IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?inoeooo a?io?i?? ?i I.A.Iaeeaae?ia

________________________________________________________________________
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A?oeiiaa

Aaeaioeia Ieeiea?aia

OAeE 577.15.08 + 577.151.35

543.257.5

IIOEIICAOe?ss iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee EIIAeOEOIIAO?E*IEO OA?IAIOIEO
a?inaini??a aeey aiae?co ?aaeueieo c?ace?a

03.00.20 — a?ioaoiieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? iaoai?ci?a o?aineyoe?? aaiaoe/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ?inoeoooo iieaeoey?ii? a?ieia?? oa aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Nieaeaoe?i Ieaen?e Iao?iae/,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo iieaeoey?ii? a?ieia?? ? aaiaoeee
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

AeIEO?AIEI Ieeiea Iao?iae/,

ea??aiee eaai?aoi??? a?io?i?? ?inoeoooo aeia?a??ie ? oieneeieia??
?i.E.?.Iaaeaaaey IIC Oe?a?ie;

eaiaeeaeao o?i?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?AIAOOEE?I ??iao ?aa?eueiae/

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo o?ceei-o?i?? iaia?ai ?inoeoooo
eiei?aeii? o?i?? oa o?i?? aiaee ?iai? A.A. Aeoiainueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo i?e?ia?ieia?? ? a??onieia?? ?i.
Ae.E.Caaieioiiai IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e a?io?i?? i?e?i?aai?ci?a, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny « 7 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.240.01 a ?inoeooo?
a?io?i?? ?i.I.A.Iaeeaae?ia IAI Oe?a?ie (252601, Ee?a-30, aoe.Eaiioiae/a,
9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo a?io?i??
?i.I.A.Iaeeaae?ia

IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee « 29 » aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe E??naiei I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iio?aae no/anii? iaaeeoeeie, aeieia?? oa
a?ioaoiieia?? aeiaaathoue noai?aiiy iiaeo aiae?oe/ieo nenoai, ui iathoue
aenieo niaoeeo?/i?noue oa /ooeea?noue ? ?acii c oei ? aeaoaaeie,
i?inoeie o aeei?enoaii? oa eiiiaeoieie. ?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaeeo
nenoai aeanoue ciiao oni?oii ni?eyoe ae?aaiinoeoe? oa e?eoaaiith
caoai?thaaiue, ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaie eiio?ieth oa ?aaoeyoe??
a?ioaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, a oaeiae iii?oi?eiao iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua. Na?aae oaeeo nenoai aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?eythoue a?inaini?ai
— i?eeaaeai iiaiai iieie?iiy, ye? ii?aeiothoue a nia? a?inaeaeoeaiee
aeaiaio c o?ce/iei ia?aoai?thaa/ai. I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a i?iieneiaa
ae?iaieoeoai a?inaini??a o na?o? c?iaeei aaee/aciee no?eaie. Oae, yeui o
1993 ?ioe? ?eiie a?inaini??a neeaaeaa 150 iei. aeiea??a, oi o 1997 ?.
a?i neeaa a?eueo i?ae 1 ie?ae. [Weetal, 1996, Turner, 1998]. Ca
i?iaiicaie aenia?o?a aei 2000 ?ieo i/?eo?oueny eiai ca?eueoaiiy aei 2
ie?ae. aeiea??a [Gibson, 1996].

