AeIIAANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

AOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

E?IAssEIA NA?A?E IEAEN?EIAE*

OAeE 624.05 : 519.24

Iioei?caoe?y neeaaeo

ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio

c o?aooaaiiyi e?eoa???a

eieaeueiiai ?oeioaaiiy

05.23.05 – aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee ? ae?iae

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iae??aea — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai??

aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (IAeAAA), I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: — Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aicianainueeee A?oae?e Aiaoie?eiae/,

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa

? a?o?oaeoo?e, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?ioean?a

oa aia?ao?a a oaoiieia?? aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaoa??iei Aaneeue Aiae??eiae/,

Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa

? a?o?oaeoo?e, aeaeai aoae?aaeueiiai oaeoeueoaoo;

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Iiiia Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a

Aeiiaoeueeiai I?iiaoaeIAe?i?iaeoa (Oe?aoae).

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: — Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa

? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 10-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 12.085.01 i?e Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (Oe?a?ia, 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iaeanoue, i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2, 1 o/aiaee
ei?ion, cae can?aeaiue).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (Oe?a?ia, 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iaeanoue, i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 21 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
THaia A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue. I?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? nii?oaeaeoaaieo
oa ?aeiino?oeiaaieo aoae?aaeueieo nii?oae ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy
noeeueiino? aaoiio aei ooai?aiiy o??uei caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiith
iaoeiaith caaea/ath, iacaaaeath/e ia ?icaeoie iaoa??aeiciaanoaa,
oaoiieia?? aaoiiieo ?ia?o oa iiaoi?iiai caoenoo, iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo
eiino?oeoe?e ? i?iaeooaaiiy nii?oae. Aeey ioe?iee noeeueiino? aaoiio
aei o??ueiiooai?aiiy cai?iiiiiaaii ?yae e?eoa???a, aea a?eueo?noue c
ieo, ye? aeicaieythoue aanoe eeoa ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c neeaae?a ?
oaoiieia?e, ia ciaoiaeyoue i?yiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?e ?ic?aooieo
eiino?oeoe?e. Aea, a inoaii? aeaaaeoeyoe??//y, ?icaeoie iaoai?ee ?
o?ceee ?oeioaaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a aeicaieea aaanoe a i?aeoeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aaoiio ? cae?ciaaoiio iia? e?eoa???, ei?eni? ? aeey
eiio?ieth yeino?, ? aeey ?ic?aooieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Iaeiei c iaeiaio o?oaeii?noeeo i?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aecia/aii? ?,
aiaeii/an, aeinoaoiuei ?ioi?iaoeaiei aeey ?ic?aooie?a aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e ? e?eoa??e eieaeueiiai ?oeioaaiiy — e?eoe/iee eiao?oe??io
?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue E1n (IIa*i0.5), ui oa?aeoa?eco? no?ee?noue
iaoa??aeo aei e?eoeiai ?oeioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie o??ueie niiniaii a?ae?eao.
Aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao ia ??aaiue oeueiai iieacieea o??ueiino?eeino?
oeaiaioieo eiiiiceo?a oiia eiai aecia/aiiy (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaiiao?e/ieo
?ici???a c?ace?a, niin?a ?i?oe?thaaiiy o??ueie, oa?aeoa? iaaaioaaeaiiy)
? ie?aieo oaeoi??a neeaaeo (ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae oeaiaioii ? aiaeith,
i?ae caiiaithaa/ai ? oeaiaioii, i?ae o?aeoe?yie caiiaithaa/a ?
iaiiaithaa/a, iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oeaiaioiiai eaiaiy ?
caiiaithaa/?a ? ?i.) i?enay/aii aeinoaoiuei aaaaoi ?ia?o.

A oie aea /an iaiaaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i aieea oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ia e?eoa??? iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy, oi/a a?aeiii, cie?aia, ui
aiaeiiane/aiiy aaoiio nooo?ai ci?ith? ??ai? i?aeoe/ii an?o eiai
aeanoeainoae. ?icoe?eoe oeth ?ioi?iaoe?th aeioe?eueii, aeei?enoiaoth/e
aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy (AN-iiaeaethaaiiy), yea,
aeiaaath/e iioeiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy iaoo?iiai aenia?eiaioo, aeicaiey?
i?iaiaeeoe ia/enethaaeuei? aenia?eiaioe, ye? ?icoe?ththoue aaco aeey
oaoiieia?/ieo aeniiae?a.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iniiai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/iiai oa i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o cae?eniai? o
?aieao aeeiiaiiy aea?aeathaeaeaoii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? oaie ?58
IAeAAA “Aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy ? iioei?caoe?y a
eiii’thoa?iiio aoae?aaeueiiio iaoa??aeiciaanoa?”.

Iaoa ?iaioe — iioei?caoe?y neeaaeo ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a, ye?
i?noyoue oeaie?oiaee iaiiaithaa/, c o?aooaaiiyi e?eoa??th eieaeueiiai
?oeioaaiiy i?e ??ciiio ?o aiaeiiane/aii?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?.

1. Ia iniia? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ? iiia?aaei?o aeine?ae?a
i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? aieeao neeaaeo oeaiaioiiai eiiiiceoo ? eiai
aiaeiiane/aiiy ia iniiai? iieacieee iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae, iniaeeai ia
e?eoa??? iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy.

2. ?ic?iaeoe aeie-noaio aeine?aeaeaiue, iaa?oiooaaoe aea?? aa??eiaaieo
oaeoi??a ? i?eaaoieo iaoiaeee aenia?eiaio?a, i?iaanoe ii iioeiaeueiiio
ieaio aeaioiaeaiiy ? aei?iaoaaiiy c?ace?a c ??ciei nooiaiai
aiaeiiane/aiiy.

3. I?iaiae?coaaoe ii aeaiei iaoo?iiai aenia?eiaioo aca?iica’ycee i?ae
iieacieeaie iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae, aeeth/ath/e e?eoe/iee eiao?oe??io
?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue, i?e ??ciiio aiaeiiane/aii?, ? ioe?ieoe ii
AN-iiaeaeyi aieea /ioe?ueio oaeoi??a neeaaeo ia oe? iieacieee.

4. I?iaanoe ia/enethaaeuei? aenia?eiaioe c /ioe?eoaeoi?ieie iiaeaeyie
aeey a?aooaaiiy a iiaeaeyo oeaiaioii-aiaeiiai a?aeiioaiiy, ui
ci?ith?oueny, ? nooiaith caiiaiaiiy a?aee?eoeo ii? aiaeith; ioe?ieoe ii
ieo aieea oeeo aaaeeeaeo no?oeoo?iooai?thth/iai ? aenieoaoaoe?eiiai
oaeoi??a ia e?eoe/iee eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue ? ?io?
iieacieee iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

5. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie iiaeaethaaiiy iioei?coaaoe neeaaee ae??aiica?ienoeo
aaoii?a c o?aooaaiiyi e?eoa??th eieaeueiiai ?oeioaaiiy i?e ??ciiio
aiaeiiane/aii? ? i?iaanoe ?o aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo.

