2

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e

AIAeIAICIA Iaoi Iao?iae/

OAeE 621.864

IIOEI?CAOe?ss OAOIIEIA?*IEO IA?AIAO??A I?IAAAeAIIss OI?E?AOIEO ?IA?O I?E
AOAe?AIEOeOA? ? ?AIIIO? AIAeIEAIAE?CAOe?EIEO NII?OAe

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.08 – Oaoiieia?y i?iieneiaiai oa

oeea?eueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? “Oaoiieia?y aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa
aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee” Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? i?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aethaeaiei Ieoaeei Aai?a?eiae/

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee OAeAIA

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*a?iyanueeee Ay/aneaa Eaii?aeiae/

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith o?ceei-o?i?/ii?

iaoai?ee oa oaoiieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e

— eaiaeeoao oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aeieo?oe ?aai Aiae??eiae/

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo

aeenoeeie?i Oa?uee?anueeiai ooaeiaeiuei-

i?iieneiaiai ?inoeoooo

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee

oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny__2 a?oaeiy_1998 ?._11___aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.056.01 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e
I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 310002 i.Oa?e?a, aoe.Noinueea, 40.

C aeena?oaoe?ath iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa?neoaoo ca
aae?anith: 310002 i.Oa?e?a, aoe.Noinueea, 40.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “_28”_aeiaoiy1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee Eooiaee A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A e o o a e ue i ? n o ue. I?ae iniiaieo ia”?eo?a o nenoai?
?io?ano?oeoo-?e i?no, ui caaacia/othoue ii?iaeueia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?nueeiai ainiiaea?no-aa, ? aiaeieaiae?caoe?ei? nii?oaee. Oea ?aca?aoa?e
aeey caa??aaiiy oa ia?a?iaee aiaee, eieaeoi?e, a?aenoieieee, iaoaoaiee,
caoeni? iie?eooy caieyieo aeaia oa ?i. nii?oaee, ui caiaeyoueny ?c
cae?ciaaoiio. A?aoiaoth/e iniaeea? oiiae aenieoaoaoe??, aaoii aeey
caaaeaiiy oaeeo nii?oae iiaeiai a?aeiia?aeaoe iniaeeai aei?noeei aeiiaai
uiaei aiaeiiai?iieeeeaino? oa aioeei?ic?eii? no?eeino?, oiio ui cia/ia
/anoeia ?o aenieoaoo?oueny a oiiaao iino?eiiai eiioaeoo ?c na?aaeiaeuai
i?aeaeuaii? aa?aneaiino?. Aea iaaeie?eii aaaaoueio nii?oae, iiaoaeiaaieo
a Oe?a?i? ca ia??iae noie?ooy, ui ieia?, ? iecueea ye?noue aaoiio. Oea
i?ecaaei ca?ac o oe?e aaaeeea?e aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa aei
noaiiaeua, aeecueeiai aei eaoano?io?/iiai. E?ea?aeaoe?y oaeiai
iieiaeaiiy iiaeeeaa o?euee? i?e aeeiiaii? aaeeeiai ianyao
?aiiioii-a?aeaoaeiaieo ?ia?o ii cai?i? /e i?aeneeaiith iioeiaeaeaieo
eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae caoenoo ?o a?ae aa?aneaieo aieea?a caniaii
iaianaiiy caoeniiai oa?o aaoiio i?aeaeuaii? aioeei?ic?eii? no?eeino?.

sse na?ae/eoue aeina?ae ca?oa?aeiiai aoae?aieoeoaa (a /anoeiai ?
aoae?aieoeo-aa a Oe?a?i?), oae? ?iaioe iiaeooue oni?oii aeeiioaaoenue ?c
canoinoaaiiyi no?oiaiaaeo iaoiae?a aaoiioaaiiy, na?aae yeeo iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiei ? iaoiae “nooiai” oi?e?aooaaiiy.

Aea, aeaeaei ia caaaeaee canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo oi?e?aooaaiiy i?eaiaeeoue
aei io?eiaiiy iaoa??aeo ? ae?ia?a c iueiai, ye? a a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai
i?oeiino?, aiaeiiai?iieeiaiiy, aioeei?ic?eii? no?eeino? o.?i. Iniiaia
i?e/eia cacia/aieo iaaeie?e?a iieyaa?, i/aaeaeii, o iaiioeiaeueiino?
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano, ui a?aeia?aaeo?oueny o cia/ieo a?aeoeeaiiyo
i?eeiyoeo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano a?ae ni?aaae? iaiao?aeieo cia/aiue, ye?
caaacia/oaaee a io?eiaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? a?aeiia?aeii? yeino?. Iiooe oaeeo
ia?aiao??a noaiiaeoue aeooaeueio i?iaeaio, aaaeeeao ye aeey aeaii?
aaeoc?, oae ? acaaae? aeey aoae?aieoeoaa a oe?eiio.

I a o a ae e n a ? o a oe ? e i i ? ? i a i o e — iioei?caoe?y
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?iaaaeaeaiiy oi?e?aoieo ?ia?o ia ia”?eoao
aiaei-eaiae?caoe?eiiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

? i a i / a a e i i o a c a iieyaa? o i?eiouaii?, ui ?nio? aeayea
iiiaeeia /eneiaeo cia/aiue oaeoi??a, i?e yeeo oe?eueiaa ooieoe?y
aeinyaa? iaeneioia (yeui, iai?eeeaae, ca ia?aiao? iioei?caoe??
i?eeia?oueny i?oei?noue oi?e?aoo) aai i?i?ioio (yeui iioei?coaaoe ca
e?euee?noth a?aeneieo).

A a e o c ue ae i n e ? ae ae a i i y — oaoiieia?y i?iaaaeaeaiiy
oi?e?aoieo ?ia?o i?e aoae?aieoeoa?, ?aiiio? /e a?aeaoaeia?
aiaeieaiae?caoe?eieo nii?oae.

I ? a ae i a o ae i n e ? ae ae a i i y — ia?aiao?e i?iaaaeaeaiiy
oi?e?aoieo ?ia?o.