?iaioe, ui aoee ?icii/ao? a ?inoeooo? iieaeoey?ii? a?ieia?? ? aaiaoeee
IAI Oe?a?ie o ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? c eaoaae?ith o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a
?aae?io?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
iieacaee, ui i?e noai?aii? oa?iaioieo naini??a aeioe?eueiei ?
aeei?enoaiiy aeaeo?io?i?/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a, ine?eueee ca ?o
aeiiiiiaith iiaeia i?iaiaeeoe aiae?c caaa?aeaieo c?ace?a, a a aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao aeaeo?io?i?/i? iaoiaee a?eueo /ooeea? oa i?ino? ca
o?aaeeoe?ei?. Ine?eueee /ooeea?noue aiae?co, ye i?aaeei, iaiaaeo?oueny
a?aieoeath aecia/aiiy o?ce/iiai ia?aoai?thaa/a, oiio eiai aea?? ?
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei. Iiia?aaei? ?iaioe ni?a?ia?oiee?a iaoiai
?inoeoooo iieacaee ia?niaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ia?aoai?thaa/?a,
aeaioiaeaieo ca oaoiieia??th i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee, a naia ?I-/ooeeaeo
iieueiaeo o?aicenoi??a [Nieaeaoeei e ae?., 1993] ? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo
ieaia?ieo aeaeo?iae?a [Aecyaeaae/ e ae?., 1993], aea oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy
?o ia i?aeoeoe? e?i?oo?oueny ?yaeii iaaeie?e?a. O aeayeeo aeiaaeeao oea
iaaeinoaoiuei aeniea noaa?euei?noue a?inaini??a ia iniia? oeeo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a, aea /ano?oa ca ana — aocueeee e?i?eiee ae?aiacii
eiioeaio?aoe?e ?a/iaei, ui aecia/athoueny. E??i oiai, ?iai/?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaaaaeaieo a?inaini??a o cia/i?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae
oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co, ui iio?aao? iino?eiiai a?aooaaiiy oeueiai i?e
neeaaeaii? i?ioieie?a aei???a.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeueiei aeey onoiaiiy aeuaaeacaieo iaaeie?e?a oa
iiaeeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ?ai?oa eaai?aoi?ieo
i?ioioei?a a?inaini??a ? i?iaaaeaiiy aeaoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oaeoi??a, ui iie?auothoue aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe ye aeaeo?iiiiai
ia?aoai?thaa/a, oae ? naiiai a?inaini?a, iioei?coth/e i?e oeueiio
iniiai? aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a ?aieao athaeaeaoii? oaie ?inoeoooo
iieaeoey?ii? a?ieia?? oa aaiaoeee ? 2.2..4.22 «?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo canaae
noai?aiiy a?inaini??a ia iniia? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a»,
eiieo?nieo i?iaeo?a ? 5.4/74 «Aea/aiiy iieaeoey?ieo aniaeo?a
?aoeaioi?ieo aca?iiae?e o a?iaeaeo?iiieo nenoaiao» Oi?aae?iiy
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ? 02.12/01962 «?ic?iaea a?inaini??a
iiaiai iieie?iiy aeey aiae?co oa eiio?ieth a?ioaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a»
Aeaia?oaiaioo iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai I?i?noa?noaa Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue
iaoee oa oaoiieia?e oa I?aeia?iaeiiai NATO-Linkage a?aioa ENVIR.LG
950913.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith ?iaioe aoea
iioei?caoe?y aeaeo?io?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a ?
noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? aenieiaoaeoeaieo ? noaa?eueieo i?eeaae?a aeey
aiae?co ?aaeueieo c?ace?a.

Aeoiaey/e c iaoe ?iaioe, aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

Anaa?/ii aeine?aeeoe aieea oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a, iaoa??ae?a,
oi?ie oa ?ici???a aeaeo?iae?a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a ? ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o
iioeiaeueiiai aeai?o aeey noai?aiiy oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a.

I?iaanoe ii??aiyiiy ?iai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee a?inaini??a ia iniia?
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa ?I-/ooeeaeo iieueiaeo o?aicenoi??a
aeey e?euee?niiai aiae?co iai?oeee?io.

I?iaanoe iioei?caoe?th oa?aeoa?enoee ?ai?oa ?ic?iaeaiiai eaai?aoi?iiai
i?ioioeio aetheiciiai eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?a oa noai?eoe eiai
aaeineiiaeaiee aa??aio, ui aeicaiey? ?iaioo c ?aaeueieie ??aeeiaie.

?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa i?ioieiee aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e aetheice a ?aaeueieo c?aceao (e?ia ?
eoeueoo?aeuei? ??aeeie) ca aeiiiiiaith eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O ?iaio? ciaeoei
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeo?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a o eii??oe?
c eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie ca aeiiiiiaith aea?aaeaioieo
aeaeo?e/ieo noai, ui iienothoue oe? i?ioeane. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiee ?yae
i??i?eoaoiino? aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo iaoa??ae?a aeey noai?aiiy
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a. Iieacaii, ui /ooeea?noue aeao/eea ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo ?ici???a aeaeo?iae?a oa iaoa??aeo
iai?ia?aeii? i?aeeeaaeeiee, a aeey noai?aiiy oa?iaioiiai a?inaini?a
oe?eeii i?eaeaoi? aeaeo?iaee c aeayeeo iaaeaai?iaeieo iaoa??ae?a.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii eaai?aoi?iee i?ioioei oa?iaioiiai naini?a aeey
aecia/aiiy iai?oeee?io ia iniia? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ieaia?ieo
aeaeo?iae?a, ? i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c eiai ?iai/eo
oa?aeoa?enoee c aiaeia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie naini?o ia iniia? ?I-/ooeeaeo
iieueiaeo o?aicenoi??a. Iieacaii, ui aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaio
aeao/ee?a iiae?ai?, aea c oaoiieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ieaia?i?
oiieiie?a/ano? aeaeo?iaee a?eueo i?ino? oa aeaoaa?, ui ?iaeoue ?o
ia?niaeoeai?oeie aeey ianiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe?.