Iniiai? iaoiaee iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai? ii D-iioeiaeueiiio /ioe?eoaeoi?iiio ieaio.
Ia?aiao?e yeino? aaoiio aecia/ai? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ii?iaoeaaie ia
aoanoiaaiiio aei?iaoaaeueiiio iaeaaeiaii?. Ii/aoeiaee iaae??c c?ace?a
c?iaeaiee aeiacieie aeeneaie. Iiaoaeiaa iae?i?eieo AN-iiaeaeae,
ia/enethaaeuei? aenia?eiaioe ? aiae?c iiaeaeae aeeiiai? a eiii’thoa?iiio
?aaeei?, a oiio /ene? a niaoe?ae?ciaai?e nenoai? NII?AO (I?A?91).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaiieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy oiieiiaeaiiai oeaie?oo a ae??aiica?ieno?
aaoiie, ye? i?aoeththoue a oiiaao i?aeaeuaii? aieiaino?, ca?eueoo?
e?eoe/iee eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue, oiaoi iie?auo? ?o
ni?iiiaei?noue /eieoe ii?? ooai?aiith o??uei;

— a ia/enethaaeueiiio aenia?eiaio? ioe?iaia no?oeoo?oth/a ?ieue
eiiiiiaio?a iica ?o ca’yceii c aiaeiiio?aaith noi?o?. Aeey oeueiai
aeei?enoai? niaoe?aeuei? iiaeae? o aeaeyae? aeiaoaeeo e?i?eii? ooieoe??
aieeao oeaiaioii-aiaeiiai a?aeiioaiiy ia AN-iiaeaeue a?aeiinieo
a?aeoeeaiue a?ae oe??? ooieoe??;

— iieacaii, ui oeaie?oiaee iaiiaithaa/, iacaaaeath/e ia aeayea
ca?eueoaiiy aiaeiiio?aae oeaiaioii-i?uaii? noi?o?, ni?ey? iie?ioaiith
iii?o oeaiaioiiai eiiiiceoo ?icoyaoth/ei iai?oaeaiiyi;

— aiae?c aaaaoioaeoi?ieo iiaeaeae, ye? aeiaeaoeiai a?aoiaothoue nooi?iue
caiiaiaiiy a?aee?eoeo ii? aiaeith, iieacaa, ui ii i??? ?? ca?eueoaiiy,
??aaiue e?eoa??th eieaeueiiai ?oeioaaiiy nii/aoeo cieaeo?oueny, a iio?i
ii/eia? c?inoaoe, ia??aeei ia?aaeuoth/e ii/aoeia? cia/aiiy;

— aeey ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a, ye? i?aoeththoue o aiaeiiane/aiiio
noai?, aea?aii iioeiaeuei? neeaaee c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii ieanoeo?eaoi?a
? oeaie?oiaiai iaiiaithaa/a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— aaaaeaiiy a neeaae oeaiaioii-i?uaii? noi?o? iioeiaeueii? e?eueeino?
oaeiai iaiiaithaa/a, ye oiieiiaeaiee oeaie?o (?iaeiaeua yeiai ? ia
Oe?a?i?), iie?auo? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aaoiio, cie?aia, a
aiaeiiane/aiiio noai? ? cia/ii i?aeaeuo? eiai o??ueiino?ee?noue;

— aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa ia?aa??ea cae?eniaia aeey eiino?oeoe?e
i?iieneiaiai ? o?ainii?oiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, ye? i?aoeththoue a
iino?eiiio eiioaeo? c aiaeith.

Iniaenoi ni?aooea/ai io?eiai?:

— aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?i aeanoeaino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a i?e
??cieo nooiaiyo iane/aiiy ??aeeiith;

— ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i nooiaiue aieeao oaeoi??a neeaaeo ae??aiica?ienoiai
aaoiio ia eiai aeanoeaino? i?e ??ci?e aieiaino? ? i?e aenieoaoaoe?? a
??ciiiai?oieo na?aaeiaeuao;

— eiiieaen iiaeaeae, ui iienothoue aieea neeaaeo ? aieiaino?
ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio ia eiai o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ?
iieacieee eieaeueiiai ?oeioaaiiy;

— neeaaee oeaiaioieo eiiiiceoe?e, ui caaeiaieueiythoue
aaaaoie?eoa??aeuei? aeiiae aei oaoiieia?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae eiino?oeoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe iia?aeiieai? ia i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao ii iaoai?oe? ?oeioaaiiy (Ioea/aai, 1998), ii
iiaeaethaaiith ? iioei?caoe?? eiiiiceo?a (Iaeana, 1998, 1999), ii
i?iaeaiai aoae?aieoeoaa (Iaeana, 1998; AEee?ia – Neiaae?y 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a 5 noaooyo o ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? a 3 aeiiia?aeyo ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo ?
neiiic?oiao.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iniiaii?
/anoeie (5 ?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?
aeiaeaoeo. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 131 noi??iea, c yeeo 111 noi??iie
iniiaiiai oaenoo, 38 iaethie?a, 5 oaaeeoeue, ia?ae?e e?oa?aoo?e ?c 152
iaeiaioaaiue ia 16 noi??ieao, 4 noi??iee aeiaeaoeo.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ?icaeyiooa aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ? caaea/?
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeai? iieiaeaiiy iaoeiai? iiaecie ?
i?aeoe/ii? oe?iiino? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?co iniaeeainoae aieeao neeaaeo ? oiia
aenieoaoaoe?? ia o??ueiino?ee?noue aaoiio. Caaaeueiee a?naiae iaoiae?a ?
niinia?a oi?aae?iiy no?oeoo?ith ? aeanoeainoyie aoae?aaeueieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a a inoaii? aeaaaeoeyoe??//y iiiiaieany
iaoiaeaie iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy. Aaeeeee ianya aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiiaiee
i?e eii?aeeiaoe?? RILEM ia?aeaeueii a aeae?eueeio eii?oaoao, a neeaae
yeeo aoiaeeee iniiai? oao?aoe? c i?iaeaie (F.H. Wittmann, S.P. Shan,
Z.P. Bazant, V.C. Li, TH.A. Caeoeaa oa ?i.). Oe? ?acoeueoaoe a?aoiaai? a
noaiaea?o? AINO 29167-91 “Aaoiiu. Iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?enoee
o?aueiinoieeinoe (ayceinoe ?ac?ooaiey) i?e noaoe/aneii iaa?oaeaiee”.

Cia/io /anoeo a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo caeiathoue ?iaioe,
i?enay/ai? aieeao aeaeo a’yaeo/iai, aiaeioaa?aeiai a?aeiioaiiy, aaee/eie
? /anoee caiiaithaa/a (D. Paus, G. Lott, G. Branu, E.I. Ae?iia, TH.I.
Aaaeaiia, A.A. Ai?ii?i, A.M. Brandt, P.E. Petersson, E.E. Eiae?? oa
?i.), a oaeiae iaiiaithaa/a (A.I. Ae?iaee) ia e?eoa??? iaoai?ee
?oeioaaiiy. A oie aea /an, ae?ae iaei iaoeiaeo oaeo?a i?i aieea ia oe?
e?eoa??? eiioaeoo aaoiio c aiaeith (E.A. I??aaeia, M. Petri).

