16

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

EINssI

AIAOIE?E IEOAEEIAE*

OAeE 581.13:631.811:633.88

IIOEI?CAOe?ss N??*AIIAI AEEAEAIIss *ANIEEO

(ALLIUM SATIVUM L.) ssE NIIN?A ?AAOEssOe?? IAEIIE*AIIss OA?IAEIEIA?*II
AEOEAIEO NIIEOE

03.00.12 -O?C?IEIA?ss ?INEEI

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?c?ieia?? oa aeieia?? ?ineei

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaiey Aiae??e Aaneeueiae/; aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ion??iei Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith o?c?ieia?? oa aeieia?? ?ineei

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Neea?aa Aeea Ieoaee?aia

?inoeooo naae?aieoeoaa OAAI,

caa. eaai?aoi???th o?c?ieia?? ?ineei

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Eo?/?e Aiaaeai Ieaen?eiae/,

?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI

Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «14» aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.001.24 i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?enith 252127, Ee?a. i?iniaeo Aeooeiaa, 2,
ei?ion 12 a?ioae, aoae 215.

Iiooiaa aae?ana: Ee?a 252033., aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: Aoe aieiaeeie?nueea,
58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «12»na?iiy1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A?aeii I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?ia?aeueia aeeaeaiiy ?ineei a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao
?ieue o ae??oaii? iaei??? c iaeaieiai?oeo i?iaeai o?oio?c?ieia?? –
?ice?eooy iaoai?ci?a i?iaeoeoeaiiai i?ioeano c iaoith oai?aoe/iiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy o?c?ieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Iioei?caoe?y ei?aiaaiai aeeaeaiiy
?ineei o ii?aeiaii? c ?aoe?iiaeueiei canoinoaaiiyi iiaeo aeae?a aeia?ea
ciaioo? caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, aeicaiey? ia eeoa
i?aeaeuoaaoe a?iaeaei?noue, a e ye?noue i?iaeoeoe??, ui iniaeeai
aaaeeeai.

Inoaii?i /anii iniaeeao oaaao caa?iooi ia oaeee aaaeeeaee aeaiaio
i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy ?ineei ye n??eo. Oae, ia i?aeia?iaei?e ia?aae? c
aeiiii?/ieo aniaeo?a n??/aiiai aeeaeaiiy ?ineei (Iieueua, 1998) oa ia ?V
i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? c n??/aiiai iaoaaie?cio (Oaaeoea??y, 1999)
c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui n??eo ne?ae iinoaaeoe a iaeei ?yae c oaeeie
a?iaaiieie aeaiaioaie ye acio oa oinoi?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oo aaaeeeao ooieoe?th, yeo cae?enith? n??ea o aeeaeaii?
?ineei, ?? ?ieue o?eaaeee /an iaaeiioe?ithaaeanue. Aaaaeaeinue, ui naith
iio?aao a oeueiio aeaiaio? ?ineeie iiaeooue caaeiaieueiyoe ca ?aooiie
aoiinoa?ii? n??ee oa ?? aeii?oie o oinoi?ieo aeia?eaao.

Iia??oaiiy i?ioyaii inoaii?o aeanyoe??/ aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?? aianei
nai? ei?aeoeae a iai?yiee aea/aiiy eieiiia?ao n??ee. O a?eueoino?
aeine?aeaeaiue n??eo ii/aee ?icaeyaeaoe ia no?eueee ye aeaiaio
i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy, ne?eueee ye iaeei c /eiiee?a caa?oaeiaiiy
aeiae?eey. I?ioa ia nueiaiaei? aiane?aeie cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iia?oi?o,
aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo oaoiieia?e, niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea ciaioaiiy
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy n??ee a iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua ? a iaeaeeae/? ?iee
i?iaiico?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ?? aeao?oeeoo i?aeoe/ii ia an?o eiioeiaioao
[Ceccotti, Messick, 1997]. Inue /iio i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c n??/aiei
aeeaeaiiyi ?ineei, ciiao iaaoaathoue nai?? aeooaeueiino?, ye oea aoei
30-40 ?ie?a oiio.

Na?aae ?ineei, i?iaeooeaio?a oa iaeiie/oaa/?a n??eiai?nieo i?aai?/ieo
niieoe, iniaeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue /anieeo iin?aiiio (Allium sativum
L.). A?i a?aeiiee ia o?eueee ye iai/aaa eoeueoo?a, a e ye e?ea?nueea
?ineeia, ui ciaoiaeeoue oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a iaaeeoeei?. Naia
n??eiai?ni? i?aai?/i? niieoee, a iniiaiiio iio?aei?
aee?eoeenoa?inoeueoieneaeo, ? iaoiiaeththoue oe?ii? oa?iaeieia?/i?
aeanoeaino? /anieeo [Lutovski, 1986; Block, 1985; Gassem, 1999; Ide,
Lau, 1999; Klepser, 1999]. Ia nueiaiaei?, eiee ii?yae c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeineoue aaeeeiai a?naiaeo neioaoe/ieo e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a
niinoa??aa?oueny oe?iea cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o oa?iaeieia?/io i?aeoeeo
i?aia?ao?a i?e?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, na?aae yeeo ia inoaii? i?noea
iin?aeathoue n??eiai?ni? niieoee /anieeo, ?ic?iaea iiaeo oaoiieia?e
ae?iuoaaiiy oe??? eoeueoo?e caeaoieo caaacia/oaaoe io?eiaiiy
aenieiye?nii? i?iaeoeoe??, ? aeineoue aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeia ?iaioa ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? cae?enithaaeanue o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiaie I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie a Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea – «Aea/aiiy a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei
c iaoith ae?aaiinoeee ei?iiai? i oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? oe?iiino? ?ineeiii?
ne?iaeie» (1993-1995 ??. AeA-580, ? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0195U004229); oa i?ia?aiaie Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie:
«O?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? iaoai?cie no?eeino?, caniae ?? i?aeaeuaiiy i
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei» (1995-1996 ??. AeA-471, ? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 0193U042972); «I?e?iaea ?acenoaioiino? aei o?oiiaoiaai?a ?
a?ieia?/ii aeoeai? ?a/iaeie» (1994-1997 ??. AeA-61, ? aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? 0185U021410).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy
iaoaaie?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue n??eiai?nieo niieoe o ?ineeiao /anieeo i?e
aeciaaiiiio ?aaoethaaii? ?o ai?noo aeaiaioaie i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy oa
o?c?ieia?/ii-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie (OA?) aeey iie?ioaiiy yeino? oeeaoeei
ye oa?iaeieia?/ii? ne?iaeie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

1. I?iaanoe ne?ei?ia a?io?i?/iiai neeaaeo /anieeo ??cieo ni?o?a oa
aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino? iaeiie/aiiy n??eiai?nieo niieoe a eiai i?aaiao
i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe??.