I a o i ae i e i a ? / i ? i n i i a e: iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii?
noaoenoeee – ei??aeyoe?eiee, aeenia?n?eiee oa ?aa?an?eiee aiae?c,
aenia??iaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi noaiaea?oieo iaoiaeee.

I n i i a i ? c a ae a / ?:

— ooi/ieoe o?ce/io oa ?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/ioth iiaeaeue ae?iaie/iai
i?ioeano oi?e?aooaaiiy, aecia/eoe aeae oa oi?io ca”yceo i?ae
oaoiieia?/ieie oaeoi?aie iaianaiiy oi?e?aoo oa eiai o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie, aeyaeoe o?niioo ca”yceo oa cia/ei?noue ie?aieo oaeoi??a;

— iioei?coaaoe i?ioean iaianaiiy oi?e?aoo ca iaeneioiii i?oeiino? oa
i?i?ioiii a?aeneieo;

— aeine?aeeoe i?ioean iaianaiiy caoeniiai iie?eooy c aioeei?ic?eiith
?icoe?thaaeueiith aeiaaaeith, ooi/ieoe neeaae aeiaaaee oa ia?aiao?e
ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano iaianaiiy caoeniiai iie?eooy ia aioo??oith
iiaa?oith cae?ciaaoiiieo o?oa aaeeeeo aeeaiao??a;

— oaeineiiaeeoe i?eno??e aeey iaoai?/iiai oi?e?aooaaiiy.

I a o e i a a i i a e c i a ? i a i o e i i e y a a ?:

— a ooi/iaii? aeayeeo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue oaoiieia?? oi?e?aooaai-iy,
ooi/iaii? o?ce/ii? oa io?eiaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
i?ioeano;

— o aecia/aii? /eneiaeo cia/aiue iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a oaoiieia??
oi?e?aooaaiiy aeey ??cieo ae?iaie/ieo neooaoe?e;

— o ?ic?iaoe?, ia ??ai? aeiaoiaeo, oaeineiiaeaiiai iaoai?/iiai
i?eno?ith aeey i?iaaaeaeaiiy oi?e?aoieo ?ia?o.

I ? a e o e / i a oe ? i i ? n o ue i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iieyaa? o oiio, ui ?ic?iaeai? i?eeeaaei? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo oa neeaaeaia
i?ia?aia aeey AII caaacia/othoue aeeiiaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo oaoiieia?/ieo
?ic?aooie?a aeey aeai?o iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a oi?e?aooaaiiy;
aeeiiai? oaeiae oaoiieia?/i? ?ic?iaee c iaianaiiy caoenieo iie?eoo?a oa
caiiiie?-/oaaiith noee?a aiaeioo?eioth/eo nii?oae, ai?iaaaeaeai? ia
ia”?eoao AAO “I?aaeainiaoeaoae”.

A i ? i a a oe ? y ? i a i o e. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue
oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo oao?aaee ? ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?-yo OAeAIA a 1993-96 ??, ia I?aeia?iaeieo nai?ia?ao c i?iaeai
iiaeaethaai-iy oa iioei?caoe?? eiiiiceo?a o 1995-98 ?? (i.Iaeana).

? a a e ? c a oe ? y ? i a i o e. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iieeaaeaii a
iniiao ?ic?iaie ?ino?oeoeaieo iaoa??ae?a ? oaoiieia?/ieo ea?o, a oaeiae
oaeineiia-eaiith eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a aiaeieaiae?caoe?eieo nii?oae,
ui caiaeyoueny o i.Oa?eia? oa Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?.

Ia c a o e n o a e i i n y o ue n y:

— oai?aoe/i? iniiae oaoiieia?? oi?e?aooaaiiy a na?oe? no/anieo oyaeaiue
oai??? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa no?oeoo?ii? oai??? i?oeiino?;

— iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e oi?e?aooaaiiy oa aea?? ia?aiao??a a
caeaae-iino? a?ae ae?iaie/eo iio?aa i?e caaaeaii?, ?aiiio? /e
a?aeiiaeaii? eiie?ao-ieo ia”?eo?a;

— oaeineiiaeaiee i?eno??e aeey iaoai?/iiai oi?e?aooaaiiy oa ?ic?ia-ee
i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo oi?e?aooaaiiy o aaeoc?
aiaeieaiae?caoe?eiiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

I o a e ? e a oe ? ?: ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? o 8 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo.

I a n y a ? i a i o e. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaeaaoueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa aeniiae?a, nienea e?oa?aoo?e c 91
iaeiaioaaiue oa aeiaeaoeo. Aeeeaaeaia ia 151 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, a oiio ?ac? 93 noi??iee oaenoo, 28 ?enoie?a, 17 oaaeeoeue, 6
noi??iie a?ea?ia?ao?? ? 6 noi??iie aeiaeaoe?a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ? ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii?
oaie aeena?oaoe??, iinoaaeaia iaoa oa noi?ioeueiaaia ?iai/a a?iioa-ca.
Aecia/aia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aiae?c aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??, a /ene? yeeo ?icaeyiooi ?iaioe
A.I.Aa?eceiaa, I.N.Ai?oiaa, A.A.Aioiaa?/a, A.ss.Aaa?/aiei, I.?.Aeoaeaa,
N.?.Ae?oaeei?ia, I.A.Aethaeaiei, I.?.Aaaeieeiiaa — ?ieioianueeiai,
A.A.Ca-oa?/aiei, A.E.Ea?anueiaa, I.C.Neiiiiaa, A.A.Nei/einueeiai,
A.A.Oaa??ia, A.I.Oei?eiaa, I.A?aoa, I.Ae?aanea?a, ?.E?iaea?a, A.?oooa?oa
oa ?i. aaoi??a c ieoaiue iiaaiaoe/iiai oi?e?aooaaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui
iaoiae “nooiai” oi?e?aooaaiiy ? iaeiei c iaeaoaeoeai?oeo iaoiae?a
no?oiaiaaiai aaoiioaaiiy. A on?o ?iaioao caa?oaaoueny oaaaa ia oa, ui ca
nai?ie aeanoeainoyie oi?e?ao a?ae??ciy?oueny i?aeaeuaieie iieacieeaie
i?oeiino?, aonoeie, aiaeiiai?iieeeeaino?, aioeei?ic?eii? no?eeino? oa
?i. o ii??aiyii? c aaoiiii oaeiai ae neeaaeo, aea ou?eueiaiiai
a?a?aoe?ath. I?eaaaeaii eiie?aoi? i?eeeaaee canoinoaaiiy oi?e?aoo c
iiceoeaieie iane?aeeaie, ia ia”?eoao, aeecueeeo ca nai?ie
eiino?oeoeaieie iniaeeainoyie aei ia”?eo?a aiaeieaiae?caoe?eiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa. I?aee?aneththoueny oaeiae ? eiai iaaeie?ee, a /ene? yeeo
caa?oa?oueny iniaeeaa oaaaa ia a?aeneie iaoa??ae?a.