Iaeiei c oaeeo e?eoa???a ? eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue
E1n (IIa*i0.5), yeee ii o?ce/iiio ci?noo a?aeiia?aea? iaae? iai?oaeaiue
ia iane?i/aiii iaeiio a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae aa?oeie o??ueie a iiiaio
eieaeueiiai ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??aeo. A ?ic?aooieao cae?ciaaoiiieo
eiino?oeoe?e oeth aaee/eio iio??aii i?eeiaoe ye aeayeo “eiinoaioo”
aaoiio, oi/a aiia ia iiaea ia caeaaeaoe a?ae ia?aiao??a ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua.

Aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aieea ?aoeaioo?ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a,
i?i no/ani? caniae aeine?aeaeaiue iaoa??ae?a, iiaeaethaaiiy ?
iioei?caoe?? aeicaieeee iaa?oiooaaoe aea?? iaoe ? caaea/ ?iaioe.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue ? iienai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeo?aeieo iaoa??ae?a. Aeie-noaia aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaia
ia ?en.1. Aeine?aeaeaii 20 oeaiaioii-i?uaieo noi?oae (18 ii
D-iioeiaeueiiio ieaio + eiio?ieuei?) ??aii? eaaeioeeaaeiino? (5.5-7 ni
ii iaiao?aoe?? eiiona); i?e oeueiio aa??thaaeeny 4 oaeoi?a:

— ia’?iia a?aeiioaiiy i?neo ? oeaiaioo (I/Oe=X1=2.640.53), ye iaeei c
iniiaieo aecia/iee?a /anoee iao?e/iiai iaoa??aeo a eiiiiceo?;

— ia’?iia /anoea a i?neo ea?aiceoiaeo ca?ai (EC=X2=0.150.15), ui iiaeii?
(I.A. Eiiioia, A.I. Iioia), a neeo iiieaeaii? i?oaeiino?, i?aeaeuoaaoe
o??ueiino?ee?noue aaoiio;

— aeicoaaiiy aeiaaaee ieanoeo?eaoi?a OINA-I (P=O3=0.70.2 % a?ae aaae
oeaiaioo), ye ?ia?aae??ioo, ci?ithth/iai aiaeiiio?aao noi?o? ?
ii?eno?noue eiiiiceoa;

— aeicoaaiiy oiieiiaeaiiai oeaie?oo Niee?iyinueeiai ?iaeiaeua (Z=X4=88%
a?ae iane oeaiaioo), ye iaiiaithaa/a, ui aieiae?? iniaeeaeie
aaeni?aoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie ? caeaoiiai ci?ieoe ye i?ioeane
no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy, oae ? iiaaae?ieo eiiiiceoo i?e aiaeiiane/aii?.

?en.1. Aeie-noaia aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeanoeaino? aaoii?a ??cii? no?oeoo?e aecia/ai? i?e ??ciiio nooiai?
aiaeiiane/aiiy W (% ii ia’?io) — i?ney nooee i?e t=105+5IN (aeae?
?iaeaen “d”), i?e ??aiiaaaia?e aieiaino? (iia?o?y, t=202IN, ?iaeaen
“n”), i?e a?eueiiio caiiaiaii? aiaeith a?aee?eoeo ii? (?iaeaen “w”) ?
i?e iane/aii? i?ae aaeooiii (?iaeaen “v”). A iaoo?iiio aenia?eiaio?
io?eiaia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio
i?e aiaeiiane/aii? d, n ? w (??cieoey i?ae a?oiaie “v” ? “w” noaoenoe/ii
ia cia/oua).

E?eoe/iee eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue E1n (IIa*i0.5),
aecia/aiee i?e aei?iaoaaii? ii o?eoi/a/i?e noai? c?ace?a 4o4o16 ni c
iaae??cii 10 ii, ui aeeiiaiee aeiaciei aeeneii oiaueiith 1.6 ii.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii aieea ia aeanoeaino?
ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a aa??eiaaieo oaeoi??a neeaaeo, oaeiae
aeae?eaiiai a ia/enethaaeueiiio aenia?eiaio? aieeao oeaiaioii-aiaeiiai
a?aeiioaiiy (Oe/A). Ine?eueee eaaeioeeaaei?noue noi?o?a aoea
iaeiaeiaith, oi Oe/A i?iyeiny a?ae 1.52 aei 2.4. Oey ci?ia i?ae aieeaii
oaeoi??a neeaaeo aaoiio aaeaeaaoii (sy=0.04) iieno?oueny AN — iiaeaeeth
(ANI)

Oe/A = 1.983 – 0.264×1
+ 0.071x1x4

+ 0.056×2 — 0.04×22 —
0.019x2x3 — 0.022x2x4

+ 0.099×3

— 0.122×4
(1)

?c yei? onoiai? 6 iacia/ieo (?ecee = 0.1) eiao?oe??io?a. Iiea aeaiiai
e?eoa??th aeinyaa? iaeneioia 2.48 i?e o1=o4= 1, o2 = 0.4, o3= +1, ?
iiaeia i/?eoaaoe, ui a oe?e oi/oe?, oiaoi i?e iiieaeaiiio ai?no? i?neo
(I/Oe=2.11:1) ?c iioeiaeueiith /anoeith ii?eciaaieo ca?ai (AN=21%), i?e
iaeneiaeueiiio aaaaeai? ieanoeo?eaoi?a (P=0.9%) aac oeaie?oo,
aeanoeaino? aaoiio aoaeooue aeecuee? aei iioeiaeueieo. Neeaae o1=o4= +1
i?e o2=o3= -1, a?aeiia?aeiee Oe/Amin=1.51, iiaeiai aeaoe aaoii c
iecueeei ??aiai aeanoeainoae. Ca?eueoaiiy /anoee i?neo a noi?o? cieaeo?
Oe/A, a ieanoeo?eaoi?, ye aiaei?aaeooe?thth/ee aeiaeaoie, aeeeeea?
c?inoaiiy Oe/A, iaea?eueoee a noi?oao aac ii?enoeo ca?ai ? oeaie?oo
(b23<0 ? b24<0). C aaaaeaiiyi oeaie?oo ca?eueoo?oueny aiaeiiio?aaa noi?oae, iniaeeai i?e i?aeaeuaiiiio aeo?a/aiith oeaiaioo (i?aeiaeanoue Oe/Amax). C?inoaiiy Oe/A c? ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee ea?aiceoiaeo ca?ai, i/aaeaeii, ca'ycaia c ?o a?eueoei, o ii??aiyii? c eaa?oeaaei i?neii, na?aaei?i ae?aiao?ii. Ie??i oiai, noi?o?, a neeaae yeeo aoiaeea oeaie?o ? (aai) ea?aiceo oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny cia/ii iaioei aiaeia?aeae?eaiiyi i?e ou?eueiaii?. Ia?aaeon?i aoea i?iaiae?ciaaia i?oei?noue ia noene i?e ??aiiaaaia?e aieiaino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a, ui iieno?oueny iiaeaeeth Rc.n = 64.41 – 9.88x1 - 2.35x12 - 1.22x1x2 + 1.32x1x4 - 2.43x2 - 1.19x2x3 + 4.18x3 - 3.87x32 + 2.64x3x4 (2) Iaeiae, ci?ia Rc.n ca'ycaia ia o?eueee c oaeoi?aie neeaaeo, a?aoiaaieie iiaeaeeth (2), aea ? c? ci?iith Oe/A (?en.2.a); inoaii? ?noioii aieeaa? ia an? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? (aieea ia E1n iieacaiee ia ?en. 2 a). ? iaiao?aeii yaii a?aooaaoe eiai aieea ye no?oeoo?iiai oaeoi?a a eiiieaen? c /ioe?ueia aa??eiaaieie ca ieaiii oaeoi?aie neeaaeo. ?en.2. Aieea Oe/A ia i?oei?noue i?e noeneo (a) ? eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue (a). A oaaeeoe? 1 a?aeia?aaeaia nooi?iue aca?iica'yceo iniiaieo e?eoa???a yeino? Y c oeaiaioii-aiaeiei a?aeiioaiiyi. C ia? aeieeaa?, ui a?iioaca i?i e?i?eiee ca'ycie i?ae Oe/A ? Y aeiionea?oueny c ?eceeii ia a?eueo 10% aeey an?o iiiaeei. Oi/i?noue iiaeaeae YOe/A ioa?aeoa?eciaaia a?aeiinieie caeeoeaie Y – a?aeiioaiiyie aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue aei ?ic?aooieiaeo. A?aeoeeaiiy Y ia caeaaeaoue a?ae Oe/A, aea ia ieo i?iaeiaaeo? aieeaaoe aa??aoe?y oaeoi??a neeaaeo, iaa?aoiaaia ci?iith A/Oe. Oeae “caa??aath/ee” aieea aeioe?eueii iienaoe aiaeia?/iith ANI (1) ? (2) iiaeaeeth Y(o1,o2,o3,o4). Oaaeeoey 1 Ei?aeyoe?eiee ca'ycie e?eoa???a yeino? c Oe/A IieacieeE?eoa??e yeino? YRc. n, IIARb. n, IIAE1c.n, IIa*i0.5En, AIAAe?aiacii Y52.8-78.67. 9-11. 90.397-0.57833.8-44.5Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? rOe/A, Y0.77 >