2. Aeine?aeeoe ni?oia? iniaeeaino? aieeao oiia n??/aiiai aeeaeaiiy
/anieeo ia iaeiie/aiiy noeueoieneae?a oa i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a o eiai
oeeaoeeiao.

3. C’ynoaaoe o?c?ieia?/ii iioeiaeuei? aeice n??/aieo aeia?ea aeey
io?eiaiiy oeeaoeei /anieeo c iaeneiaeueiei ai?noii oa?iaeieia?/ii
aeoeaieo niieoe.

4. Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? oioineioaoe/iiai a?aeiiaeaiiy n??ee ca o/anoth
e?ii?ai? eeneioe.

5. Aeine?aeeoe iaeiie/aiiy n??eiai?nieo niieoe o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo
i?ae aieeaii n??eiai?nieo aeia?ea oa e?ii?ai? eeneioe i?e ?o noi?niiio
oa ?icae?eueiiio canoinoaaii?.

6. Anoaiiaeoe o?c?ieia?/i? ia?aiao?e aeey ?ic?iaee ?ioaa?iaaieo
oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy /anieeo c aenieei ai?noii n??eiai?nieo
(oa?iaeieia?/ii aeoeaieo) niieoe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeaii? ?iaioe
iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa:

– anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei? aeice n??/aieo aeia?ea aeey i?aeaeeaeaiiy
/anieeo ia?niaeoeaieo aeey Ee?anueei? iaeano? ni?o?a;

– aecia/aii ye?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo a?iaeath oa anoaiiaeaii ni?oia?
?aaeoe?? /anieeo ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aeaeeaeaiiy n??eith;

– aeyaeaii ?aaoethth/o ae?th e?ii?ai? eeneioe ia i?ioeane
oioineioaoe/iiai a?aeiiaeaiiy n??ee;

– ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae neioaco oa iaeiie/aiiy
n??eiai?nieo niieoe o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo ca oiia noi?nii? ae?? n??/aieo
aeia?ea oa e?ii?ai? eeneioe iieacaia neia?a?/i?noue ae?? oeeo /eiiee?a;

– iaa?oioiaaii iioeiaeuei? aeice n??/aieo aeia?ea oa cai?iiiiiaaii
oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e ae?iuoaaiiy /anieeo ?c caaeaieie a?io?i?/ieie
iieacieeaie;

– ?ic?iaeaii oi/i? oa i?ino? o aeeiiaii? iaoiaeeee e?euee?niiai
aecia/aiiy noeueoieneae?a oa i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe:

– a?iioaoe/ii ?ic?iaeai? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
caeiiii??iino? aieeao e?ii?ai? eeneioe ia i?ioeane oioineioaoe/iiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy n??ee ?icoe?ththoue iaae? ciaiue oeeo iaoai?ci?a ?
iae?aneththoue iia? ia?niaeoeae aeey ?o a?eueo aeeaieiai aea/aiiy;

– ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a ?aeiiaiaeiaaii
o?c?ieia?/ii iaa?oioiaai? ia?aiao?e aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo oaoiieia?e
ae?iuoaaiiy /anieeo ?c caaeaieie ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie;

– ?ic?iaeai? oa ai?iaiaai? i?e aeeiiaii? aenia?eiaio?a iaoiaeeee
e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy noeueoieneae?a oa i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey eiio?ieth yeino? oeeaoeei /anieeo ye
ne?iaeie aeey iio?aa oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? i?iieneiaino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia:

– VIII c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai aioai?/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Ee?a, 1987 ?.);

– eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a, 1993);

– ?I c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa o?c?ieia?a ?ineei (Ee?a, 1993
?.);

– O? anana?oiueiio eiia?an? c i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy (Aaio, Aaeuea?y,
1997);

– OOV??? ui??/i?e ia?aae? ?a?iiaenueeiai oiaa?enoaa c iiaeo iaoiae?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue (A?ii, *ao?y, 1998 ?,);

– i?aeia?iaei?e ia?aae? c aeiiii?/ieo aniaeo?a n??/aiiai aeeaeaiiy
?ineei (Ioeaa?, Iieueua, 1998 ?.);

– ?V i?aeia?iaei?e ia?aae? c n??/aiiai iaoaaie?cio (Aaiaai, Oaaeoea??y,
1999 ?.).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaio ii?aoethaaa /enaeueio
e?oa?aoo?o, naiino?eii iaieiae?a a?aeiieie oa ?ic?iaea iia? iaoiaeeee
aeine?aeaeaiue, a?aa o/anoue o ieaioaaii? aenia?eiaio?a, i?aeaioiaoe?
iaoa??ae?a aei ae?oeo. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, aeniiaee oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? io?eiai? caeiaoaa/ai naiino?eii.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a 10-oe iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo.

Ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 136 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo ?
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 3 ?icae?e?a, caeeth/ii? /anoeie, aeniiae?a,
nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 33 ?enoieaie, 9 oaaeeoeyie.
Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 243 iaeiaioaaiiy, o oiio /ene?
147 i?aoeue ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, a yeeo
aena?oeaii ieoaiiy cia/aiiy n??ee ye aeaiaioo i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy
?ineei, ?icaeyiooi oeyoe iaoaaie?cio n??ee a ?ineeiiiio i?aai?ci? oa
iniaeeaino? a?io?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue n??eiai?nieo niieoe o oeaieiao
/anieeo, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii /aniee ye aeaea?aei n??eiai?nieo
oa?iaeieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe.

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue

Iaoa??aeii aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue neoaoaaa /aniee iin?aiee —
Allium sativum L., i?aaenoaaiee ?iaeeie e?e?eieo — Liliaceae. Aeey
a?aeai?o iaoa??aeo aoea c?a?aia eieaeoe?y c 14 ni?o?a /anieeo, c yei?
i?ney aeaio??/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca a?io?i?/iei neeaaeii, iniaeeainoyie
?inoo oa ?icaeoeo i?e ae?iuoaaii? a oiiaao aeine?aeieo ae?eyiie
a?ae?a?aii /ioe?e ni?oe c? noaa?eueieie ni?oiaeie iciaeaie, aenieith
ii?icino?ee?noth, aec??aaiiyi, a?iaeaei?noth oa eaaee?noth: 1).
Aiaoneaanueeee 10 – no??eeoth/ee ni?o, aeiaaeeia ea?oeiai? no??eee
120-125 ni. 2). ?cthinueeee o?ieaoiaee – no??eeoth/ee ni?o, aeiaaeeia
ea?oeiai? no??eee 90 ni. 3). Aioai?/iee o?ieaoiaee – no??eeoth/ee ni?o,
aeiaaeeia ea?oeiai? no??eee 60 ni. 4). Oe?a?inueeee a?eee – ia
no??eeoth/ee ni?o.

Iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue a oiiaao ae??aiiae?eyieiaiai
aeine?aeo. Ieiua iae?eiai? ae?eyiee 2 i2. A?oio aeine?aeieo ae?eyiie
aea?iiaee ii?aecieaiee, ai?no aoiono — 4,3%, acioo — 0,06%, oinoi?o —
28,1 ia/100 a, eae?th — 10,3 ia/100 a, caaaeueii? n??ee — 6,72 ia/100.

