Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y eoeueoo?e

O?e?iiaa Ethaeieea sse?aia

OAeE 01(477)+681. 3(043)

A?AE?IA?AO?*I? NENOAIE OE?A?IE

A ?IOI?IAOe?EII-EIII’THOA?IIIO NA?AAeIAEU?:

oai??y, i?aai?caoe?y, oaoiieia?y

niaoe?aeuei?noue

07.00.08 — Eieaiciaanoai, a?ae?ioaeiciaanoai, a?ae?ia?aoiciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e.

IAOEIAEE EIINOEUeOAIO: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?en-

iee /eai
I?aeia?iaeii? Aeaaeai?? ?ioi?-

iaoecaoe??
An??a Aai?a?e Aai?a?eiae/

caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoii-

eia?e
Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??

eoeueoo?e

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, A?aaaithe Aai?a?e

?aaaiiae/, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii?

iaaeaaia?ee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
A. Neiai?iaee,

i. Oa?e?a

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Neyaei?aa Iaoae?y Aiae??ai?aia, aeaeai oaeoeueoaoo iaiaaeaeiaioo oa
nioe?aeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e Iineianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e,

i. Iineaa

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nai/aiei Ieeiea ?aaiiae/, aee?aeoi? Eieaeeiai? iaeaoe Oe?a?ie,

i. Ee?a

I?IA?AeIA ONOAIIAA: Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?ioaea Oe?a?ie ?i. A. Aa?iaae-

nueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie,
i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 17 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.64.807.02 i?e Oa?e?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e
aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e ca aae?anith: i. Oa?e?a-3, Ao?naoeueeee oca?c, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e (i. Oa?e?a-3, Ao?naoeueeee oca?c, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 15 na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee O. A. Aooueei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

No/aniee aoai ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa noeioeth? iaiai?ioi?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? aieeae ia an? noa?e i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeeaa
i?noea a no/aniiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio noni?euenoa? iin?aeathoue caniae
aeieoiaioieo eiioi?eaoe?e, aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny oae? “?inoeoooe”, ye
?ioi?iaoe?ei? oa a?ae?ia?ao?/i? oeaio?e, a?ae?ioaee, a?o?ae, ioca? oa
?io?. ?o iina?aaeieoeuee? ooieoe?? a nenoai? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioieo
eiioi?eaoe?e iineeththoueny o a?aeiia?aeue ia aeoea?caoe?th
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Eia?/iei
??oaiiyi i?iaeai, ui aeieeathoue, noa? i?aai?caoe?y oa ?icaeoie
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioieo nenoai, ui ioiieththoue oe? neoaeae oa ?o
?ano?niee iioaioe?ae. Iniaeeaa i?noea a ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e ?io?ano?oeoo??
iaeaaeeoue a?ae?ia?ao?/iei nenoaiai, ye? ? aaaeeeaei eiiiiiaioii,
?ioaa?iaaiei i?aeoe/ii o an? noa?e ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ia?ao??, yeee nie?a?oueny ia iia?oi? oaoiieia??,
iiaio aaoiiaoecaoe?th a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie. O ca’yceo c oeei
iaaoaathoue aeooaeueiino? i?iaeaie noai?aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai, ye?
ooieoe?iiothoue ia iiaiio i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/iiio ??ai?.
A?ae?ia?ao?/ia nenoaia a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiio na?aaeiaeu?
?icaeaa?oueny ye i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/iee eiiieaen, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iayai?noth oi?aae?inueeeo, ooieoe?iiaeueieo, iaoiaee/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
aca?iica’yce?a a aaeoc? noai?aiiy, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a (i?iaeoeo?a ? iineoa). Oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii?
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie nie?a?oueny ia iniiai? iieiaeaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?ia?aie ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? Oe?a?ie, ui ?ic?iaeai? c aeiaaino?ieiaeo
i??i?eoao?a ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, ni?yiiaaieo ia aoiaeaeaiiy aea?aeaae o
na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??.

Aeoeaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy n?oeiaeo oaoiieia?e ia?aae? ?ioa?iao a Oe?a?i?
noai?th? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?ioaa?aoe?? a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai o
na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??. ?icaeoie a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a o
?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?nao ?ioa?iao — oea yaeua iiaa aeey
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa, iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeaia ye
o ca?oa?aeieo, oae ? o a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? /anoeie oe?a?inueeiai naaiaioo
?ioa?iaoo. Aea/aiiy oa aiae?c a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a ?ioa?iaoo iathoue
aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioieo no?oeoo?, ianaiia?aae –
a?ae?ioae. Aaaeeea?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe c aeaio aie?a: c iaeiiai aieo, aac oaeiai aiae?co iaiiaeeeai
caeiaoeny a?ae?ia?ao?/iei iiooeii ? noai?aiiyi a??ooaeueieo a?ae?ioae ?
aeia?aeeiaeo neoaea, iieeeeaieo iiaii e iia?aoeaii caaacia/oaaoe
?ioi?iaoe??th e?ioeaaeo ei?enooaa/?a; c ?ioiai aieo, aea/aiiy iiceoeaieo
? iaaaoeaieo ?en ?icaeoeo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a aeicaieeoue
a?ae?ioaeai oa ?ioei aeieoiaioiei no?oeoo?ai ci?noiaii a?aiioii oa
?ioi?iaoeaii i?aai?ciaoaaoe a ?ioa?iao? nai? WWW-noi??iee ? Web-na?aa?e
c i?aaeinoaaeaiiyi i?ea?iaeueii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? o na?oiao
ia?aaeo ?ioa?iao.

O niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? i?eae?ey?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei i?noey ieoaiiyi
oai?aoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy ? iaoeiaiai ia??oiooaaiiy no/anieo
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai a oiiaao
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiai i?inoi?o. Cia/ii a?eueoa oaaae
i?eae?ey?oueny i?eeeaaeiei aniaeoai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo
oaoiieia?e o a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/io i?aeoeeo.

Iaea?eueo aeecueeeie ca oaiith aei aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeia?
i?aoe? ?in?enueeeo o/aieo, ui a?aeaeca?eaeeee iia? i?aeoiaee aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai ciaiiy a
oiiaao no/anii? ?ioi?iaoecaoe??: I.I. Ei?ooiiaa, ?.I. Oie??aa, I.A.
Neyaei?ai?, A.A. Naiaiiaea?a; oao?aoe?a a aaeoc? a?ae?ioa/ii?
aaoiiaoecaoe?? ss.E. O?aeaa?aa, A.I. Ia?oaea. Oe?a?inuee? niaoe?ae?noe ?
a/ai? a aaeoc? a?ae?ioaeiciaanoaa, eieaiciaanoaa ? “a?ae?ioa/ii?
aaoiiaoecaoe??” oae?, ye I.?. Nai/aiei, I.N. Neiaiaeyiee, I.A.
Aaneeue?a, A.A. Oa?ii, O.I. Iaaeooa, ?.I. Oiiaiei, A.A. Aeiaei e ?io?,
/anoeiai oi?eaeeny oeeo i?iaeai o nai?o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo. I?ioa
oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o, ye? ocaaaeueiththoue iia? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
a?ae?ia?aoiciaa/i? aeoiee oa ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?aeoeee a
Oe?a?i?, ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y ia aoei.

A?aenooi?noue niaoe?aeueieo oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeai
i?aai?caoe?? ? ?icaeoeo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai ? aac aeaieo ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiii’thoa?ieo ? ia?aaeaaeo oaoiieia?e, iaoiiaeee aea??
oaie aeaii? iaoeiai? i?aoe?, yea ioiieth? oai?aoe/i?, i?aai?caoe?ei? ?
oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
no/aniiai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’th-oa?iiai na?aaeiaeua.

I?iaeaia aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noeoue o?e aieiaieo aniaeoe.

Ia?oee aniaeo – oai?aoe/iee, a?aeaeaa? ieoaiiy oai??? a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
nenoai ? aac aeaieo, aaeaioiaaieo aei oiia aea?aeaae, ui a?aeiinyoueny
aei ??aiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iiaeaethaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioieo nenoai ? ia?aae Oe?a?ie.

Ae?oaee aniaeo – i?aai?caoe?eiee eiii’thoa?ii-oaoiieia?/iee, a?aeaeaa?
ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e o
a?ae?ia?ao?/io ae?yeuei?noue, iniaeeaino? iaoiaeeee noai?aiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai ? aac aeaieo.

O?ao?e aniaeo – i?aai?caoe?eiee eiioi?eaoe?eiee-oaoiieia?/iee, a?aeaeaa?
ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? canoinoaaiiy ia?aaeaaeo oaoiieia?e ?ioa?iaoo a
a?ae?ia?ao?/i?e ae?yeueiino?; iniaeeaino? iiooeo, aeei?enoaiiy e
i?aaenoaaeaiiy aeaeo?iiii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? o na?oiaeo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?nao ?ioa?iaoo.

Aaaaoianiaeoi?noue i?iaeaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia
aaaaoueia i?ioe??//yie, na?aae yeeo aeae?eythoueny oae?: i?ae aeoeaiei
?icaeoeii eiii’thoa?ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo oaoiieia?e ? iaaeinoaoi?i ??aiai
i?aeaioiaee ei?enooaa/?a (e?ioeaaeo ? iina?aaeiee?a) aei ?o iiaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy; i?ae c?inoath/ei a?ae?ia?ao?/iei iioaioe?aeii a?ae?ioae,
?o aeoeai?noth a noai?aii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ??ciiiai?oiiai
oe?eueiaiai oa /eoaoeueeiai i?ecia/aiiy ? ?aaeueiei ??aiai caaeiaieaiiy
ia’?eoeaieo noni?eueieo iio?aa o a?ae?ia?ao?/i?e ?ioi?iaoe??
??ciiiai?oiiai ci?noo.

Iniiaiee oeyo ?ica’ycaiiy cacia/aieo i?ioe??/ – oea noai?aiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai, ?aae?ciaaieo caniaaie no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e, ui caaacia/othoue ?ioaa?aoe?th a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
a iaaeao iaoe?iiaeueieo, aaeocaaeo, a?ae?ioa/ieo eiiieaen?a. Aeey
oeueiai iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia i?ae??oioy
i?aai?caoe?? a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai.

O aeai?e ?iaio? canoiniaaiee “ei?enooaaoeueeee” i?aeo?ae, ui i?eionea?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
eiii’thoa?ieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai ? aac aeaieo ia c o?aaeeoe?eieo
iiceoe?e i?ia?ai?no?a, ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, a c iiaeyaeo
oao?aoe?a a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?i-a?ao?/ii? noa?e, ui aeoioeththoue o nia?
iaeii/anii ? ei?enooaa/?a, ? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iina?aaeiee?a (a?iea??a,
iaiaaeaea??a oiui). “Ei?enooaaoeueeee” i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? a oiiaao
no/anii? ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa ii-iiaiio inieneeoe i?noea ?
cia/aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo neoaea, ?o i?iaeoeoe?? ? iineoa, a oaeiae ?ieue
i?ioan?iiae?a, ui ianeoaiaothoue oae? nenoaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e a ?aieao eiiieaenii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
oaie “I?iaeaie ?ic?iaee iiaeae? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i? c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e”.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?? ca’ycaia c i??i?eoaoieie iai?yieaie ?iaioe Anioe?aoe??
ei?enooaa/?a eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae (i. Oa?e?a). Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/ai? a ia?niaeoeaiee ieai ?iaioe
Anioe?aoe?? ei?enooaa/?a eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae (i. Oa?e?a). Cie?aia,
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny:

— noai?aiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeiaiai na?aa?a
oe?a?inueei- oa ?in?enueeiiiaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a ?ioa?iaoo;

— caaacia/aiiy i?aeaioiaee ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?i-a?ao?/ieo eaae??a a aaeoc? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai ?
oaoiieia?e.

Oe?eue aeine?aeaeaiiy

Oe?eue aeine?aeaeaiiy – iaoeiai ia??oiooaaoe oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa
i?aai?caoe?ei? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai Oe?a?ie ?c
canoinoaaiiyi eiii’thoa?ieo ? ia?aaeaaeo oaoiieia?e ?ioa?iao aeey
caaacia/aiiy ei?enooaa/?a iiaiith ? aeinoia??iith a?ae?ia?ao?/iith
?ioi?iaoe??th.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oe?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

?icaeyiooe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie ye ??ciiaeaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie aeey
aeyaeaiiy ?? niaoeeo?ee ? i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? – a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
oaoiieia?e.

Ocaaaeueieoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe oai??th oa iaoiaeeeo ?i?oaoe?eiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy nenoai c iaoith aaeaioaoe?? aei oiia ?icaeoeo
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai. Aecia/eoe iaoiaee/i? iniiae noai?aiiy
?i?oaoe?eii? iiaeae? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie (ia
i?eeeaae? ?? aaeocaai? eaiee).

Aeine?aeeoe i?aai?caoe?ei? oa eaae?ia? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a-a?ae?ia?ao?a, caeaoieo i?ioan?eii a?aiioii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia??, ni?eyoe oaeineiiaeaiith
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ? e?iaa?noe/iiai caaacia/aiiy aeaii? nenoaie.

Aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? noai?aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e. Iaoeiai ia??oiooaaoe iniiai? oaoia? ooieoe??
aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai.

Aecia/eoe oa iaoeiai ia??oiooaaoe iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? oa
aeei?enoaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo o neeaae? aaoiiaoeciaaieo
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai.

Aeine?aeeoe iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
?ioa?iaoo aeey ?icaeoeo ia?niaeoeaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie.
Aecia/eoe iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? /anoeie oe?a?inueeiai naaiaioa ?ioa?iaoo.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee i?ia?aeieo
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a?ae?ia?aoiciaaoe?a, oao?aoe?a a aaeoc?
?ioi?iaoeee, a?ae?ioaeiciaaoe?a ? eieaiciaaoe?a. Na?aae iaoa??ae?a, ui
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeena?oaioii, ? ?iaioe c oai??? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai,
oai??? aac ? aaie?a aeaieo, iiaeaethaaiiy nioe?aeueieo nenoai oiui.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii eiiieaen iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:
nenoaiiiai, aii??e/iiai, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai, ii??aiyeueiiai,
neooaoeaiiai, i?iaiiciiai aiae?co, iiaeaethaaiiy, oi?iae?caoe?? oa
?ioeo, aei ae??oaiiy eeth/iaeo ieoaiue, ?o ie?aieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo
aniaeo?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe

Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa o a?o/eciyiiio a?ae?ia?aoiciaanoa? aea?oueny
oai?aoe/ia o?aeooaaiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
nenoai Oe?a?ie ?c canoinoaaiiyi eiii’thoa?ieo ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e a oiiaao no/anii? ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? aea?aeaae, caniiaaia ia
aaaaoiieaiiaiio i?eeeaaeiiio aeine?aeaeaii?. Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a iaoiiaeaia oei, ui aia?oa i?iiiio?oueny iiaee, i?eioeeiiai
a?aei?iiee a?ae a?aeiieo ?ai?oa, i?aeo?ae, iacaaiee aaoi?ii
“ei?enooaaoeueeei”. A ?iaio? iaoeiai ia??oioiaai? iniaeeaino?
“ei?enooaaoeueeiai” i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? aaoiiaoeciaaieo
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai, ui ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy /a?ac ?o oaoia?
ooieoe??: ianeoaiaoth/o, iaa/aeueio, oeeaaeaoeueeo. Oaeee i?aeo?ae
aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe ci?io ooieoe?e a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo neoaea o
iaeaooiueiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio noni?euenoa?.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ?ic?iaoe? iiai? nenoaie iaa/aiiy
(o?enooiaiaai?) iniiaai eiii’thoa?ii? a?aiioiino? aeey
ei?enooaa/?a/a?ae?ia?ao?a aeaeo?iiieo a?ae?ioae o nenoai? aeui? ina?oe.
Oey nenoaia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aaoi?nueeeie i?iiiceoe?yie uiaei ci?noo
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/-iiai caaacia/aiiy eiaeiiai ??aiy iaa/aiiy.

Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai, ui aeine?aeea ?
i?iaiae?coaaa caeiaoaa/, – ? i?iaeaia i?aai?caoe?? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? aace
aeaieo (AAAe) ye ?ioi?iaoe?eii? iniiae a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie ia ??cieo
aoaiao ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy: a?ae noai?aiiy aei aeei?enoaiiy. sse
aenia?eiaioaeueii-i?aeoe/ia aeiiiaiaiiy oe??? ?iaioe aaoi?ii
?i?oe?eiaaiee aeina?ae noai?aiiy, aaaeaiiy, iiooeo ? aaaaoioe?eueiaiai
aeei?enoaiiy AAAe “BUT” (A?ae?ia?ao?y Oe?a?ie c oaoi?ee).

Aia?oa o a?o/eciyiiio a?ae?ia?aoiciaanoa? iaoeiai ia??oioiaaia iaoiaeeea
noai?aiiy ?i?oaoe?eii? iiaeae? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie. Aaoi?ii
cai?iiiiiaaia ?? eiie?aoia ?aae?caoe?y ia i?eeeaae? iiaeae?
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e aaeocaai? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie
(iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?io?eth). Aeaia iaoiaeeea iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia
aeey iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai aoaeue-yeiai ??aiy.

Aia?oa a a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iaoeao aeine?aeaeai? ia?niaeoeai?
a?ae?ia?ao?/i? nenoaie a neeaae? ia?aaeaaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a
?ioa?iaoo c iaoith ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?o iiooeiaeo ? ?ano?nieo
iiaeeeainoae, ?icaeoeo ia ?o iniia? a??ooaeueieo aeia?aeeiaeo neoaea o
a?ae?ioaeao Oe?a?ie. Caeiaoaa/ai ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? /anoeie oe?a?inueeiai naaiaioa ?ioa?iaoo,
cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei i?aaenoaaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? Oe?a?ie a ?ioa?iao?. Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? aaaaeaiee o
iaoeiaee oaeeoie iiaee oa?i?i “a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ia /anoeia
oe?a?inueeiai naaiaioa ?ioa?iaoo”, yeee ?icoi??oueny ye noeoii?noue
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a: i?iaeoeoe?? (aac aeaieo, aeaeo?iiieo eaoaeia?a
? ?i.) ? iineoa, ae?iaeaieo ye a?ae?ioaeaie, oae ? ?ioeie
aeieoiaioii-?ioi?iaoe?eieie no?oeoo?aie (aeaeaaie/eie,
eieaioi?aiaaeueieie, ina?oi?ie, iaoeiaeie ? o.i.), ui iathoue aeinooi a
?ioa?iao aeey aoaeue-yeeo ei?enooaa/?a.

Oaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny eiiieaenii a?aeiia?aeii aei
o?einionueeeo, nioe?aeueieo, iaaeaaia?/ieo aniaeo?a, a oaeiae ?c
i?ia?aeieo iiceoe?e a?ae?ia?aoiciaanoaa, ?ioi?iaoeee, i?aeoeee
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? aaoiiaoecaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue

Aaaaoianiaeoia aeine?aeaeaiiy e aiae?c a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai a
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiio i?inoi??, ui ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
/eneaiieo ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao aaoi?a, aeaee nooo?a? i?aeoe/i?
?acoeueoaoe, ye? aoee ai?iaaaeaeai? a a?ae?ia?ao?/io i?aeoeeo,
iaa/aeueio ? iaoeiao ae?yeuei?noue.

Caeiaoaa/ai aoea ?i?oe?eiaaia ?aeay noai?aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie –
aeia?aeeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/iee a?aeae?e a?ae?ioaee c aeaoaeueiith
?ic?iaeith iniiaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a – o neeaae?
aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ioaa?iaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/ii? nenoaie OAEN, ui
aoea ?ic?iaeaia eieaeoeaii oao?aoe?a Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
eoeueoo?e ? ai?iaaaeaeaia a a?ae?ioaeao i?noa. Nenoaia iaoe?eaia ia
canoinoaaiiy ?? ye o no/anio i?aeoeeo a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, oae
? a aeia?aeeia? neoaeae iaeaooi?o aeaeo?iiieo a?ae?ioae.

I?aeoe/iei ?acoeueoaoii aea/aiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy e aiae?co AAAe ?c
canoinoaaiiyi “ei?enooaaoeueeiai i?aeoiaeo” noaei noai?aiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? aace aeaieo “BUT” (A?ae?ia?ao?y Oe?a?ie c oaoi?ee
[1920-1990 ??.]). I?e ?? i?aeaioiaoe? aoee ?aae?ciaai? i?ioan?iiaeuei?
cae?aiino? a?ae?ia?ao?a aenooiaoe a ?ie? ?ic?iaethaa/?a i?aaeiaoii?
iaeano? AAAe ? ?? no?oeoo?e, iiaeeeainoae aaaaoianiaeoiiai
a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iiooeo. Ia iniia? noeoiiino? caien?a AAAe “BUT” aoei
aeinyaiooa aaoiiaoe/ia i?aeaioiaea a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iieaae/ee?a ?c
??ciiiai?oiei oa?oiiaaiiyi ca i?i?iaeueieie aeo?aoaie nee ? /ano. AAAe
aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaeany ye iaa/aeueia aaca aeaieo nooaeaioaie
oaeoeueoaoo a?ae?ioaeiciaanoaa e ?ioi?iaoeee Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e a oiae? caiyoue: i?aeoe/ieo, ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo, i?e
iaienaii? iaoeiaeo (aeeieiiieo) ?ia?o.

I?aeaioiaeaii eiiieaen iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a aeey
caaacia/aiiy o?enooiaiaai? nenoaie iaa/aiiy iniiaai eiii’thoa?ii?
a?aiioiino? a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, a oaeiae aeey
ei?enooaa/?a – niaoe?ae?no?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e, cie?aia,
iaa/aeuei? iaoa??aee aei aea/aiiy a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a ?
na?a?no a ?ioa?iao?.

O oe?eiio, iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?? aeicaieeoue canai?oe no/ani?
a?ae?ia?ao?/i? oaoiieia?? a oiiaao eiii’thoa?ii-eiioi?eaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua, ui aeoeaii ?icaeaa?oueny a Oe?a?i?; neoaoaaoe iaa/aeueiei
iin?aieeii ye aeeeaaea/ai, oae ? nooaeaioai, ani??aioai ?inoeooo?a,
oi?aa?neoao?a, o/eeeu aeieoiaioiciaanueeiai ? eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai
i?io?eth.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, iaoa??aee ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaioa
aeeeaaeai? o oi?i? aeiiia?aeae ? aenooi?a, iaea?aeaee ai?iaaoe?th ia
oe?a?inueeeo ? i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo,
nai?ia?ao, neiiic?oiao (Ee?a, 1996, 1997; Iaeana, 1995; E?aniiaea?,
1996; Iineaa, 1992, 1997, 1998, 1999).

Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee iiaeai? ia ui??/ieo i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo Aea?aeaaii? ioae?/ii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? a?ae?ioaee ?in??
“Aeaeeioaee e annioeeaoeee a iaiythuainy ie?a”, “E?ei – 94-98” (i.
Oi?in, Noaeae); ia eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e (1990-1994, 1996, 1998, 1999).

Aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a
i?iaaaeaii? o/aiaeo caiyoue: eaeoe?e, niaoeeo?n?a, i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue o
Oa?e?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e. Iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa aeei?enoaiee aeey ?ic?iaee iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai ?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a c eo?n?a “Aaoiiaoecaoe?y
aeieoiaioaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a”, “A?ae?ia?ao?/i? ?ano?ne”,
“?ioi?iaoe?eiee na?a?n a ?ioa?iao?”, “Iniiae ?iaioe a ?ioa?iao? (aeey
ei?enooaa/?a-ii/aoe?aoe?a)” oa ?i., a oaeiae niaoeeo?no “Aaoiiaoeciaai?
a?ae?ia?ao?/i? aace aeaieo ? ?ioa?iao”.

A??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
caaacia/o?oueny oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaeieia?/iith ia??oioiaai?noth,
a?aeiia?aei?noth aeei?enoaieo iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo iao? ? caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ye?niei iaoeiaei aiae?cii i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo;
eia?ei-oai?aoe/iei aiae?cii oaeoi?ieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo, cina?aaeaeaiiai
a /eneaiieo a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo aeaea?aeao.

Ioae?eaoe?? Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??
ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iiiia?ao??, aeaiiiiaaii? iiiia?ao??,
aeia?aeeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eiiio aeaeaii?, 7 iaa/aeueieo aeaeaiiyo aaoi?a
(iin?aieeao, iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo), 17 iaoeiaeo noaooyo, 26
iaoa??aeao ? oacao aeiiia?aeae eiioa?aioe?e caaaeueiei ianyaii iiiaae
40 ae?oe. a?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaea? eia?eo iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?aeii?yaeeiaaia eiai iao? oa iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo /anoei: anooi, o?noue ?icae?e?a, aeniiaee (346
noi?.), nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (28 noi?.), aeiaeaoee (62 noi?.).
Aeiaeaoee i?noyoue aaoi?nuee? iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee (i?ia?aie,
oaiaoe/i? ieaie, ?aeiiaiaeaoe??); ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
aace aeaieo; i?ea?iaeuei? iaoa??aee c ?ioa?iaoo ca oaiith
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 248 iaca
oe?a?inueeith, ?in?enueeith, aiae?enueeith iiaaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai ca’ycie ?c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, aecia/aii oe?eue ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeyaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, ai?iaaoe?th
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e – “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
nenoaie ye ??ciiaeaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie” – i?noeoue aeaa
i?ae?icae?ee: o ia?oiio ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiae nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai; o ae?oaiio – aiae?co?oueny
i?aaeiaoia iaeanoue a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie – a?ae?ia?ao?/i? oaoiieia??.

Aeei?enoaiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
nenoai, ??ciiaeaeii yeeo ? a?ae?ia?ao?/i? nenoaie, aeicaieeei
caeiaoaa/aa? aecia/eoe ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee, aeanoeaino?, no?oeoo?o;
aeyaeoe i?noea a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie a neeaae? aeieoiaioieo nenoai (ui
ea?othoue ? ianeoaiaothoue); caaaeuei? oa ie?ai? ooieoe??, caaaeaiiy,
oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane, ui aeeiiothoueny a iaaeao a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai.
Aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ? ooieoe?iiaeueii? eiiiiiaioe, i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e, aeanoeainoae nenoaie ni?eyei aeyaeaiith ye?nieo ? no?oeoo?ieo
iniaeeainoae a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie.

A?ae?ia?ao?/i?e nenoai?, ye ??ciiaeaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie,
i?eoaiaiia aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeuei?noue, oiaoi ni?iiiaei?noue ?aae?coaaoe
aaaaoi ooieoe?e i?aeoe/ii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aaoi?ii
cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eeoe a?aeiia?aeii aei o?aaeeoe?eieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
oaoiieia?e oae? a?oie ooieoe?e, ye? caeeoathoueny aieiaieie e aeey
aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai:

ianeoaiaoth/? (iaoiiaeai? aeia?aeeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/iei ianeoaiaoaaiiyi ?
a?ae?ia?ao?/iei ?ioi?ioaaiiyi);

oeeaaeaoeuee? (iaoiiaeai? noai?aiiyi a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iin?aiee?a);

iaa/aeuei? (iaoiiaeai? iaa/aiiyi iaae/eai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ia?ao?/-ii?
a?aiioiino?).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai, ?aae?ciaaieo o eiie?aoi?e
i?aeoe/i?e noa?? ae?yeueiino?, aeicaieeei ooi/ieoe aecia/aiiy
“a?ae?ia?ao?/ia nenoaia”, ui iae/ano?oa ci?oothoue ?c iiiyooyi
“a?ae?ioa/ia nenoaia”. A?ae?ia?ao?/ia nenoaia ?icoi??oueny ye naiino?eia
nioe?aeueia aeieoiaioia nenoaia, yea ?icaeaa?oueny ia o?eueee a ?aieao
a?ae?ioa/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aea ? ca ?? iaaeaie – a ?ioeo noa?ao
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino?: iaoeiai-?ioi?iaoe?ei?e, aeaeaaie/?e,
eieaioi?aiaaeuei?e, a?o?ai?e, iocaei?e oa ?ioeo. ??
i?aai?caoe?eii-ooie-oe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a oi?io?oueny ia iniia? aeanii
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iai?yi?a ae?yeueiino?, ui iathoue i?noea ye a oiiaao
a?ae?ioaee, oae ? a oiiaao ?ioeo aeieoiaioieo i?ae?icae?e?a. Aecia/aii,
ui ia’?eoii a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie ? a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y, yea
iaoa??ae?co?oueny a a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?nao: i?iaeoeoe?? ? iineoaao.
I?aaeiaoia iaeanoue oe??? nenoaie neeaaea?oueny c i?ioean?a
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aai a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo oaoiieia?e. O oeueiio
ca’yceo iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii aiae?co a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
yea ?icaeyaea?oueny o oi?iae?ciaaiiio aeaeyae? ye a?ae?ia?ao?/i?
oaoiieia??, ui aeaoaeueii aiae?cothoueny a ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ia?oiai
?icae?eo aeena?oaoe??.

Aeyaeaii, ui niaoeeo?/iei ? aecia/aeueiei aeey a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai ?
a?ae?ia?ao?/i? oaoiieia??, ye? ?icoi?thoueny ye noeoii?noue
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a ? iia?aoe?e, ui aeeiiothoueny c
a?ae?ia?ao?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th. ?acoeueoaoii cae?eniaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
i?ioean?a ? iia?aoe?e noathoue a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ?ano?ne: i?iaeoeoe
(iaoa??ae?ciaai?) ? iineoae (iaiaoa??ae?ciaai?). Ii?yae ?c nooi
?ioi?iaoe?eieie oaoiieia?yie iathoue i?noea aeanii a?ae?ia?ao?/i?
i?ioeane, ye? ia’?aeiothoueny a aea? iniiai? a?oie: 1) a?ae?ia?aooaaiiy
? 2) a?ae?ia?ao?/i? iineoae. Oe? i?ioeane, o naith /a?ao, oaeiae
iiaeooue aooe aeaoae?ciaai?.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cania?a aaoiiaoecaoe?? a o?aaeeoe?ei? a?ae?ia?ao?/i?
oaoiieia?? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iith a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a ?
iia?aoe?e, iioe?aiiyi ooieoe?e ? noa? ?o aeei?enoaiiy. Ci?ie ie?aieo
aeaiaio?a a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? oaoiieia?? a o?e aai ?io?e i??? aieeaathoue ia
e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao. Iaa?oue ca oiiae aaoiiaoecaoe?? an?o eia?/ieo
iia?aoe?e caa??aathoue nai? cia/aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeuei? (oai?/?)
oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe??, ye? iiaea aeeiioaaoe o?eueee a?ae?ia?ao
(ethaeeia), ui aieiae?? a?oaeeoe??th, ?ioo?oe??th, ai?iiyie aeyaeyoe
iao?aaeeoe?ei? ca’ycee i?ae ciaiiyie oa ?i. Oea oae? eia?/i? iia?aoe??,
ui iia’ycai?, ianaiia?aae, ?c noai?aiiyi iiaiai a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai ciaiiy,
i?eeiyooyi ??oaiue oa ?i. O ca’yceo c oeei iaeaooi? iai?yie
oaeineiiaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a iia’ycothoue ?c ?icaeoeii ia
o?eueee aaoiiaoeciaaieo aac aeaieo ? ia i?inoi c ?icaeoeii
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai, a c ?ic?iaeith a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac ciaiue, ui
aeicaieyoue ?aae?coaaoe aaaaoi oai?/eo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a. I?ioa
? i?e oeueiio ?ieue a?ae?ia?aoa-i?ioan?iiaea caeeoeoueny aeineoue
aenieith, aea aaea a ?io?e yeino? – i?aai?caoi?a aai aaei?i?no?aoi?a
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie, aenia?oa a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ciaiue, ?iaeaia?a ii
ciaiiyo (aai eiai?oieiaa).

Aiae?c a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai ? o?aaeeoe?eieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo oaoiieia?e
noaa iaiao?aeiith aeey aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/iith iniiaith, yea
iaoiiaeea ?ic?iaeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a iiaeaethaaiiy e
i?aai?caoe?? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie, yea aeei?enoiao? no/ani?
eiii’thoa?i? ? ia?aaeaa? oaoiieia??.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie
(ia i?eeeaae? aaeocaai? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie)” –
aeine?aeaeothoueny oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? iniiae ?i?oaoe?eiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie, iiaeeeaino? ?o aaeaioaoe?? aei
iiaoaeiae iiaeae? aaeocaai? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie (iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
i?io?eth) Oe?a?ie. ?icae?e aeeth/a? o?e iine?aeiaieo i?ae?icae?ee a?ae
caaaeueieo ieoaiue aei ie?aieo: (1) ii/eiath/e c ?ice?eooy
iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai
(ca oai???th ?. Oaiiiia), (2) caniaaie ?ic?iaee e?eoa???a iiaoaeiae
?i?oaoe?eii? iiaeae? eiie?aoii?, a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?, nenoaie aei (3)
?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee iiaoaeiae ?i?oaoe?eii? iiaeae? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
nenoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?io?eth Oe?a?ie.

Iiaeaethaaiiy, ye ?ino?oiaio aeine?aeaeaiiy iia?aoe?e, oe?iei
aeei?enoiao?oueny a ??ciiiai?oieo neeaaeieo nenoaiao. O a?ae?ioa/i?e
noa?? niaoe?ae?noaie aoee c?iaeai? ni?iae canoinoaaoe iiaeaethaaiiy ye
iaoiae aiae?co a?ae?ioa/ieo nenoai. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
??ciiiai?oi? iiaeae?, a iniia? yeeo ciaoiaeyoueny iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee
?ic?aooie?a /eneiaeo aeaieo. ?ioee i?aeo?ae cai?iiiiiaaiee aaoi?ii: aeey
?ic?iaee iiaeae? aeine?aeaeoaaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie ia?aia
iaoiaeeea ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, ui ai?iaiaaia i?e noai?aii?
iiaeaeae ??ciiiai?oieo nioe?aeueieo nenoai ? i?e oeueiio aiia i?eionea?
aeaye? iaiaaeaiiy. Ine?eueee aeaia nenoaia aeine?aeaeo?oueny ia?aaaaeii
a i?aai?caoe?eiiio aniaeo?, ?icoi??oueny ye a?iioaoe/ia a?ae?ia?ao?/ia
nenoaia aaeocaaiai i?io?eth, yea oi?io?oueny a iaaeao iaoe?iiaeueii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, ia’?eoeaiei noaa aea?? aoai?a
iiaeaethaaiiy aac canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo ? i?ia?aiieo iaoiae?a, ui
ia?aaeaa/athoueny iaoiaeeeith ia ianooiieo aoaiao. ?ioeie neiaaie,
a?aenooi?noue iaiao?aeieo /eneiaeo aeaieo, a oaeiae ?aaeueieo
iiaeeeainoae aenia?eiaiooaaiiy, iineoaeeee iniiaiith i?e/eiith i?eeiyooy
??oaiiy i?i a?aeiiao a?ae oeo aoai?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, ui
ia?aaeaa/athoue canoinoaaiiy ?ino?oiaioa??th iaoaiaoe/iiai, i?ia?aiiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, iinoaiiaee aenia?eiaioo. Oaeiai ?iaeo ie?ai? iaoiaeeee
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?eioneathoueny, a?aeiia?aeii aei oai??? ?.
Oaiiiia, aeey iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae nioe?aeueieo nenoai.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoiaeeee ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeey iiaoaeiae
iiaeae? nenoaie ?ic?iaeai? ?? e?eoa???. Aeai?e iiaeae? aeanoea? ye
caaaeuei? e?eoa???, oae ? ie?ai?, iaoiiaeai? ie?aieie i?ioeanaie
(?ioi?iaoe?eieie, a?ae?ia?ao?/ieie), i?e?iaeith ?ioi?iaoe?? a oe?eiio ?
a?ae?ia?ao?/i?e ?ioi?iaoe??, cie?aia. Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? aeyaeai?
ie?ai? e?eoa??? iiaeae? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie: a) a?aeiia?aeii aei
ioe?iee yeino? eiaeiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?ioeano, ?aae?ciaaiiai a
nenoai? ? a) c oi/ee ci?o ei?eniino? aai oe?iiino? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aei ieo a?aeiinyoueny ianooii? e?eoa???:
oi/iino? aai a??ia?aeiino?; iiaiioe (ci?noiaii? ? oi?iaeueii?);
?aeaaaioiino? oa ia?oeiaioiino?; iia?aoeaiino?; ?acoeueoaoeaiino? (ye
iiaeeeaino? ciaeoe nai? canoinoaaiiy); aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? (ye
iayaiino? aoaeoo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, ui ia?aaeuo? aeo?aoe
ia ?? noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy) a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeyaeaiiy
e?eoa???a iiaeae? nenoaie a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iaiao?aeii ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai? iiaoaeiae iiaeae?, ui iaaeae? aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
i?eaiaeeoe o a?aeiia?aei?noue ?c ieie an? ianooii? aoaie ? ?ic?iaeo
??ciiiai?oieo ca’yce?a i?ae eiiiiiaioaie nenoaie, ui i?iaiico?oueny.