r=0. 0010.75 >

r=0. 0010.44 >

r=0. 10.62 >

r=0. 01Ei?aeyoe?eia

iiaeaeue Y (Oe/A)

16.9 +25.2 Oe/A

4.27 +2.82 Oe/A

0.33 +0.07 Oe/A

27.8 +5.6 Oe/A*anoea aa??aoe??,

iaa?aoiaaia Y (Oe/A)

41.1%

44.7%

80.7%

61.5%Ae?aiacii a?aeiinieo

caeeoe?a Y

0.85-1.17

0.88-1.11

0.83-1.21

0.92-1.09

Inoaiith iiaeia ia’?aeiaoe ?c iiaeaeeth Y (Oe/A) ye

Y = [a0 + a1(Oe/A)]* Y(o1,o2,o3,o4),
(3)

oiaoi o aeaeyae? no?oeoo?iaaii? iiaeae?-aeiaoaeeo e?i?eii? ooieoe??
aieeao Oe/A ia AN-iiaeaeue a?aeiinieo a?aeoeeaiue a?ae oe??? ooieoe??.
Oaeei /eiii, aeey Rc.n io?eiaia ANI

Rc.n*103 =

16.85 + 25.23 (Oe/A)

* (1013 +- 44×1

+ 36×3 – 57×32 — 12x1x2

— 14x1x4

— 23x2x3

+17x3x4

) (4)-44o2+27o22– 12o2o4

+48o4

Ia ?en.3 iieacai? iaeiioaeoi?i? caeaaeiino? aeey Rc.n ? hRc.n , ui
i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac aeno?aiaeuei? oi/ee Ymax ? Ymin. Aiae?c ae?aa?ai
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ?yae aeniiae?a. Cie?aia, ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo i?neo
cieaeo? i?oei?noue aeinoaoiuei ??cei, aea hRc.n i?ney a?aooaaiiy Oe/A
aeiaeaoeiai cieaeo?oueny ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ieiu? aaeaac?eieo
eiioaeo?a. Iaaeoi iao?ea?aeueiee oie oaeo, ui a cii? iaeneioio aaaaeaiiy
oeaie?oiaiai iaiiaithaa/a i?aeaeuo? i?oei?noue i?e noeneo ia cia/ii, aea
aaee/eia hRc.n i?e oeueiio c?inoa? cia/ii ?ioaineai?oa, ui aeaco? ia
iiceoeaio no?oeoo?iooai?thth/o ?ieue oeaie?oo. Iiae?aiee iaoai?ci ae??
oeaie?oo iiaeia iiynieoe eiai aeaiyeith ?ieeth a oaa?ae?th/?e oeaiaioi?e
eiiiiceoe??. C iaeiiai aieo, a?i ca?eueoo? aiaeiiio?aao noi?o?, c ?ioi?
– a?i, iaaii, ni?ey? a?ae?aoaoe?? i?ia?ae?a ee?iea?o ? i?aeaeuo?
iaeii??aei?noue i?e?ie?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e oeaiaioiiai eaiaiy.

?en.3. Aieea neeaaeo aaoiio ia i?oei?noue i?e noeneo Rc.n (ioieoe?) ?
aaee/eio a?aeiinieo caeeoe?a hRc.n(aee?ia e?i?y).

Aiae?c iiaeae?, ui iieno? aieea neeaaeo aaoiio ia ??aaiue e?eoe/iiai
eiao?oe??ioa ?ioainea-iino? iai?oaeaiue, aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
aaaaeaiiy 8-10% oeaie?oo, oae aea ye ? cai?ia 12-16% eaa?oeaaiai i?neo
ea?aiceoiaei, iiceoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia aaee/ei? E1n, a ci?ia
aeicoaaiiy ieanoe-o?eoth/i? aeiaaaee iaei a?aeaeaa?oueny ia eiai ??ai?.
Ia ?en.4 iieacaia ae?aa?aia caeaaeiino? E1n.n (IIa*i0.5) a?ae o?ueio
oaeoi??a neeaaeo aaoiio.

?en.4. Aieea oaeoi??a neeaaeo aaoiio ia E1n.n(IIa*i0.5) i?e I/Oe=2.5.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaia-e?ciaaii aieea nooiai? aiaeiiane/aiiy ia
aeanoeaino? ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a. I?e aeneoaii? an? iieacieee yeino?
aaoiio, ui aiae?cothoueny, c?inoathoue o ii??aiyii? c? noaiii “n”. I?e
iane/aii? aaoiio aiaeith eiai i?oei?noue i?e noeneo cieaeo?oueny, a
i?oei?noue i?e caei? ? E1n, iaaiaee, c?inoathoue. *ooeea?noue
aeanoeainoae aei ci?ie oaeoi??a neeaaeo, ui ioe?ith?oueny ?iaeaenii
i?e?inoo yeino? I= (Ymax-Ymin)/(Ymax+Ymin) aeey Rc i?aeoe/ii ia
ci?ith?oueny, a aeey Rb ? E1n iii?oii c?inoa?. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
ii i??? ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? a?eueii? aieiae a no?oeoo?? aaoiio
ca?eueoo?oueny iiaeeea?noue oi?aae?iiy oeeie aeanoeainoyie ca ?aooiie
aa??aoe?? oaeoi??a neeaaeo.