?ic?iaeaii aetheiciee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iee a?inaini? c aiae?oe/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ye? aeicaieythoue eiai aeei?enoaiiy aeey aiae?co
?aaeueieo c?ace?a aac iiia?aaeiuei? ia?iaee inoaii?o. Aia?oa aeey
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo a?inaini??a iieacaii, ui ?icoe?aiiy e?i?eiiai
ae?aiaciio aei 20 iI aetheice iiaeia aeinyaoe i?e aeei?enoaii?
oa?eoe?ai?aeo eae?th, ye aeueoa?iaoeaiiai eenith ieenethaa/a. ?ioei
oeyoii ?icoe?aiiy aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciio ?iaioe aetheiciiai a?inaini?a
? aeei?enoaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo iai?ai?iieeieo iaia?ai, canoinoaaiiy yeeo
aei oiai ae iie?auo? eiai iniiai? aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, a naia
/ooeea?noue ? noaa?euei?noue, a oaeiae ciaioo? aieea na?aaeiaeua ia
a?aeaoe naini?a.

Aia?oa aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c eiioeaio?aoe?e aetheice a ?aaeueieo
c?aceao (e?ia ? eoeueoo?aeuei? ??aeeie) ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?a oa iieacaii aenieee nooi?iue ei?aeyoe?? c
?acoeueoaoaie, iaea?aeaieie eeane/ieie iaoiaeaie.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eueea oeyo?a oe?eani?yiiaaii? ci?ie aiae?oe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a, cie?aia
/ooeeaino? oa aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciio aei??thaaiue, oa i?iaaaeaii ?o
aeaoaeueiee aiae?c.

?ic?iaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iioeiaeueiiai aeai?o
iaoa??ae?a, oi?ie oa ?ici???a aeaeo?iae?a i?e aeaioiaeai?
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ieaia?ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny ye
iniiaa oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a.

Noai?aii ae?th/? eaai?aoi?i? iiaeae? oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a ia iniia?
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ieaia?ieo aeaeo?iae?a ? ?I-/ooeeaeo iieueiaeo
o?aicenoi??a aeey aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e iai?oeee?io. Aiae?oe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic?iaeaieo naini??a aeacothoue ia ia?niaeoeai?noue ?o
aeei?enoaiiy a a?ioaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao aeey e?euee?niiai aiae?co
iai?oeee?io.

Noai?aii aiae?oe/i? i?eeaaee ia iniia? aetheicieo eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo
a?inaini??a, ye? aoei canoiniaaii aeey aiae?co eiioeaio?aoe?e aetheice a
e?ia? uo??a c *i?iiaeeuenei? ciie a?ae/oaeaiiy, oa eoeueoo?aeueieo
na?aaeiaeuao i?e eiio?ie? a?ioaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o eaai?aoi?i?e
i?aeoeoe? (ae?iuoaaiiy ee?oei Klebsiella oxitoca) ? i?iieneiaino?
(ae?iaieoeoai eoaeii? i?ioaace oa aetheiai?eace). ?ic?iaeaii i?ioieiee
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e aetheice a ?aaeueieo
c?aceao ca aeiiiiiaith eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo a?inaini??a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aoea aeeiiaia i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii e.a.i. Nieaeaoe?ia I.I. o a?aeae?e? aeaaeai?ea IAIO
?euenueei? A.A. Iniiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aoee io?eiai?
caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi. *anoeia iaoa??aeo aoea io?eiaia o ni?a?ia?oieoeoa?
c e.a.i. Aecyaeaae/ai N.A., e.o.-i.i. Ooeueaith I.A., c yeeie aaoi? ia?
ni?euei? ioae?eaoe??. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? onoaiiaee aoee aeaioiaeai? ca
aeiiiiiaith Iaoeeianueeiai N.A.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia 7 ?a?iiaenueeiio Eiia?an? ii a?ioaoiieia?? (I?oea,
O?aioe?y, 1995), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? NATO ARW «New trends in
biosensors development» (Ai?caeue, Oe?a?ia, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 ?ia?o, o oiio
/ene? 6 noaoae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iieno iaoa??ae?a oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie, yea aeeth/a? aeeeaae ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe oa
?o iaaiai?aiiy (o 4 aeaaao), aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a?
141 aeaea?aei, oa 2 aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 131 noi??ioe?
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? i?noeoue 58 ?enoie?a oa 8 oaaeeoeue.

IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE

O ?iaio? aeei?enooaoaaee ?aaeoeae: (-aetheiciieneaeaca (AIAe) c
Penicillium vitale (EO 1.1.3.4, ae?iaieoeoai Eina?nueeiai nie?ocaaiaeo
*a?eanueeiai ae?iaie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy nie?oiai? i?iieneiaino?, Oe?a?ia) c
aeoeai?noth 168 iae.aeo./ia., eaoaeaca c ia/?iee aeea (EO 1.11.1.6,
ae?iaieoeoai o??ie «Sigma», O?aioe?y) c aeoeai?noth 19.9 iae.aeo./ia.,
iai?oeee?iaca c Bacillus cereus (EO 3.5.2.6, ae?iaieoeoai o??ie «Sigma»,
NOA) c aeoeai?noth 2150 iae.aeo./ia; ne?iaaoeiaee aeueaoi?i aeea (ANA)
(ae?iaieoeoai o??ie «Boehringer Mannheim», O?aioe?y), 20 % ?ic/ei
aeooa?iaiai aeueaeaa?aeo (AA) (ae?iaieoeoai o??ie «Merck», I?ia//eia),
iao???aa n?eue aaiceeiai?oeee?io (500000 iae., ae?iaieoeoai Ee?anueeiai
caaiaeo iaaei?aia?ao?a), oa?eoe?ai?ae eae?th K3[Fe(CN)6] (ae?iaieoeoai
o??ie «Merck», I?ia//eia), aetheica (ae?iaieoeoai o??ie «Sigma»,
O?aioe?y); iie?ia?e aeey noai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo iaia?ai:
iie?a?i?eaooe?aeue (IAA) oa iie?oao?aa?ae?ioo?ai (IOAO) (ae?iaieoeoai
o??ie «Aldrich Chem. Co.», NOA), iao?ii-ia?ooi?iaaiee ?iiiiai?iiee
iie?ia? (5 % ?ic/ei a noi?o? ae?oaoe/ieo nie?o?a ui i?noeoue 10 %
aiaee), (ae?iaieoeoai o??ie «Aldrich Chem. Co.», NOA, i?iaeoeo ?
27.470-4), ni?aiie?ia?

(4-a?i?ei??eaeeio c? noe?ieii) — ?iiiiai?iiee iie?ia? (IAEN)
(ae?iaieoeoai o??ie «Aldrich Chem. Co.», NOA, i?iaeoeo ? 19.207-4). sse
aooa?i? nenoaie aeei?enoiaoaaee EI2?I4-NaOH o??ie «Merck» (I?ia//eia),
o??n-HCl o??ie «Reanal (Oai?ueia) oa oi?aa?naeueiee aooa? [Soldatkin et
al., 1994]. ?io? ?aaeoeae, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a ?iaio?, aoee
a?o/eciyiiai oa caei?aeiiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa iaee eaae?o?eaoe?th «in.
/.» oa «o. /.».

Eiiaeoeoiiao?e/i? ia?aoai?thaa/? aoee aeaioiaeai? ye ia Oe?a?i?:
Ee?anueeee ?aae?icaaiae oa AI «E?enoae», oae ? ca ei?aeiiii: ?inoeooo
i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee i. Iuethoaoaeue (Oaaeoea??y) oa ?inoeooo oaii- ?
a?inaini?eee i. Ithinoa? (I?ia//eia). ?o caaaeueia eiino?oeoe?y oa
iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee iienaii a ?iaio? [Aecyaeaae/ e ae?., 1994].

?I-*ooeea? iieueia? o?aicenoi?e aoei aeaioiaeaii a IAe? «I?e?ii?eeaae»
(i.Ee?a, Oe?a?ia). ?o eiino?oeoe?y oa oa?aeoa?enoeee iienaii a ?iaio?
[Shul’ga et al., 1996].

Iaoiaeeee noai?aiiy oa?iaioieo a?iiao?eoeue ia iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iae?a oa
aeiaeaoeiaeo iaia?ai aeaoaeueii iienaii o ?iaioao [A?oeiiaa e ae?.,
1996, A?oeiiaa, 1998].

Noaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo onoaiiaie aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ?iiaaeainieo
aei???a oa aeine?aeaeaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi a?inaini??a, a oaeiae
iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a aeaoaeueii iienaii a ?iaioao
[Aecyaeaae/ e ae?., 1994, Soldatkin et al, 1994, A?oeiiaa e ae?., 1996,
A?oeiiaa, 1998].

I?ioieiee aiae?co noano?ao?a o ?aaeueieo ??aeeiao ca aeiiiiiaith
a?inaini??a iienaii a ?iaioao [Soldatkin et al., 1998, ?euenueea, 1997].

?ACOEUeOAOE OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe oiieiie?a/anoeo eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a

O ?iaio? a iniiaiiio aeei?enoiaoaaee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/i? ia?aoai?thaa/?,
ciai?oi?e aeaeyae yeeo i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 1.

?en.1. Ciai?oi?e aeaeyae eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai ia?aoai?thaa/a.

I?e iaianaii? ia eiai iiaa?oith a?inaeaeoeaii? iaia?aie aeao/ee
ia?aoai?th?oueny a eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iee a?inaini?, yeee noaiaoe/ii
i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en.2a, a o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane, ui i?io?eathoue a
aeaeo?io?i?/i?e eii??oe? c iei, a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo iiaeaeththoueny
aea?aaeaioiith noaiith, yeo i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 2a.

a) a)

?en. 2. Eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iee a?inaini? (a) oa aea?aaeaioia noaia, ui
iiaeaeth? o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane a eii??oe? c iei (a).

?icaeyiaii oeth aea?aaeaioio noaio.