I?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiee aeaieo ?icaeyiooeo aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe??, ?
i?aenoaaa aaaaeaoe, ui no/ania oaoiieia?y oi?e?aooaaiiy a?oioo?oueny, a
iniiaiiio, ia aii??e/iiio iaoa??ae?, aeai? yeiai ia caaaeaee
ni?aiaaeathoue. Ia caaaeaee ni?aiaaeathoue ? aeac?aee uiaei aeai?o
ia?aiao??a oi?e?aooaaiiy. Oai?aoe/i? iaa?oiooaaiiy a oaoi?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? aeineoue canoa??e? ? iio?aaothoue ia?aaeyaeo ia ??ai?
no/anieo oyaeaiue oai??? eiiiiceoieo iaoa??ae?a oa no?oeoo?ii? oai???
i?oeiino?.

?icae?e cae?i/oaoueny oi?ioethaaiiyi caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ooi/iththoueny aeaiaioe oai???. Oaoiieia?/iee
i?ioean oi?e?aooaaiiy ?icaeyaeaaony ye nenoaia, ui neeaaeaaeaaoueny c
aeaio i?aenenoai. C yeeo ia?oa i?aenenoaia – i?aeaioia/a, iieyaa? a
ooai?aii? aeene?aoiiai iioieo c /anoie oeaiaioo iaiiaithaa/a ? aiaee.
Aeey noai?aiiy iioieo canoiniaothoueny iiaaiaoe/i? aia?aoe, aai
iaoai?/i? i?eno?i?, a yeeo /anoeiai caieiaeaiee iaiiaithaa/, ia?ai?oaiee
c oeaiaioii, ?icaaiy?oueny aei caaeaii? oaeaeeino? ?ooo. A inoaiith
ieoue ia?aae aeo?aeiei ioa??ii a noi?o aaiaeeoueny aiaea o aeaeyae?
aa?icieth. A?aeie?aieaoenue a?ae aia?aoo, iio?e ca 1-3 10 n (/an ae??
ae?oai? i?aenenoaie) aeinyaa? iiaa?oi? aaoiioaaiiy ? ieooth
ia?aoai?th?oueny a oa? uieiioeeaaeaiiai aaoiio – oi?e?ao. Ia caaaeath/e
ia aaeeeo oaeaee?noue, iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy oi?e?aoo ?ice?eoee ? noai?aia
iiaeaeue, ui ?ioa?i?aoo? nooi?noue eiai i?io?eaiiy.

Iaee?aua oea niinoa??aaoe i?e aaoiioaaii? aeayei? iaiaaeaii?
ae?eueieoe?, iai?eeeaae, iiaa?oi? iaoaeaaiai aeia oi?ie, ui
oa?aeoa?ecoaoueny i?oaei?ie aeanoeainoyie. Nii/aoeo ia i?e iiaeooue
oo?eioaaoenue iaeae??ai?o? /anoeiee – caieiaeai? ca?ia oeaiaioo oa
/anoeiee ii?ioo ?c neeaaeo iaiiaithaa/a. Ca?ia ae e?oii?nooth a?ae 0,14
ii ? aeua a?aeaeaathoueny a?ae iiaa?oi?, noai?thth/e a?aeneie. Oea
a?aeaoaaaoueny, iiee ia aaoiiiaai?e iiaa?oi? ia a?aeeeaaeaaoueny
a”ycei-ieanoe/iee oa? ?c ae??aieo /anoeiie, ca”ycaieo neeaie
iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao aiaee. Ooai?aiee oa? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye nenoaia
ioeueiaiai ??aiy, aai ca oai??ath eiiiiceo?a ye iao?eoey, a yeo
i?iieeathoue ca?ia iaiiaithaa/a ?, aeo?aoeaoe ia ia?aiaaaiiy a”yceiai
iii?o na?e caian e?iao?/ii? aia?a??, caeeoathoueny a i?e. Oae
ooai?th?oueny nenoaia ia?oiai ??aiy, aai oa? ?ic/eio. Oeae oa?, o naith
/a?ao, oaeiae iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iao?eoeth, a yeo i?iieeathoue ca?ia
a?eueoeo ca e?oii?nooth o?aeoe?e. Oae noai?th?oueny aaaaoi??aiaaa
no?oeoo?a oi?e?aoo, noaia yei? i?eaaaeaia ia ?en.1.

Ia iiaa?oi? oa?o c”yaeythoueny iia?, oaia? oaea eieaeuei? ae?eyiee c
i?oaei?ie aeanoeainoyie. Oea aenooiath/? ciai? ca?ia iaiiaithaa/a, ui
i?iieeee a oa?, aea ua ia ae?eeenue oa?ii o?noa (aai ?ic/eio)
aeinoaoiuei? oiaueie. I?e cono??/? c oaeeie ae?eueieoeyie ca?ai, ui
?ooathoueny o neeaae? iioieo, a?aeaoaathoueny i?oaei? c?oeiaiiy,
aiane?aeie /iai ca?ia iai?iththoueny ?iioeuenaie: o?, ui ?ooaeenue,
a?aeaeaathoueny o i?ioeeaaeio noi?iio, a o?, ui aoee caio?ai? a
iao?eoeth, naeeaeothoueny i?ae niaith, aae aei aeieeiaiiy eiioaeoo i?ae
ieie. Oae ?aae?coaoueny iaeei ?c iniiaieo aeaiaio?a i?ioeano “nooiai”
oi?e?aooaaiiy – noai?aiiy e i i o a e o i i ? no?oeoo?e oi?e?aoo ia
an?o no?oeoo?ieo ??aiyo. Ioaea iino?eiee a?aeneie — oea ia aacei?enii
ae-o?a/aiee iaoa??ae, a ?iai/? o?ea, ui a?aei?aoethaaee, iaaeaaoe
oi?e?aoo o? aeiaeaoeia? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, yeeie a?i
a?ae??ciyaoueny a?ae cae/ae-iiai aaoiio, ou?eueiaiiai a?a?aoe?ath.