Aeey iiaeaethaaiiy ci?ie iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eiiiiceoa i?ae
ni?eueiith ae??th ye oaeoi??a neeaaeo, oae ? aieiaino? aaoiio a iiiaio
aei?iaoaaiue, iaiao?aeii aaanoe oeaeo, ui oa?aeoa?eco? nooi?iue
iane/aiiy aiaeith. Aiaeiiane/aiiy eiiiiceoo a noaiao “d-w”
a?ae??ciyeiny ia ii?yaeie, i?e/iio a a?oi? w – iaeaea aaea?/?. Ine?eueee
??aaiue Ww. max iaiaeiaeiaee, iaaea oaeoi?iiai i?inoi?o i?eeia? neeaaeio
eiio?ao?aoe?th, ui ?noioii oneeaaeith? iiaoaeiao ? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th ANI.
A oie aea /an c ?en.5.a aeaeii, ui o aeiaaeeo onoaiiaeaiiy aa?oiuei?
a?aieoe? oeaee ia ??ai? iaeneiaeueii? a?aei?/aii? a aenia?eiaio?
aieiaino?, a?eueoa /anoeia aaoii?a aoaea ?icaeyaeaoeny i?e o?ce/ii
iaaeinyaei?e aeey ieo aaee/ei? W. A aeiaaeeo iaiaaeaiiy aa?oiuei?
a?aieoe? ia ??ai? i?i?iaeueii? aenia?eiaioaeueii a?aei?/aii? aieiaino?
(o aiaeiiane/aieo aaoii?a) ao?a/a?oueny cia/ia /anoeia io?eiaii?
?ioi?iaoe??.

Aeey aoaeoeaiiai aiae?co iiey aeanoeainoae, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue aieea
oaeoi??a oiia aenieoaoaoe?? (SC), iaoo?aeueiee ??aaiue XSC cai?ith?oueny
(?en.5.a) ia neiieaen 0  OSC= OSC / OSC.max, 1, a yeiio ciaiaiiee
a?aeiia?aea? iaeaeuiio ?acoeueoaoo a iaoo?iiio aenia?eiaio? aeey aeayei?
a?oie ia’?eo?a. Neiieaen W= W/Wmax — nooi?iue caiiaiaiiy aiaeith
a?aee?eoeo ii? iaoa??aeo. Iiaa oeaea ae??aith? iaeaea? a?aieoe? i?inoi?o
SC-oaeoi?a: a?ae nooiai iaoa??aeo (ioeue) aei aiaeiiane/aiiiai Wmax
(+1). Ia oae?e oeae? aoaeothoueny aeey eiaeiiai neeaaeo aaoiio
ai?ieneiaoe?? K1n = aI + a1*W + a11*2W, ?c aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia
aeeiiaoe ia/enethaaeueiee aenia?eiaio, iinoaaeaoe ??ci? eiiiiceoe a
oiiae ??aiiai nooiaiy caiiaiaiiy a?aee?eoiai ii?iaiai i?inoi?o aiaeith
(?en.5.a).

?en.5. Iaoiaeeea iae?eo nooiaith caiiaiaiiy a?aee?eoeo ii? aiaeith.

Oeaea SC-oaeoi?a aeei?enoaia aeey aeiaaaeaiiy ii?iae?ciaaii? ci?iii?
o5=(W-0.625)/0.375 o an? iiaeae?, ui a?aoiaothoue oaeoi?e neeaaeo ?
oeaiaioii-aiaeia a?aeiioaiiy. Aeey ioe?iee eiao?oe??io?a oaeeo
ia’?aeiaieo iiaeaeae aeei?enoiao?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?y a on?o 54
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oi/eao, ui aeicaiey? iiaoaeoaaoe iaiiaio eoa?/io ANI.
Oae, aeey K1n (Oe/A,x1o2o3o4o5), io?eiaia, i?ney aeeo/aiiy iacia/eieo
(=0.1) aoaeo?a, iiaeaeue, caienaia a no?oeoo?iaaiiio aeaeyae?

Iiaeaeue (5) iieno? iiea, ui a?aeia?aaea? aieea ia E1n i’yoe oaeoi??a
neeaaeo aaoiio ? eiai aiaeiiane/aiiy. Ae?oaee iiiaeiee K1n, ia? iaeneioi
1.36 a oi/oe? o1= +1, o2 o3 0, o4 = +0.1, o5 = -1 ? i?i?ioi 0.66 i?e
o1= -1, o2 = o3 = o4 = +1, o5 = -0.1. Ni?eueiee aieea Oe/A ? nooiaiy
caiiaiaiiy ii? aiaeith aiae?co?oueny ii eieaeueiei iieyi K1n, ianooiiei
?c (5). I?e oeueiio /ioe?e oaeoi?a neeaaeo o?enothoueny a aeaio a?aie/ii
onoiaieo oi/eao i?e K1Cext, ui aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe iaea?eueo
“eiio?anoi?” ?acoeueoaoe. Aeaye? iiey, ui iienothoueny ooieoe?yie K1nmax
? K1cmin, iieacai? ia ?en.6.

O aaoii?a aac oeaie?oo c i?aeaeuaieie aeo?aoaie oeaiaioo ?
ieanoeo?eaoi?a i?e??no a ae?aiacii? 25 (W) 85% i?ecaiaeeoue aei
cieaeaiiy K1n ia 30-40%, i?e/iio iiaeaeueoa aiaeiiane/aiiy ?ie? ia a?a?.
Iiea K1cmin, ui oa?aeoa?eco? aaoiie ?c aenieei ai?noii i?neo,
ea?aiceoiaeo ca?ai ? oeaie?oa, a?eueo /ooeeaa aei ci?ie Oe/A ? (W); eiai
?iaeaen IK1nmin= 0.35 a i?aoi?a ?ace aeua, i?ae IK1cmax. O oaeeo aaoii?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aiaeiiane/aiiy nii/aoeo ??cei ciaioo? K1n, ui i?ney
caiiaiaiiy aiaeith a?ey iieiaeie ii? ii/eia? c?inoaoe oae ?noioii, ui
i?e iiaiiio aiaeiiane/aii? aeyaey?oueny aeua, i?ae o aaoii?a ?c aenieei
Oe/A. C?inoaiiy ??aiy K1n i?e iane/aii? aiaeith iiaeia iiynieoe (C.I.
Oe?einai?) ae??th noeneoth/eo eai?ey?ieo nee.

?en.6. Eieaeuei? iiey aieeao oaeoi??a ia K1n ? hK1n.

Ni?eueiee aieea K1C eiaeiiai ?c oaeoi??a neeaaeo ? nooiaiy caiiaiaiiy
ii? aiaeith oaeiae aiae?co?oueny iieyie xix5, aea i – iine?aeiaii
i?eeia? cia/aiiy 1, 2, 3, 4, a o?e oaeoi?a neeaaeo, ui ia aoiaeyoue a
aeaiooaeoi?ia iiea, o?enothoueny, ye ? ?ai?oa, a oi/eao K1Cext Ia ?en.
6.a iieacai? iiaa?oi? K1C, eiee no?oeoo?iooai?thth/ei oaeoi?ii ?
oeaie?o. I?e iiaiiio aiaeiiane/aii? aaoii?a, ye aeaeii, aaaaeaiiy
oeaie?oo ia ??ai? Z=30% aeyaey? iii?oiee iiceoeaiee aieea ia eiao?oe??io
?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue. Oeae oaeo iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui oeaie?o
ni?ey? ooai?aiith naia eai?ey?ieo (a ia aaeaaeo) ii?.