?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaeue nenoaie a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia? oa?aeoa?i?
?ene aoaeue-yei? iiaeae? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/ieo i?ioean?a, ? a oie
aea /an ?e aeanoea? niaoeeo?/i? (a?ae?ia?ao?/i?) ?ene.

I?ney iae?aneaiiy iaoe, caaaeaiue oa iaiaaeaiue nenoaie, iiaeaeue
?aaeueii? nenoaie iiaea aooe caaaeaia aei eia?/ii? aeie-noaie aai aei
noaoe/ii? iiaeae?. ?aaeueia nenoaia a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?io?eth a Oe?a?i? iiaoaeiaaia o aeaeyae?
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? noaie aai noaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?ioioeio
nenoaie. O cai?iiiiiaai?e noai? aeaoae?ciaaia oaoiieia?/ia noaia
i?aenenoaie cai?o, ia?iaee ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? (oiiaii iicia/aia ye “aaie aeaieo”) ?c iaoith ?ica’ycaiiy
oaoiieia?/ii? caaea/? – noai?aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? – ca
aeiiiiiaith iiaoaeiae aeai?eoio. E??i oiai, noi?ioeueiaaii aea? noaoe/i?
iiaeae? i?ioioeio aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie: 1) o no?oeoo?ii-aeaeiaiio
(aai oi?iaeueiiio) aniaeo? ? 2) a i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeiio
aniaeo?. Ana oea a?aeiia?aea? iinoaaeai?e iao? ? caaaeaiiyi
iiaeaethaaiiy aeaii? nenoaie.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiy iniiaieo aoai?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia ?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e
ia?niaeoeaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?io?eth a
Oe?a?i?, a ye?e i?aai?/ii ia’?aeiai? e oaeineiiaeai? aea? iiaeae?
i?ioioeio nenoaie – no?oeoo?ia ? ooieoe?iiaeueia; aecia/ai?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? ca’ycee i?ae aeaiaioaie nenoaie. Ia iniia? oe??? iiaeae?
iiaeooue aooe noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo e
oaeineiiaethaaiiy ye nenoaie a oe?eiio, oae ? ?? i?aenenoai ? aeaiaio?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e – “I?aai?caoe?ei? oa eaae?ia? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiio i?inoi??”
– i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith e aiae?co aieiaieo i?iaeai i?aai?caoe??
aaoiiaoeciaaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie (AAAN) a Oe?a?i?. No?oeoo?a
?icae?eo neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a, ui aeeth/athoue ieoaiiy:
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai, e?iaa?noe/iiai ? eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy AAAN, ye?
aeciathoueny ia no/aniiio aoai? aaaeeeaeie ? iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaieie
aeey nenoai aeaiiai oeio. Oae? aniaeoe noai?aiiy AAAN, ye oaoi?/ia ?
i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy, ciaoiaeyoueny a eiiiaoaioe?? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
oiio a aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ia ?icaeyaeaeeny.

I?iaeaie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy AAAN, ui aeeth/athoue ?ic?iaeo
noaiaea?o?a ? oi?iao?a a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaieo, iathoue aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
aeey Oe?a?ie, iniaeeai i?iaeaia ?o aaeaioaoe?? aei oiia oi?ioaaiiy
no/anii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui
iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaiaioii ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aaoiiaoeciaaii?
nenoaie ? oi?iaoia aaca (noaiaea?oe ? oi?iaoe), o aeena?oaoe??
?icaeyioo? e aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaai? i?iaeaie noaiaea?oecaoe??
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaieo, ?ic?iaee ? i?eeiyooy ?o oi?iao?a. Aeey
noaiaea?oecaoe?? caien?a a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui ia?aaea?oueny
ii ?ioi?iaoe?eieo eaiaeao, aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ciiiai?oi? oi?iaoe,
i?ecia/ai? aeey oi?o?eaoe?? oi?ie, ci?noo, eiaeoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey
aaaaeaiiy ?? o aaco aeaieo. Oi?iao caaacia/o? ?aeeio no?oeoo?o
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iien?a ? noai?i cae??ieth? ?icoaooaaiiy aeaiaio?a o
caien?; ci?noo ? nenoaio eiaeoaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai caieno. Aiie
?iciiae?eythoueny ia aioo??oiueinenoaii? ? iai?ii? (eiioi?eaoeai?), ? o
oeueiio aniaeo? aeieeathoue aeiaeaoeia? i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c
iaiao?aei?noth ?o oi?o?eaoe??. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co
?icaeoeo oi?iao?a ia a?ae?ia?ao?/i? aeai? a Oe?a?i?, i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii
o aeena?oaoe??. Ine?eueee iniiaith ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy AAAN ?
a?ae?ia?ao?/ia aaca aeaieo, oi oe? i?iaeaie ?icaeyioo? uiaei aeaiiai
oeio aac aeaieo. A ?acoeueoao? c?iaeai? aeniiaee i?i oa, ui naia
ae??oaiiy ieoaiue ?ic?iaee iaoe?iiaeueieo noaiaea?o?a ? oi?iao?a
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaieo, ui niieo/athoueny c i?aeia?iaeieie noaiaea?oaie
e aaeaioiaai? aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, ? eeth/iaei iiiaioii aeey
ii/aoeiaiai aoaio ?icaeoeo eiii’thoa?ieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo oaoiieia?e a
Oe?a?i?.

Ca iaoiai /ano a iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaao aeoea?co?oueny i?ioean
eii-i’thoa?ecaoe?? a?ae?ioae ? ianea?a iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe??, ?ic?iaea oi?iaoo (eiioi?eaoeaieo, iai?iieo, iaoe?iiaeueieo
? ?i.) ciaoiaeeoueny o noaae?? iaaiai?aiiy e ai?iaaoe??, i?ioa iiaeia
eiinoaooaaoe, ui ocae/a?iei ona a?eueo noa? i?aeia?iaeiee oi?iao
UNIMARC. Eiai ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye eiioi?eaoeaiee
(iai?iiee) oi?iao, ? ia eiai iniia? ?ic?iaeyoe iaoe?iiaeuei?
(aioo??oiueinenoaii?) ye, iai?eeeaae o NOA – USMARC, o ?in?? – RUSMARC,
a Oe?a?i? – UKRMARC. O oeueiio ca’yceo aeieeathoue i?iaeaie aaeaioaoe??
i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?iaoo UNIMARC aei a?o/eciyiiai ia?aaeaaiai
?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/iiai i?inoi?o, a yeiio aeey iai?io ?ioi?iaoe??th
aeei?enoiao?oueny ? oe?a?inueea, ? ?in?enueea iiae; i?iaeaie
eiiaa?ooaaiiy (ia?aoai?aiiy aeaieo c iaeiiai oi?iaoo a ?ioee oi?iao)
aeey cae?eniaiiy aacia?aoeiaeiiai i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai ? i?aeia?iaeiiai
iai?io a?ae?ia?ao?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th; i?iaeaie aa?iii?caoe??
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo noaiaea?o?a, i?aaee, noai ??cieo e?a?i ?c iiaeyaeo
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ? caa??aaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae.

Aoai oeaio?ae?ciaaii? ei?ii?aoeaii? eaoaeia?caoe??, ye iiaee aoai
eii-i’thoa?ecaoe?? a?ae?ioae, a?aecia/aiee iai?ee?ioe? 90-o ??. ? a
Oe?a?i?, ? a ?in??, iineeth? ? noeioeth? iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy
iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai.

E?iaa?noe/i? caniae, ye iaeaaaeeea?oee ?ino?oiaio, ui caaacia/o? aeinooi
ei?enooaa/?a aei ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
ia?aae, aeicaieythoue ?ice?eoe ci?no aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??, ui
caa??aathoueny o c?o/i?e aeey niiaeeaa/?a oi?i?, ? oei naiei ?a?aiooaaoe
iaiao?aeiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee na?a?n.

?icaeyae e?iaa?noe/iiai caaacia/aiiy ? i??i?eoaoieo e?iaa?noe/ieo
cania?a noiniaii aei a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a aacoaaany ia oaeiio
iieiaeaii?, ui a?ae?ia?ao?/i? i?ioeane i?enooi? a aoaeue-ye?e
?ioaa?iaai?e ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/i?e nenoai?. Oiio i?iaeaie ?ic?iaee
e?iaa?noe/iiai caaacia/aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ? a?ae?ioa/ieo nenoai
iathoue aaaaoi caaaeueieo ?en, cie?aia, aiie ?aeaioe/i?, yeui iiaa eaea
i?i e?iaa?noe/ia caaacia/aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo o neeaae? oaeeo
nenoai.

Aeae?eaii iaeaaaeeea?o? i?iaeaie e?iaa?noe/iiai caaacia/aiiy oeeo
nenoai, ui aeciai? ia?oi/a?aiaeie aeey ?ic?iaee oi?o?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo
aei oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. Oea ?ic?iaea
ooo/ieo iia caieo?a; aea?? aecia/aieo iiaieo cania?a
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo eeaneo?eaoe?e, cie?aia, iaoiae?a ? cania?a
?iaeaenoaaiiy; ?ic?iaea ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeiaeo oacao?on?a:
iaoe?iiaeueieo, aaeocaaeo, oaiaoe/ieo. O ?aieao aiae?co e?iaa?noe/iiai
caaacia/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo AAAN aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? oaea a?oia iiaieo
cania?a, ye aeane?eioi?ii-eiaeia? iiae caieo?a, ye? iiaeai? iiaaie
eeaneo?eaoe?eiiai ? aeane?eioi?iiai oei?a. A iniia? eeaneo?eaoe?eieo iia
ciaoiaeyoueny nenoaiaoe/i? eeaneo?eaoe??, ui a?aeaeaathoue cia/aii?a?
a?aeiioaiiy i?ae iiiyooyie. Iniiaieie eeaneo?eaoe?eieie nenoaiaie, ui
canoiniaothoueny ia oeae /an a Oe?a?i?, ? A?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?iapao?/ia
eeaneo?eaoe?y (AAE) ? Oi?aapnaeueia aeanyoeiaa eeaneo?eaoe?y (OAeE),
oi?iaaaeaeo?oueny Aeanyoeiaa eeaneo?eaoe?y Aeueth? (AeEAe). Oe? o?e
eeaneo?eaoe?ei? nenoaie a iaeaeeae/iio iaeaooiueiio ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia?aeaeueii. E??i oiai, aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii eaene/iiai
caaacia/aiiy nenoaie ? iaoiaee ? caniae ?iaeaenoaaiiy, na?aae yeeo
iniaeeao cia/ei?noue iathoue neiaieee – aeiiii?aei? caniae aeey
ii?aoethaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, ui ni?iuothoue aeaio i?ioeaaeo?o.
Aeei?enoiao?oueny, ye i?aaeei, nenoaia neiaiee?a, iniiaia oe?eue yeeo –
oi?o?eaoe?y oa?i?iieia??, aeei?enoiaoaaii? o aeieoiaioao, ui
oi?iae?ciaai?.

O ?acoeueoao? aiae?co e?iaa?noe/ieo cania?a uiaei a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac
aeaieo aeyaeaii, ui iaeaaaeeea?oeie aeey ieo caniaaie, iaaeinoaoiuei ua
?ic?iaeaieie, ? iiai? caniae, ianaiia?aae – iiae eeaneo?eaoe?eiiai oeio,
a oaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeia? oacao?one. A?ae oiai, ye aoaea
?ic?iaeaia e?iaa?noe/ia caaacia/aiiy, iane?eueee iiaii ? oi/ii a?aeaeoi
ci?no aeieoiaioa/caieoo a oa?i?iao iiooeo, nooo?ai caeaaeeoue
aoaeoeai?noue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiooeo ? aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??.

I?iaeaie eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy AAAN iathoue iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey
noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e Oe?a?ie, ui
iaoe?eaia ia ?icaeoie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai na?a?no ?c canoinoaaiiyi iiaeo
cania?a: eii-i’thoa?ieo ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo.

Aiae?c noaio iaa/aiiy iiaei ?ioi?iaoe?eiei oaoiieia?yi
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo eaae??a o Oa?e?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai??
eoeueoo?e i?ioyaii inoaii?o aeaaaeoeyoueio ?ie?a aeaa iiaeeea?noue
caeiaoaa/aa?: a) ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ??aaiue ?o oaoiai? i?aeaioiaee; a)
aeae?eeoe iniiai? iai?yie ?o iaa/aiiy iia?oi?i ?ioi?iaoe?eiei
oaoiieia?yi; a) iae?aneeoe iniiai? ia?niaeoeae i?aeaioiaee
iaoe?iiaeueieo eaae??a aeaeo?iiieo a?ae?ioae ? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo neoaea.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo iaoa??ae?a, a oaeiae
aeei?enoaiiy aeaniiai aeina?aeo aeeeaaeaiiy aeenoeeie?i a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai
e ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiai oeeeeo, aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe??
i?iiiio?oueny i?iaeo iinooiiaiai (a?ae i?inoiai – aei neeaaeiiai)
iaa/aiiy a?ae?ioaea??a-a?ae?ia?ao?a, a oaeiae
aeieoiaioiciaaoe?a-?aoa?aio?a (iaoaoi?/ii? noa?e ae?yeueiino?) iniiaai
?iaioe c eiii’thoa?iith ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eiith oaoi?eith aeey ae??oaiiy
nai?o oaoiaeo caaaeaiue. I?aee?aneaii, ui oaea nenoaia iaa/aiiy iiaea
aooe aeei?enoaia a nei?i/aiiio aa??aio? ? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
aai ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?? niaoe?ae?no?a aeaiiai i?io?eth.

Aieiaiee ci?no o?enooiaiaai? nenoaie iaa/aiiy
a?ae?ioaea??a-a?ae?i-a?ao?a, cai?iiiiiaaii? aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe??,
iieyaa? a ianooiieo iieiaeaiiyo. Ia?oee ??aaiue iaoe?eaiee ia
caaacia/aiiy “eiii’thoa?iiai e?eiaio”, ui ia?aaeaa/a? iaa/aiiy a?eueiiio
ei?enooaaiith eiii’thoa?ieie oaoiieia?yie. Ia oeueiio ??ai? iaa/aiiy
i?iiiio?oueny o aeiiiaiaiiy aei aeineoue a?aiioiiai aieiae?iiy
o?aaeeoe?eieie a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieie oaoiieia?yie, i?ioeanaie
aiae?oeei-neioaoe/ii? ia?iaee aeieoiaio?a canai?oe iniiae ?iaioe c
eiii’thoa?ii. Aeey iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy aeaiiai ??aiy iaa/aiiy
aaoi?ii i?iiiio?oueny o/aiaa i?ia?aia aeey ei?enooaa/?a-ii/aoe?aoe?a
“Iniiae ?ioi?iaoeee e ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee”, a oaeiae ?io?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee, ui ioi?ieai? o aeaeyae? aeiaeaoe?a.
Ae?oaee ??aaiue iaoe?eaiee ia inai?iiy oaoiaeo i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?aiieo
i?iaeoeo?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey a?ae?ioae oa ?ioeo aeieoiaioieo no?oeoo?,
aea?? yeeo ia a?o/eciyiiio ? caei?aeiiiiio ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?eieao
aeineoue oe?ieee. Ia oeueiio ??ai? iaa/aiiy ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aea/aiiy
eiii’thoa?ieo a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo oaoiieia?e, ia i?eeeaae? III
CDS/ISIS/m (UNESCO); aeiaea?oueny oaeno iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie ca eo?nii
“Aaoiiaoecaoe?y aeieoiaioaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a”. O?ao?e
??aaiue – inai?iiy no/anieo ia?aaeaaeo oaoiieia?e – i???ioiaaiee ia
aeei?enoaiiy iiioey?ieo ia ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio ?eieo ei?ii?aoeaieo ia?aae,
ui canoiniaothoue oaoiieia?? ?ioa?iao. Aeaiee ??aaiue, o naith /a?ao,
i?noeoue aeaa aoaie, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue iine?aeiai?noue iaa/aiiy:

1) Iaieiae?iiy iaae/eaie ?iaioe a eieaeuei?e a?ae?ioa/i?e ia?aae? c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioa?iao-oaoiieia?e (?c iiaeyaeo ei?enooaaiiy), ui aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue aeaeo?iii?e a?ae?ioaoe? ia’?aeiaoe on? ?? ooieoe?? c iaoith
caaacia/aiiy ?aeeiiai ea?oaaiiy nenoaiith ? aaaaoiei?enooaaoeueeiai
?aaeeio iiooeo aoaeue-yei? ?ioi?iaoe?? c aoaeue-yeiai ?iai/iai i?noey,
e??i oiai – aca?iiiai?i ? noi?ni?noue c ?ioi?iaoe?eieie ?ano?naie
?ioa?iaoo.