Eaioetha a — Neiio — ?ii?noue eiioaeo?a oa ae?io?a, ui cae?eniththoue
c’?aeiaiiy c aei??thaaeueiith nenoaiith. Cae/aeii ?? aaee/eia caeaaeeoue
a?ae ?o iaoa??aeo oa ci?ith?oueny a?ae 0,1 aei 1 iO.

Eaioetha a — Naaii — aaiiao?e/ia ?ii?noue naieo iaoaeaaeo a?aa?iie
ia?aoai?thaa/a. Cae/aeii ?? aaee/eia caeaaeeoue a?ae iaoa??aeo a?aa?iie,
?o aaiiao??? oa ?ici???a ? ci?ith?oueny a?ae 0,1 aei 1 iO.

Eaioetha a — aeaeo?io?i?/iee ?iiaaeain, ui iieno? iaeanoue iica
iaia?aiith. A?i neeaaea?oueny c aeaio iaeiaeiaeo ?iiinoae Ni-?, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue ca iaaeo ?iciiae?eo iaia?aia/?ic/ei, oa iii?o R?ic/, ui
iiaeaeth? i?ia?aei?noue ?ic/eio iica iaia?aiith.

Eaioetha a — aeaeo?io?i?/iee ?iiaaeain, ui iieno? iaeanoue ana?aaeei?
iaia?aie. A?i neeaaea?oueny c aeaio iaeiaeiaeo iiaa?oiaaeo ?iiaaeain?a
Ziia, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ca iaaeo ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?iae/?ic/ei; aeaio
iaeiaeiaeo ?iiinoae Nieene, ui iiaeaeththoue i?ioean ieeneaiiy iaoa??aeo
aeaeo?iae?a; iii?o Ri, ui iiaeaeth? i?ia?aei?noue ?ic/eio ana?aaeei?
iaia?aie.

I?e ?iaio? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai oa?iaioiiai a?inaini?a eaioethaaie a, a,
? a iiaeia ciaoooaaoe, ? iaoa aea?aaeaioia noaia i?eeia? a?eueo i?inoee
aeaeyae [Aecyaeaae/ e ae?., 1994].

Aoei i?iaaaeaii iaoaiaoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaethaaiiy oaeiai
aea?aaeaioiiai eaioethaa, iiaoaeiaai? oai?aoe/i? ?iiaaeaini? e?ea?.
Oaeiae aoee io?eiai? ?aaeuei? ?iiaaeaini? e?ea? ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa
aea?aaeaioii? aeaeo?e/ii? noaie. Ia iniia? ii??aiyiiy oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aoei aeieacaii i?aaeeuei?noue cai?iiiiiaaii?
iiaeae? oa aea?ai? iaea?eueo iioeiaeuei? oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a
c eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieie oa?iaioieie a?inaini?aie [Aecyaeaae/ e ae?.,
1994].

Ianooiiei aoaiii ?iaioe aoei aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy caeaaeiino?
oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aoai?thaa/?a a?ae oeio iaoa??aeo, ?ici???a oa aaiiao???
aeaeo?iae?a.

Aeine?aeaeoaaany ?yae no?oeoo? ?c aeaeo?iaeaie, aeaioiaeaieie c Au, Ni,
Cr, Cu, Pt, Ti, Al. Ia ?en.3 i?aaenoaaeaii caeaaeiino? ?aaeueii? /anoeie
aaei?ooaino aeaeo?io?i?/ii? eii??ee a?ae /anoioe no?oio i?e aei??ao o
a?aeenoeeueiaai?e aiae? oa 1 iI ?ic/ei? KNl aeey aeaeo?iae?a ?c Au, Ni,
Cr oa Cu c iaeiaeiaeie aaiiao???th oa ?ici??aie.

?en. 3. Caeaaei?noue ?aaeueii? /anoeie aaei?ooaino a?ae /anoioe no?oio
aeey aeaeo?iae?a ?c ??cieo iaoa??ae?a.

?en. 4. Caeaaei?noue a?aeaoeo naini?o a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? KCl aeey
aeaeo?iae?a, aeaioiaeaieo c ??cieo iaoae?a: 1 — Al, 2 — Ti, 3 — Cr, 4 —
Ni, 5 — Au, 6 — Cu, 7 — Pt.

