Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo i?i
?acoeueoaoe aenieoaoaoe?? ae?ia?a AT ?icaeyioo? aieiai? iiieeee
oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo i?e OI ? ? neeaaeieo aa?aoe?eieo nenoai ?
cai?iiiiiaaia ?oiy eeaneo?eaoe?y, o caeaaeiino? a?ae aieeao iiieeie
ethaeeie ia aaciaeo iieueio?a.

O yeino? aieiaii? eeaneo?eaoe?eii? iciaee i?eeiyoa ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i EI ?
?ioeeaeaioe, yea a?aeia?aaea? aeanoeaino? neeaaeieo nenoai IN, oiiae
?oiueiai canoinoaaiiy, aeanoeaino? ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ei?aeooaaiiy ia??iaee/iino? OI ae?ia?a AT ca
e?eoa??yie ?oiuei? aaca?aeiiaiino? a iieueio?:

— iiaeaia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o e?eoa???a aaca?aeiiaiino?;

— ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? ia??iaee/iino? OI c
o?aooaaiiyi iaae?eiino? ae?ia?a AT ? noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a;

— cai?iiiiiaaiee aeai?eoi iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a OI c o?aooaaiiyi
ia?aiao??a oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia ae?ia?a AT ? yeino? OI.

Oi?aae?iiy ?aaeeiaie OI aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe aioiai?noue ae?ia?a AT aei
aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue ? caaacia/eoe a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue aaciaee
iieueio?a IN.

4. ?icaeyioo? iniaeeaino? iioei?caoe?? i?io?eaeoe/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
neeaaeieo aa?aoe?eieo ?aca?aiaaieo nenoai. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iiaee
aeueoa?ioth/ee iaoiae OI neeaaeieo ?aca?aiaaieo nenoai, ui ni?ey?
caiia?aaiith iaaacia/ieo neooaoe?e o iieueio? c aeie ianeoaiaoth/iai
ia?niiaeo. Aeaii caaaeueio noaio aeacaiiai iaoiaeo oa aeai?eoi
?ic?aooieo ia??iaee/iino? OI i?aenenoai. Iieacaii aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy aeueoa?ioth/iai iaoiaeo OI.

5. Iniaeea?noth io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? ?ic?iaea iiai? iaoiaeieia?? OI
neeaaeieo aa?aoe?eieo nenoai, ui ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith
oaoi?/iiai aeei?enoaiiy IN, cieaeaiith aeo?ao ia OI, a oaeiae ciaioaiith
/enea a?aeiia ae?ia?a AT, o oiio /ene? c aeie ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo.

6. I?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa? ? aieiai? iniaeeaino? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e oaeineiiaethaaii? i?ia?ai
OI IN ? oi?aae?ii? ye?noth OI aa?aoe?eii? oaoi?ee. Aiie i?ecia/ai? ye
?ino?oiaio aeey noai?aiiy nenoai OI?? AT c iaoith caaacia/aiiy iaeaaeii?
yeino? OI ? caa??aaiiy eueioii? i?eaeaoiino? IN a aenieoaoaoe??.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o
:

1. ssna? Oaiai, Aeaooa Iai/aiai,. Eiioeaioe?? aenieoaoaoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy neeaaeieo nenoai. Oace XVI ca?oia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia
eiioa?aioe?y oi?aa?neoaoo ca 1995 ??e,-E.-EIOOeA 1996 ?.

2. Iaino? AEeoaae, Iooeae Io?aeaeei, Oaiai ssna?., — “Iooe iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ia?ea aicaeooiuo noaeia ainoaea?noaaiiie
aaeaeiiiaiee Ne?ee.”. I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeey e oi?aaeaiey : Nai?iee
iao/iuo o?oaeia. -Eeaa: EIOAA,1997.-n.111-114.

3. Eiia?ia A. A., Oaiai ssna?, Aeaooa Iai/aiai., “Iaoaiaoe/aneay
iiaeaeue i?ioeanna eiio?iey e aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey ecaeaeee aaeaoeeiiiie
oaoieee.”. . I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey : Nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia.-Eeaa, EIOAA, 1997.- n. 166-169.

4. Oaiai ssna?, Ao?eaeia A. E., Iaino? AEeoaae,- “I?iaeaiu iaania/aiey
ea/anoaa OI ecaeaeee AT a yenieoaoaoeee.”. I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee e
oi?aaeaiey : Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. -Eeaa: EIOAA, 1998.- n.304-309.

5. Oaiai ssna?, Iaino? AEeoaae, Aaneeaiei A.A., Ao?eaeia A. E.,-
“Aeueoa?ie?othuee iaoiae oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey neiaeiuo
?aca?ae?iaaiiuo nenoai aicaeooiuo noaeia.”. I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee e
oi?aaeaiey : Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. -Eeaa: EIOAA, 1998.- n.297-299.