2) Iaieiae?iiy iaae/eaie ?iaioe a aeiaaeuei?e i?aeia?iaei?e ia?aae?
?ioa?iaoo, o yeino?: a) ei?enooaa/a, a) i?ia?aeieea ii na?oiaeo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?nao; a) i?aai?caoi?a a??ooaeueieo a?ae?ioae (?ioeie
neiaaie, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iaiaaeaea?a ?ioa?iaoo).

Ia inoaiiueiio ??ai? iaa/aiiy ia?aaeaa/a?oueny canai?oe iniiae ?iaioe c
eiii’thoa?ieie a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieie oaoiieia?yie a oiiaao
ia?aae: eieaeueieo ? aeiaaeueieo. Aaoi?ii i?iiiio?oueny
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy ii ae?oaiio aoaio o?aoueiai ??aiy
iaa/aiiy, cie?aia, iaa/aeuei? i?ia?aie “Iniiae ?iaioe a ?ioa?iao? aeey
ei?enooaa/?a-ii/aoe?aoe?a”, “Aaoiiaoeciaai? a?ae?ia?ao?/i? aace aeaieo ?
?ioa?iao” oa ?io? iaoa??aee.

Aiane?aeie i?ioiaeaeaiiy iaa/aiiy a?aeiia?aeieiei niaoe?ae?noaie ia an?o
o?ueio ??aiyo aoaeooue noi?iiaai? aeani? iaoe?iiaeuei?
?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/i? eaae?e, iieeeeai? noai?thaaoe o iaeaooiueiio
a??ooaeuei? a?ae?ioaee, ui iathoue ?ano?nii iiiiaithaaoeny /a?ac ia?aae?
?ioa?iaoo ?c iaoith caaacia/aiiy e?ioeaaeo ei?enooaa/?a//eoa/?a
iia?aoeaiith ? iiaiith ?ioi?iaoe??th, a oaeiae iinoaaeyoe ia na?oiaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?eiie a?o/eciyi? a?ae?ioa/ii-a?a-e?ia?ao?/i? ?ano?ne ?
iineoae.

O?enooiaiaaa nenoaia iaa/aiiy eaae?iaiai neeaaeo AAAN, ui cai?iiiiiaaia
aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe??, iiaea neoaeeoe iiaeaeeth nenoaie iaa/aiiy
aeenoeeie?iai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiai oeeeeo ia o?eueee aeey
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo eaae??a, a e aeey aoaeue-yeeo oao?aoe?a
aoiai?oa?iiai i?io?eth.

O oe?eiio, aiae?c noaio iaa/aiiy iia?oi?i ?ioi?iaoe?eiei oaoiieia?yi
a?ae?ioaea??a-a?ae?ia?ao?a (ia i?eeeaae? iaeiiai c iaenoa??eoeo aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie – Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
eoeueoo?e), a oaeiae ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo a oe?e aaeoc?, aeicaieea
caeiaoaa/aa? aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai a Oe?a?i?. Aiie iia’ycai?, ii-ia?oa, c
oaeineiiaeaiiyi iaa/aiiy iia?oi?i ?ioi?iaoe?eiei oaoiieia?yi
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo eaae??a ?, ii-ae?oaa, ?c ?icoe?aiiyi oaoiaeo
iaiaaeaiue a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, iaoiiaeaieo
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi o oeth noa?o eiii’thoa?ieo ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo
oaoiieia?e, aei ??aiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioieo no?oeoo?: a aaeoc?
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? – ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iaiaaeaea?e aai a?iea?e; a
aaeoc? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? – ?aoa?aioe-aiae?oeee,
aenia?oe.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e – “I?aai?caoe?y a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie a?ae?ioaee c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e” – iaoe?eaiee ia aiae?c
i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? aaoiiaoeciaaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie, aeyaeaiiy
?? iniiaieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?aenenoai, oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueii? ?ioaa?iaaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie ? ?ic?iaeo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?? ia?niaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo.

Caeiaoaa/ai aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiee “ei?enooaaoeueeee” i?aeo?ae aei
ae??oaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo i?iaeai noai?aiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?aenenoai (aai A?I) aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ioa/ieo
nenoai. O oie aea /an ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?aeoeea a?ae?ioa/ii?
aaoiiaoecaoe?? aaea ia? aeinoaoi?e aeina?ae a aaeoc? ?ic?iaee oaoi?/iiai
? i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy a?ae?ioa/ieo nenoai.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie aaoi?ii c?iaeaia ni?iaa aea/eoe e
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?noi??th ? no/aniee noai ?icaeoeo aaoiiaoecaoe??
a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo a?ae?ioae; i?iaiae?coaaoe
ooieoe?iiaeueii-oaoiieia?/io no?oeoo?o aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ioa/ieo
nenoai Oe?a?ie ? ?in?? c iiaeyaeo i?enooiino? a ieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
eiiiiiaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o
i?aeia?iaeiiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio na?aaeiaeu? noai?ai? ia’?eoeai?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?icoe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
oaoiieia?e. I?aeoe/ii o an? aaoiiaoeciaai? a?ae?ioa/i? nenoaie aeeth/ai?
a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ooieoe?? a?ae?ioae, oi/a ? c ??ciei nooiaiai iiaiioe.
?ic?iaeai? a?o/eciyi? i?eeeaaei? i?ia?aie, ye? iaoe?eai? o?eueee ia
ie?ai? ae?eyiee a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a?ae?ioae. I?ioa a aeiaei?e
nenoai? ia ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?aenenoaia a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai
a?aeae?eo, ui eiiiaeoii e iiaii ioiiethaaea a an? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino?
oe??? iaeaaaeeea?oi? ae?eyiee a?ae?ioa/ii? ?iaioe.

Aea/aiiy i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? aaoiiaoeciaaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie
ioiieei ooieoe?iiaeuei? iai?yiee a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Cie?aia,
o a?ae?ioaeao a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ae?yeuei?noue aeeth/a? aea? iniiai? a?oie
i?ioean?a: a?ae?ia?aooaaiiy ? a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy. Aiie o
naith /a?ao i?noyoue noeoii?noue i?ioean?a: i?aai?caoe?th
aeia?aeeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai aia?aoo; aeia?aeeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/ia
ianeoaiaoaaiiy; ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy; oeeaaeaiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iaoa??ae?a (iieaae/ee?a) ??ciiiai?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy;
iaa/aiiy ei?enooaa/?a iniiaai a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? a?aiioiino?. I?ioeane
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino? neeaaeathoue iniiao i?aai?caoe?eii? ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii-oaoiieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie.

A oiiaao a?ae?ioaee AAAN caaaeaee ? i?enooiueith ye “iac?eia”
i?aenenoaia a iaaeao aoaeue-yei? aaoiiaoeciaaii? a?ae?ioa/ii? nenoaie,
ine?eueee iniiaiee aeae ?ioi?iaoe??, yeith iai?ioeth? a?ae?ioa/ia
nenoaia, ? naia a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y (ii?yae ?c a?ae?ioa/iith,
oi?aae?inueeith e ?ioeie aeaeaie aioo??oiueia?ae?ioa/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??).
sseui ?icaeyiooe aeaio AAAN ?c iiaeyaeo aaoiiaoecaoe?? a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai
a?aeae?eo a?ae?ioaee, oi aiia iaea?aeo? oe?eeii ?aaeuei? (o?ce/i?)
eiioo?e, iaiaaeai? ooieoe?iiaeueieie caaea/aie (aai ooieoe?yie)
aeia?aeeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai a?aeae?eo a?ae?ioaee. A?aeiinii
aaoiiaoeciaaii? a?ae?ioa/ii? nenoaie AAAN ? i?aenenoaiith. C?icoi?ei, ui
iniiai? i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee
aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ioa/ieo nenoai ? caaaeueieie ? aeey AAAN, i?ioa
ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a, iaoiiaeaia i?aaeiaoiith iaeanoth,
a?ae?ia?ao?/iith ?iaioith, ia? ?yae iniaeeainoae, na?aae yeeo –
?ioaa?iaai?noue ? aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeuei?noue. *a?ac oea a?ae?ia?ao?/ia
i?aeoeea iio?aao? eiiieaenii? aaoiiaoecaoe??, oiaoi aaoiiaoecaoe?? an?o
i?ioean?a ? oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
iaeii/anii, a ia o?eueee noai?aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo,
iai?eeeaae, aai caaacia/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai iioi/iiai
a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai ?ioi?ioaaiiy.

Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaia ooieoe?iiaeueii-oaoiieia?/ia
no?oeoo?a aaoiiaoeciaaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie a?ae?ioaee, ui
aeeth/a? o?e iniiai? i?aenenoaie aai aaoiiaoeciaai? ?iai/? i?noey (A?I):

1) I?aenenoaia (A?I) a?ae?ia?aoa-oeeaaea/a a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??
(a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo, iieaae/ee?a o?aaeeoe?eieo oa ?i.), ui
aeeth/a? oae? iniiai? ooieoe?iiaeueii-oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane, ye: ca??,
aaaaeaiiy ? ?aaeaaoaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaieo, ni?ooaaiiy
(oa?oiiaaiiy), aeaaaeaiiy ia ae?oeoaaiiy, ?iciiiaeaiiy.

2) I?aenenoaia (A?I) a?ae?ia?aoa-?ioi?iaoi?a-“aa?enoa”, ui aeeth/a? oae?
iniiai? ooieoe?iiaeueii-oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane, ye on? aeaee
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiooeo: aeieoiaioaeueiiai oa oaeoia?ao?/iiai.
?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? – a?ae?ia?ao?/i? e ?io? aeia?aeee a ?aaeeiao
?aciaiai ? iioi/iiai ?ioi?ioaaiiy e ?i.

3) I?aenenoaia (A?I) a?ae?ia?aoa-eiinoeueoaioa-iaaeaaiaa, ui aieiae??
ooieoe?yie iaa/aiiy ei?enooaa/?a iniiaai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
eoeueoo?e, eiinoeueooaaiiy ?o o na?aaeiaeu? aeaii? nenoaie. Iniiai?
ooieoe?iiaeueii-oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane – i?iaaaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
eiinoeueoaoe?e o aoaeue-yeiio aeaeyae?; ?iaioa c iaa/aeueieie i?ia?aiaie
c oaie “?ioi?iaoe?eia eoeueoo?a”; aeeeaaeaiiy iniia ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
a?aiioiino? a ?aieao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? e ?i.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae ?aae?caoe?? o?aaeeoe?eieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
oaoiieia?e eiii’thoa?ieie caniaaie, a oaeiae i?iaiicoaaiiy i??i?eoaoieo
iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo aeaii? nenoaie, aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueiee
ci?noiaiee aiae?c i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? eiaeii? oaoiieia?/ii? ae?eyiee
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie. Oea aeicaieeei caeiaoaa/aa? ?ice?eoe e ooi/ieoe
nooi?noue i?ioean?a, ui neeaaeathoue o noeoiiino? a?ae?ia?ao?/i?
oaoiieia?? eiaeii? ae?eyiee a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, iiaeeeaino?
?icaeoeo oaoiaeo ooieoe?e nenoaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

Aiane?aeie aiae?co e iieno i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? 1) i?aenenoaie, ui
aeine?aeaeaia, caeiaoaa/ai aeyaeaii, ui “oeeaaeaoeueea” ooieoe?y
aaoiiaoeciaaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie a iaeaooiueiio iiaea aooe
?aae?ciaaia aeineoue iiaii eiii’thoa?ieie caniaaie. O/anoue
a?ae?ia?ao?a-i?ioan?iiae?a, nei??oa ca ana, aoaea iaiaaeaia oaeeie
?ioi?iaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie e iia?aoe?yie, ye: aaaaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
aeaieo a AAAe, ?aaeaaoaaiiy e aeooae?caoe?y a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaieo.
Ianooii? i?ioeane e iia?aoe??, iia’ycai? c aeei?enoaiiyi ?
?iciianthaeaeaiiyi a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? – ni?ooaaiiy,
?iciiiaeaiiy ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy – ciiaeooue cae?enithaaoeny ye
aeaeaaie/eie neoaeaaie, oae ? aeanii e?ioeaaeie ei?enooaa/aie, oiaoi aac
o/ano? a?ae?ia?ao?a. O oe?eiio iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui oey ae?eyiea
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a iaeaooiueiio aoaea oe?eeii ?aae?ciaaia ca
aeiiiiiaith a?eueo aaeineiiaeaiiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy ?c c?o/iei
?ioa?oaenii, ui aeicaieeoue aeeiioaaoe “oeeaaeaoeuee?” a?ae?ia?ao?/i?
i?ioeane aaoiiaoe/ii, aac iina?aaeieoeoaa a?ae?ia?ao?a.

Caeiaoaa/ai cai?iiiiiaaiee aeai?eoi, ui a?aeaeaa? oaoiieia?th
ae?iaieoeoaa aoaeue-yeiai o?aaeeoe?eiiai a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iin?aieea c
iine?aeiaiith oeac?aeith an?o iaiao?aeieo i?ioean?a ? iia?aoe?e.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee aeai?eoi iiaea neoaoaaoe oaeiae oaoiieia?/iith iiaeaeeth
a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iieaae/eea a aeaeo?iii?e oi?i? (AAAe), ui aeeiio?oueny
a aaoiiaoeciaaiiio aai aaoiiaoe/iiio ?aaeei? a oiiaao AAAN. Ia?niaeoeai?
oaoiieia?? i?aeaiooaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ca’ycothoue ?c
?icaeoeii i?iaeaiii-i???ioiaaieo aaoiiaoeciaaieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai,
ui iioe?ththoueny ii eiioi?eaoe?eieo eaiaeao, ia CD-ROI aai ?ioeo
aeaeo?iiieo iin?yo ?ioi?iaoe??. Ia?aaaae oaeeo ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeiaeo
nenoai ia?aae aeaeo?iiieie aiaeiaaie ae?oea?nueeeo aeaeaiue i/aaeaei?,
oiio ui aiie aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ??ciiiai?oiiai i?aaenoaaeaiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, iaeei ?ac aaaaeaii? a nenoaio, a oaeiae
iiaeeea?noue aaaaoianiaeoiiai iiooeo, i?e/iio a iaeei?ioo? oa?i?ie.

Aiane?aeie aiae?co e iieno i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? 2) i?aenenoaie, ui
aeine?aeaeaia, caeiaoaa/ai c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ?aae?caoe?y
ianeoaiaoth/i? ooieoe?? eiii’thoa?ieie ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieie caniaaie,
yea iiaea aooe ooi/iaia “iiooeiai-na?a?niith” i?aeooieoe??th, oeueiai
/ano, ? a iaeaooiueiio aoaea iio?aaoaaoe iaia’yceiai? o/ano? a
?ioi?iaoe?eieo eiioi?eaoe?yo a?ae?ia?ao?a-“aa?eno?a”, ye? iieeeeai?
aeiiiiaaaoe e?ioeaaei ei?enooaa/ai o iiooeo a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??.
Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui aeaia i?aeooieoe?y noaia aeii?ioth/ith a
aeaeo?iiieo a?ae?ioaeao iaeaooiueiai, ye? a oiiaao ia?aaeaaiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o ?ioa?iaoo ia?aoai?youeny a
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeia? neoaeae (aai oeaio?e). Naia oae? oaiaeaioe??
oeueiai /ano iathoue i?noea a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ii ?icaeiooeo
aea?aeaaao na?oo.

Aiane?aeie aiae?co e iieno i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? 3) i?aenenoaie, ui
aeine?aeaeaia, caeiaoaa/ai c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iaa/aeueia
ooieoe?y a iaeaooiueiio aoaea ?aae?ciaaia oe?eeii i?ia?aiieie caniaaie –
aaoiiaoe/ii, oiaoi ca aeiiiiiaith iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai. Ei?enooaaiiy
oaeeie i?ia?aiaie aoaea cae?enithaaoeny oe?eeii naiino?eii e?ioeaaeie
ei?enooaa/aie aac iina?aaeieoeoaa a?ae?ia?ao?a. I?e oeueiio ne?ae
cacia/eoe aaaeeea?noue ? iaiao?aei?noue o/ano?
a?ae?ia?ao?a-i?ioan?iiae?a o i?aeaioiaoe? ci?noo oaeeo iaa/aeueieo
i?ia?ai.

C ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a iaa/aiiy iaae/eai ?ioi?iaoe?eii? a?aiioiino?
(information literacy) noaei i?eciaaaoeny ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia
caaaeueii? i?aeia?iaeii? i?ia?aie ina?oe, i?i ui na?ae/aoue iaoa??aee
inoaii?o nan?e ?OEA. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eia eoeueoo?a ia? a
nenoai? aeui? ina?oe, ?noioii aieeaath/e ia i?aeaeuaiiy
caaaeueiiiaoeiaiai e caaaeueiii?ioan?eiiai ??aiy iaeaooiueiai
niaoe?ae?noa, ia iioe?aiiy no/anieo iiaeeeainoae ae??ooaaoe i?aeoe/i?
caaaeaiiy iioeiaeueieie oeyoaie.

Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny i?ia?aia iaa/aiiy iniiaai
?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? a?aiioiino? – “?ioi?iaoe?eia eoeueoo?a
niaoe?ae?noa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?io?eth”, ?ic?iaeaia a Oa?e?anuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? eoeueoo?e. I?ia?aia aea? iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaoe
ciaiiy, oi?iiy ? iaae/ee ?ioi?iaoe?eii? eoeueoo?e c eiie?aoii?
niaoe?aeueiino? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e c o?aooaaiiyi i?ioan?eieo
iniaeeainoae i?aoe? iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a. Aiaeia?/i? i?ia?aie
i?aeaioiaeai? aeey niaoe?ae?no?a nioe?iaoiai?oa?iiai e i?e?iaeiciaa/iai
i?io?eth, ui o noeoiiino? neeaaeathoue iaa/aeueiee eiiieaen. Iiaeaiee
iaeao i?ia?ai iiaea ciaeoe aeei?enoaiiy ia o?eueee a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, aea e o ae?yeueiino? niaoe?aeueieo
a?ae?ioae ii iaa/aiith ei?enooaa/?a ?ioi?iaoe??, a oaeiae i?e
i?iaaaeaii? ??ciiiai?oieo eo?n?a i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
niaoe?ae?no?a, nai?ia??a oa ?i.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaa/aeueia i?ia?aia iiaea noaoe ci?noiaiei i?ae?a?oioyi
aeey ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo ooieoe?e i?aenenoaie AAAN –
a?ae?ia?aoa-eiinoeue-oaioa-iaaeaaiaa – cae?eniaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
iineoa (o?aaeeoe?eieo ? aeaeo?iiieo), iaoe?eaieo ia inai?iiy
eiii’thoa?ii? a?aiioiino? /eoa/aie/ei?enooaa/aie nenoaie. Oiaoi a iniia?
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?aenenoaie iiaeiia aooe ?ic?iaeaia iaa/aeueia i?ia?aia
aeey e?ioeaaeo ei?enooaa/?a, ci?noiaia iaiiaiaiiy eio?i? oe?eeii aai
o?aaiaioa?ii ia? ni?aiaaeaoe ?c ci?noii i?ia?ai “?ioi?iaoe?eia eoeueoo?a
niaoe?ae?noa”. I?e oeueiio aa?oi a?aooaaoe iaiao?aei?noue ?? aaeaioaoe??
aei oiia ?iaioe eiie?aoii? a?ae?ioaee. Iayai?noue “iii?/iee?a” (Help) ?
iaiao?aeieo “i?aeeacoaaiue”, ui iaia’yceiai noi?iaiaeaeothoue oae?
i?ia?aie, aeicaieeoue e?ioeaaiio ei?enooaa/aa? naiino?eii inaithaaoe
iiaeeeaino? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai na?a?no.

Aeyaeaii, ui a oiiaao eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y a?aeoiaeo a?ae eii?thaaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a; a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ooieoe?? aai ?icoe?ththoueny
a?aeiia?aeii aei ?o c?inoath/eo iiaeeeainoae, aai cai?iththoueny a?eueo
aeineiiaeeie.

I’yoee ?icae?e – “?icaeoie ? i?aai?caoe?y aaoiiaoeciaaieo
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo o neeaae? a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai” – ioiieth?
anaa?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo, ui aaco?oueny ia
aaoi?nueeiio, “ei?enooaaoeueeiio” i?aeoiae?.

Aeoeaiee ?icaeoie a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo (AAAe) o no/aniiio
?ioi?iaoe?eiiio noni?euenoa? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaiao?aei?noth
oai?aoe/iiai ia?a?oiooaaiiy aeaiiai yaeua. Oey iaiao?aei?noue iaoiiaeaia
oei, ui oao?aoe? aeieoiaioii-?ioi?iaoe?eii? noa?e, cie?aia,
a?ae?ioa/ii?, iieeeeai? ia o?eueee a?aoe o/anoue o i?ioeanao
ei?enooaaiiy AAAe, aea e aooe aenia?oaie ia an?o aoaiao ?o i?iaeooaaiiy,
noai?aiiy ? i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??; a?aiioii aecia/aoe aea?? iaiao?aeieo
oei?a ? iiaeaeae aac aeaieo aeey ?o i?aaeiaoii? iaeano?; aieiae?oe
iaae/eaie aaei?i?no?oaaiiy aac aeaieo ? ?ioeie iaae/eaie e oi?iiyie, ye?
ia aoee i?eoaiaii? oeei niaoe?ae?noai ?ai?o. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a
aeena?oaoe??, iniaeeai aeey a?ae?ioa/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a o no/anieo oiiaao
? aeoaea aaaeeeaei iai?aeeia?iee, ei?enooaaoeueeee, i?aeo?ae aei
i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, oiaoi – aei aea/aiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy AAAe aeey
aecia/aiiy nai?? ?ie? ? i?noey a oeeo iiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?ieo
i?ioeanao, ui ona a?eueo ioiieththoue a?ae?ioa/ia ni?aoiaa?enoai.
Ei?enooaaoeueeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe ? aeine?aeoaaoe AAAe ia
c o?aaeeoe?eieo iiceoe?e ?ic?iaethaa/?a, i?ia?ai?no?a, i?iaeooaaeueiee?a
? ?ioeo ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, a c oi/ee ci?o a?ae?ioa/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a, ye? aeoioeththoue o nia? ? ei?enooaa/?a, ? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
iina?aaeiee?a (a?iea??a, iaiaaeaea??a) iaeii/anii. Caaaeyee oaeiio
i?aeoiaeia? aei i?aaeiaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aoe?aieee
?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/ieo no?oeoo? iathoue iiaeeea?noue ia o?eueee
i?iaiae?coaaoe i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe, aea e inieneeoe oai?aoe/i? iniiae
ooieoe?thaaiiy AAAe, oiaoi a e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo iiaa/eoe i?noea ?
cia/aiiy a?ae?ioae ? ?o eaae??a o no/ani?e ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e
?io?ano?oeoo??.

Naia c oe??th oe?eeth caeiaoaa/ai aaaaeai? i?ae?icae?ee c
caaaeueiioai?aoe/iei ? iaoiaeieia?/iei ia?a?oiooaaiiyi ?icaeoeo
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo o na?oiaiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?inoi??, ui
aeeth/athoue ? i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe i?aai?caoe?? AAAe: iniaeeaino?
noai?aiiy, aaaeaiiy, iiooeo a ieo. ?icaeyioo? iiaeeeaino?
?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a a?aoe o/anoue ia an?o aoaiao
?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo ? oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
o i?ioeane i?aai?caoe?? AAAe. I?e oeueiio /?oei i?ine?aeaeothoueny o?
ooieoe??, ye? o oeeo i?ioeanao i?ioan?eii a?aiioii iiaea c?iaeoe o?eueee
a?ae?ioa/iee i?aoe?aiee. Iai?eeeaae, ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy AAAe —
noai?aiiy iiaeae? i?aaeiaoii? iaeano? aaoiiaoecaoe?? eiie?aoii? ae?eyiee
?iaioe, o oiio /ene? ? noai?aiiy aeai?eoio c aeaoaeueiei aeeeaaeii
i?ioean?a ? iia?aoe?e a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo oaoiieia?e; ia noaae??
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? AAAe — cae?eniaiiy oaeeo
ooieoe?e, ye aaaaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaieo, ?o ?aaeaaoaaiiy e
aeooae?caoe?y, a?ae?ia?ao?/iee iiooe.

A?ae?ia?ao?/i? aace aeaieo ? iniiaith aoaeue-yei? aaoiiaoeciaaii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioii? nenoaie, o oiio /ene?, aaoiiaoeciaaii?
a?ae?ioa/ii? nenoaie. ?o aeieeiaiiy iaoiiaeaia ia’?eoeaiith
iaiao?aei?noth ? iane?aeeii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee o
an? noa?e nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, c iaeiiai aieo, ? ?ioi?iaoe?eieie
iio?aaaie noni?euenoaa, ui c?inoathoue, o iiai?e, iia?aoeai?e ?
aeinoia??i?e a?ae?ia?ao?/i?e ?ioi?iaoe??, c ?ioiai aieo. A?ae?ia?ao?/i?
aace aeaieo noai?ththoueny aeey caaacia/aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai na?a?no
iiaeie oaoiieia?/ii a?eueo aaeineiiaeaieie caniaaie: eiii’thoa?ieie ?
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieie.

Aoaeue-yea a?ae?ia?ao?/ia aaca aeaieo ? ??ciiaeaeii aace aeaieo (AAe),
ye?e i?eoaiii? iaaia no?oeoo?a, iaa?? aeanoeainoae ? oa?aeoa?enoee,
i?eaeaoieo onye?e AAe. O oie aea /an, i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue (aai
i?aaeiaoia iaeanoue aaoiiaoecaoe??) iaaea? AAe a?aei?oi? i?eeeaaei?
?ene, ui aieeaathoue ia ?? i?aoeacaeaoi?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue. O
?acoeueoao? oeueiai iiaeia ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui noai?aiiy AAAe
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny:

— caaaeueiei i?aaeeai iiaoaeiae aoaeue-yeeo (iaa?ae?ia?ao?/ieo) aac
aeaieo (i?iaeooaaiiy, iiaeaethaaiiy ? o?ce/ia iaoa??ae?caoe?y);

— oaoiaei aeiiaai a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?aeoeee ye i?aaeiaoii? iaeano?.

O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy AAAe noa? i/aaeaeiei, ui noai?aiiy
aoaeue-yeiai oeio AAe ii/eia?oueny c ?? i?iaeooaaiiy, o oiae? yeiai
?ic?iaeythoueny iiaeae? AAe, ? cae?i/o?oueny o?ce/iith iaoa??ae?caoe??th
AAe. I?ney /iai a AAe cae?eniththoueny iia?aoe?? caa?aaeaiiy ?
iiaeeo?eaoe??, ui oyaeythoue niaith noeoii?noue o?ueio iia?aoe?e:
aaanoe, aeaeaeeoe, ci?ieoe aeai?. Aecia/aiiy iniiaieo i?ioean?a ?
iia?aoe?e i?aai?caoe?? (aai aaaeaiiy) aac aeaieo ? iaeaaaeeea?oeie
aeniiaeaie aeey niaoe?ae?no?a-i?aaenoaaiee?a aoaeue-yei? i?aaeiaoii?
iaeano? AAe.

A?ae?ia?ao?/i? aace aeaieo, ye oaea a?aecia/aeiny aeua, ? iniiaith
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?
a?ae?ioa/ieo nenoai. AAAe ?icoi??oueny ye oii?yaeeiaaia noeoii?noue
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaieo, ui a?aeiineoueny aei yei?nue aaeoc?, i?aaeiaoo,
i?iaeaie, caienaia ia aeaeo?iiieo iin?yo ? i?ecia/aia aeey
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai aaaaeaiiy, ia?iaee ? iiooeo oeeo aeaieo. Aei
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaieo a?aeiinyoueny a?ae?ia?ao?/iee caien (aai
a?aeiiino? i?i aeieoiaio), ui iiaea aooe iiaeaiee oe?eeii aai /anoeiai:
a?ae?ia?ao?/iee iien aeieoiaioa ?/aai eeaneo?eaoe?eiee ?iaeaen
aeieoiaioa, ?/aai oeo? caa?aaeaiiy aeieoiaioa, ?/aai aiioaoe?y, ?/aai
?aoa?ao, ?/aai eeth/iaa neiai, ?/aai i?aaeiaoi? ?oa?eee, ?/aai ?io?
aeaiaioe iiaiiai a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai caieno aeieoiaioa. Ca?aeii c oeei,
a?ae?ia?ao?/i? aeai? aecia/athoue no?oeoo?o AAAe, oiaoi ?? iiey ?
i?aeiiey; niaoeeo?eo i?ioean?a ? iia?aoe?e, ye? ae?iaeythoueny o AAAe:
aaaaeaiiy, ia?iaea ? iiooe.

A inoaii? ?iee a a?ae?ioa/iiio ni?aoiaa?enoa? aeoeaii aeei?enoiao?oueny
iaeao i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai, i?ecia/aiee aeey aeieoiaioiciaa/i? noa?e, III
CDS/ISIS/m (Computerized Documentation System/Integrated Set of
Information Systems) (UNESCO), ui aeciaiee o na?o? ye aeineoue c?o/iee
aeey ae??oaiiy aoaeue-yeeo aeieoiaioieo, a oaeiae niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo caaaeaiue, oni?oiiai aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e
caa?aaeaiiy ? iiooeo, aeey noai?aiiy ei?enooaaoeueeiai ?ioa?oaeno. Naia
ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy aeaiiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aaoi?ii
aeena?oaoe?? aoea ?i?oe?eiaaia ?aeay noai?aiiy AAAe, ui aeeth/a?
aoi?eiio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i a?ae?ia?ao?/i? iin?aieee, aeaeai? a Oe?a?i? c
1920 ii 1991 ?iee ii oaoi?oe?, “BUT” (Bibliography of Ukraine on
technology).

C iiaeyaeo ei?enooaa/a-a?ae?ia?aoa aei a?aeiinoae oe??? AAAe aa?oi
a?aeianoe oae?:

1) I?aai?caoe?y “BUT” ca aeiiiiiaith III CDS/ISIS/m ?iaeoue ?? aeineoue
c?o/iith aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeue-yeeo iai?yie?a a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?iaioe,
cie?aia, aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe: a?ae?ia?ao?/iee ?
aeieoiaioaeueii-oaeoiapao?/iee iiooe; noai?thaaoe a?ae?ia?ao?/i?
iin?aieee; aiooaaoe oaiaoe/i? aeia?aeee c aoaeue-yeei a?oioaaiiyi,
aoaeue-yeiai ianyao, noai?thaaoe ?io? a?ae?ia?ao?/i? i?iaeoeoe ?
iineoae.

2) Noai?aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iin?aiee?a ia iniia? AAAe “BUT” – cia/ii
ni?iuo?oueny, i?ia?aia eaaei ni?oo? (oiaoi a?oio?) a?ae?ia?ao?/i? caiene
ca iio??aiith iiooeiaith iciaeith, noai?thth/e i?e oeueiio aeaeo?iiiee
aiaeia o?aaeeoe?eiiai iieaae/eea c o?aooaaiiyi on?o iaoiaee/ieo aeiia.
Oae, iai?eeeaae, yeui iin?aiee ca?oiiaaiee ca aeoaa?oii, oi aeiiii?aeiee
iieaae/ee ?iaeoueny nenoaiaoe/iei (ni?ooaaiiy ii ?iaeaenao i?eeiyoi?
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? eeaneo?eaoe??). sseui a iin?aieeo
nenoaiaoe/ia a?oioaaiiy, oi aeiiii?aeiee iieaae/ee i?aai?co?oueny ca
aeoaa?oii. Oaeei /eiii, o na?aaeiaeu? aeaii? i?ia?aie ? aeinyaeiei
aoaeue-yea oa?oiiaaiiy (aai ni?ooaaiiy) AAAe (aai iieaae/eea) a
aaoiiaoe/iiio ?aaeei?, ui cia/ii nei?i/o? o?oaeia? ? oei/ania? aeo?aoe
a?ae?ia?ao?a.

O oe?eiio, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?aai?caoe?y a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? aace aeaieo
iio?aao? aeaoaeueiiai i?i?iaeaiiy ia o?eueee oaoiieia?/ieo ieoaiue, ye
oea aoei a?aecia/aii aeua (ia i?eeeaae? c AAAe “BUT”), aea e ?ioeo
ieoaiue, ui aa?oi a?aoiaoaaoe i?e noai?aii? ? aeei?enoaii? aoaeue-yei?
aace aeaieo. Oea ieoaiiy, ui noinothoueny ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai,
e?iaa?noe/iiai, i?ia?aiiiai, eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy aoaeue-yeeo
aeieoiaioaeueieo aac aeaieo: a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo, iiaiioaenoiaeo,
?aoa?aoeaieo. Na?aae ieo aeae?eythoueny oae?: i?iaeaia e?iaa?noe/iiai
caaacia/aiiy (cie?aia, ?ic?iaea i?aeia?iaeieo oacao?on?a oa ?i.);
i?iaeaie aeai?o i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy, ui ia? no/aniee ae?oaei?e
?ioa?oaen; i?iaeaie i?aaenoaaeaiiy AAAe o na?oiaeo eiii’thoa?ieo
ia?aaeao ?ioa?iaoo, ianaiia?aae, i?iaeaia ia?eaoeiao (?aeeaia ?
i?iaeaae), a oaeiae ua aaaaoi ?ioeo.

Na?aae iaeaaaeeea?oeo ieoaiue aeei?enoaiiy AAAe ia ia?oiio i?noe?
caeeoa?oueny a?ae?ia?ao?/iee iiooe, yeee ? iniiaith an?o a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
i?ioean?a, o?nii iia’ycaiee ?c iiooeiaith ooieoe??th a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ? ae?aaea?, ii noo?, oaoiieia?/iee aniaeo ?? i?aeoe/ii?
?aae?caoe??.

Caeiaoaa/ai aeyaeaii, ui aeey ei?enooaa/?a AAAe aaaeeeai canai?oe oae?
i?aeoe/i? iaae/ee e oi?iiy, ye: ?iaeaenoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo caieo?a ?
?o oi?ioethaaiiy aeey iaea?aeaiiy iiaiioe?iieo a?aeiia?aeae; cae?eniaiiy
aaaaoianiaeoiiai a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iiooeo c iiia?aaei?i i?i?iaeaiiyi
no?aoaa?? iiooeo ? e?eoa???a aeaea/?. Aeey i?aoe?aiee?a aeaeo?iiieo
a?ae?ioae e??i aeua iacaaieo aeiaeathoueny ua iaae/ee e oi?iiy:
?ic?iaea no?oeoo?e AAAe c o?aooaaiiyi ?? i?aaeiaoii? iaeano?;
?iaeaenoaaiiy oa ?ioeo i?ioean?a aiae?oeei-neioaoe/ii? ia?iaee
aeieoiaio?a ? caieo?a.

Aecia/ai? ia?niaeoeai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
aac aeaieo, ye? iia’ycai?:

— c oi?iaaaeaeaiiyi ia?aaeaaeo oaoiieia?e, a?ia?oaenoiaeo oaoiieia?e, ui
aeicaieythoue cae?enithaaoe aaaaoicaaea/iee iiooe ii aoaeue-yeeo
iiooeiaeo iciaeao, iayaiei o aoaeue-yeiio aeaea?ae? ?ioi?iaoe?? (eiai
aeaeo?iii?e aa?n??);

— c i???ioaoe??th ia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeii? iiae, ia ineoieia?th ?
iaae/ee ei?enooaa/?a, ia noai?aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo, ui
iaaeeaeathoueny aei aac ciaiue aenia?oieo nenoai, ye? ?icaeaathoue ?o
?ioaeaeooaeuei?noue o i?ioean? iiooeo.