?c ?enoiea aeia?a aeaeii, ui aaei?ooaini? e?ea? an?o no?oeoo? iathoue
iiae?aio oi?io. I?e ca?eueoaii? i?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua a?aeaoaa?oueny
ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueiiai aaei?ooaino nenoaie oa, a?aeiia?aeii,
ca?eueoo?oueny eiai ?aaeueia /anoeia — i?ia?aei?noue. I?e oeueiio aeey
an?o aeaeo?iae?a oi?ia e?eaeo oa aca?iia ?icoaooaaiiy caa??aathoueny. ?c
oeueiai ?yaeo aeiaaeathoue o?eueee Cu-aeaeo?iaee, oiio ui ia ?o iiaa?oi?
aeoaea oaeaeei ooai?th?oueny oa? ieeneo, yeee i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae
Nieene oa ci?ie oi?ie aaei?ooainii? e?eai?. Oea oaeiae aaaea aei
ciaioaiiy /ooeeaino? aeao/eea. Iaeiae, ia aenieeo /anoioao (a?ae 50
eAoe), eiee aeaeo?iaeieie i?ioeanaie iiaeia ciaoooaaoe, ?aaeuei? /anoeie
aaei?ooaino an?o c?ace?a iiae?ai?, ui ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iieiaeaiiy
i?i aea?? aenieeo /anoio aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aei???a.

A iiaeaeueoeo aenia?eiaioao aeine?aeaeoaaeanue /ooeea?noue aeaeo?iae?a
c ??cieo iaoa??ae?a aei ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? KNl, i?e oeueiio
iiaeaethaaeanue ci?ia i?ia?aeiino? i?ae /an oa?iaioaoeaii? ?aaeoe??
(?en.4). C ?enoieo aeaeii, ui iaea?eueoo /ooeea?noue aei ci?ie
eiioeaio?aoe?? KCl iathoue aeaeo?iaee, aeaioiaeai? ?c Pt. *ooeea?noue
Au-, Cu-, Ni- aeaeo?iae?a o?ioe iaioa, aea iiae?aia aeey an??? a?oie,
oiae? ye Cr-, Ti-, a iniaeeai Al- aeaeo?iaee iieacothoue cia/ii iaioo
(ia ii?yaeie) /ooeea?noue. Oea ?iaeoue iaaaaeaiei aeei?enoaiiy ?o i?e
noai?aii? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a. Aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a iaiaia’yceiai aeei?enoiaoaaoe
eeoa aeaai?iaei? iaoaee (Au oa Pt), a oe?eeii i?eaeaoi? a?eueo aeaoaa?
iaoa??aee (Ni, Cu), oiio ui ia?aoai?thaa/? ia iniia? oeeo iaoae?a a
oe?eiio iathoue aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, aiaeia?/i? ia?aoai?thaa/ai ia
iniia? aeaai?iaeieo iaoae?a. Aea o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy i?aeieo
aeaeo?iae?a iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe oaeoi? /ano ?iaioe aeao/ee?a, oiio ui
a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoaea oaeaeea ieeneaiiy iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, cieaeaiiy /ooeeaino?.

Ianooiiei aaaeeeaei iiiaioii i?e ?ic?iaoe? ia?aoai?thaa/a ? aea??
iaoa??aeo i?aeeeaaeeiee. Oiio aoei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aeao/ee?a c
aeaeo?iaeaie, iaianaieie ia neei, neoae oa ieneae e?aii?th. Aoei
iieacaii, ui iaoa??ae i?aeeeaaeeiee ia aieeaa? a cia/i?e i??? ia
/ooeea?noue aeao/eea aei ci?ie i?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua. Iniiaiith
aeiiaith, yeo iaiao?aeii i?aae’yaeyoe aei iaoa??aeo i?aeeeaaeeiee i?e
aeaioiaeaii? ia?aoai?thaa/a, — a?i iiaeiai aooe iai?ia?aeiei. C
oaoiieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o iaea?eueo c?o/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe neei, yea, c
iaeiiai aieo, iaea?eueo aeaoaaee iaoa??ae, a c ae?oaiai — iaeiaio
e?eoeee.

Ianooiiith aaaeeeaith caaea/ath aoei i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ii
aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao ?ici???a iaeueoe?a a?aa?iie oa a?aenoai? i?ae
ieie ia /ooeea?noue aeao/ee?a. Aea/aeenue aea? a?oie aeao/ee?a. Ia?oa
neeaaeaeanue c aeaeo?iae?a c oa?aeoa?enoe/ieie ?ici??aie 20, 40 oa 70
iei oa aeoeaiith /ooeeaith iiaa?oiath 2.25 ii2, ae?oaa — c 10, 5, 2 e
0.5 iei aeaeo?iae?a c iiaa?oiath

1.5 ii2. Aeey an?o c?ace?a niinoa??aaeenue iiae?ai? aaei?ooaini? e?ea?.