6. Oaiai ssna?, — “Ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie ia?eiaee/iinoe auiieiaiey
?aaeaiaioiuo ?aaio n o/aoii aiciiaeiinoae oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea ”-
I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey : Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. -Eeaa:
EIOAA, 1998.- n.300-303.

7. Oaiai ssna?,- “ Iiaeaeue iaaeaaeiinoe aaeaoeeiiiuo y?aaoe/aneeo
nenoai”- I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey : Nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia. -Eeaa: EIOAA, 1999.- n.200-205.

8. Oaiai ssna?, Iaino? AEeoaae, Ao?eaeia A. E.,- “Aiaeec oaeoi?ia,
aeeythueo ia ea/anoai oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey AN ” — I?iaeaiu
eioi?iaoecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey : Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. -Eeaa: EIOAA,
1999.- n.190-194.

9. Oaiai ssna?, Iooeae Io?aeaeei,Aaneeaiei A. A., — “Iaoiaeieiaey
iino?iaiey eieoaoeeiiiie iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey i?ioeannii iia?aoeaiiai OI
AN.” — I?iaeaiu eioi?iaoecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey : Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia.
-Eeaa: EIOAA, 1999.- n.185-189.

AIIOAOe?ss

ssna? Oaiai. Iioei?caoe?y i?ioean?a oaoi?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy iia?o?yieo
noaeai.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.22.14- aenieoaoaoe?y iia?o?yiiai
o?ainii?oo.-Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??,
1999.

O ?iaio? iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia
iioei?caoe?th oaoi?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy neeaaeieo nenoai IN.

?icaeaathoueny a?aeii? oa i?iiiiothoueny iia? iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy
?aaeeiaie OI c o?aooaaiiyi aeanoeainoae ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo.
?icaeyioo? aieiai? iiieeee oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo i?e OI neeaaeieo
aa?aoe?eieo nenoai, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei eueioieo iiae?e oa ?ioeeaeaio?a,
oa cai?iiiiiaaia ?oiy eeaneo?eaoe?y.

I?aaenoaaeai? ?iciiae?ee iiieeie oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaeoi??a, ? iiaeaiee iaoaiaoe/iee ae?ac ioe?iee
iaae?eiino? nenoaie IN o iieueio? caeaaeii a?ae yeino? aeeiiaiiy
iia?aoe?e OI.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ei?aeooaaiiy ia??iaee/iino? i?iaaaeaiiy
eiiieaeno ?aaeaiaioieo ?ia?o aeaiiai aeaeo OI c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeainoae
oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo oa yeino? OI.

?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoiae OI aa?aoe?eieo a?aaoe/ieo nenoai ?c
eiiiainaoe??th iiaeeeaeo iiieeie oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo ? iane?aee?a
a?aeiia AO.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aaeineiiaeaii?
i?ia?aie OI IN oa oi?aae?ii? ye?noth OI AO c iaoith caaacia/aiiy
eueioii? i?eaeaoiino? IN a aenieoaoaoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iioei?caoe?y, iiaeaeue, oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy,
a?aaoe/ia nenoaia, iiieeea, ye?noue, i?ia?aia OI, oi?aae?iiy, aaciaea
iieueio?a, iaoiae OI.

AIIIOAOeEss

ssna? Oaiai. Iioeiecaoeey i?ioeannia oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey
aicaeooiuo noaeia.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.14-yenieoaoaoeey aicaeooiiai o?ainii?oa.-
Eeaaneee iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oieaa?neoao a?aaeaeaineie aaeaoeee, 1999.

A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
iioeiecaoeeth oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey neiaeiuo nenoai AN.

Iiiuoee o/eouaaoue /aeiaa/aneee oaeoi? o?aaeeoeeiiii ioiineeenue e
?aaioa eaoiiai yeeiaaea e iaei ?anniao?eaaeenue oa aniaeou /aeiaa/aneiai
oaeoi?a, eioi?ua iiaee au aeeyoue ia ia?niiae, inouanoaeythuee OI AN e
eiio?ieue ea/anoaa auiieiaiiuo ?aaio ii OI.

Aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?ioeannia yenieoaoaoeee neiaeiuo nenoai AO,
nio?aiaiey eaoiie aiaeiinoe AN e iaania/aiey ea/anoaa OI a niioaaonoaee
n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie noaiaea?oaie ISO na?ee 9000 a ?aaioa ?acaeaathony
ecaanoiua e i?aaeeaaathony iiaua iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey ?aaeeiaie OI n
o/aoii naienoa ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea.