E?euee?noue a?aeneieo caeaaeeoue a?ae ?iia??iino? c?oeiaiue oa
ia?aiao??a i?ioeano: noai?i? ou?eaiiy — , eiao?oe?aioa, ui a?aoiao?
oi?io ca?ai – E

oa neeaaeo noi?o? — , aea ? – iiia? oa?o, neeaae yeiai aecia/a?oueny.
Oey caeaaei?noue ia? aeae: E = E / E + 1. I?e
iaeiio?aeoe?eiiio iaiiaithaa/?, e?euee?noue a?aeneieo aeinyaa?
iaeneioia. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi /enea o?aeoe?e, a?aeneie ciaioo?oueny. Neeaae
“nooi?” noi?o? c o?aeoe?iiiaaiei iaiiaithaa/ai (ca aaniethoiei ia”?iii)
ae?aaeathoue ye 1 : O : O :…O , aea O , O ,…O — a?aeiini?
ia”?ii? e?eueeino? o?aeoe?e o neeaae? noi?o?. Nii/aoeo ia/eneth?oueny
a?aeneie aeey eiaeii? o?aeoe??. I?e oeueiio aeey ia?oiai ??aiy neeaae —
= O , a aeey an?o ianooiieo, ii/eiath/e c ae?oaiai — = O /?
, aea ? = O (1-E ) + ? . Aeey a?aooaaiiy a?aeneieo i?e
c?oeiaii? ca?ai iaioeo o?aeoe?e c ca?iaie a?eueoeo, aaaaeaii
a?aeiia?aei? iii?aaee. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue a?aeneieo aecia/a?oueny ca
??ai?nooth: E =E O +E O +…E O /O + + O +…O . Aeey ?ic?aooieo
eiao?oe??ioa a?aeneieo, ia AII ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi, aeie-noaia yeiai
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.2. Aeieeaaeii noaia ?ic?aooieo, nenoaia oi?ioe oa
i?ia?aia aeey AII i?eaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??.

Aenia?eiaioii ia AII aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey i?i?i?caoe?? a?aeneieo
i?e aaaaoio?aeoe?eiiio iaiiaithaa/?, ie?ai? o?aeoe?? iiaeii? aaiaeeoenue
aei neeaaeo noi?o? a ??aieo aeieyo. Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa a?aeneiea,
ae?aooaai? ia AII aeey iaiiaithaa/a iioeiaeueiiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai
neeaaeo, ca?ia yeiai eoeaiiae?aii? oi?ie c aeaaeeith iiaa?oiath oa
aonoeiith 2,5-2,6 a/ni3 (ui a?aeiia?aea? iieacieeai eaa?oeiaiai i?neo
a?eueoino? ea?”???a Oe?a?ie) i?eaaaeai? a oaae.1 (e?ai?o/).

Iniaeea?nooth aoae?aieoeoaa aiaeieaiae?caoe?eieo nii?oae ? oa, ui
i???iooaaoenue o?eueee ia aeiiii?/iee iieaciee iioeiaeueiino? –
e?euee?noue

?en.1

Noaia oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoi??aiaai? no?oeoo?e

oi?e?aoo, ca?eueo.8o

?en.2

Noaia aeai?eoio aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe?aioo a?aeneieo

a?aeneieo, iiaea aeyaeoenue iaaeinoaoi?i, a ca”yceo c aeno?aiaeueieie
oiiaaie aenieoaoaoe?? oaeeo nii?oae. Oiio a?eueo aaaiiei iieacieeii
iioeiaeueiino?, a oe?e neooaoe??, ne?ae aaaaeaoe ia?aiao?, yeee ae
a?aoiaoaaa aeanoeaino? iaoa??aeo, iia”ycai? c eiai ei?ic?eiith
no?ee?noth oa aeiaaia?/i?noth. Ca?aeii c oai??ath eiiiiceo?a, oaeei
iieacieeii yeino? ? eiao?oe??io caiiaiaiiy ia”?io iaiiaithaa/ai, ui
ae?aaeaaoueny ye E =

(1 – E ) / 1 + (1 – E ). Cia/aiiy oeueiai eiao?oe??ioa a
oi?e?ao? i?eaaaeai? a oaae.1 (i?aai?o/).

C iaoith aeai?a iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue neeaaeo “nooi?” noi?o?,
i?eeiath/e ca ia?aiao? iioei?caoe?? eiao?oe??io caiiaiaiiy, ana iiea
cia/aiue eiai a oaae.1, a iaaeao ?ioa?aaeo 0,55-0,78 (ui a?aeiia?aea?
noai?aiith eiioaeoii? no?oeoo?e), ?icae?ey?oueny ia o?e ae?eyiee c
o?aooaaiiyi ye no?oeoo?ieo, oae ? aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a:

1-a ae?eyiea – (iaiaaeaia aee?iith nooe?eueiith e?i?ath) caaeiaieueiy?
ye no?oeoo?iei iieacieeai ii cia/aiith E = 0,69-0,71, oae ?
aeiiii?/iei ii e?eueeino? a?aeneieo E = 13,0 – 21,0%;

2-a ae?eyiea iiae?ey?oueny ia aea? /anoeie, c yeeo ia?oa – 2 c
iieacie-eaie E = 0,60-0,69 oa E = 20-27% (iaiaaeaia oo?eoiaith,
oianoith e?i??th), a ae?oaa – 2 c iieacieeaie E = 0,75-0,78 oa E
= 22-26% (iaia-aeaia oo?eoiaith, oiieith e?i??th). Ca nai?i cia/aiiyi,
iieacieee iaio ae?eyiie iaei a?ae??ciythoueny, aea oiiae i?aeaioiaee
“nooi?” noi?o? o ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo cia/ii oneeaaeiththoueny, ui
iia”ycaii c iaiao?aei?noth aaeeaaiiy aaaaoio?aeoe?eiiai caiiaithaa/a.