Oinoee ?icae?e – “Oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie c
aeei?enoaiiyi oaoiieia?e ?ioa?iaoo” – aeeth/a? iiaee i?ea?iaeueiee
iaoa??ae, yeee ioiieth? iaeaaaeeea?o? aniaeoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a oiiaao i?aeia?iaeieo ia?aae ?ioa?iaoo:
aiae?c iiooeiaiai na?a?no a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo Web-na?aa??a,
iiaeeeaino? i?aaenoaaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? a ?ioa?iao?,
i?aai?caoe?y a??ooaeueieo aeia?aeeiai-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo neoaea o
a?ae?ioaeao Oe?a?ie, ui aeei?enoiaothoue ?ioa?iao.

Aiae?c ?ano?n?a na?oiaeo eiii’thoa?ieo ia?aae ?ioa?iaoo aeyaea, ui a
aeaiee /an iaeiie/aia aaee/acia e?euee?noue ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a,
na?aae yeeo ? a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ?ano?ne, iiaeai? ye
a?ae?ioa/iith ?aeeaiith, oae ? a?ae?ia?ao?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th, yeo
i?noyoue AAAe, ?o ??ciiaeaee – aeaeo?iii? eaoaeiae oa ?i. E??i oiai,
a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y oo?eio?oueny ia na?aa?ao iaoeiaeo ? ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a, ui iaaeathoue aeinooi aei nai?? iaoeiai? i?iaeoeoe??:
ia??iaee/iei aeaeaiiyi, aeaeaiiyi, ui i?iaeiaaeothoueny, a aeaeo?iii?e
oi?i? (ia?aaaaeii, /aniienai, i?aoeyi oa ?i.) ia aeaio ??aiyo (aai
eiioo?ao): a?ae?ia?ao?/iiio ? iiaiioaenoiaiio. Oaeeie ae ??ciiaeaeaie
iiaea/? a ?ioa?iao? aeieoiaioii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aieiae?thoue aeaye?
aeaeaaie/?, eieaioi?aiaaeuei? oa ?io? na?aa?e.

A?ae?ia?ao?/i? ?ano?ne ?ioa?iaoo ?icoi?thoueny ye ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ?ano?ne
a ?ioa?iao?, ye? i?noyoue aoaeue-yeo a?ae?ia?ao?/io ?ioi?iaoe?th. O
naith /a?ao a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ?ano?ne ?ioa?iaoo
?icaeyaeathoueny ye /anoeia ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ?ioa?iaoo, yea
i?noeoue a?ae?ia?ao?/io ?ioi?iaoe?th o aeaeyae? aac aeaieo, aeaeo?iiieo
eaoaeia?a oa ?ioeo aeaeo?iiieo i?iaeoeo?a ia a?ae?ioa/ieo WWW-noi??ieao.

Aeyaeaii, ui iaea?eueoa ?icaeiooeie a ieai? i?aaenoaaeaiiy aeinooio aei
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith ??ciiiai?oieo iineoa ?
i?iaeoeo?a ? a?ae?ioa/i? na?aa?e NOA, a oaeiae aeayeeo ?ioeo aea?aeaa. A
ia?aaeao ?ioa?iaoo ? aeinooi i?aeoe/ii aei eiaeii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
a?ae?ioaee na?oo, ? ia o?eueee aiaeiiiaieo (oi/a ?oiy /anoea ? nooi?iue
?ic?iaeaiino? iaea?eueoa), aea ? ?in?enueeiiiaieo, ui iiee cia/ii
iinooiathoueny ?i ca na?a?nieie iiaeeeainoyie.

Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa i?iaaaeaii aiae?c oe?a?inueeeo
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a, ?o ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?c
ca?oa?aeieie, i?e/iio iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eaia ?ici?uaiith ia
?ioi?iaoe?eieo Web-na?aa?ao a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Ei?enooaaoeueeee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy e aiae?co Web-na?aa??a a?ae?ioae
Oe?a?ie iieacaa, ui ?o a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ?ano?nia iaiiaiaiiy ? iaiao?aeiee
iiooeiaee na?a?n ua iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaii, cia/ii iinooia?oueny ia
o?eueee Web-noi??ieai aia?eeainueeeo a?ae?ioae, aea ? ?in?enueeeo.
Aeyaeaii, ui e??i a?ae?ioa/ieo na?aa??a a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ?ano?ne
oo?eiothoueny ia noi??ieao iaoeiaeo ? ina?oi?o Web-na?aa??a. Oi/a a
Oe?a?i? oaeeo i?eeeaae?a iaaaaaoi, aea naia ia ieo iiaeia ciaeoe
a?ae?ia?ao?/io ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ci?no ia??iaee/ieo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiue, ye
iai?eeeaae, ia noi??ieao Web-na?aa?o O?ceei-oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo
iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A.?. Aa?e?ia (OO?IO).

Web-na?aa??a ?c a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieie ?ano?naie a Oe?a?i?
ia?aoiao?oueny iaiaeue, na?aae ieo ? ? naiino?ei? a?ae?ioa/i? na?aa?e.
Iaea?eueo ?ic?iaeaieie aeciai? noi??iee Iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ia na?aa??
Oe?a?inueei? Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? Aeaaeai??
(http://www.ukma.kiev.ua/ukmalib/index.html). Na?aae iaeanieo iaoeiaeo
a?ae?ioae Oe?a?ie aeciaiee Web-na?aa? Aeiiaoeueei? iaeanii?
oi?aa?naeueii? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee (http://www.library.donetsk.ua), ia
noi??ieao yeiai oo?eio?oueny a iniiaiiio e?a?ciaa/a ?ioi?iaoe?y.
Ioo?aiee ii a?ae?ioaeao Oe?a?ie ua a?aenooi?e, ine?eueee a?ae?ioae,
iiaeaieo a ?ioa?iao?, iiee iaei.

Niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iiaeueieo
eii-i’thoa?ieo a?ae?ioa/ieo ia?aae a Oe?a?i?. Iai?eeeaae, a?ae?ioaee
i?noa Oa?eiaa a inoaii? ?iee aeoeaii i?aoeththoue o iai?yieo ia’?aeiaiiy
a ?aeeio ?aa?iiaeueio eiii’thoa?io ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/io ia?aaeo c
iaoith aca?iiiai?io a?ae?ia?ao?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th. Oeueiai /ano aeaye?
a?ae?ioaee i?noa, ia?aaaaeii oi?aa?neoaonuee?, aaea iathoue
a?ae?ia?ao?/i? aace aeaieo ?/aai aeaeo?iii? eaoaeiae, ui iiee
?ic?aoiaai? ia ?iaioo a eieaeueiiio ?aaeei?. Na?aae ieo ? i?eeeaaee
“aeoiaeo” a ?ioa?iao ?c nai?th a?ae?ia?ao?/iith i?iaeoeoe??th:
aeaeo?iiieie eaoaeiaaie, aacaie aeaieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, noaoae,
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ni?a?ia?oiee?a oiui.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a?ia?oaenoia? oaoiieia??, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a
?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?iaeoeoao ? iineoaao ?ioa?iaoo, ? ia?niaeoeaieie
oaoiieia?yie aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aeieoiaioieo aac aeaieo,
cie?aia, a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo. Oeueiai /ano ua ia on? AAAe, iiaeai? a
?ioa?iao?, aeei?enoiaothoue oae? oaoiieia?? e iaiaaeothoueny “nieneiaei
aeaeyaeii” (oiaoi aac aoaeue-yeeo iineeaiue ia ?io? aeieoiaioe). Nenoaia
a?ia?oaenoo aea? iiaeeea?noue ei?enooaa/ai noai?thaaoe anioe?aoeai?
ia?aae? oaeno?a, ?oi?o o?aaiaio?a ? iiiyoue. Neiaa aai ?a/aiiy a iaeiiio
aeieoiaio?/oaee? ca’ycothoueny c a?aeiia?aeieie iiiyooyie aai ?a/aiiyie
a ?ioiio aeieoiaio?/oaee?. A aeaeo?iiieo nenoaiao a?ia?oaenoo ?
iiaeeea?noue eaaei ia?aoiaeeoe aei ?ioi? ?ioi?iaoe?? c aoaeue-yeiai
iaiine?aeiaiiai iineeaiiy. No/ani? eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia?? aeicaieythoue
ca’ycoaaoe on? aeaee ?ioi?iaoe??, o oiio /ene? ? a?ae?ia?ao?/io. E??i
oaenoo, ei?enooaa/ iiaea ca’ycoaaoe ?acii a?ao?/io, a?aeai- ?
aoae?i?oi?iaoe?th, a oaeiae ioeueoeiaae?a, ye neioac on?o aeae?a
?ioi?iaoe??.

O oe?eiio, aiae?c a?ae?ioa/ieo oa ?ioeo Web-na?aa??a a ?ioa?iao? ?c
iiaeyaeo ?o ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iaiiaiaiiy iieacaa, ui oaei?
?ioi?iaoe?? o na?oiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?nao aeineoue aaaaoi, i?ioa
aiia ?icina?aaeaeaia, ia oii?yaeeiaaia iaeaaeiith i??ith. Aea/aiiy
iiaeeeainoae ?o aeei?enoaiiy iaiao?aeii o ?iaio? a?ae?ioae ? ?ioeo
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioieo neoaea.

Aiae?c ? oa?aeoa?enoeea a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a ?ioa?iaoo iathoue
aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee ? aeai?o iaiao?aeieo aeaea?ae
?ioi?iaoe?? i?aoe?aieeaie aeieoiaioieo no?oeoo?, ianaiia?aae –
a?ae?ioae. Aaaeeea?noue aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe c
aeaio aie?a: c iaeiiai aieo, aac oaeiai aiae?co iaiiaeeeai caeiaoeny
a?ae?ia?ao?/iei iiooeii ? noai?aiiyi a??ooaeueieo a?ae?ioae,
aeia?aeeiaeo neoaea, iieeeeaieo iiaii e iia?aoeaii caaacia/oaaoe
?ioi?iaoe??th eiie?aoieo ei?enooaa/?a; c ?ioiai aieo, aea/aiiy
iiceoeaieo ? iaaaoeaieo ?en ?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
?ano?n?a aeicaieeoue a?ae?ioaeai oa ?ioei aeieoiaioiei no?oeoo?ai
ci?noiaii a?aiioii oa ?ioi?iaoeaii noai?thaaoe a ?ioa?iao? nai?
WWW-noi??iee ? Web-na?aa?e.

Acaaae?, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe i?i?ea a?o/eciyieo
aeieoiaioii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo no?oeoo? o na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??
iiee a ?ie? “niiaeeaa/?a”, a ia “iinoa/aeueiee?a” i?ea?iaeueii?
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aaaeeeaei e?ieii o oaeiio iai?yieo noa?
aea/aiiy iaoiaeeee iiooeo a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a ?ano?nao
?ioa?iaoo, ine?eueee naia oea iaiao?aeii aeey noai?aiiy aeanieo
a??ooaeueieo aeia?aeeiaeo neoaea o a?ae?ioaeao.

Iiooe a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a ?ano?nao ?ioa?iaoo iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe a ??cieo aniaeoao, i?e/iio aa?oi iiaiaeeoeny c oei, ui
?nioth/? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei i?iaaaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai
iiooeo eiii’thoa?ieie caniaaie a iniiaiiio caeeoathoueny e a oiiaao
ia?aaeaaeo oaoiieia?e. Iiooe a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeia
cae?enithaaoe ye ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iiooe acaaae?, ? ye a?ae?ia?ao?/iee,
cie?aia. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y iiaea aooe
i?enooiueith ye neeaaeiaa aoaeue-yei? ?ioi? ?ioi?iaoe??,
iaa?ae?ia?ao?/ii?, ia aoaeue-yeiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio WWW-na?aa??. O
?acoeueoao? /iai, aeioe?eueii caa?iooeny a ia?oo /a?ao aei iniaeeainoae
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiooeo a ?ioa?iao?, i?ney /iai eiie?aoecoaaoe, caoceoe
eiai aei aeania a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iiooeo, yeee cae?enith?oueny, a
iniiaiiio, ia a?ae?ioa/ieo WWW-na?aa?ao. Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiooeo a ?ioa?iao? aeinoaoiuei canai?oe iaae/ee
ei?enooaaiiy an?i a?naiaeii iiooeiaeo cania?a: nenoai, eaoaeia?a,
iaoai?ci?a oa ?i. Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeania a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iiooeo, ui
cae?enith?oueny, ye i?aaeei, ia a?ae?ioa/ieo Web-na?aa?ao, iaiao?aeii
aieiae?oe iaoiaeeeith aeaiiai aeaeo iiooeo, ciaoe oeiia? iiooeia?
a?ae?ia?ao?/i? caaea/?, ai?oe ?ic?iaeyoe no?aoaa?th iiooeo e ?i.

Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iiooeo a
?ioa?iao? ia i?eeeaae? iaee?oii?oeo a?ae?ioae na?oo, ?ano?ne ? iineoae
eio?eo oaea aeaaii iiaeai? a ?ioa?iao?: A?ae?ioaee Eiia?ano NOA,
A?eoainueei? a?ae?ioaee, Aea?aeaaii? Ioae?/ii? Iaoeiai-Oaoi?/ii?
A?ae?ioaee ?in??. sse iieaco? aeina?ae i?aaenoaaeaiiy a ?ioa?iao? ?o
iiooeiaiai na?a?no, ? aaaaoi iiae?aiiai o oi?iao caieo?a ? ?acoeueoao?a
aeaea/? a?aeiia?aeae, ae?oaei?noue ?ioa?oaeno yeeo aecia/a?oueny
i?ia?aiiei caaacia/aiiyi oeeo a?ae?ioae. sse i?aaeei, on? a?ae?ioaee
i?aaenoaaeythoue iiaeeea?noue iiooeo ye i?i?ioi ca o?ueiia iiooeiaeie
iciaeaie: aaoi?ii, caaieiaeii ? eeth/iaiio neiao; a aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?ae?
– o aeaeyae? a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai caieno, no?oeoo?a ? iiaiioa yeiai
caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?aiiai oi?iaoo caieno. Ia ca?oa?aeieo a?ae?ioa/ieo
na?aa?ao e?aua, i?ae ia ?in?enueeeo aeey ei?enooaa/a iiaeaia
iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy nenoaie aeiiiiiae (Help), ??ciiiai?oieo
ioo?aiee?a ? aeia?aeiee?a ii ?ano?nao a?ae?ioae. Ia? i?noea iiaeeea?noue
aeai?o aeaeo iiooeo: i?inoiai (Simple) aai neeaaeiiai (Advanced),
oi?iaoo a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai caieno (nei?i/aiiai, iiaiiai) oa ?io?
iiaeeeaino?, ni?yiiaai? ia iioei?caoe?th i?ioeano iiooeo.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ?ioa?iaoo aeicaiey? cia/iith i??ith
?icoe?eoe ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae a?ae?ioaee ? eiiiainoaaoe
a?aenooi?noue aaaaoueio oe?iieo ca?oa?aeieo aeaeaiue. ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ioa?iaoo o a?o/eciyieo a?ae?ioaeao iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe a ?aieao o?aaeeoe?eii noi?iiaaii?
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?aeoeee, oiaoi, o oaeeo ?? iai?yieao, ye
iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??: a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?, iiaiioaenoiai?, aeia?aeeiai?.
Ia?oee iai?yiie iiaea aooe caaacia/aiee caniaaie
?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/ieo iineoa, ui iaea?aeaee aeinoaoi?e ?icaeoie ia
Web-na?aa?ao aia?eeainueeeo ? aeayeeo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aeaeo?iiieo
a?ae?ioae, ia?aaaaeii oi?aa?neoaonueeeo. Iaea?eueoiai iioe?aiiy ae?noaee
oae? aeaee iineoa, ye: i?aea?ae?ioa/iee aaiiaiaio (Interlibrary Loan),
?ioi?ioaaiiy i?i iia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae?ioa/ieo aeieoiaio?a, aeia?aeee
ii aeaeo?iii?e iioo?, ?ioa?aeoeai? eieaeeia? aenoaaee, iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? ioo?aieee ii a?ae?ioa/ieo iieaeiiaeo eaoaeiaao ? aacao
aeaieo ? o.ae. Oae? iineoae cae?eniththoueny ia iniia? a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
aeaeo?iiieo i?iaeoeo?a, ia’?aeiaieo, ye i?aaeei, ?aeeiith
?aa?iiaeueiith, i?nueeith aai aea?aeaaiith ia?aaeath.

A oiiaao yaii? iaaeinoaoiino? iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c ??ciiiai?oieo
aaeocae ciaiue ? ia ??cieo iiaao a oe?a?inueeeo a?ae?ioaeao iaiao?aeiei
aecia?oueny aea/aiiy e aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/iiai na?a?no
?ioa?iaoo ?c iaoith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oeyo?a noai?aiiy
a??ooaeueieo aeia?aeeiai-iiooeiaeo aia?ao?a a?ae?ioae. Aiie ?
?aaeuei?noth aeey aoaeue-yei? a?ae?ioaee, ui ia? aeo?ae o aeiaaeuei?
eiii’thoa?i? ia?aae? ?ioa?iao. Oaeee can?a aeicaieeoue aeei?enoiaoaaoe
a?aeaeaeai? aeaeo?iii? aeaea?aea ?ioi?iaoe?? a a?ae?ia?ao?/i?e ?iaio?,
?noioii aeiiiaithth/e ? ?icoe?thth/e ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae
a?ae?ioaee ? ia?ae?e iineoa, iaaeaieo /eoa/ai. Caoaaaeeii, ui
i?aai?caoe?y a??ooaeueiiai aeia?aeeiai-iiooeiaiai aia?aoo iio?aao?
ae??oaiiy aaaaoueio i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ieo ieoaiue, na?aae yeeo –
iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaioiaee iiaeo eaae??a: aiae?oee?a, aenia?o?a ii
?iaio? c ia?aaeaie a a?ae?ioaoe?.