Ii aac?ici??iei ?iaeaenai i?e?inoo yeino? an? i’youe iie?a, ui
aeae?eythoueny c iiaeae? (5) ?icoaoothoueny o ?yaee

IOe/A,5max = 0.28 > I1,5 = I2,5 = I3,5 > I4,5 =0.18,
(6)

IOe/A,5min = 0.35 > I2,5 = I3,5 > 0.29 > I1,5 > I4,5 =0.28,
(7)

c yeeo aeieeaa? aeiaeaoeiaee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui /ooeea?noue iiey
Oe/A,x5 iaea?eueoa (iniaeeai a i?aeiaeano? iaeneioio, aea aiia ia iaioa
i?ae ia 40% aeua ?ioeo), a ?io? oaeoi?e neeaaeo a?athoue aeecuee? ?ie?.

Aeey ioe?iee ni?eueiiai aieeao nooiaith aiaeiiane/aiiy ? oaiia?aoo?e
aaoiio aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany ia ae??aiica?ienoiio aaoii? iino?eiiai
neeaaeo (aaaiaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy I:Oe=2.5, A/Oe=0.45, ieanoeo?eaoi?
Aeioai-I 0.3% a?ae iane oeaiaioo) a oiiaao d, n, w. C?acee c o?eniaaiith
aieia?noth aa?iaoe/ii iie?eaaeeny ie?aeith ? aeo?eioaaeeny i?e o?ueio
??cei ??ciiiai?oieo oaiia?aoo?ao: i?ion 32, 0 ? iethn 80IN. Aecia/aeeny
i?oei?noue i?e noeneo, caei? ? E1n. Caii?iaeoaaiiy aaeiny oae, uia a
i?iiee? ia ooai?thaaany eueiaeiaee eeei. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aei?iaoaaiue
aaoiio a aeaa’yoe oi/eao iiaoaeiaai? a?eaaae?aoi? iiaeae?, a yeeo
aiaeiiane/aiiy ii?iae?ciaaii ye z1= (W-3.25)/3.25, a ae?oaei oaeoi?ii ?
ii?iae?ciaaia /enei, cai?ioi? oaiia?aoo?? T (ii Eaeueaeio),
z2= (1000/O-3.49)/0.658.

Aieea iaeii/anii? ci?ie aiaeiiane/aiiy ? oaiia?aoo?e iieno?oueny
iiaeaeeth (8) c on?ia cia/oueie (?ecee 0.02) ioe?ieaie eiao?oe??io?a

K1n = 0.378 +0.130z1 + 0.107z1z2 + 0.114z12z22 — 0.192z2 +
0.173z12z2 (8)

Iiaa?oiy oe??? iiaeae? iieacaia ia ?en.7 (iiaa?oi? aeey Rn ? Rb iathoue
iiae?aiee aeaeyae).

C aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy aeieeaa?, ui i?e iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?ao ii i??? aiaeiiane/aiiy ??aaiue e?eoe/iiai eiao?oe??ioa
?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue iae?i?eii c?inoa?, a i?e aenieeo, iaaiaee —
iaaea?. Oaiia?aoo?a neeueii aieeaa? ia ??aaiue E1n o aiaeiiane/aieo
c?ace?a ?, i?e?iaeiuei, iaio o nooeo.

Aeae? iiaeaeue (8) aoea ia?aaaaeaia a?ae aaniethoieo cia/aiue
eiao?oe??ioa aei a?aeiinieo. A yeino? aaciaiai iieacieea i?eeiaeany
ioeueiaa aieia?noue c?acea; i?e oeueiio iiaa?oiy iieno?oueny
ooieoe?iiaeii, io?eiaiei ae?eaiiyi a?eaaae?aoiiai iie?iiia (8) ia
ia?aaieo, ui iieno? ci?io K1n i?e ioeueia?e aieiaino?. ?? aiae?c
iieacaa, ui a?aeiiniee ??aaiue K1n (ii naino aeecueeee aei
aiaeino?eeino?) a cii? aenieeo oaiia?aoo? iaaea? i?eaeecii ia 40% ii
i??? aiaeiiane/aiiy, a a cii? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? c?inoa? ia 30%.

?en. 7. Aieea aiaeiiane/aiiy ? oaiia?aoo?e ia ??aaiue E1n.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c /ooeeaino? ??ciiiai?oieo iieaciee?a iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio aei ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e ?
aiaeiiane/aiiy iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo /ooeeaei aei ae?? oeeo oaeoi??a ?
eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia, aeei?enoaiith iioeiaeueieo neeaae?a
ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a. Aiie a?ae??ciythoueny i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii
ieanoeo?eaoi?a ? oeaie?oiaiai iaiiaithaa/a i?e ciaioaiiio aeo?a/aii?
oeaiaioo ? caaacia/othoue caaeaiee ??aaiue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae, a
oiio /ene?, ii o??ueiino?eeino?, ui ioe?ith?oueny e?eoa???i eieaeueiiai
?oeioaaiiy. Oae? aaoiie aeei?enoai? a?aee?eoei aeoe?iia?iei oiaa?enoaii
”Iaeano?ainaoae”, a oaeiae OIA “Ii?ae Aano THi?ii LTD” (i. Iaeana).
Caaaeueiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea? 3400 a?eaaiue (a oe?iao 1998 ?ieo).

C oeaie?oineeaaeath/iai aaoiio aeeiiaiee aa?oi?e oa? i?aeeiae
i?iieneiaiai i?aeaaeueiiai i?ei?uaiiy aa?aaeo-aaoinoiyiee, a oaeiae
aioo??oiy oooeaoo?ea no?i, ye? i?eieeathoue aei caie?, a oiio ae
i?ei?uaii?. C aaoiio, a neeaae yeiai aaiaeeany oeaie?o, aeeiiaiee
iiiie?oiee ooiaeaiaio ianinii? noaioe??, yeee i?aoeth? a oiiaao aenieiai
??aiy a?oioiaeo aiae. Oeaie?oineeaaeath/ee aaoii oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaany
aeey iiiie?oieo aeie?a aiea?ieo io?oaaiue a ??oio? a ?aeii? eiioaeoii?
ia?aae? i?e aoae?aieoeoa? aeniei? ianaaee?nueei? ieaooi?ie “I?aaeaiia”
(i. A?eai?iae-Aei?no?ianueeee) ? ieeo iie?eooy ieaooi?ie.

AENIIAEE

1. Aiae?c /ioe?ueio a?oi aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ieo iiaeaeae
iieacaa, ui aaaaeaiiy oiieiiaeaiiai oeaie?oo a neeaae ae??aiica?ienoiai
aaoiio, iniaeeai oiai, ui i?aoeth? a oiiaao i?aeaeuaii? aieiaino?,
ca?eueoo? eiai e?eoe/iee eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue, ioaea,
iie?auo? ni?iiiaei?noue /eieoe ii?? ooai?aiith o??uei ? i?aeaeuo?
iaae?ei?noue oiieino?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e.