I?iaeaia ea/anoaa OI ecaeaeee AO yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo ninoaaiuo
/anoae i?iaeaiu iaania/aiey eaoiie aiaeiinoe AN a yenieoaoaoeee.

I?eiaieoaeueii e o?ainii?oiui naiieaoai AA iia?aoeaiua e ia?eiaee/aneea
aeaeu OI ia?acotho oio eiiieaen ieaiiauo i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iaania/eaathony eni?aaiinoue ia?ea
naiieaoia, aaciianiinoue e ?aaoey?iinoue iieaoia e neaaeiaaoaeueii
yooaeoeaiinoue eo eniieueciaaiey.

Neaaenoaeai ioeaie ee/iiai ninoaaa EAN yaeythony iaeni?aaiinoe
aaeaoeeiiiie oaoieee, iaoneiaeaiiua ia iieiui e iaea/anoaaiiui
auiieiaieai ?aaeaiaioia OI, iaiieiui eee iaea/anoaaiiui ono?aiaieai
auyaeaiiuo aeaoaeoia, iaea/anoaaiiui ?aiiioii AO e o.ae.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaoie/aneee ia?niiae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /anoue nenoaiu,
eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue o/oaia i?e au?aaioea iauae eiioeaioeee OI AO.
Niaianoiia eco/aiea eiino?oeoeaiuo naienoa iauaeoia yenieoaoaoeee e
ea/anoaa OI niinianoaoao ?ac?aaioea e oi?ie?iaaieth iioeiaeueiuo
i?ia?aiiu Oie?.

Ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeee ia ioeaeao EAN, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeyeenue ec aeoia
?anneaaeiaaiey, ea?oi/ae o/aoa iaeni?aaiinoae, caienae n?aaenoa
iauaeoeaiiai eiio?iey, i?i/eo aeieoiaioia, niaea?aeaueo naaaeaiey i
i?e/eiao aicieeiiaaiey ioeacia AO, ?aniio?aiu iniiaiua ioeaee
oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea i?e OI neiaeiuo aaeaoeeiiiuo nenoai, i?eaaaeoea e
eaoiui i?ienoanoaeyi e eioeeaeaioai e i?aaeeiaeaia eo eeanneoeeaoeey.

I?aaenoaaeaiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioeaie oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea a caaeneiinoe
io enneaaeoaiuo oaeoi?ia, e aeaii iaoaiaoe/aneia au?aaeaiea ioeaiee
iaaeaaeiinoe nenoaiu AN a iieaoa a caaeneiinoe io ea/anoaa auiieiaiey
iia?aoeee OI.

Iiaeaee i?ioeeaeoeee iniiaaiu ia i?aaeiieiaeaiee i iieiii ainnoaiiaeaiee
nenoai AO iinea i?iaaaeaiey OI e ia o/eouaatho oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
?aaiou ii OI a noaiaie, eioi?ie iaeuecy i?aiaa?a/ue, ii?iaeaeatho iiaua
enoi/ieee ioeacia e iia?aaeaeaiee. Aieaa 20% eioeeaeaioia ii aeia
ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea i?iecioee i?e auiieiaiee oaeeo i?inouo
iia?aoeee, eae ioe?uaaiea e cae?uaaiea noai?ie yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo etheia
e iaoaeaoaeae, niyoea caaeooae e ae?.

I?ia?aiia OIe? aeieaeia i?aaeienuaaoue i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiia OI oai oceai
e aa?aaaoai AN, ioeac eioi?uo aeeyao ia aaciianiinoue iieaoia e eiaaony
aiciiaeiinoue naiaa?aiaiiiai iaia?oaeaiey iiyaeaiey aeaoaeoia e
iia?aaeaeaiee e ia i?aaeoniao?eaaoue i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiuo ?aaio a
iniaaiiinoe oai aa?aaaoai, ioeac eioi?uo ia i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth
?aaioiniiniaiinoe nenoai AN eee ia?u ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth ana ?aaii ia
i?aaeioa?auatho iiyaeaiey ioeacia.

Enoiaey ec yoiai, a ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea ei??aeoe?iaaiey
ia?eiaee/iinoe i?iaaaeaiey eiiieaena ?aaeaiaioiuo ?aaio aeaiiiai aeaea
OI n o/aoii aiciiaeiinoae oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea e ea/anoaa OI.

?anniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe iioeiecaoeee i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey
neiaeiuo aaeaoeeiiiuo ?aca?ae?iaaiiuo nenoai. I?aaeeiaeai iiaue
aeueoa?ie?othuee iaoiae OI neiaeiuo ?aca?ae?iaaiiuo nenoai,
niinianoaothuee i?aaeioa?auaieth iianiuo neooaoeee a iieaoa ii aeia
ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea. Aeaia iauay noaia aeaiiiai iaoiaea e
aeai?eoi ?an/aoa ia?eiaee/iinoe OI iiaenenoai. Iieacaia yooaeoeaiinoue
i?eiaiaiey aeueoa?ie?othuaai iaoiaea OI.