Aa?io?i?/iee aiae?c a?oioo i?iaiaeeany ca?aeii ?c caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie
iaoiaeeeaie aiae?co a?oio?a [Ai?iaei?e, Eiceia, A?aec?ey, 1972; ?aaeia,
Ionoiaieoia, Ei?ieueeia, 1985].

On? ?iaioe, ii/eiath/e c ia?iaee a?oioo, aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea
? e?i/ath/e cae?aiiyi a?iaeath, i?iaiaeeee a iaei? ? o? ae no?iee
ca?aeii c iaoiaeeeith caeeaaeaiiy iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a [Aeiniaoia,
1985].

Oiiia? aeia?eaa aiineeenue ainaie, i?ae /an ia?aaeiin?aii? ia?iaee
a?oioo (10-12 aeiaoiy). Acio aiineee o aeaeyae? ea?aai?aeo, oinoi? –
iiaea?eiiai noia?oinoaoo, eae?e – oei?enoiai eae?th. Aianaiiy n??/aieo
aeia?ea ? aeiaeaoeiaeo e?eueeinoae acioo oa eae?th i?iaiaeeee o aaniyiee
ia??iae aaaaoaoe?? (5-10 o?aaiy). Ia?iaeo ?ineei ?ic/eiaie e?ii?ai?
eeneioe i?iaiaeeee o oaco ii/aoeo oi?ioaaiiy coae?a /anieeo (10 o?aaiy).
Iiaoi?i?noue aeine?ae?a oanoee?aoia.

E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy a?ee?a i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii Eio?? [A?iaeia,
1972], iie?aetheio?oeoicaie aecia/aee ca Eoeueeii [A?iaeia, 1972],
ieanoeaei? i?aiaioe – niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii [Aaa?eeaiei,
Eaaeuaeia, Oaiaeiaeia, 1975].

Aecia/aiiy ye?niiai neeaaeo aee?eoeenoa?inoeueoieneae?a /anieeo
i?iaiaeeee c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a oiieioa?iai? o?iiaoia?ao?? ia
ni?aaioao ?c nee?eaaaeth [Oa?ooiiaa, Oaa?oe, Ieoaeaoe, 1980] oa
?iiiiai?iii? niiee [Aeyaaie, Aa?ae, 1976].

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy e?euee?niiai aiae?co ai?noo aee??io oa i?aai?/ieo
noeueo?ae?a iaie aoei ?ic?iaeaii iia? ? i?ino? o aeeiiaii?
niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? iaoiaee. Aecia/aiiy noeueoieneae?a, cie?aia aee??io,
aaco?oueny ia ?o aeanoeaino? anooiaoe a ?aaeoe?th c i?iaeoeoii
eiiaeainaoe?? o?eioioaio oa n-aeeiaoeeai?iiaaicaeueaeaa?aeo, a
?acoeueoao? /iai ooai?th?oueny aa?aiee c iaeneioiii iioe/iiai iiaeeiaiiy
575 ii. *ooeea?noue iaoiaeo neeaaea? 5 ieiieue/a, a?aeiinia iaoaiaoe/ia
iioeaea – 3,3%. Iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ai?noo i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a
aaco?oueny ia aca?iiae?? iai?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae ?ii?a c
n-ai?ii-N,N-aeeaoeeai?e?i noeueoaoii. *ooeea?noue iaoiaeo: 5 iea n??ee a
100 ie niaeo?ioioiiao?iaaiiai ?ic/eio, a?aeiinia iaoaiaoe/ia iioeaea
6,7%.

Aea/aiiy aieeao e?ii?ai? eeneioe ia i?ioeane oioineioaoe/iiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy noeueo?o-?ii?a i?iaiaeeee c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeaeueii?
nenoaie, ca iniiao yei? aoei ia?aii ?aaeoe?th O?eea [Aaa?eeaiei,
Eaaeuaeia, Oaiaeiaeia, 1975].

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaiaeeee c aeiiiiiaith aeenia?n?eiiai
aiae?co ca O?oa?ii [Aeiniaoia, 1985]. On? aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeenue ia
iaio i?ae o 3-o iiaoi?iinoyo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

Aieea n??/aieo aeia?ea ia iaeiie/aiiy oa?iaeieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe o
oeeaoeeiao /anieeo

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth /anieeo ? iaeiie/aiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino?
n??eiai?nieo niieoe. Na?aae oeeo niieoe aeae?ey?oueny ??aee?nia
n??eiai?nia ai?iieeneioa aee?eoeenoa?inoeueoieneae, aai aee??i. Naia a?i
? aecia/a? oi?eaeuei? oa?iaeieia?/i? aeanoeaino? /anieeo. ? ana ae, ia
caaaeath/e ia oea, aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae eiai neioaco oa iaeiie/aiiy
aeine?aeaeai? iaaeinoaoiuei. O ca’yceo c oeei ia?aeaeueii c eiiieaenii
?ia?o ii a?aeai?o ia’?eo?a aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ii aea/aiith
ae?? oiia i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy ia iaeiie/aiiy n??eiai?nieo niieoe o
oeeaoeeiao /anieeo aoei aeine?aeaeaii aeeiai?eo iaeiie/aiiy aee??io a
??cieo i?aaiao /anieeo i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? (?en.1).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe?? a?aeaoaaeinue ?ioaineaia
iaeiie/aiiy aee??io a on?o i?aaiao /anieeo (ei?aiyo, iani?aaaeiueiio
noaae? oa eenoeao), yea i?iaeiaaeoaaeinue aei ii/aoeo caeeaaeee oa ?inoo
coae?a. Ii/eiath/e c oeueiai iiiaioo niinoa??aaeenue ci?ie a ea?oei?
ia?a?iciiae?eo aee??io ii i?aaiao, iia’ycai? c eiai a?aeoieii c
iani?aaaeiueiai noaaea aei coae?a. Io?eiai? aeai? iieacaee, ui
iioeiaeueiei no?ieii i?aeaeeaeaiiy /anieeo n??eiai?nieie i?ia?aeueieie
aeia?eaaie ? ia??iae ii/aoeo oi?ioaaiiy coae?a, oiaoi ia?oa iieiaeia
o?aaiy.

I?e aea/aii? ae?? n??/aieo aeia?ea ia iaeiie/aiiy oa?iaeieia?/ii
aeoeaieo niieoe /anieeo aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui /aniee aeineoue oaeaeei
?aaao? ia aianaiiy i?ae eiai iinaaeee n??/aieo aeia?ea. Oae, ai?no
aee??io a eenoeao /a?ac 12 aiae i?ney i?aeaeeaeaiiy c?inoa? i?iii?oe?eii
e?eueeino? aianaii? n??ee ? aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy i?e
aianaii? 100 ea n??ee ia aa (?en 2).