Ia ?en. 5 i?aaenoaaeai? caeaaeiino? /ooeeaino? aeao/ee?a a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? nie? a ?ic/ei? aeey aeaeo?iae?a c ??cieie
oa?aeoa?enoe/ieie ?ici??aie. Aeey iaio a?oi aeaeo?iae?a /?oei aeaeii
oaiaeaioe?th ciaioaiiy /ooeeaino? aeao/ee?a c? ciaioaiiyi ?ici???a
«iaeueoe?a» a?aa?iie oa a?aenoai? i?ae ieie, oiaoi, i?e i?i?aoth?ecaoe??
naini?a ia o?aaa oaoiieia?/ii neeaaeiiai ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?
iaeueoe?a ia aeaeo?iae? ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy ?o ?ici???a, ye oea
aaaaeaeinue ?ai?oa. I?i?aoth?ecaoe?th iiaeia i?iaiaeeoe oeyoii
a?aeiiniiai ciaioaiiy ye ?iai/i? iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaeo, oae ?
oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo ?ici???a a?aa?iie. Aea, c ?ioiai aieo, ia iiaeia
aeaioiaeyoe aeaeo?iaee c aaeeeeie «iaeueoeyie» (oi/a /ooeea?noue
ia?aoai?thaa/a iiaea aooe a?eueoith), oiio ui a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
e?eoe/iith aeey /ooeeaino? naini?a ? oiaueia iaia?aie. Iniiaiei i?e
aeai?? ?ici???a naini?a ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae oiaueiith iaia?aie,
oa?aeoa?enoe/ieie ?ici??aie aeaeo?iae?a oa ?o aeoeaiith ieiueiith.

(a) (a)

?en. 5. Caeaaei?noue a?aeaoeo naini?o a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? KCl aeey
aeaeo?iae?a c ??cieie oa?aeoa?enoe/ieie ?ici??aie (a — ia?oa a?oia, a —
ae?oaa a?oia).

?ic?iaea oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a ia iniia? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ieaia?ieo
aeaeo?iae?a oa ?I-/ooeeaeo iieueiaeo o?aicenoi??a aeey aecia/aiiy
iai?oeee?io oa ii??aiyiiy ?o iniiaieo aiae?oe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee

Ianooiia caaea/a, ui noiyea ia?aae iaie, — ?ic?iaeoe oa?iaioi? naini?e
ia iniia? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa ?I-/ooeeaeo iieueiaeo
o?aicenoi??a aeey e?euee?niiai aiae?co iai?oeee?io oa i?iaanoe
ii??aiyiiy ?o iniiaieo ?iai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee.

A i?ioean? ?aaeoe?? oa?iaioaoeaiiai a?ae?ie?co iai?oeee?io i?ae ae??th
iai?oeee?iace a iaia?ai? ooai?ththoueny aeiaeaoeia? ?iie, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ci?ie ye ?I ?ic/eio, oae ? eiai i?ia?aeiino?, ui
aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey aei???a iaeaeaa oeie ia?aoai?thaa/?a
[A?oeiiaa e ae?., 1996].

Ia ?en. 6 i?aaenoaaeai? eae?a?oaaeuei? e?ea? iai?oeee?iiaeo a?inaini??a
ia iniia? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ieaia?ieo aeaeo?iae?a (a) ? ?I-/ooeeaeo
iieueiaeo o?aicenoi??a (a), io?eiai? o oinoaoiiio aooa??, ?I 7, ??cii?
eiioeaio?aoe??.

Iiaeia aa/eoe, ui a iaio aeiaaeeao niinoa??aa?oueny oaeee aoaeo: c
iaeiiai aieo, ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aooa?o i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?icoe?aiiy aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciio ?iaioe aeao/eea, ui ? iiceoeaiei
iiiaioii, a c ?ioiai aieo, — aei iaae?iiy aaee/eie a?aeaoeo, a
a?aeiia?aeii /ooeeaino? naini?a, ui ? iaaaoeaiei iiiaioii. I?e
ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aooa?o a 10 ?ac?a a?aeaoaa?oueny iaae?iiy
aiie?ooaee a?aeaoeo oaae a 10 ?ac?a. Aeey eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai naini?a
oea iiynith?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, c?inoaiiyi ?iiii? neee ?ic/eio i?e
ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aooa?o [A?oeiiaa e ae?., 1996]. A?aeaoe
naini?a ia iniia? ?I-IO ia caeaaeeoue a oae?e i??? a?ae ?iiii? neee. A
oeueiio aeiaaeeo iniiaiei e?i?ooth/ei oaeoi?ii ? naia aooa?ia ?ii?noue.
Iaeiae a iaio aeiaaeeao ie ia?ii iiaeeea?noue i?aeae?aoe iaiao?aeiee
ae?aiacii ?iaioe naini?a, ci?ithth/e aooa?io ?ii?noue c?aceo.

(a) (a)

?en. 6. Eae?a?oaaeuei? e?ea? iai?oeee?iiaeo a?inaini??a ia iniia?
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo aeaeo?iae?a (a) ? ?I-/ooeeaeo iieueiaeo o?aicenoi??a
(a), io?eiai? o oinoaoiiio aooa??, ?I 7, ??cii? eiioeaio?aoe??.