2. Aeae?eaiiy ii aeaiei iaoo?iiai aenia?eiaioo aieeao oeaiaioii-aiaeiiai
a?aeiioaiiy ye no?oeoo?iooai?thth/iai oaeoi?a ? ianooiia eiai a?aooaaiiy
a aaaaoioaeoi?ieo iiaeaeyo aeicaieeee ioe?ieoe no?oeoo?oth/o ?ieue
ieanoeo?eaoi?a, ea?aiceoiaeo ca?ai ? oeaie?oa iica ?o ca’yceii c
aiaeiiio?aaith noi?o? iino?eii? eaaeioeeaaeiino?.

3. I?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ieanoeo?eaoi?a, ie??i aiaei?aaeooee?oth/i?
ae??, i?ecaiaeeoue aei iie?ioaiiy, ia?aaeon?i, oeo aeanoeainoae
oeaiaioiiai eiiiiceoa, ye? ca’ycai? c eiai iii?ii ?icoyaoth/ei
iai?oaeaiiyi. Aaaaeaiiy oeaie?oiaiai iaiiaithaa/a, iacaaaeth/e ia eiai
i?aeaeuaio aiaeiiio?aao, ae?? a oiio ae iai?yi?. A oie aea /an, cai?ia
/anoeie eaa?oeaaeo ca?ai ia ea?aiceoia? ia aeaea i/?eoaaiiai ?acoeueoaoo
a i?aeaeuaii? o??ueiino?eeino? ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio.

4. Cai?ia aaee/eie aiaeiiiaeeiaiiy eiiiiceoa ii ia`?io ia ?ioo a?aeiinio
aaee/eio – nooi?iue caiiaiaiiy a?aee?eoeo ii? aiaeith — aeicaiey?
a?aooaaoe oeae aenieoaoaoe?eiee oaeoi? (iacaaaeath/e ia
ia?iaa??aioi?noue ??aiy “iiaiiai” iane/aiiy) a
aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ieo iiaeaeyo, ui iienothoue iiaaae?ieo
iaoa??ae?a c ?noioii a?aei?iieie no?oeoo?aie, ? ioe?ieoe oa?aeoa? eiai
aieeao a ii??aiyii? c ae??th oaeoi??a neeaaeo.

5. Aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ui a?aoiaothoue
nooi?iue caiiaiaiiy a?aee?eoeo ii? aiaeith, iieacaa, ui e?eoe/iee
eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue, ye ? a?aieoey i?oeiino? i?e
caei?, aeoaea /ooeeaee aei ci?ie aiaeiiane/aiiy aaoiio. Ii i???
caiiaiaiiy ii?iaiai i?inoi?o aiaeith ??aaiue oeeo iieaciee?a nii/aoeo
cieaeo?oueny (aei 50%), a iio?i ii/eia? c?inoaoe, ia??aeei ia?aaeuoth/e
ii/aoeia? cia/aiiy; iaea?eueo iecuee? ??ai? oa?aeoa?i? aeey
“na?aaeiueiai” nooiaiy caiiaiaiiy ii? i?e ?aaiiaaaia?e (203iN)
aieiaino?. Caia?caiiy aiaee, i?e cia/iiio nooiai? caiiaiaiiy a?aee?eoiai
ii?iaiai i?inoi?o, iiaea i?ecaiaeeoe aei c?inoaiiy e?eoa??th eieaeueiiai
?oeioaaiiy.

6. Eiiieaen aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeicaieea aea?aoe
iioeiaeuei? neeaaee ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii
ieanoeo?eaoi?a ? oeaie?oiaiai iaiiaithaa/a, ye? i?ieoee
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao ia?aa??eo ia ?yae? ia’?eo?a i?iieneiaiai ?
o?ainii?oiiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aicianaineee A.A., E?iayeia N.A. Aeeyiea aiaeiianuuaiey ia iieacaoaee
eieaeueiie i?i/iinoe aaoiia / Oaoiieiaey no?ieoaeuenoaa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee ec ianoiuo iaoa?eaeia :
Iaaeaeoia?. na. iao/. o?.:. — Iiaineae?ne: Ec-ai IAAO, 1997. — N. 47-52.

2. Aicianaineee A.A., E?iayeia N.A. Aiaeec niaianoiiai aeeyiey
aiaeiianuuaiey e oaiia?aoo?u aaoiia ia o?iaaiue eiyooeoeeaioa
eioaineaiinoe iai?yaeaiee / Eiiiiceoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu aeey
no?ieoaeuenoaa: Aanoiee AeiiaanneieAANA. — auione 98-1 (9). – Iaeaaaea:
Ecae. AeAANA. – 1998. – N. 191-196.

3. Aicianainueeee A.A., E?iayeia N.I., Eyoaiei O.A.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy aieeao aiaeiiane/aiiy
oeaiaioieo eiiiiceoe?e ia eiaoo?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue /
Iaoai?ea ? o?ceea ?oeioaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa eiino?oeoe?e:
Oiceei-iaoaii/iee iinoeooo IAI Oe?aeiu. — aei. 3. – Euea?a: Eaiaiy?,
1998. – N. 19-24.

4. Aicianaineee A.A., E?iayeia N.A., Eyoaiei O.A. Iiey naienoa aaoiia,
io?aaeathuea aeeyiea noaiaie caiieiaiey aiaeie aai ioe?uoiai ii?iaiai
i?ino?ainoaa / No?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, eiino?oeoeee e nenoaiu : Na.
iao/. o?. Iaeanneie AANA. – Iaeanna: Ai?iae ianoa?ia, 1998.–N. 183-187.

5. Aicianaineee A.A., E?iayeia N.A., Eyoaiei O.A. Au/eneeoaeueiua
yenia?eiaiou i?e ioeaiea acaeiinayce iieacaoaeae i?i/iinoe, oi?oainoe e
o?aueiinoieeinoe aiaeiianuuaiiiai aaoiia. / Aeae?ioaoie/aneea
nii?oaeaiey. Ii?neea e ?a/iua ii?ou. Aui.2.: Na. iao/. o?. Iaeanneie
AANA. – Iaeanna: Iieea?aoe/aneee ioaeae IOeIOYE, 1999. – N.11–16.

6. Au/eneeoaeueiua yenia?eiaiou i?e oi?aaeaiee naienoaaie
aunieiea/anoaaiiuo no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia / A.A. Aicianaineee,
O.A. Eyoaiei, N.A. E?iayeia, E.E. Aaeae // Na. iao/. o?oaeia neiiiceoia
ia iaaeaeoia?. aunoaaea “Aeii-Yenii 98”. — Iaeanna: Ai?iae ianoa?ia,
1998. — N. 15-19.

7. E?iayeia N.A. Aeeyiea oeaieeoa ia e?eoa?ee eieaeueiiai
?ac?ooaiey aaoiia i?e ?acee/iie noaiaie caiieiaiey ii? aiaeie //
Iao-eu 38-ai iaaeaeoia?iae. naieia?a ii iiaeaee?iaaieth e iioeiecaoeee
eiiiiceoia. — Iaeanna: Ecae. Iaeanneiai ainoiea-oa Ano?ii?eio, 1999. —
N. 43-45.

8. Analysis of water and oil effects on concrete fracture toughness by
methods of computational materials science / V. Voznesensky, T.
Lyashenko, S. Krovyakov, P. Dovgan // Concrete and concrete structures.
– Zilina, 1999. – P. 93-98.