3-y ae?eyiea (iaiaaeaia oo?eoioieoe?iith e?i??th) caaeiaieueiy? ii
no?oeoo?iei iieacieeai E = 0,60-0,77, aea oea iiaea aeyaeoenue ia
?aioa-aaeueiei o ca”yceo c i?aeaeuaiei a?aeneieii.

Iieacieee iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo oeaiaioiii?uaii? noi?o? i?eaaaeai? a
oaae.1, aecia/ai? i?e o?eniaaieo ??aiyo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a:
oaeaeeino? ?ooo iaoa??aeo o noai? a?eueiiai iieueioo oa a?aenoai? i?ae
niieii ? iiaa?oiath aaoiioaaiiy. Oe? ia?aiao?e ooi/ithaaeenue
aenia?eiaioaeueii ?c canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo iaoiae?a: iioeiaeueiiai
ieaioaaiiy oa noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aeaieo. Aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo
oiia aoei i?iaaaeaii e?ooa i?aeiyooy ii iiaa?oi? a?aeaoeo. Ca iniiaiee
ia?aiao? iioei?caoe?? i?eeiaeanue i?oei?noue oi?e?aoo ia noene.
Iiia?aaei?i aiae?cii aeaieo aoei iai?/aii na??th aeine?ae?a aeey ?ooo a
iai?yieo a?aae??ioa e?i?eiiai iaaeeaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio e?ie ii oaeoi?o,
ui a?aeiia?aea? a?aenoai? i?ae niieii oa iiaa?oiath oi?e?aooaaiiy aeey
a?aeneiea ia? ciae, i?ioeeaaeiee cia/aiith e?ieo aeey i?oeiino?. Ioaea,
?ooath/enue a a?e iaeneioia i?oeiino?, iaeii/anii a?aeaoaa?oueny
iaaeeaeaiiy a a?e i?i?ioio a?aeneieo. Iaeaeua i?oei?noue – 51,8 Iia aoea
aeinyaiooa i?e cia/aii? oaeaeeino? aeecueei 145 i/n 1 a?aenoai? a?ae
niiea aei iiaa?oi? 1050 ii. Oaeei /eiii, oe? aeai? ? i?aenoaaa aaaaeaoe
ye iioeiaeuei?.

Oaaeeoey 1.

No?oeoo?i? iieacieee oi?e?aoo

Neeaae “nooi?” noi?o?I?aai?o/ – eiao?oe??io iaiiaiaiiy: /eneaiiee –
aeiey iao?eoe?; ciaiaiiee – iaiiaithaa/a. E?ai?o/ – eiao?oe??io
a?aeneieo i?e oaeeo /eneao o?aeoe?e o neeaae? iaiiaithaa/a:12345

1:1

24,9 0,57/0,43

17,5 0,55/0,45

12.1 0,53/0,47

9,5 0,53/0,47

7,9 0,52/0,48

1:2

39,9 0,45/0,55

26,9 0,40/0,60

20,4 0,38/0,62

15,4 0,37/0,63

13,0 0,36/0,64

1:3

49,9 0,40/0,60

35,2 0,34/0,66

27,0 0,31/0,69

21,8 0,30/0,70

18,4 0,29/0,71

1:4

57.0 0,37/0,63

42,1 0,30/0,70

32,5 0,27/0,73

26,3 0,25/0,75

22,2 0,26/0,76

1:5

62,4 0,35/0,65

47,6 0,28/0,72

37,5 0,27/0,73

30,3 0,23/0,77

25,0 0,22/0,78

Iniaeea?noth oi?e?aooaaiiy ? niin?a caieiaeaiiy. E?euee?noue aiaee aeey
oeueiai aecia/a?oueny ?c ?ic?aooieo e?eueeino? aiaee, iio??aii? ia
ooai?aiiy oeaiaioiiai o?noa ii?iaeueii? aonoioe a oi?e?ao? oa e?eueeino?
iaiao?aeii? ia caieiaeaiiy iiaa?oi? iaiiaithaa/a. Aeey caaacia/aiiy
oaeaeeiai ? ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo aiaee i?ae /anoeieaie oaa?aei? oace,
aiia aaiaeeoueny a no?oi?iue o noai? aa?icieth a inoaiith ieoue ia?aae
aeoiaeii ?c eaiaea niiea.

Noai?aiiy ca”ycii? nenoaie a?aeaoaa?oueny a iiiaio c?oeiaiiy /anoeiie
oaa?aei? oace ? /anoeiie ?icae??aiaii? aiaee i?ae ieie c iiaa?oiath
aaoiioaaiiy. I?e oeueiio /anoeiee aiaee caiiaiththoue i?ino??, ui
caeeoa?oueny i?ae /anoeieaie oaa?aei? oace i?e ?o u?eueiiio oiaeoaaii?.
Iiaeeeaee iaaeaeoie aiaee aeo?niy?oueny i?e oeueiio ia iiaa?oith, ii
aeaeyaeo yei? iia?aoi? iiaea eiio?iethaaoe iiaea/o aiaee a oiae?
i?ioeano oi?e?aooaaiiy.

??aiyiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? oi?e?aoo aoee iaea?aeai? iaoiaeii
ei??aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co, aeey /iai aoa i?iaaaeaiee aaaaoioaeoi?iee
aenia?eiaio ?c aeeth/aiiyi a /enei iacaeaaeieo oaeoi??a aeoeaiino?
oeaiaioo, neeaaeo oeaiaioiii?uaii? noi?o? oa aiaeioeaiaioiiai
a?aeiioaiiy.