O no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeoeo oaeaeiioi?eaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
?ioa?iao/?io?aiao a Oe?a?i? aeieea? ia’?eoeaia iio?aaa a i?aai?caoe??
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ?ano?n?a ? ia o?eueee aeey cae?eniaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiooeo, aea e i?aaenoaaeaiiy an??? i?ea?iaeueii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? o na?oia? ?ano?ne ?ioa?iao ?c iaoith
aca?iiiai?io ?ioi?iaoe??th, onoaiiaeaiiy eiioaeo?a ?c ca?oa?aeieie
ia?oia?aie ? o.i.

Aeoiaey/e c iayaieo iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e a aaeoc? noai?aiiy
a?ae?ioa/ieo Web-na?aa??a, aeina?aeo ?oiuei? ?ic?iaee, a oaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a a aaeoc? ?ioi?iaoecaoe??, caeiaoaa/ai
aecia/ai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy I?ia?aie oi?ioaaiiy
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? /anoeie oe?a?inueeiai naaiaioo ?ioa?iaoo.
Aiie a?aeiia?aeathoue aieiai?e oe?e? e iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi
Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? Oe?a?ie ia 1998-2000 ??. ?
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue niaoeeo?eo a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?aeoeee a
no/anieo oiiaao.

O i?aenoieo io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aaaaoianiaeoiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, ui ?icaeaa?oueny a oiiaao eiii’thoa?ieo
? ia?aaeaaeo oaoiieia?e ?ioa?iao.

Aeniiaee

Caeeth/i? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeathoue aaoi?nueeee i?aeo?ae
aei ia?aii? eiiieaenii? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai
Oe?a?ie a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiio na?aaeiaeu?.

O aeniiaeao a?aecia/aia iai?aeeia?i?noue oa iia?cia ?iaioe, yea iieyaa?
a oiio, ui aaoi? aia?oa o a?o/eciyiiio a?ae?ia?aoiciaanoa? ia??oiooaaa
“ei?enooaaoeueeee” i?aeo?ae aei ae??oaiiy iecee i?iaeaiieo ieoaiue
oai???, i?aai?caoe?? ? oaoiieia?? eiii’thoa?ieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai,
iia’ycaieo ?c ia?niaeoeaieie iai?yieaie ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii?
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie. O ?iaio? /?oei i?ine?aeaeo?oueny o?niee
aca?iica’ycie an?o aniaeo?a oai?aoe/iiai oa aaaaoiieaiiaiai i?eeeaaeiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai ?c canoinoaaiiyi eiii’thoa?ieo ?
ia?aaeaaeo oaoiieia?e ?ioa?iao a oiiaao no/anii? ?ioi?iaoecaoe??
aea?aeaae. Ia’?eoeaii ia??oioiaaia iaaeinoaoi?noue ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo,
iaoiaee/ieo ? i?aai?caoe?eieo iniia oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai
Oe?a?ie a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiio na?aaeiaeu?. Naia oea i?iaeaiia
ieoaiiy noaei aieiaiith oe?eeth i?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe??.

O aeena?oaoe??:

Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
nenoaie c iaoith aeyaeaiiy ?? i?aaeiaoii? iaeano?, a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
oaoiieia?e. Aeyaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee, aeanoeaino?, oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane,
ui aeeiiothoueny a iaaeao a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai. Na?aae caaaeueieo oa
ie?aieo ooieoe?e aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai aecia/ai?
aieiai? i?ioan?ei? ooieoe??: ianeoaiaoth/a, oeeaaeaoeueea, iaa/aeueia.
Niaoeeo?/iei ? aecia/aeueiei aeey oeeo nenoai ? a?ae?ia?ao?/i?
oaoiieia??, ye? ?icoi?thoueny ye noeoii?noue a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a ?
iia?aoe?e, ui aeeiiothoueny c a?ae?ia?ao?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th. Iaa?oue ca
oiiae aaoiiaoecaoe?? an?o eia?/ieo iia?aoe?e caa??aathoue nai? cia/aiiy
?ioaeaeooaeuei? (oai?/?) oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe??, ye? iiaea aeeiioaaoe
o?eueee a?ae?ia?ao-i?ioan?iiae. Eiai ?ieue a oiiaao
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiai na?aaeiaeua caeeoeoueny aeineoue aenieith,
aea aaea a ?io?e yeino? – i?aai?caoi?a aai aaei?i?no?aoi?a
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie, aenia?oa a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo ciaiue, ?iaeaia?a ii
ciaiiyo (aai eiai?oieiaa).

I?iaiae?ciaaia oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia oai??y oa iaoiaeeea ?i?oaoe?eiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai. Aecia/ai? iaoiaee/i? iniiae
noai?aiiiy ?i?oaoe?eii? iiaeae? aaeocaai? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie
Oe?a?ie, aaciaai? ia oai??? ?. Oaiiiia uiaei iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae
nioe?aeueieo nenoai. Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiy iniiaieo aoai?a
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaia ?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaeue
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e ia?niaeoeaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?io?eth a Oe?a?i?, a ye?e i?aai?/ii ia’?aeiai? e
oaeineiiaeai? aea? iiaeae? i?ioioeio nenoaie – no?oeoo?ia ?
ooieoe?iiaeueia; aecia/ai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ca’ycee i?ae aeaiaioaie
nenoaie. Ia iniia? oe??? iiaeae? iiaeooue aooe noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai?
iai?yiee ?icaeoeo e oaeineiiaethaaiiy ye nenoaie a oe?eiio, oae ? ??
i?aenenoai ? aeaiaio?a.

Aeine?aeaeai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? i?aai?caoe?ei? ? eaae?ia? i?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai (AAAN). Aieiaieie
na?aae i?iaeai ?ic?iaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy AAAN aeyaeai?
i?iaeaie noaiaea?oecaoe?? a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaieo, ?ic?iaee ? i?eeiyooy
?o oi?iao?a, ui niieo/athoueny c i?aeia?iaeieie noaiaea?oaie e
aaeaioiaai? aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiai na?aaeiaeua
Oe?a?ie. Aeae?eaii iaeaaaeeea?o? i?iaeaie e?iaa?noe/iiai caaacia/aiiy
oeeo nenoai, na?aae yeeo: ?ic?iaea ooo/ieo iia caieo?a; aea?? iiaieo
cania?a a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo eeaneo?eaoe?e, cie?aia, iaoiae?a ?
cania?a ?iaeaenoaaiiy; ?ic?iaea ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeiaeo oacao?on?a:
iaoe?iiaeueieo, aaeocaaeo, oaiaoe/ieo. Aiae?c eaae?iaeo i?iaeai
oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie aeicaieea iae?aneeoe
ia?niaeoeae ?o ae??oaiiy, ye? iia’ycai? ye c oaeineiiaeaiiyi iaa/aiiy
iia?oi?i ?ioi?iaoe?eiei oaoiieia?yi a?aeiia?aeieo eaae??a, oae ? c
?icoe?aiiyi oaoiaeo iaiaaeaiue a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a
aei ??aiy i?aoe?aiee?a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeieoiaioieo no?oeoo?: a aaeoc?
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? – ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iaiaaeaea??a aai a?iea??a; a
aaeoc? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? – ?aoa?aio?a-aiae?oee?a,
aenia?o?a. A oeueiio iai?yi? cai?iiiiiaaia o?enooiaiaaa nenoaia iaa/aiiy
eaae?iaiai neeaaeo AAAN, ui iiaea neoaeeoe iiaeaeeth nenoaie iaa/aiiy
aeenoeeie?iai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiai oeeeeo ia o?eueee aeey
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo eaae??a, a e aeey aoaeue-yeeo oao?aoe?a
aoiai?oa?iiai i?io?eth.

Aecia/ai? oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? iniaeeaino? noai?aiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
nenoai ?c aeei?enoaiiyi eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e, ye? iaoiiaeai? ?o
i?aaeiaoiith iaeanoth, a?ae?ia?ao?/iith ?iaioith, noi?oaiaeaeothoueny
o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?ioaa?iaaiino? oa aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiino?. ?ic?iaeaia
ooieoe?iiaeueii-oaoiieia?/ia no?oeoo?a aaoiiaoeciaaii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
nenoaie a?ae?ioaee c o?ueiia i?aenenoaiaie: a?ae?ia?aoa-oeeaaea/a,
a?ae?ia?aoa-?ioi?iaoi?a-“aa?enoa”, a?ae?ia?aoa-eiinoeueoaioa-iaaeaaiaa,
yea aeicaieeea iaa?oiooaaoe i?aeoe/io ?aae?caoe?th i?ioan?eieo ooieoe?e
nenoaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny (oeeaaeaoeueeo, ianeoaiaoth/o,
iaa/aeueio); aecia/eoe na?aae ieo aeii?ioth/o a oiiaao
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiioi?eaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o. Aeyaeaii, ui a oiiaao
eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ae?yeueiino? niinoa??aa?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y a?aeoiaeo a?ae eii?thaaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
i?ioean?a; a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ooieoe?? aai ?icoe?ththoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei
?o c?inoath/eo iiaeeeainoae, aai cai?iththoueny a?eueo aeineiiaeeie.

?ice?eo? oa iaoeiai ia??oioiaai? iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? oa
aeei?enoaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo (AAAe) o neeaae? eiii’thoa?ieo
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai. Coai?aiiy AAAe i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny: a)
caaaeueiei i?aaeeai iiaoaeiae aoaeue-yeeo (iaa?ae?ia?ao?/ieo) aac aeaieo
(i?iaeooaaiiy, iiaeaethaaiiy ? o?ce/ia iaoa??ae?caoe?y); a) oaoiaei
aeiiaai a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?aeoeee ye i?aaeiaoii? iaeano?. Na?aae
iaeaaaeeea?oeo ieoaiue aeei?enoaiiy AAAe ia ia?oiio i?noe? caeeoa?oueny
a?ae?ia?ao?/iee iiooe, yeee ? iniiaith an?o a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a,
o?nii iia’ycaiee ?c iiooeiaith ooieoe??th a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
a?aeia?aaea? oaoiieia?/iee aniaeo ?? i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??.
Ia?niaeoeai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeaieo iia’ycai?: c
oi?iaaaeaeaiiyi ia?aaeaaeo oaoiieia?e, a?ia?oaoiieia?e, ui aeicaieythoue
cae?enithaaoe aaaaoicaaea/iee iiooe ii aoaeue-yeeo iiooeiaeo iciaeao; c
i???ioaoe??th ia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeii? iiae, ia noai?aiiy AAAe, ui
iaaeeaeathoueny aei aac ciaiue, ye? ?icaeaathoue ?o ?ioaeaeooaeuei?noue
o i?ioean? iiooeo.

I?iaiae?ciaai? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo ?
oaoiieia?e i?aeia?iaeieo ia?aae ?ioa?iao aeey ?icaeoeo ia?niaeoeaii?
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, ui iaoe?eaii ia cae?eniaiiy
iiaiioe?iiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiooeo; i?aaenoaaeaiiy i?ea?iaeueii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? o na?oia? ?ano?ne ?ioa?iao ?c
iaoith aca?iiiai?io ?ioi?iaoe??th, onoaiiaeaiiy eiioaeo?a ?c
ca?oa?aeieie ia?oia?aie ? o.i.; aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oeyo?a noai?aiiy
a??ooaeueieo aeia?aeeiai-iiooeiaeo aia?ao?a a?ae?ioae. Aecia/ai? iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy i?ia?aie oi?ioaaiiy a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? /anoeie
oe?a?inueeiai naaiaioo ?ioa?iaoo, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue aieiai?e oe?e? e
iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie ?ioi?iaoecaoe?? Oe?a?ie ia
1998-2000 ??. ? a?aeaeca?eaeththoue niaoeeo?eo
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? i?aeoeee a no/anieo oiiaao.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae/a?io? an?o aniaeo?a ? iai?yie?a oe???
aaaeeeai? e aeooaeueii? i?iaeaie.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Iiiia?ao??:

1. Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua aeaeeia?aoe/aneea aacu aeaiiuo: iieueciaaoaeueneee
iiaeoiae: Eieaa aeey ?aaioieeia yeaeo?iiiuo aeaeeioae e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
neoaea, eiathueo aoiaieoa?iia ia?aciaaiea. – E.: II “Eioaa?ae Eei”,
1998. – 11,6 ae?oe. a?e.

2. Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua aeaeeia?aoe/aneea nenoaiu e aacu aeaiiuo.
03.03.97, ?195-Oe97. – Aeai. a AIOAO. – E., 1997. – 6,0 ae?oe. a?e.
(aiioiaaia a AeIOAO).

3. Eioi?iaoeeiiii-aeaeeioa/iua ?ano?nu Eioa?iao / Iiae ?aae. A.I.
Uaoeieia. – Oa?ueeia: “E-Oeaio?”, 1998. – 4 ae?oe. a?e.

Noaoo?:

4. Aaoiiaoeciaai? aace aeaieo o na?oiaiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?inoi?? //
A?niee OAeAE: A?ae?ioaeiciaanoai. Aeieoiaioiciaanoai. ?ioi?iaoeea. – O.,
1998. – Aei. 1. – 0,4 ae?oe. a?e.

4. Aaoiiaoeciaai? aace aeaieo o na?oiaiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?inoi?? //
A?niee OAeAE: A?ae?ioaeiciaanoai. Aeieoiaioiciaanoai. ?ioi?iaoeea. – O.,
1998. – Aei. 1. – 0,4 ae?oe. a?e.

5. A?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ?ano?ne Internet (Aiae?oe/iee iaeyae) //
A?niee Eieaeeiai? iaeaoe. – 1998. – ?6. – 0,2 ae?oe. a?e.

6. I?iaeaie noaiaea?oecaoe??, iai?io oa noi?niino? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? a eiii’thoa?ii-a?ae?ioa/iiio na?aaeiaeu? // A?niee
Eieaeeiai? iaeaoe. – 1998. – ? 5. – 0,2 ae?oe. a?e.

7. Iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c ieoaiue oaoi?ee
a Oe?a?i? // A?niee Eieaeeiai? iaeaoe. – 1997. – ?10 (16). – 0,2 ae?oe.
a?e.

8. Iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c ieoaiue oaoi?ee
a Oe?a?i? (i?iaeiaaeaiiy) // A?niee Eieaeeiai? iaeaoe. – 1997. – ?11. –
0,2 ae?oe. a?e.

9. E i?iaeaia ae?ooaeueiinoe ni?aai/ii-aeaeeia?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa
aeaeeioaee // Iao/. e oaoi. a-ee. – 1997. – ?8. – 0,3 ae?oe. a?e.

10. ?aoa?oaaiiy ye ?ioaa?oth/ee iai?yi aeieoiaioaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
iaa/aiiy // Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie: Ca. no. / Oa?e. aea?ae. ?i-o eoeueoo?e. –
O., 1996. –Aei. 3.– 0,4 ae?oe. a?e. (ni?aaao.: Oiiaiei ?.I., Eac?i??ia
A.E.)

11. ?ioi?iaoeea aeey iaiaaeaea??a-aeiiii?no?a ye eiiieaen iaa/aeueieo
aeenoeeie?i [ocaaaeueiaia iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiai oeeeeo aeey oao?aoe?a aoiai?oa?ii? noa?e]
// Iia? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy: Iaoe.-iaoiae. ca. – E., 1996. – Aei. 18. –
0,5 ae?oe. a?e. (ni?aaao.: Iaotho?i A.I.)

12. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a niaoeeaeenoa // Iao/. e oaoi. a-ee. –
1996. – ? 3. – 0,3 ae?oe. a?e. (niaao.: Iaaeaaaeaaa A.A.)

13. Aaoiiaoecaoeey aeaeeia?aoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a aeaeeioaeao
Oe?aeiu // Aeaeeia?aoey. – 1995. – ?6. – 0,2 ae?oe. a?e.

14. Aeeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueii? aeenoeeie?ie “?ioi?iaoe?eia eoeueoo?a
niaoe?ae?noa” // I?iaeaie ina?oe: Iaoe.-iaoiae. ca. – E., 1995. – Aei.
3. – 0,4 ae?oe. a?e.

15. Iiaeaeue nenoaiu aeaeeia?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee ii iaoea e oaoieea ia
Oe?aeia // Iao/. e oaoi. a-ee. – 1995. – ? 1. – 0,3 ae?oe. a?e.

16. ?noi??y oaoi?/ii? a?ae?ia?ao?? a Oe?a?i? // Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie: Ca.
no. / Oa?e. aea?ae. ?i-o eoeueoo?e. – O., 1994. – Aei.2 – 0,6 ae?oe.
a?e. (ni?aaao.: Eieiniaa I.O.)

17. Aianie aea?aeaaieo iaoeiaeo a?ae?ioae Oe?a?ie a ooai?aiiy nenoaie
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iin?aiee?a // Aea?aeaai? a?ae?ioaee: no/ani? i?iaeaie ?
ia?niaeoeae: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue / I-ai eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie; Aea?ae. a-ea
Oe?a?ie. –E.,1993. – 0,3 ae?oe. a?e.

18. Iniaaiiinoe aeaeeia?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee ii oaoieea //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee e eoeueoo?a: Oai. na. iao/. o?. / Iaaeaeoia?.
neaa. oi-o. – O., 1993. – Aui.1. – 0,6 ae?oe. a?e.

19. Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo nenoaie a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a aaeoc?
oaoi?ee a Oe?a?i? // Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie: Ca. no. / Oa?e. aea?ae. ?i-o
eoeueoo?e. – O., 1993. – 0,5 ae?oe. a?e.

20. ?aaeiiaeueii-io?aneaaay eioaa?aoeey a nenoaiao aeaeeia?aoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee ii oaoieea // I?iaeaiu aeeooa?aioeeaoeee e eioaa?aoeee a
io?aneaaie aeaeeia?aoee: Iaaeaoc. na. iao/. o?. / Iine. ain. ei-o
eoeueoo?u. – I., 1992. – 0,4 ae?oe. a?e.