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui oaeo /?oeo ea?oeio iiaeia aoei niinoa??aaoe o
iieiaeeo eenoeao, o oie /an ye o a?eueo noa?eo eenoeao eieeaaiiy ai?noo
noeueoieneae?a ciaoiaeeeenue o iaaeao iioeaee aeine?aeo. I/aaeaeii
i?e/eiith oeueiai yaeua ? oie oaeo, ui o noa??th/eo eenoeao
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaae?iiy aeoeaiino? AOO-noeueoio?ainoa?ace,
I-aoeaoee-L-n??einoeueoa?ae?ieace ? aaeaiicei-5-oinoinoeueoio?ainoa?ace
[Schmitz, Wyss, Brunald, 1983], oa?iaio?a, ui aa?ooueoue o/anoue o
i?ioeanao a?aeiiaeaiiy noeueoaoo ? neioaco oeenoa?io, yeee o naith /a?ao
? iiia?aaeieeii aee?eoeenoa?inoeueoieneae?a, cie?aia, aee??io.

I?aeaeeaeaiiy /anieeo n??eiai?nieie aeia?eaaie iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia
iaeiie/aiiy n??eiai?nieo niieoe o eiai oeeaoeeiao (?en.3). sse ? o
eenoeao, ooo oaeiae niinoa??aaeanue ei?aeyoeaia caeaaei?noue i?ae
aeicith n??/aieo aeia?ea (aei 75 ea/aa) oa ai?noii aee??io ? i?aai?/ieo
noeueo?ae?a, e?euee?noue yeeo i?iii?oe?eii ca?eueooaaeanue a?ae 14,8 aei
22,5 ia/a ? 2,4±0,12 ia/a a?aeiia?aeii. I?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii?
aeice n??ee, aei 125 ea/aa, a??ia?aeieo ci?i o e?eueeino? aee??io oa
i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo ia niinoa??aaeinue. Oaeei
/eiii, iioeiaeueiith aeicith n??/aieo aeia?ea o a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/ieo
oiiaao Ee?anueei? iaeano? ? aeica aea?aaeaioia 75 ea/aa n??ee.

Aeei?enoaiiy ye n??/aieo aeia?ea noeueoaoo aiii?th oa noeueoaoo eae?th,
aianaieo o e?eueeino? 75 ea/aa (ii ae?th/?e ?a/iaei?), i?aeoe/ii
??aiicia/ia ca aoaeoeai?noth. I?aeaeeaeaiiy /anieeo aeiaeaoeiaeie
aeicaie acioo oa eae?th, aea?aaeaioieo e?eueeinoyi oeeo aeaiaio?a, ui
aiinyoueny i?e i?aeaeeaeaii? noeueoaoii eae?th oa aiii?th, i?aeoe/ii ia
aieeaa? ia ai?no i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a ? iacia/ii i?aeaeuo? e?euee?noue
aee??io a oeeaoeeiao.

Aeiaeaoeia? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?aaenoaaeaieo aeua ?acoeueoao?a aoei
io?eiaii i?ney o?e??/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca iaeiie/aiiyi n??eiai?nieo
niieoe o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo /ioe?ueio ni?o?a, ui ae?iuoaaany ca oiia
i?aeaeeaeaiiy eiai iinaaeie iioeiaeueieie aeicaie noeueoaoo aiii?th o
e?eueeino? 75 ea/aa n??ee (ii ae?th/?e ?a/iaei?).

sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe, i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?enoieo 4, aianaiiy a
a?oio noeueoaoo aiii?th ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith ai?noo aee??io o oeeaoeeiao
/anieeo ??cieo ni?o?a c aeineoue aenieei nooiaiai a??ia?aeiino? (99,9%).
Iai?eeeaae, a oeeaoeeiao ni?oo Oe?a?inueeee a?eee i?eaaaea e?eueeino?
aee??io noaiiaeea 78,6%, ?cthinueeee o?ieaoiaee – 64,6%, Aioai?/iee
o?ieaoiaee – 47,6%, Aiaoneaanueeee 10 – 43,6, a a na?aaeiueiio ii ni?oao
oey aaee/eia neeaaea? 56,8%.

Uiaei ai?noo i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a oi ? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
niinoa??aaeanue aiaeia?/ia ea?oeia. Oae, i?eaaaea oeeo ?a/iaei aeey
ni?oo Oe?a?inueeee a?eee neeaaeaea 94.6%, ?cthinueeee o?ieaoiaee –
94.1%, Aioai?/iee o?ieaoiaee – 52,5%, Aiaoneaanueeee 10 – 38,9%,
na?aaei?e iieaciee ii ni?oao noaiiaeei 66,3%.

Ni?oiaa niaoeeo?/i?noue /anieeo o a?aeiioai? aei i?aeaeeaeaiiy
n??eiai?nieie aeia?eaaie

Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeyaea iayai?noue ni?oiai? niaoeeo?/iino?
/anieeo o a?aeiioaii? aei eiai i?aeaeeaeaiiy n??/aieie aeia?eaaie, ui
iia’ycaii c iniaeeainoyie ii?oieia?? /anieeo (?en 5).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oey niaoeeo?/i?noue u?eueii iia’ycaia c nooiaiai
?icaeoeo ea?oeiai? no??eee. Oae, a Oe?a?inueeiai a?eiai, iano??eeoth/iai
ni?oo a aeine?aeieo ?ineeiao a?aei?/a?oueny iaeneiaeueia ca?eueoaiiy
ai?noo i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a (94,6%) oa aee??io (78,6%); aiaeii/an /an
o Aiaoneaanueeiai 10, ni?oo c iaea?eueo ?icaeiooith ea?oeiaith no??eeith
(aenioa 125 ni), aiii ieae/a i?eaeecii aaea?/?. Ni?oe ?cthinueeee
o?ieaoiaee oa Aioai?/iee o?ieaoiaee c aenioith ea?oeiai? no??eee
a?aeiia?aeii 50 ? 90 ni, oaae i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae oeth caeiiii??i?noue.
Iaoaiaoe/iee aiae?c aeaieo iieacaa, ui i?ae aaee/eiith ca?eueoaiiy
ai?noo n??eiai?nieo niieoe ? aenioith ea?oeiai? no??eee ?nio? iaa?iaia
ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? aeey i?aai?/ieo
noeueo?ae?a noaiiaeoue – 0,674, a aeey aee??io – 0,673, i?e ??ai?
a??ia?aeiino? 95%.

E?ii?aa eeneioa ? oioineioaoe/ia a?aeiiaeaiiy noeueo?o-?ii?a

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a neioaco oa iaeiie/aiiy
oa?iaeieia?/ii oe?iieo niieoe o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo ? aeei?enoaiiy
o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe, cie?aia e?ii?ai? eeneioe.