Aeeth/aiiy A/Oe iaoiiaeaii oei, ui i?e iaeiiio ? oiio ae neeaae? noi?o?
ye?noue iaiiaithaa/a iiaea ci?ithaaoenue a oe?ieeo iaaeao, a caeaaeiino?
a?ae a?aioeiiao??? i?neo, eiai i?ia?aeia?/iiai neeaaeo oa ?i.

?ic?aooiie eiao?oe?aio?a ??aiyiue ?aa?an?? aoei i?iaaaeaii ia AII
iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a. I?ney i?aenoaiiaee /eneiaeo cia/aiue
eiao?-oe?aio?a, ia?ii oae? ??aiyiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? oi?e?aoo
oa noene ia aeaei:

R = 72,301 + 0,11 R — 171,84 A/Oe — 2,54 ;

R = 16,17 + 0,02 R — 36,07 A/Oe — 10,6 ;

A i?ioean? i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei ?ic?iaeaii ia ??ai? aeiaoiaeo oaeineiiaeaia
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey iaoai?/iiai oi?e?aooaaiiy, iniiaiith a?aeciaeith yeiai
? cia/ii iaiueoa iana ?ioi??a oa ciaioaiee ?o iiiaio ?ia?oe??, a oaeiae
iiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeeoe oi?e?aooaaiiy a aoaeue-yeiio caaeaiiio iai?yi?:
“aiec”, “aai?o” aai ia a?/io iiaa?oith. Oaea iaeaaeiaiiy iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia aeey iaianaiiy caoenoieo iie?eoo?a ia aioo??oith iiaa?oith
eaiae?caoe?eieo eieaeoi??a aaeeeeo ae?aiao??a.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aioeei?ic?eii? no?eeino? oaeeo iie?eoo?a, aoei
?ic?iaeaii oi?e?aooaaiiy ?c aeei?enoaiiyi aioeei??ic?eii? aeiaaaee ii
aao.na?ae.? 174979 (I.I.I/aaeeia-Iao?inyi, A.?.Aaaooe?i oa ?i.).
I?iaaaea-ieie aeine?aeaie aoa ooi/iaiee neeaae aeiaaaee o aeiaaeeo
canoinoaaiiy ?? a oi?e?ao?. Ooi/iaiiy neeaaeo aoei i?iaaaeaii iaoiaeii
iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo. Iayai?noue ai??i?ii? ?ioi?iaoe??
aeicaieeea i?iaanoe aenia?eiaio o iaeaea noaoe?iia?i?e iaeano? ?
io?eiaoe ?acoeueoaoe o aeaeyae? ??aiyiue ?aa?an?? ae?oaiai nooiaiy.
I?ney noaoenoe/ii? ia?aa??ee ??aiyiue oa ?o aiae?co ia aeno?aioi, aoa
anoaiiaeaiee iioeiaeueiee neeaae aeiaaaee, oa i?oei?noue oi?e?aoo a
oi/oe? iaeneioia, ui aeinyaa? 42,1 IIa – ia noene oa 9,7 IIa – ia ca?i.

Oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei i?iaaaeaii i?e
iiiiie?/oaaii? noee?a ca??ieo ?aca?aoa??a aeey aiaee. Aoea oaeineiiaeaia
oi?ia noeea, ye oea iieacaii ia ?en.3, ?ic?aoiaaia ia caiiaiaiiy eiai
iaoiaeii oi?e?aooaaiiy. oaoiieia?/ia noaia i?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ia?o ii
iiiiie?-/oaaiith ca??iiai cae?ciaaoiiiiai ?aca?aoa?a aeey aiaee
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.4.

Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia ii??aiyiiy niinia?a iiiiie?/oaaiiy (iiaaia-oe/iei /e
iaoai?/iei oi?e?aooaaiiyi) ii o?oaeicao?aoai oa aia?aiaeo?a-oai
i?aaenoaaeaii a oaae.2. Oe? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i cia/io ia?aaaao
iaoai?/iiai oi?e?aooaaiiy, iniaeeai uiaei aia?aiaeo?ao.

?en.3. Oi?ia noeea oa noaia eiai caiiaiaiiy oi?e?aoii

?en.4. Oaoiieia?/ia noaia i?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ia?o ii iiiiie?/oaaiith

ca??iiai cae?ciaaoiiiiai ?aca?aoa?o aeey aiaee

1,2 oa 3 – neeaaee oeaiaioo, i?neo oa aeiaaaie ,

4 – aa?aaao aeey oi?e?aooaaiiy, 5 – eiii?ani?,

6 – ia?anoai? i?aeiinoee

Oaaeeoey 2.

Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee noee?a

Iieacieee ia 100 i aeiaaeeie noeeaNiiniae iiiiie?/oaaiiyiiaai.
oi?e?aooaaiiyiaoai?/. oi?e?aooaaiiyO?oaei?ie?noue,

/ie.-aiae

39,17

29,4Aia?aiaeo?aoe,

eAo.aiae.

175,0

6,0

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA AENIIAEE

1. ?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?e?aooaaiiy.I?eeiyoa o?ce/ia

iiaeaeue c aenieei nooiaiai oi/iino? a?aeia?aaea? ?aaeueiee i?ioean, a
iaoaiaoe/ia iienaiiy ie?aieo aeaiaio?a i?ioeano, iiaeaia ye ocaaaeueiaia
nenoaia oi?ioe, aeicaiey? ?iaeoe iaiao?aei? ?ic?aooiee. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo
?ic?aooie?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny aeaieie aaoi?a ? ni?aiaaeathoue n
aeaieie, ui ?o iioaeeeiaaii a ?yae? aeaea?ae.

2. ?ic?iaeaii i?eeeaaei? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ? neeaaeaii i?ia?aio aeey
AII, ui aeicaiey? ca ei?ioeee oa?i?i aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e
oaoiieiae/iiai i?ioeano oi?e?aooaaiiy a ??cieo ae?iaie/eo neooaoe?yo c
o?aooaaiiyi yeino? canoiniaaieo iaoa??ae?a, noaio oaoiieiae/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy, oiia iaeaooiuei? aenieoaoaoe?? aoaeiaaieo oa
a?aeiiaethaaieo nii?oae.