Iniaenoa o/anoue ni?aooea/a a ?iaioao [1-8] — io?eiaiiy aeine?aeieo
aeaieo, iiaoaeiaa aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ieo iiaeaeae, [4-7] –
iaa?oiooaaiiy caeeth/aiiy i?i ei?eni?noue oeaie?oiaiai iaiiaithaa/a.

AIIOAOe?ss

E?iayeia Na?a?e Ieaen?eiae/. Iioei?caoe?y neeaaeo ae??aiica?ienoiai
aaoiio c o?aooaaiiyi e?eoa???a eieaeueiiai ?oeioaaiiy. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeueiinoth 05.23.05. – Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee ? ae?iae.
Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, Iae??aea,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia iioei?caoe?? neeaaeo ae??aiica?ienoeo aaoii?a,
ui i?noyoue oeaie?oiaee iaiiaithaa/, c o?aooaaiiyi e?eoa???a eieaeueiiai
?oeioaaiiy i?e ??ciiiai?oiiio ?o aiaeiiane/ai?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aaaaeaiiy oiieiiaeaiiai oeaie?oo a aaoiie, ye? i?aoeththoue a oiiaao
i?aeaeuaii? aieiaino?, ca?eueoo? e?eoe/iee eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino?
iai?oaeaiue. A ia/enethaaeueiiio aenia?eiaio? ioe?iaii ?ieue eiaeiiai
eiiiiiaioo a no?oeoo?iooai?aii?, i?e/iio aeeeth/aii aieea aiaeiiio?aae
noi?oae ??aii? eaaeioeeaaei?no?. A oeueiio aenia?eiaio? aeei?enoaia
niaoe?aeueia iiaeaeue o aeaeyae? aeiaooeo e?i?eii? ooieoe??
oeaiaioii-aiaeiiai a?aeiioaiiy ia aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/io iiaeaeue
aeey a?aeiinieo a?aeoeeaiue a?ae oe??? ooieoe??. Aiae?c aaaaoioaeoi?ieo
iiaeaeae iieacaa, ui ii i??? ca?eueoaiiy nooiaiy caiiaiaiiy a?aee?eoeo
ii? aiaeith ??aaiue e?eoa??th eieaeueiiai ?oeioaaiiy nii/aoeo
cieaeo?oueny, a iio?i c?inoa?. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoai? i?e
aeaioiaeaii? aaoiiieo aeaiaio?a a i?iieneiaiio aoae?aieoeoa?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae??aiica?ienoee aaoii, oeaie?o, o??ueiino?ee?noue,
eieaeueia ?oeioaaiiy, aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy,
iioei?caoe?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

E?iayeia Na?aae Aeaenaaae/. Iioeiecaoeey ninoaaa iaeeica?ienoiai aaoiia
n o/aoii e?eoa?eaa eieaeueiiai ?ac?ooaiey. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.05. – No?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey.
Aeiiaanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u,
Iaeaaaea, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia iioeiecaoeee ninoaaa iaeeica?ienouo aaoiiia,
niaea?aeaueo oeaieeoiaue iaiieieoaeue, n o/aoii e?eoa?eaa eieaeueiiai
?ac?ooaiey i?e ?acee/iii eo aiaeiianuuaiee. Enneaaeiaaiey auiieiaiu n
eniieueciaaieai yenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey ii
D-iioeiaeueiiio /aou?aooaeoi?iiio ieaio. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaaaeaiea
oiieiiieioiai oeaieeoa a aaoiiu, ?aaioathuea a oneiaeyo iiauoaiiie
aeaaeiinoe, oaaee/eaaao e?eoe/aneee eiyooeoeeaio eioaineaiinoe
iai?yaeaiee, oi anoue oeo/oaao eo niiniaiinoue nii?ioeaeyoueny
ia?aciaaieth o?auei. A au/eneeoaeueiii yenia?eiaioa ioeaiaia ?ieue
eaaeaeiai eiiiiiaioa a no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiee, i?e/ai eneeth/aii aeeyiea
aiaeiiio?aaiinoe nianae ?aaiie oaeiaioeeaaeuaaaiinoe. A yoii
yenia?eiaioa eniieueciaaia niaoeeaeueiay iiaeaeue a aeaea i?iecaaaeaiey
eeiaeiie ooieoeee oeaiaioii-aiaeiiai ioiioaiey ia
yenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/aneoth iiaeaeue aeey ioiineoaeueiuo
ioeeiiaiee io yoie ooieoeee. Iieacaii, /oi oeaieeoiaue iaiieieoaeue,
ianiio?y ia iaeioi?ia oaaee/aiea aiaeiiio?aaiinoe niane, niinianoaoao
oeo/oaieth nii?ioeaeaiey oeaiaioiiai eiiiiceoa ?anoyaeaathuei
iai?yaeaieyi. Caiaia aaee/eiu aiaeiiiaeiuaiey ii iauaio ia ae?oaoth
ioiineoaeueioth aaee/eio – noaiaiue caiieiaiey ioe?uouo ii? aiaeie —
iicaieeea o/anoue yoio oaeoi? a yenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/aneeo
iiaeaeyo, iienuaathueo iiaaaeaiea iaoa?eaeia n ioee/iuie no?oeoo?aie, e
ioeaieoue oa?aeoa? aai aeeyiey ii n?aaiaieth n aeaenoaeai oaeoi?ia
ninoaaa. Aiaeec iiiaioaeoi?iuo iiaeaeae iieacae, /oi ii ia?a oaaee/aiey
noaiaie caiieiaiey ioe?uouo ii? aiaeie o?iaaiue e?eoa?ey eieaeueiiai
?ac?ooaiey nia/aea iiieaeaaony, a iioii aic?anoaao. Aeey iaeeica?ienouo
aaoiiia, ?aaioathueo, a /anoiinoe, a aiaeiianuuaiiii ninoiyiee, aua?aiu
iioeiaeueiua ninoaau n iiauoaiiui niaea?aeaieai ieanoeoeeaoi?a e
oeaieeoiaiai iaiieieoaey. Iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiay i?iaa?ea inouanoaeaia aeey
eiino?oeoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai e o?ainii?oiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, ?aaioathueo a
eiioaeoa n aiaeie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaeeica?ienoue aaoii, oeaieeo, o?aueiinoieeinoue,
eieaeueiia ?ac?ooaiea, yenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea,
iioeiecaoeey.

the summary

Krovyakov S.A. Optimisation of Fine Grained Concrete Composition with
Regard to Local Fracture Criteria. – Manuscript.

The thesis for competing the candidate’s degree on speciality 05.23.05 —
Building materials and products. Donbass State Academy of Civil
Engineering and Architecture, Makeevka, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to optimisation of composition of fine
grained concretes, containing zeolite filler, with regard for local
fracture criteria in various conditions of water absorption. It has been
found that introduction of fine zeolite in concretes operating at raised
moisture increases the stress intensity factor. The role of each
component in forming the concrete properties has been estimated in
computational experiment, with effect of water dosage for mixtures of
equal workability being excluded. Used in computational experiment has
been special model – the product of linear function of cement-water
ratio by experimental-statistical model for relative deviations from
this function. The analysis of multi-factor models has shown that as
degree of filling the accessible pores with water increases the level of
local fracture criterion decreases initially and then increases. The
results of the work have been used when producing concrete units for
industrial construction.

Key words: fine grained concrete, zeolite, crack resistance, local
fracture, experimental-statistical modelling, optimisation.

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