I?ney anaa?/iiai aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo uiaei i?ioean?a
a?io?i?/iiai a?aeiiaeaiiy n??ee a ?ineeiiiio i?aai?ci? iaie aoea
aenoiooa a?iioaca i?i iiaeeea?noue o/ano? o oeeo i?ioeanao e?ii?ai?
eeneioe, yea aenooia? a ?ie? aeoeaioi?a noeueoao-, /e noeueo?o-?ii?a,
aeeiioth/e ?ieue ?o ia?aiinieea a o?inoeueoiiao?aaeoeoaciiio oeyoo
a?aeiiaeaiiy n??ee (?en 6). sse aeaeii c iaaaaeaii? noaie, a?aeiiaeaiiy
noeueoaoii? n??ee a noeueo?aeio iiaea i?ioiaeeoe /a?ac ?yae i?ii?aeieo
i?iaeoeo?a, cie?aia o?inoeueoiiaoe (1.2), o?inoeueo?iaoe (1.3),
o?inoeueoaiaoe (1.4) ? o?ia?ae?inoeueo?aee (1.5).

C o?i?/ii? oi/ee ci?o neaaeei i?noeai oe??? noaie ? iayai?noue a i?e
o?inoeueoiiao?a oa o?inoeueoaiao?a ye i?ii?aeieo i?iaeoeo?a. Ine?eueee
oe? niieoee ianoaa?euei? ? o a?eueiiio noai? acaaae? iaa?aeii?, oi
oe?eeii eia?/ii, ui aiie iiaeooue iiai?noth aeieoaaoe i?ioean
a?aeiiaeaiiy.

Aiaeia?/ia neooaoe?y aeieeaea a i?e a?aeiiaeaii? n??ee
noeueo?o?aaeoeoaciei oeyoii, ino?eueee iaeiei c i?ii?aeieo i?iaeoeo?a
iiaeiia aoea a aenooiaoe iai?aai?/ia oi?ia n??ee c? nooiaiai ieeneaiiy
2+, yea acaaae? iaa?aeiia.

Aeey iiaeieaiiy oe??? ia?aoeiaee iaiao?aeiei ? caoeno ?aaeoe?eieo a?oi
c ooai?aiiyi noaa?eueieo i?iaeoeo?a. Na?aae a?aeiieo niinia?a caoenoo
iiaeia a?aei?oeoe ooai?aiiy aaeiaaiaia?ae?eae?a, ai?ae?a, ao???a,
o?iao???a aai oeeee?caoe?th. I/aaeaeii, iaea?eueo ?aaeueiei ?
cai?iiiiiaaiee iaie oeyo c ooai?aiiy o?iao???a o ii?aeiaii? c
oeeee?caoe??th. Oiae? i?ii?aei? i?iaeoeoe iaaaaeai? o aeua iaaaaeai?e
noai? aoaeooue i?aaenoaaeai? ye iio?aei? o?eo?aio, a naia:
1,2,3-o?eo?ai-2-noeueoii (2.2.2); 1,2,3-o?eo?ai-2-noeueoieneae (2.3);
1,1,3-o?eo?ai (2.4). On? oe? ?a/iaeie aeineoue noaa?euei? ? caeaoi?
eaaei ia?aoiaeeoe iaeia a ?ioo oeyoii ieenii-a?aeiiaieo ?aaeoe?e.
Ia?aaeoiiaith aeieeiaiiy aeaiiai eeano niieoe iiaea aooe iayai?noue o
iieaeoe? a?eea ia?aiinieea caeeoeo e?ii?ai? eeneioe, yeee ? neoao?
aeoeaioi?ii noeueoao- /e noeueo?o-?ii?a.

Na???th eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?ae?a ia iiaeaeueieo nenoaiao aoei io?eiaii
?acoeueoaoe, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aenoioo? iaie a?iioaoe/i? i?eiouaiiy.
E?ii?aa eeneioa iiaea a?aoe o/anoue o i?ioeanao oioineioaoe/iiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy n??ee (?en.7). Aaaaeaiiy a iiaeaeueio nenoaio c
oei?iieanoaie oa noeueo?o-?iiaie e?ii?ai? eeneioe noeioeth? a?aeiiaeaiiy
noeueo?o-?ii?a.

I?e aeei?enoaii? cai?noue e?ii?ai? eeneioe aeeo?io?aeoieo a?aeiiaeaiiy
noeueo?o-?ii?a ia niinoa??aaeinue, ui na?ae/eoue i?i niaoeeo?/i?noue
aeaii? ?aaeoe??.

E?ii?aa eeneioa ye ?aaoeyoi? iaeiie/aiiy oa?iaeieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe
/anieeo

?acoeueoaoe aeaioaeoi?iiai iieueiaiai aeine?aeo iaae aea/aiiyi noi?nii?
ae?? ia?iaee ?ineei ?ic/eiii e?ii?ai? eeneioe oa i?aeaeeaeaiiy n??eith,
i?iaaaeai? ca noaiith 3o3, i?aeoaa?aeeee i?eiouaiiy, ui i?ae oeeie
/eiieeaie ?nio? iaaiee ca’ycie (?en 8).

Oae, o aa??aioao aac aeei?enoaiiy e?ii?ai? eeneioe i?e i?aeaeeaeaii?
?ineei noeueoaoii aiii?th o iaaeao a?ae 0 aei 75 ea/aa n??ee,
niinoa??aaeinue i?iii?oe?eia i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo aee??io a oeeaoeeiao
a?aeiia?aeii c 12,1 aei 17,7 ia/a. Iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy aeice aianaieo
n??/aieo aeia?ea aaea iaei iicia/a?oueny ia iaeiie/aii? aee??io, eiai
e?euee?noue noaiiaeea 18,1 ia/a. O aa??aioao c aeei?enoaiiyi eeoa
e?ii?ai? eeneioe, aac i?aeaeeaeaiiy ?ineei n??eith, nooo?aeo ci?i o
e?eueeino? aee??io ia niinoa??aaeinue. Ia?iaea ?ineei 0,001%-iei
?ic/eiii e?ii?ai? eeneioe iacia/ii ci?ithaaea ai?no aee??io a
oeeaoeeiao, oi/a a oe?eiio a?i caeeoaany iiae?aiee aei oiai, ui
niinoa??aaany o aa??aioao aac aeei?enoaiiy e?ii?ai? eeneioe, a naia:
12,4 ia/a aeey aa??aioo aac n??/aieo aeia?ea; 18,9 ia/a o aa??aio? c 75
ea/aa n??ee ? 19,4 ia/a o aa??aio? c 125 ea/aa n??ee. Ia?iaea ?ineei
0,01% ?ic/eiii e?ii?ai? eeneioe a ii?aeiaii? c i?aeaeeaeaiiyi aenieeie
aeicaie n??/aieo aeia?ea (S125) ni?eyea cia/iiio ca?eueoaiith ai?noo
aee??io a oeeaoeeiao: c 13,7 aei 24,1 ia/a. I?eaaaea e?eueeino? aee??io
o a?aeiioaii? aei aa??aioo c i?aeaeeaeaiiyi n??/aieie aeia?eaaie o
e?eueeino? S75 noaiiaeea 33%, o oie /an ye o aa??aioao aac ia?iaee
?ineei ?ic/eiaie e?ii?ai? eeneioe oa c ia?iaeith 0,001% ?ic/eiii oey
??cieoey noaiiaeea eeoa 2,4 ? 3%.