Oace aeiiia?aeae:

21. Aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai na?aena Eioa?iao a
aeaeeioaeao Oe?aeiu // 5-y Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiioa?aioeey “E?ui-98”.
Aeaeeioaee e annioeeaoeee a iaiythuainy ie?a: iiaua oaoiieiaee e iiaua
oi?iu nio?oaeie/anoaa: Iaoa?eaeu eiio. – Noaeae, 1998. – O.1. – 0,2
ae?oe. a?e. (niaao.: ?iiaiia A.A., Iaothoei A.I.)

22. Eiiiuethoa?iua aeaeeioa/ii-aeaeeia?aoe/aneea ?ano?nu Oe?aeiu e
Eioa?iao // 4-y Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiioa?aioeey “E?ui-97”. Aeaeeioaee e
annioeeaoeee a iaiythuainy ie?a: iiaua oaoiieiaee e iiaua oi?iu
nio?oaeie/anoaa: Iaoa?eaeu eiio. – Noaeae, 1998. – O.2. – 0,1 ae?oe.
a?e.

23. Eiii’thoa?i? oaoiieia?? a a?ae?ia?ao?/i?e ae?yeueiino? // I?iaeaie
iiiaeaiiy aeui? a?ae?ioa/ii? oa ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ina?oe: Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?. eiio. / Oa?e. aea?ae. ?i-o eoeueoo?e. – O., 1996. – 0,3 ae?oe.
a?e.

24. Aaoiiaoecaoeey ni?aai/ii-aeaeeia?aoe/aneie neoaeau a aeaeeioaeao
Oe?aeiu // E?ui 96. Aeaeeioaee e annioeeaoeee a iaiythuainy ie?a: O?oaeu
iaaeaeoia?. eiio. – Oi?in, 1996. – 0,5 ae?oe. a?e. (niaao.: Oiiaiei
E.I.)

25. Iiaeaioiaea iieueciaaoaeae III CDS ISIS/m a Oa?ueeianeii
ainoaea?noaaiiii einoeoooa eoeueoo?u // Aeaeeioaee e annioeeaoeee a
iaiythuainy ie?a…: O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “E?ui-94”. – I., 1994. –
0,2 ae?oe. a?e. (niaao.: Oiiaiei E.I, E?theiaa A.N., Anaaiei E.A.)

26. Aeaeeia?aoe/aneay aaca aeaiiuo eae eioi?iaoeeiiiay iniiaa
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo aeaeeioa/iuo nenoai // Aeaeeioa/iia aeaei ia ii?iaa
XXI aaea: Oacenu aeiee. e niiau. iaaeaeoia?. iao/. eiio. / Iine. ain.
oi-o eoeueoo?u. – I.,1998. – *.1. – 0,1 ae?oe. a?e.

27. I?iaeaiu iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe eiiia?/aneie
eioi?iaoeee // Iaoa?eaeu ia?aiai iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-i?aeo. neiiiceoia
“Ie? aeaeiaie eioi?iaoeee”. – O., 1996. – 0,1 ae?oe. a?e.

28. E?eoa??? iiaeaethaaiiy nenoaie a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a
a?ae?ioaoe? // No?aoaa?y eiiieaeooaaiiy oiiae?a iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee:
I?aeia?. eiio.: Oace aeiiia?ae. / IAIO, Iaoe. a-ea Oe?a?ie. – E., 1996.
– 0,1 ae?oe. a?e.

29. Nia?aiaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee a nenoaia aunoaai
eioi?iaoeeiiii-aeieoiaioaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu // Eioi?iaoeeiiiay
eoeueoo?a ee/iinoe: i?ioeia, ianoiyuaa, aoaeouaa: Iaaeaeoia?. iao/.
eiio.: Oac. aeiee. – E?aniiaea?, 1996. – 0,2 ae?oe. a?e. (niaao.:
Oiiaiei E.I.)

30. I?iaeaiu eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee aeaeeia?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee a Oe?aeia
// III Iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. “Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu:
nicaeaiea, eioaa?aoeey e eniieueciaaiea”: Oac. aeiee. e niiau. – *.1. –
E., 1996. – 0,1 ae?oe. a?e.

31. ?ac?aaioea aeaeeia?aoe/aneie aacu aeaiiuo “BUT” (aeaeeia?aoe/aneea
iiniaey Oe?aeiu ii oaoieea) // I?iaeaie iiiaeaiiy aeui? a?ae?ioa/ii? oa
?ioi?iaoe?eii? ina?oe: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?. nai?ia?o. – O., 1995. – 0,1
ae?oe. a?e.

32. I?iaeaiu ?ac?aaioee aaeeiiai noaiaea?oa ia oi?iao ia?aaea/e
aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo aeaiiuo // Iaaeaeoia?. iao/. eiio. “Eioi?iaoeeiiiua
oaoiieiaee a neaayineie eoeueoo?a e oe?aeineii aic?iaeaeaiee”: Oac.
aeiee. / OAEE. – O., 1993. – 0,2 ae?oe. a?e. (niaao.: Oiiaiei ?.I.)

Iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee:

33. ?icaeoie oaoi?/ii? a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a Oe?a?i? oa ca
ei?aeiiii: Oaenoe eaeoe?e. – O.: OAeAE, 1998. – 4,0 ae?oe. a?e.

34. ?ioi?iaoe?eiee na?a?n a ?ioa?iao?: Iaa/. iin?aiee / Oa?e. aea?ae.
aeaae. eoeueoo?e. – Oa?e?a, 1998. – 9,0 ae?oe. a?e. (ni?aaao.: A.I.
Oaeei, A.I. Niieyieoeueeee oa ?i.)

35. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua aeaeeioa/iua ?ano?nu Eioa?iaoa World Wide Web (WWW)
[I?ee.2] // Niieyieoeeee A.I., Ei?ieaiei I.A. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia
ianeoaeeaaiea a Eioa?iaoa (*anoue I): O/aa. iinia. – O.:OAEE, 1998. –
0,3 ae?oe. a?e.

36. Aaoiiaoeciaai? a?ae?ia?ao?/i? aace aeaieo oa ?ioa?iao: I?ia?aia aeey
nooae. o-oo a?ae?ioaeiciaanoaa oa ?ioi?iaoeee niaoe?ae?caoe??
“A?ae?ia?ao?/ia caaacia/aiiy a?ae?ioa/ii? ae?yeueiino?” / Oa?e. aea?ae.
aeaae. eoeueoo?e – Oa?e?a, 1998. – 0,5 ae?oe. a?e.

37. Iniiau ?aaiou a Eioa?iao: E?aoeia ?oeiaiaenoai aeey ia/eiathueo
iieueciaaoaeae / Iiae iau. ?aae. *. Eio?aia; Niaao ii iaaeaeoia?.
enneaaeiaaieyi e iaiaiai. I?iaeo ?anoe?aiey aeinooia a Eioa?iao (IREX)
(NOA). – Oa?ueeia: I?ia?ann EOAe, 1997. – 2,0 ae?oe. a?e. (niaao.:
Aiiaea?aiei A., Eaei Ae., Iaothoei A.)

38. Aaoiiaoecaoe?y aeieoiaioaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a: I?ia?aia
eo?no aeey nooae. ?i-o?a eoeueoo?e. – O.:OAe?E, 1995. – 0,4 ae?oe. a?e.
(ni?aaao.: Oiiaiei ?.I.)

39. A?ae?ia?ao?/iee iiooe o na?aaeiaeu? III CDS/ISIS/m (Computerized
Documentation System/Integrated Set of Information System):
Iaa/.-iaoiae.iaoa?iaee aei eo?no “AAeIN”. – O.: OAe?E, 1995. – 1,0
ae?oe. a?e. (ni?aaao.: Oiiaiei ?.I., Oa?iiiaa I.A.)

40. ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iiooe a aaoiiaoeciaaieo
aeieoiaioaeueii-?ioi?-iaoe?eieo nenoaiao: Iaa/.-iaoiae. iaoa??aee aei
eo?no “AAe?N”. – O.: OAe?E, 1995. – 1,0 ae?oe. a?e. (ni?aaao.: Oiiaiei
?.I., Oa?iiiaa I.A.)

A oaeiae noaoo? ? oace – anueiai a?eueoa 60 ioae?eaoe?e.

O?e?iiiaa E.ss. A?ae?ia?ao?/i? nenoaie Oe?a?ie a
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiio na?aaeiaeu?: oai??y, i?aai?caoe?y,
oaoiieia?y. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
ca oaoii 07.00.08 – Eieaiciaanoai, a?ae?ioaeiciaanoai,
a?ae?ia?aoiciaanoai. — Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y eoeueoo?e,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia oai?aoe/iei, i?aai?caoe?eiei ? oaoiieia?/iei
i?iaeaiai oi?ioaaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai Oe?a?ie a
oiiaao ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?iiai na?aaeiaeua (ia i?eeeaae?
a?ae?ia?ao?/ii? nenoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?io?eth). Cai?iiiiiaaii
“ei?enooaaoeueeee” i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo nenoai ?
aac aeaieo, yeee aeicaiey? aecia/eoe i?noea, cia/aiiy ? ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ? a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo eaae??a o
eiii’thoa?ii-eiioi?eaoe?eiiio i?inoi??. O ?iaio? ?icaeaa?oueny iiaee
iai?yiie a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-a?ae?ioa/i?e iaooe? ? i?aeoeoe?, aaciaaiee ia
aeei?enoaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a ? oaoiieia?e ia?aae? ?ioa?iao.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy a
a?ae?ioa/ii-a?ae?ia?ao?/i?e i?aeoeoe?, iaa/aeuei?e ? iaoeia?e
ae?yeueiino? aoc?a aeieoiaioiciaa/iai oa eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai i?io?eth.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaoiiaoeciaai? a?ae?ia?ao?/i? nenoaie, a?ae?ia?ao?/i?
aace aeaieo, a?ae?ia?ao?/i? eaae?e, a?ae?ia?ao?/ia ina?oa oa iaa/aiiy,
?ioi?iaoe?ei? ?ano?ne ?ioa?iaoo, i?aai?caoe?y, oaoiieia?y, Oe?a?ia.

Filipova L.Ya. Bibliographic Systems of Ukraine in Information and
Computer Space: Theory, Organization, Technology. — Manuscript.

The dissertation is submitted for the scientific degree of Doctor of
Pedagogical Sciences on the specialization 07.00.08 – Bibliology,
Librarianship, Bibliography science . — Kharkiv State Academy of
Culture, Kharkiv, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the theoretical, organizational and
technological problems of creation of automated bibliographic systems of
Ukraine in the information and computer space (on the bases of the
bibliographic system of science and technology). The «user’s» approach
to the research of bibliographic systems and databases is offered. It
persmits to determinthe place, importence and perspectives of the
development of information and bibliography personnel in the computer
and communication space. The new direction in the information and
library science and practice based on the usage of Internet-resources
and technologies is developed in this research. The main outcomes of the
work were applied in the library and bibliography practice, educational
and scientific activity of high schools in the field of documentation
and culture studies.

Key words: automated bibliographic systems, bibliographic databases,
bibliography personnel, bibliograhpy education and training, information
Internet-resources, organization, technology, Ukraine.

Oeeeiiiaa E.ss. Aeaeeia?aoe/aneea nenoaiu Oe?aeiu a
eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiiuethoa?iii i?ino?ainoaa: oai?ey, i?aaiecaoeey,
oaoiieiaey. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.08 – Eieaiaaaeaiea, aeaeeioaeiaaaeaiea,
aeaeeia?aoiaaaeaiea. – Oa?ueeianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey
eoeueoo?u, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Oaia aeenna?oaoeee ioaaouaaao oai?aoe/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e
oaoiieiae/aneea aniaeou oi?ie?iaaiey aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo nenoai Oe?aeiu a
oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiiai eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiiuethoa?iiai i?ino?ainoaa.
I?iaeaia aeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey niaea?aeeo o?e iniiaiuo aniaeoa.

Ia?aue aniaeo — oai?aoe/aneee, ioiinyueeny e o?iaith i?iaeai
enneaaeiaaiey e iiaeaee?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiii-aeieoiaioiuo nenoai e naoae Oe?aeiu, aeeth/aao i?iaeaiu
oai?ee aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo nenoai e aac aaiiuo, aaeaioe?iaaiiuo e oneiaeyi
ainoaea?noaa.

Aoi?ie aniaeo — i?aaiecaoeeiiiue eiiiuethoa?ii-oaoiieiae/aneee,
io?aaeaao iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee aiaae?aiey eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee
a aeaeeia?aoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, iniaaiiinoe iaoiaeeee nicaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo nenoai e aac
aeaiiuo.

O?aoee aniaeo — i?aaiecaoeeiiiue eiiioieeaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneee,
io?aaeaao iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee i?eiaiaiey naoaauo oaoiieiaee
Eioa?iao a aeaeeia?aoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe; iniaaiiinoe iienea,
eniieueciaaiey e i?aaenoaaeaiey yeaeo?iiiie aeaeeia?aoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee a ie?iauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nao Eioa?iao.

A aeenna?oaoeee iao/ii iainiiaaiu oai?aoe/aneea iniiau enneaaeiaaiey
aeaeeia?aoe/aneie nenoaiu eae ?aciiaeaeiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu;
ii?aaeaeaiu iaoiaee/aneea iniiau iiaeaee?iaaiey aeaeeia?aoe/aneie
nenoaiu, a /anoiinoe, nicaeaiey eieoaoeeiiiie iiaeaee i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u aeaeeia?aoe/aneie nenoaiu iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ioeey Oe?aeiu.

Ii?aaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo aac aeaiiuo
(AAAe). I?aaiecaoeey ethaie AAAe iiae/eiyaony: a) iauei i?aaeeai
iino?iaiey ethauo (iaaeaeeia?aoe/aneeo) aac aeaiiuo [i?iaeoe?iaaiea,
iiaeaee?iaaiea, oece/aneay iaoa?eaeecaoeey]; a) i?ioanneiiaeueiui
o?aaiaaieyi aeaeeia?aoe/aneie i?aeoeee eae i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. ?acaeou
iaoiaee/aneea iniiau aeaeeia?aoe/aneiai iienea a AAAe, iaoiaeyuaeny eae
a eieaeueiii ?aaeeia, oae e a oneiaeyo naoaauo oaoiieiaee Eioa?iao.
Iaicia/aiu ia?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey AAAe, eioi?ua naycaiu: n
aiaae?aieai naoaauo oaoiieiaee Eioa?iao, aeia?oaenoiauo oaoiieiaee,
iicaieythueo inouanoaeyoue iiiaicaaea/iue iiene ii ethaui iieneiaui
i?eciaeai; n i?eaioaoeeae ia eniieueciaaiea anoanoaaiiiai ycuea, ia
nicaeaiea aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo aac ciaiee yenia?oiuo nenoai.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e eaae?iaua i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo nenoai, auyaeaiu i?ei?eoaou eo
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai e eeiaaenoe/aneiai iaania/aiey. Iainiiaaiu
i?ioanneiiaeueiua ooieoeee aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo nenoai (ianeoaeeaathuay,
iao/athuay, ninoaaeoaeueneay), iaoneiaeaiiua o?aaeeoeeiiiuie
aeaeeia?aoe/aneeie oaoiieiaeyie. A niioaaonoaee n ieie ?ac?aaioaia
ooieoeeiiaeueii-oaoiieiae/aneay no?oeoo?a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie
aeaeeia?aoe/aneie nenoaiu a aeaeeioaea. Aaoi?ii i?aaeeiaeaia
o?aonooiaiiay nenoaia iao/aiey eaae?iaiai ninoaaa aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo
aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo nenoai, eioi?ay iiaeao neoaeeoue iiaeaeueth nenoaiu
iao/aiey aeenoeeieeiai eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiiuethoa?iiai oeeeea ia oieueei
aeey aeaeeioa/ii-aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo eaae?ia, ii e aeey ethauo ae?oaeo
niaoeeaeenoia aoiaieoa?iiai i?ioeey.

A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea a eioi?iaoeeiiii-aeaeeioa/iie
iaoea e i?aeoeea, iniiaaiiia ia eniieueciaaiee ?ano?nia e oaoiieiaee
naoae Eioa?iao. I?aaeeiaeaiu iniiaiua iieiaeaiey i?ia?aiiu oi?ie?iaaiey
aeaeeioa/ii-aeaeeia?aoe/aneie /anoe oe?aeineiai naaiaioa Eioa?iao.

Iao/ii iainiiaai «iieueciaaoaeueneee» iiaeoiae, i?aaeeiaeaiiue aaoi?ii,
e enneaaeiaaieth aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo nenoai e aac aeaiiuo,
i?aaeiieaaathuee eco/aiea, enneaaeiaaiea e aiaeec ?acee/iuo aniaeoia
nicaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo nenoai e
aac aeaiiuo ia n o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iiceoeee ?ac?aaio/eeia, i?ia?aiienoia e
ae?. eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneeo ?aaioieeia, a n oi/ee c?aiey niaoeeaeenoia
aeaeeioa/ii-aeaeeia?aoe/aneie noa?u, eioi?ua aeeoioee?otho a naaa e
iieueciaaoaeae, e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iin?aaeieeia (iaiaaeaea?ia)
iaeiia?aiaiii. «Iieueciaaoaeueneee» iiaeoiae iicaieyao a oneiaeyo
nia?aiaiiie eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa ii-iiaiio iniuneeoue ianoi e
cia/aiea aeaeeia?aoe/aneeo neoaea, eo i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa, a oaeaea
?ieue ianeoaeeaathueo i?ioanneiiaeia.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?eiaiaiea a
aeaeeioa/ii-aeaeeia?aoe/aneie i?aeoeea, o/aaiie e iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe
aocia aeieoiaioiaaae/aneiai e eoeueoo?ieiae/aneiai i?ioeey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua aeaeeia?aoe/aneea nenoaiu,
aeaeeia?aoe/aneea aacu aeaiiuo, aeaeeia?aoe/aneea eaae?u,
aeaeeia?aoe/aneia ia?aciaaiea e iao/aiea, eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu
Eioa?iao, i?aaiecaoeey, oaoiieiaey, Oe?aeia.

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