3. ?ic?iaeaii iiaa (ia ??ai? aeiaoiaeo) oaoiieiae/ia iaeaaeiaiiy, ui
aeicaiey? cae?enieoe i?ioean oi?e?aoo?aaiiy ia iaoai?/iee iniia? c?
canoino-aaiiyi ?ioi?ieo iaoaeueieo i?eno?i?a oaeineiiaeaiiai c?aceo. I?e
oiio aeinyaa?oueny aeniea i?iaeoeoeai?noue, a aia?aiaeo?aoe
cieaeothoueny aei cae/aeiiai ??aiy 0,4-0,8 eao.//i3, ye oea iaa i?noea a
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo oaoiieia?yo aaoiio.

4. Oi?ioaaiiy oi?e?aoiiai oa?o c aeene?aoiiai iioieo /anoie caaaeaee
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aei?e e?eueeino? aiaee, ui
caaania/o? aenieee nooiaiue ca”yciino? nenoaie, ui ooai?th?oueny. Oiio
aiaeioeaiaioia a?aeiioaiiy a oi?e?ao? caaaeaee aecia/a?oueny ia
i?i?iaeueiiio ??ai?. I?eoiio cae/aeii canoiniaaiee eiio?ieue iiaeia
aaaaeaoe aeinoaoiuei iaae?eiei, ui caaacia/o? iaiao?aeiee nooiaiue
oi/iino?, ine?eueee e?euee?noue aiaee a oa?? aecia/a?oueny aaoiiaoe/ii,
caeaaeii a?ae ia”?io ii?iaeiei i?ae /anoeaie oaa?aei? oace, a ?? caeeoie
aeoenea?oueny c oa?o ia iiaa?oith.

5. ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeaio oaoiieia?th iaianaiiy caoeniiai iie?eooy ia
iiaa?oi? nii?oae, aoaeiaaieo c? cae/aeiiai aaoiio, ui eiioaeoo? i?ioyaii
i?ioeano aenieoaoaoe?? c aa?aneaiei na?aaeiaeuai. I?eoiio caoeni?
aeanoeaino? oi?e?aoo iineeththoueny aaaaeaiiyi eiiieaenii?
aioeei-?ic?eii? ?icoe?thaaeueii? aeiaaaee. Ooi/iaia ?aoeaioo?a aeiaaaee
c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae oaoiieia?? iaoai?/iiai oi?e?aooaaiiy.

6. Aecia/aia ?ieue a?aeneieo, ui noi?iaiaeaeo? i?ioean oi?e?aooaaiiy.
A?aeneie ? iaia”yceiaei aeaiaioii i?ioeano “nooiai” oi?e?aooaaiiy.
I?eoiio /anoeia iaoa??aeo (aieiaiei /eiii caiiaithaa/a, ui
a?aeaeaa?oueny a?ae iiaa?oi?, aeeiio? ?ieue ?iai/eo o?e, ui ni?eythoue
aenieiio nooiaith ou?eueiaiiy oa?o, ui eiai aeeaaeathoue, iaaeath/e oiio
ia iiiaio oeeaaeaiiy iaaio ii/aoeiao i?oei?noue, caaaeyee /iai
ooai?th?oueny iaoa??ae c oi?eaeueieie aeanoeainoyie. Aeey caaania/aiiy
i?i?iaeueiiai a?aeneieo, o?aaa canoinoaaoe o?aeoe?iiiaaiee caiiaithaa/
c? ca?iaie ie?oaei? oi?ie, ui iaaeeaea?oueny aei eoeaiiae?aii?.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe??

IIOAE?EIAAI? A OAEEO ?IAIOAO:

1. Aiaeiaicia I.I., Aethaeaiei I.A., ?aeai?iaeneee A.E. ?aiiio e
?aeiino?oeoeey noueia a nii?oaeaieyo eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa ec
nai?iiai aeaeaciaaoiia.// ?anioaeeeaineee iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue
iao/ii-oaoie/aneee nai?iee “Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia”, aui.4,
Ee?a, “Oaoi?ea”, 1995, n.5-6.

2. Aaae/aiei A.ss.,Aiaeiaicia I.I.,Aethaeaiei I.A.,?aeai?iaeneee A.E.

Oi?iiaaiea noaeaoea?iaaoiiiuo ecaeaeee e eiino?oeoeee ii ?ioaoeeiiiie
oaoiieiaee. Oac.aeieeaaeia OOOO iao/ii-oaoi.eiioa?aioeee OAAAO.-
Oa?ueeia, 1996, n.7-8.

3. Aethaeaiei I.A., Aiaeiaicia I.I., Ionei N.I., ?aeai?iaeneee A.E.
I?iaaaeaiea onei?aiiuo eniuoaiee aaoiia e noaeaoea?iaaoiia ia
ii?icinoieeinoue. Oac.aeee.OOOO iao/i.-oaoi.eiio.OAAAO.-Oa?ueeia, 1996,
n.5-6.

4. Aethaeaiei I.A., Aei?iiei A.A., Aiaeiaicia I.I. e ae?.
I?iaeoe?iaaiea ninoaaa oeaiaioii-ian/aiie niane aeey oi?iiaaiey
a?iioeaiaioiuo ecaeaeee e eiino?oeoeee. Iaoa?eaeu e OOOO
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio naieia?o ii i?iaeaiai iiaeaeeaaiey e iioeiecaoeee
eiiiiceoia. Iaeanna, 1996, n.62.

5. Aaae/aiei A.ss., Aiaeiaicia I.I., Aethaeaiei I.A., Ee?e/aiei A.A. e
ae?. I?iaeaiu Oa?ueeianeeo eaiaeecaoeeiiiuo eieeaeoi?ia.//
?anioaeeeaineee iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee nai?iee
“Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia”. aui.8, Ee?a, “Oaoi?ea”, 1997,
n.56-60.