Ioaea io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue, ui e?ii?aa eeneioa aa?a aeoeaio
o/anoue o i?ioeanao iai?io n??eiai?nieo niieoe ? o ii?aeiaii? c
i?aeaeeaeaiiyi n??/aieie aeia?eaaie ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith ai?noo aee??io a
oeeaoeeiao /anieeo.

Aiae?c o?e??/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca ai?noii n??eiai?nieo niieoe a
oeeaoeeiao /anieeo ni?oo Aioai?/iee o?ieaoiaee, ae?iuaiiai ca oiia
ii?aeiaiiy ia?iaee ?ineei 0,01%-iei ?ic/eiii e?ii?ai? eeneioe ?
i?aeaeeaeaiiy aenieeie aeicaie n??/aieo i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea (S125)
i?aeoaa?aeea c aenieei nooiaiai a??ia?aeiino? (99,9%) ?nioaaiiy
neia?a?/iiai ca’yceo i?ae oeeie oaeoi?aie (?en.9 ).

Oae, ai?no aee??io a oeeaoeeiao aeine?aeieo ?ineei ca?eueoeany c 12,4
aei 25,0 ia/a aai ia 111,6%. Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe aoei io?eiaii ? i?e
aecia/aii? e?eueeino? i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a, a naia 1,48 ia/a n??ee
aeey eiio?ieth ? 3,20 ia/a n??ee aeey aeine?aeiiai aa??aioo, ui
noaiiaeoue 116,2% i?eaaaee.

Oaeei /eiii, io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui iicaei?aiaaa ia?iaea ?ineei
0,01%-iei ?ic/eiii e?ii?ai? eeneioe noeioeth? i?ioeane a?aeiiaeaiiy
noeueoaoii? n??ee, yea iaaeoiaeeoue aei ?ineeie c i?ia?aeueiei
aeeaeaiiyi, a oea o naith /a?ao iicia/a?oueny ia i?aeaeuaii? ai?noo
i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a oa aee??io, niieoe, ui iaoiiaeththoue
oa?iaeieia?/io oe?ii?noue /anieeo.

Aieea n??/aiiai aeeaeaiiy ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue /anieeo oa eiai ye?nio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo

A?aeiii, ui aianaiiy i?ae ??ciiiai?oi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
eoeueoo?e n??/aieo aeia?ea caeaa?eueoiai ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith ?o
a?iaeaeiino? [Ea?aeeiaeianeay, 1984]. Oi/a i?e aeei?enoaii? aenieeo aeic
n??ee iiaea niinoa??aaoenue ? aeayea iaae?iiy a?iaeaeiino?. Oae, o
?iaio? iaae aea/aiiyi aieeao ??cieo aeic oa aeaea?ae n??ee ia
a?iaeaei?noue /anieeo aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aianaiiy i?ae ?ineeie n??ee o
aeaeyae? noeueoao?a eae?th, iao??th, eaeueoe?th ? aeaiaioa?ii? n??ee o
e?eueeino? aei 25 ia/ea ni?eyei i?eaaaoe? a?iaeath ia 12-15%. A?eueo
aenie? aeice n??ee ia i?ecaiaeeee aei iiaeaeueoiai ca?eueoaiiy a?iaeath,
a iaa?oue aeaui cieaeoaaee eiai [Singh et al., 1995].

Aiae?c i?iaeoeoeaiino? /anieeo a aeine?aeao iaae aea/aiiyi aieeao oiia
i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy ia iaeiie/aiiy n??eiai?nieo niieoe o oeeaoeeiao
/anieeo a??ia?aeieo a?aei?iiinoae i?ae eiio?ieueiei oa aeine?aeieie
aa??aioaie ia aeyaea.

Oae ye e?euee?nii aeii?ioth/eie eiiiiiaioaie oeeaoeei /anieeo ?
iie?aetheio?oeoicaie oa a?eie, oi oe?eaai aoei aeine?aeeoe aieea
n?/aiiai i?aeaeeaeaiiy ia iaeiie/aiiy oeeo niieoe. ?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a
aeathoue i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui cia/ieo ci?i a e?eueeino?
iie?aetheio?oeoicai?a oa a?eeo o aeine?aeieo aa??aioao ia noaeiny, a
??cieoey c eiio?ieai a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ciaoiaeeeanue ia iaae?
iioeaee aeine?aeo. I?aenoiiaoth/e ?acoeueoaoe o?e??/ieo aeine?ae?a, o
oe?eiio iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?aeaeeaeaiiy /anieeo
n??eiai?nieie aeia?eaaie aeeeeea? iacia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy a eiai oeeaoeeiao
ai?noo a?eeo, i?e iaeii/aniiio, oaeiae iacia/iiio, cieaeaii? ai?noo
iie?aetheio?oeoicai?a. Aeyaeaia oaeiae ni?oiaa niaoeeo?/i?noue o
iaeiie/aii? iie?aetheio?oeoicai?a, aiaeia?/ia ?icaeyioo?e aeua a
i?eeeaaeao c noeueo?aeaie oa noeueoieneaeaie.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? oaeiae iieacaee, ui aeei?enoaiiy n??/aieo
aeia?ea iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia ye?noue oeeaoeei /anieeo ye ian?ii?aiai
iaoa??aeo, a naia ia ?o ceiino?ee?noue. Iaea?eueo no?eeeie aeyaeeenue
?ineeie c oeeaoeei /anieeo, ae?iuaiiai c aeei?enoaiiyi n??/aieo aeia?ea.
I?ioeaio ?o ia?aceioaaiiy neeaaeaa 99,8% aeey noeueoaoo eae?th ? 99,5%
aeey noeueoaoo aiii?th i?ioe 91,9% o eiio?ieueiiio aa??aio?.

AENIIAEE

1. Neioac ? iaeiie/aiiy aee??io oa i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a –
oa?iaeieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe /anieeo, o?nii iia’ycai? c oiiaaie
i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy. A aeine?aeaeaieo eiia?iaoe?yo acioieo eae?eieo
oa n??/aieo oi?i aeia?ea iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei ? aeei?enoaiiy noeueoaoo
eae?th oa noeueoaoo aiii?th. Iioeiaeueiith, aeey iaeneiaeueiiai
ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo aee??io oa i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a o oeeaoeeiao
/anieeo, aeciaia aeica n??eiai?nieo aeia?ea, aea?aaeaioia 75 ea n??ee ia
aaeoa?.