Iniaaiiinoueth iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea iiaie
iaoiaeieiaee OI neiaeiuo aaeaoeeiiiuo nenoai, niinianoaothuee
iiauoaieth oaoie/aneiai eniieueciaaiey AN, nieaeaieth cao?ao ia OI, a
oaeaea oiaiueoaieth /enea ioeacia ecaeaeee AO a oii /enea ii aeia
ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea.

I?eeeaaeiie oa?aeoa? e iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiee
iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e niaa?oainoaiaaiee i?ia?aii OI AN e
oi?aaeaiee ea/anoaii OI aaeaoeeiiiie oaoieee. Iie i?aaeiacia/aiu eae
eino?oiaio aeey nicaeaiey nenoai OI e ? AO a oeaeyo iaania/aiey
o?aaoaiiai ea/anoaa OI e nio?aiaiey eaoiie aiaeiinoe AN a
yenieoaoaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iioeiecaoeey, iiaeaeue, oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea,
y?aaoe/aneay nenoaia, ioeaea, ea/anoai, i?ia?aiia OI, oi?aaeaiea,
aaciianiinoue iieaoia, iaoiae OI.

ANNOTATION

Yasser Hannan. Optimization processes of technical operation of
aircraft.-manuscript.

Thesises on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
engineering science on a Specialty 05.22.14-maintenance of air-
transport.- the Kiev international university of civil aviation,1999.

In work the outcomes of researches directed on optimization of
maintenance (technical operation TO) of complicated systems AN are
represented.

Develop known and new methods of management of modes TO with allowance
for of properties of the attendants are offered. The main errors of
operation personnel for want of TO of complicated aviation systems
reducing in flight accidents and incidents are considered and their
classification is offered.

The error distributions of operation personnel are represented depending
on the researched factors, and the mathematical expression of an
evaluation of reliability of a aircraft system in flight is given
depending on quality of fulfilment of operations THAT.

The technique(method) of a correcting of periodicity of realization of a
complex of scheduled tasks of the given kind TO with allowance for of
possibilities of operation personnel and quality TO is offered.

The new method TO of aviation ergotical systems with indemnification of
possible errors of operation personnel and consequences of failures
aviation system is developed.

The outcomes of researches can be used for want of perfecting of the
programs TO aviation system and quality management TO with the purpose
of maintenance of the flight validity aircrafts in operation.

Key word: optimization, model, maintenance service, ergotical system,
error, quality, program TO, management, safety of flights, method TO.

PAGE 20

Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue

a aaeoc? OI?? a?aaoe/ieo nenoai

Aiae?c oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia ye?noue OI

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenieoaoaoe?? ?yeino? OI

AT.

Iiaoaeiaa oi?iaeueii? iiaeae?

i?ioeano OI AT

Eeaneo?eaoe?y iiieeie EON OeA

Iiaoaeiaa iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy

yeino? OI?? AT

Iiaoaeiaa iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy

oaoi?/iiai noaio a?aaoe/ieo nenoai

Iioei?caoe?y ?aaeei?a

OI?? ae?ia?a AT

Aea?? e?eoa???a iioei?caoe??

Iioei?caoe?y ia??iaee/iino? OI c o?aooaaiiyi iiieeie oaoi?/iiai
ia?niiaeo

?ic?iaea iaoiaeo OI neeaaeieo a?aaoe/ieo

nenoai AT

Aea?? ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeo OI

Iiaoaeiaa iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? iaoiaeo OI

Iiaoaeiaa iiaeae? ei?eaoaaiiy ?aaeei?a OI??

Oi?aae?iiy ye?noth i?ioean?a OI?? ae?ia?a AT

Oaoiieia?/i? iiieeee oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo

Iaae?ei?noue nenoaie IN

(?iia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe Pc(t))

sse?noue OI

(?iia??i?noue ia aianaiiy iani?aaiino? ?ii)

sse?noue ae?aaiinooaaiiy

ae?ia?a AO

(?iia??i?noue aeyaeaiiy iani?aaiino? ?ii)

sse?noue a?aeiiaethaaeueieo ?ia?o

(?iia??i?noue onoiaiiy iani?aaiino? ?oi)

Eiio?ieue yeino?

(?iia??i?noue aeyaeaiiy iioeaee aeeiiaaoey ?ii )

i

i

o

i

e

a

?

ae

i

i

a

T1min Tiio
T1max T

Ia??iaee/i?noue OI

%

25

20

10

5

0

1

1

2

3

2

3

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