6. Aiaeiaicia I.I., Aethaeaiei I.A., I/aaeeia-Iao?inyi I.I.
?ani?a-aeaeaiea oeaiaioii-ian/aiie niane i?e oi?iiaaiee ieineeo ecaeaeee
iaeie oieueiu iaoiaeii ?ioaoeeiiii-neeiaiai oieioiaiey. Iaoa?eaeu e
OOOO1 iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio naieia?o ii i?iaeaiai iiaeaee?iaaiey e
iioeiecaoeee eiiiiceoia. Iaeanna, 1997, n.124-125.

7. Aiaeiaicia I.I., Aethaeaiei I.A. Iiauoaiea ei??iceiiiie noieeinoe
eaiaeecaoeeiiiuo eieeaeoi?ia. Iaoa?eaeu e 37-io iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio
naieia?o ii iiaeaee?iaaieth e iioeiecaoeee eiiiiceoia, Iaeanna, 1998,
n.130-132.

8. Aiaeiaicia I.I., Aethaeaiei I.A., Oooaiei E.I., Iaia?oeaa A.N.
Iioeiecaoeey oi?e?aoiuo ?aaio ia iauaeoao aiaeieaiaeecaoeeiiiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa.// ?anioaeeeaineee iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee
nai?iee “Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia”, aui.15, Ee?a, “Oaoi?ea”,
1998, n.14-24.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aiaeiaicia I.I. “Iioei?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?iaaaeaiiy
oi?e?aoieo ?ia?o i?e aoae?aieoeoa? ? ?aiiio? aiaeieaiae?caoe?eieo
nii?oae”.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ii niaoe?aeueiino? 05.23.08 “Oaoiieia?y i?iieneiaiai oa oeea?eueiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa”, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aaneoao
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Oa?e?a, 1998.

?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith oa iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a i?iaaaeaiiy oi?e?aoieo ?ia?o. Iioei?caoe?y i?iaaaeaia ii
iaeneioio i?oeiino? ? i?i?ioio a?aeneieo. Iaoiaeii oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co
aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei? neeaaee oeaiaioii-i?uaii? noi?o?;
aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/ai? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e oi?e?aooaaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae ?yae ia?ieo caeaaeiinoae aeey aecia/aiiy /eneiaeo
cia/aiue aii??e/ieo eiao?oe?aio?a.

I?iaaaeaii oaeineiiaeaiiy, ia ??ai? aeiaoiaeo, oaoiieia?/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oi?e?aoieo ?ia?o iaoiaeii iaoai?/iiai
oi?e?aooaaiiy.

Iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ai?iaaaeaeaii a oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane i?e
caaaeaii? ? ?aiiio? aiaeieaiae?caoe?eieo nii?oae ia ia”?eoao AAO
“I?aaeainiaoeaoae”.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iioei?caoe?y, oi?e?aoi? ?iaioe, oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e,
neeaaee oeaiaioii-i?uaii? noi?o?, aii???/i? eiao?oe??ioe.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aiaeiaicia I.I. “Iioeiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia i?iaaaeaiey
oi?e?aoiuo ?aaio i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa e ?aiiioa aiaeieaiaeeca-oeeiiiuo
nii?oaeaiee”.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.08 “Oaoiieiaey i?iiuoeaiiiai e a?aaeaeain-eiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa”, Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao
no?ie-oaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u Ieiia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu, a.Oa?ueeia, 1998.

?aaioa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth e iioeiecaoeee oaoiieiae/aneeo
ia?aiao?ia i?iaaaeaiey oi?e?aoiuo ?aaio. Iioeiecaoeey i?iaaaeaia ii
iaeneioio i?i/iinoe e ieieioio ioneiea. Iaoiaeii oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca
ii?aaeaeaiu iioeiaeueiua ninoaau oeaiaioii-ian/aiie niane;
yenia?eiaioaeueii ii?aaeaeaiu oaoiieiae/aneea ia?aiao?u oi?e?aoe?iaaiey.

Enneaaeiaai oaeaea ?yae ia?iuo caaeneiinoae aeey ii?aaeaeaiey /eneaiiuo
cia/aiee yiie?e/aneeo eiyooeoeeaioia.

I?iaaaeaii oniaa?oainoaiaaiea, ia o?iaia ecia?aoaiey, oaoiieiae-/aneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey i?iaaaeaiey oi?e?aoiuo ?aaio iaoiaeii iaoaie-/aneiai
oi?e?aoe?iaaiey.

Iioeiaeueiua ia?aiao?u aiaae?aiu a oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu i?e
aicaaaeaiee e ?aiiioa aiaeieaiaeecaoeeiiiuo nii?oaeaiee ia iauaeoao IAI
“THaeniaoeno?ie”.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iioeiecaoeey, oi?e?aoiua ?aaiou, oaoiieiae/an-eea
ia?aiao?u, ninoaau oeaiaioii-ian/aiie niane, yiie?e/aneea
eiyooe-oeeaiou.

ANNOTATION

Vodovozov N.P. “Optimization of the technological parameters of
carrying out of the gunite work in the process of building and repair of
the water and sewer constructions”.

The thesis for a candidates of technical sciences degree in the field
05.23.08 “The technology of industrial and building”, Kharkov State
Technical university of Building and Architecture Ministry of Education
of the Ukraine, Kharkov, 1998.

This work is devoted to the research and optimization of the
technological parameters of carrying out of the gunite work. The
optimization has been carried out according to the maximum power and
the minimum recoil. The optimum compositions of the cement-and-sand
mixture have been determined; the technological parameters of the
process of guniting have been experimentally proved.

A number of twin dependences for determining numerical meanings of the
empirically determined coefficients has been researched.

There has been carried out the improvement, at the level of the
invention, of the level of the invention, of the technological equipment
for carryiny out of gunite work by the way of the mechanical gunitiny.

The optimum parameters have been applied in the technological processes
in building and repair of the water-and-sewer constructions at the sites
of Public joint stock company Yuzhspetsstroy.

Keywords: optimization, gunite work, technological parameters,
cement-and-sand mixture empirically determined coefficiente.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 09.10.98 ?. Ae?oe.a?e.1.125 Oe?.100

Iae.aeae.a?e.1.05 Oi?iao 60o84/16 Cai.1/27-97

IOe OOO

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