2. Iaeiie/aiiy oa?iaeieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo ca
ae?? n??/aieo aeia?ea iia’ycaia c iniaeeainoyie eiai ii?oieia?? ? ia?
ei?aeyoeaiee ca’ycie c? nooiaiai ?icaeoeo ea?oeiai? no??eee.
Iano??eeoth/ei ni?oai (Oe?a?inueeee a?eee) aeanoeai iaeneiaeueia
ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo aee??io oa i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a o oeeaoeeiao.

3. I?aeaeeaeaiiy /anieeo n??/aieie aeia?eaaie i?e caa?aaeaii? caaaeueii?
a?iaeaeiino? i?iaeoeoe?? i?aeaeuo? ?? oa?iaoeaaoe/io oe?ii?noue ? ia
iia??oo? o?aaeeoe?eii i?eeiyoeo oa?aeoa?enoee yeino? oeeaoeei, ai?noo
iie?aetheio?oeoicai?a oa a?ee?a.

4. Ae?iuoaaiiy iin?aiiai iaoa??aeo c aeei?enoaiiyi iioeiaeueieo aeic
n??/aieo aeia?ea (S75) ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith eiai ceiino?eeino? ia
7,5-8,5%.

5. E?ii?aa eeneioa i?eeia? o/anoue o i?ioeanao oioineioaoe/iiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy n??ee aeeiioth/e ?ieue ia?aiinieea noeueo?o-?ii?a o SO32+
S2- eaioethao.

6. E?ii?aa eeneioa ye aeciaaiiee ?aaoeyoi? iaeiie/aiiy oa?iaeieia?/ii
aeoeaieo niieoe o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo ?icoe?th? iaae? iioeiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy aeic n??eiai?nieo aeia?ea a?ae 75 ea/aa aei 125 ea/aa
n??ee.

7. Ia?iaea ?ineei ?ic/eiii e?ii?ai? eeneioe a ia??iae aaniyii?
aaaaoaoe?? o ii?aeiaii? c i?aeaeuaieie aeicaie n??/aieo aeia?ea,
caaaeyee ?o neia?a?/i?e ae??, ni?ey? iaeneiaeueiiio i?aeaeuaiith aee??io
oa i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo, ui o naith /a?ao
iicia/a?oueny ia ?o oa?iaeieia?/i?e oe?iiino?.

8. sse oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e ae?iuoaaiiy /anieeo aeey iio?aa oa?/iai?
oa oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? i?iieneiaino? i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoaiiy n??/aieo
aeia?ea o e?eueeino? 125 ea n??ee ia aaeoa? o ii?aeiaii? c ia?iaeith
?ineei 0,01% ?ic/eiii e?ii?ai? eeneioe.

NIENIE ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Einyi A.I. Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/aneee iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaie/aneeo
noeueoeaeia /aniiea // Oeieei oa?iaoeaaoe/aneee aeo?iae. – 1982. – ? 12.
– N. 1463-1465.

2. Einyi A.I. ??no?aaoethth/a aeoeai?noue e?ii?ai? eeneioe oa ?? aieea
ia iaeiie/aiiy oa?iaeieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo //
A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. – E., 1998. –
N.26-30.

3. Einyi A.I. Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iee iaoiae aecia/aiiy noeueoieneae?a //
Oe?a?inueeee a?io?i?/iee aeo?iae. – 1998. – 70, ? 1. – N. 125-130.

4. Einyi A.I. Aieea n??/aiiai aeeaeaiiy ia iaeiie/aiiy noeueoieneae?a o
oeeaoeeiao /anieeo // Oe?a?inueeee a?io?i?/iee aeo?iae. –1998. – 70, ?
1. – N. 105-109.

5. Kosjan A.M., Kharlamov A.V., Musienko M.M. Sulfur nutrition and
sulfur organic compound accumulation in garlic bulb // Fertilization for
Sustainable Plant Production and Soil Fertility. – Vol. II. –
Braunschweig — Volrtyrode (Germany): FAL. – 1997. – P. 201-208.

6. Einyi A.I., Oa?iaaneee A.E. Aeeyiea ieia?aeueiiai ieoaiey ia
iaeiieaiea na?oniaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee a eoeiaeoeao /aniiea // Oacenu
aeieeaaeia VIII nuacaea OAO. – Eeaa. – 1987. – N. 126.

7. Einyi A.I. Ae?y e?ii?ai? eeneioe ia ?inoia? i?ioeane,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa ye?noue oeeaoeei /anieeo // ?? c’?cae Oe?a?inueeiai
oiaa?enoaa o?c?ieia?a ?ineei. Oace aeiiia?aeae. – Ee?a, 1993. – O. 2. –
N. 109-110.

8. Kosyan A., Taran N. Original method for determination of sulfoxides
// European society for new methods in agricultural research. – Brno
(Czech Republic) – 1998. – P.135.

9. Kosyan A. Lipoic acid and photosynthetic reduction of sulfate ions
// Environmental aspects of sulfur nutrition in plants. Meeting of
Working Group IV. – Pulawy (Poland). – 1998. – P. 22-23.

10. Kosyan A., Taran N. Regulation of sulphoxide accumulation in garlic
bulbs by lipoic acid // Sulfur nutrition and assimilation in higher
plants: Molecular, biochemical and physiological aspects. – Wengen
(Switzeland). – 1999. – P. 44.

AIIOAOe?ss

Einyi A.I. Iioei?caoe?y n??/aiiai aeeaeaiiy /anieeo (Allium sativum L.)
ye niin?a ?aaoeyoe?? iaeiie/aiiy oa?iaeieia?/ii aeoeaieo niieoe. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.12 – o?c?ieia?y ?ineei. – Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith iniaeeainoae n??/aiiai aeeaeaiiy
/anieeo. Io?eiaii iia? aeai?, ia iniia? yeeo anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino?
neioaco oa iaeiie/aiiy aee??io e i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a (oa?iaeieia?/ii
aeoeaieo niieoe) o oeeaoeeiao /anieeo. Anoaiiaeaii ni?oiao
niaoeeo?/i?noue /anieeo o a?aeiioaii? aei i?aeaeeaeaiiy n??/aieie
aeia?eaaie, iia’ycaio c iniaeeainoyie eiai ii?oieia??. Ia iniia?
cai?iiiiiaaii? a?iioace i?i iiaeeea? oeyoe a?aeiiaeaiiy n??ee a
?ineeiiiio i?aai?ci? i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
e?ii?ai? eeneioe ia oioineioaoe/ia a?aeiiaeaiiy noeueoao-?ii?a.
Iieacaii, ui ia?iaea ?ineei /anieeo ?ic/eiii e?ii?ai? eeneioe iioei?co?
canai?iiy n??/aieo aeia?ea, ui o naith /a?ao ni?ey? iaeiie/aiith aee??io
oa i?aai?/ieo noeueo?ae?a o oeeaoeeiao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aee??i, e?ii?aa eeneioa, n??/aia aeeaeaiiy,
noeueoieneaee, /aniee.

AIIIOAOeEss

Einyi A.I. Iioeiecaoeey na?iiai ieoaiey /aniiea (Allium sativum L.) eae
niinia ?aaoeyoeee iaeiieaiey oa?iaeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo aauanoa. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.0.12 – oeceieiaey ?anoaiee. – Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai eco/aiey iniaaiiinoae na?iiai ieoaiey
/aniiea. Iieo/aiu iiaua aeaiiua, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo onoaiiaeaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe neioaca e iaeiieaiey aeeeeia e i?aaie/aneeo noeueoeaeia
(oa?iaeieiae/anee aeoeaiuo niaaeeiaiee) a eoeiaeoeao /aniiea. A
?acoeueoaoa eco/aiey aeeiaieee iaeiieaiey aeeeeia a ?acee/iuo i?aaiao
/aniiea ia i?ioyaeaiee aaaaoaoeee onoaiiaeaii, /oi iioeiaeueiui n?ieii
aianaiey na?iuo oaeia?aiee anoue oaca ia/aea caeeaaeee coaeia.
Iiaeei?iea ?anoaiee /aniiea na?iuie oaeia?aieyie iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyao
ia iaeiieaiea ni?ii?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee a eoeiaeoeao. Iaaeaeo aeicaie
na?iuo oaeia?aiee (aei75 ea/aa) e niaea?aeaieai aeeeeia e i?aaie/aneeo
noeueoeaeia iaaethaeaaony oaniay iieiaeeoaeueiay ei??aeyoeaiay naycue.
Aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea aeicu na?u, aei 125 ea/aa ia i?eaiaeeo e
aeinoiaa?iiio eciaiaieth niaea?aeaiey yoeo niaaeeiaiee a eoeiaeoeao.
Iioeiaeueiie aeicie na?iuo oaeia?aiee a ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo
Eeaaneie iaeanoe yaeyaony aeica, yeaeaaeaioiay 75 ea/aa na?u.
Onoaiiaeaia ni?oiaay niaoeeoe/iinoue /aniiea a ioiioaiee e iiaeei?iea
na?iuie oaeia?aieyie, naycaiiay n iniaaiiinoyie aai ii?oieiaee.
Iaoaiaoe/aneee aiaeec iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo iieacae, /oi iaaeaeo o?iaiai
oaaee/aiey niaea?aeaiey na?iniaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee e aunioie
oeaaoi/iie no?aeee nouanoaoao ia?aoiay ei??aeyoeeiiiay naycue, i?e
eiyooeoeeaioa ei??aeyoeee aeey aeeeeia –0,673, a aeey i?aaie/aneeo
noeueoeaeia –0,674. Na?eae eaai?aoi?iuo iiuoia ia iiaeaeueiuo nenoaiao
iieo/aiu ?acoeueoaou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea auaeaeiooia aeiioaoe/aneia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia o/anoee eeiiaaie eeneiou a i?ioeannao
oioineioaoe/aneiai ainnoaiiaeaiey na?u. Aaaaeaiea a iiaeaeueioth nenoaio
n oei?iieanoaie oieiaoa e noeueoeo-eiiaie eeiiaaie eeneiou noeioee?iaaei
ainnoaiiaeaiea noeueoeo-eiiia. I?e eniieueciaaiee aianoi eeiiaaie
eeneiou aeeoeio?aeoiea ainnoaiiaeaiey noeueoeo-eiiia ia iaaethaeaeinue,
/oi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i niaoeeoe/iinoe aeaiiie ?aaeoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa
iieaauo iiuoia ii eco/aieth niaianoiiai aeaenoaey iiaeei?iee /aniiea
na?ie e ia?aaioee ?anoaiee ?anoai?aie eeiiaaie eeneiou auei iieo/aii
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea i nouanoaiaaiee iaaeaeo yoeie oaeoi?aie ii?aaeaeaiiie
nayce. Ia?aaioea ?anoaiee /aniiea 0,01% ?anoai?ii eeiiaaie eeneiou a
ni/aoaiee n iiaeei?ieie iiauoaiiuie aeicaie na?iuo oaeia?aiee (125
ea/aa) niinianoaoao cia/eoaeueiiio oaaee/aieth niaea?aeaiey aeeeeia a
eoeiaeoeao. I?eaaaea eiee/anoaa aeeeeia, ii ioiioaieth e aa?eaioo n
eniieueciaaieai 75 ea/aa na?u, ninoaaeyao 33%, a oi a?aiy eae a
aa?eaioao aac ia?aaioee ?anoaiee eeiiaaie eeneioie e n ia?aaioeie 0,001%
?anoai?ii yoa ?acieoea ia i?aauoaao 3%. Aiaeec o??oeaoieo iaaethaeaiee
ca niaea?aeaieai na?iniaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee a eoeiaeoeao /aniiea,
au?auaiiiai a oneiaeyo ia?aaioee ?anoaiee 0,01% ?anoai?ii eeiiaaie
eeneiou e iiaeei?iee iiauoaiiuie aeicaie na?iuo oaeia?aiee (125 ea/aa),
iiaeoaa?aeee nouanoaiaaiea neia?ae/aneie nayce iaaeaeo yoeie oaeoi?aie.
Niaea?aeaiea aeeeeia a eoeiaeoeao iiuoiuo ?anoaiee oaaee/eeinue ia
111,6%, a i?aaie/aneeo noeueoeaeia – ia 115,2%. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi eeiiaaay eeneioa, iioeiece?oy i?ioeannu
ainnoaiiaeaiey na?u, iinooiathuae a ?anoaiey /aniiea n ieia?aeueiui
ieoaieai, iiaeao neoaeeoue ?aaoeyoi?ii iaeiieaiey aeeeeia e i?aaie/aneeo
noeueoeaeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeeei, eeiiaaay eeneioa, na?iia ieoaiea,
noeueoieneaeu, /aniie.

SUMMARY

Kosyan A.M. Optimization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) sulfur nutrition
as the way of regulation of accumulation of pharmacologically active
substances. – Handwriting.

The dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Biological Sciences on
speciality 03.00.12 – plant physiology, Taras Shevchenko Kyiv
University. Kyiv, 1999.

Dissertation is dedicated for the studying of the features of garlic’s
sulfur nutrition. There were received the new data on the basis of which
the regularities of alliin’s and organic sulfides’ (pharmacologically
active substances) synthesis and their accumulation in garlic bulbs have
been instituted. Garlic variety’s peculiarity dependent on sulfur
fertilizers feeding and associated with distinctions of its morphology
has been instituted. On the basis of the theory regarding possible ways
of sulfur reduction in plant organism that was proposed by the author,
the complex studying of effect of lipoic acid on photosynthetic
reduction of sulfate ions has been carried out. It was shown that
treatment of garlic plants with the solution of lipoic acid optimizes
the assimilation of sulfur fertilizers what advance the accumulation of
alliin and organic sulfides in bulbs.

Key words: alliin, lipoic acid, sulfur nutrition, sulphoxides, garlic.

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