Oaeei /eiii aoei iieacaii, ui iniiai? aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaio
aeao/ee?a iiae?ai?, naini?e oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaeei /anii a?aeaoeo oa
aenieith iia?aoe?eiith noaa?euei?noth. Aea c oaoiieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o
ieaia?i? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/i? aeaeo?iaee i?ino?o? oa aeaoaao? i?e
aeaioiaeaii?, ui ?iaeoue ?o a?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie aeey noai?aiiy
a?inaini??a.

Eiiaeoeoiiao?e/i? a?inaini?e aoei aeei?enoaii aeey aiae?co ai?noo
aaiceeiai?oeee?io a aeayeeo eiia?oe?eieo i?aia?aoao aioea?ioee?a ??cieo
caaiae?a-ae?iaiee?a. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a iaaaaeaii a oaae.1.

Oaaeeoey 1.

? i/i Noano?ao Caaiae-ae?iaiee A?aeaoe, ieNi Iioeaea, %

1 Iao???aa n?eue aaiceeiai?oeee?io Ee?anueeee caaiae iaaei?aia?ao?a
51,6(1,6 3,1

2 Eae??aa n?eue aaiceeiai?oeee?io Na?ainueeee caaiae iaaei?aia?ao?a
45,6(2,3 5,0

3 Iao???aa n?eue aaiceeiai?oeee?io E?aniiy?nueeee c-ae iaaei?aia?ao?a
51,6(2,1 4,1

4 Eae??aa n?eue aaiceeiai?oeee?io Ee?anueeee caaiae iaaei?aia?ao?a
46,0(1,8 3,9

5 Iao???aa n?eue aii?oeee?io Ee?anueeee caaiae iaaei?aia?ao?a 18,0(1,6
8,8

6 Iiaioeei Ee?anueeee caaiae iaaei?aia?ao?a 25,2(2,3 9,1

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe? (c?acee 1-4), a?aeaoee naini?a ia iaeio ? oo ae
e?ea?nueeo oi?io aioea?ioeea (eae??aa /e iao???aa n?eue) aoee iaeiaeia?
aeey i?aia?ao?a ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaeiaeiaee ai?no
aioea?ioeea. E??i oiai, aeey ioe?iee naeaeoeaiino? a?inaini?a aoee
aeei?enoai? ?io? i?aia?aoe aioea?ioee?a iai?oeee?iiaiai ?yaeo (c?acie 5,
6). sse iiaeia aa/eoe c oaaeeoe?, naini? ia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aaniethoiith naeaeoeai?noth. A?aeaoee ia aii?oeee?i oa iiaioeei
neeaaeaee 35 % oa 49 %, a?aeiia?aeii.

Iioei?caoe?y ?iaioe aetheiciiai eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?a oa
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoi??a, ui iie?auothoue eiai aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee

A iniia? ?iaioe eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?a aeey aecia/aiiy aetheice
eaaeeoue ?a?no?aoe?y ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ioii?a, yea ia? i?noea a
?acoeueoao? aeennioe?aoe?? aetheiiiai? eeneioe, yea ooai?th?oueny a
iaia?ai? i?e ieeneaii? aetheice ca aeiiiiiaith AIAe ca noaiith:

AIAe

(-D-aetheica + I2 + I2I ———-> D-aetheiii-(-eaeoii + I2I2

(

aetheiiiaa eeneioa

((

aetheiiao-?ii + I+

?ai?oa ?ic?iaeaiee a?inaini? [Shul’ga et al., 1993] iaa iaeanoue
e?i?eii? caeaaeiino? aaee/eie a?aeaoeo naini?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??
noano?aoo 0,1 — 1,5 iI. E??i oiai, a?i oa?aeoa?ecoaaany cia/iith
caeaaei?noth oa?aeoa?enoee a?ae oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua: aooa?ii? ?iiino?,
?iiii? neee oa ?I, ui oneeaaeithaaei i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a c
?aaeueieie ??aeeiaie.

Aocueeee ae?aiacii ?iaioe aetheinaini?a iiaeia iiynieoe e?i?ooaaiiyi
oa?iaioaoeaii? ?aaeoe?? ia?aoai?aiiy aetheice aei aetheiiieaeoiio ca
aeiiiiiaith eenith — einoano?aoo oe??? ?aaeoe?? [Soldatkin et al.,
1995]. Aoei cai?iiiiiaaii oae? oeyoe ?icoe?aiiy aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciio
?iaioe aetheinaini?a: 1) ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith a c?aceao
i?iaoeueeoaaiiyi inoaiiueiai; 2) ei?iiia?e?caoe?y a oa?iaioio iaia?aio
aeiaeaoeiaiai oa?iaioo eaoaeace, yea ?icuaieth? I2I2 c aeae?eaiiyi
eenith; 3) aeei?enoaiiy K3[Fe(CN)6] ye aeueoa?iaoeaiiai ieenethaa/a; 4)
ci?ia aeeooc?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa?iaioii? iaia?aie ca ?aooiie
aeei?enoaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo iaia?ai ??cii? i?e?iaee.

Ia?o? aeaa niiniae ia i?eianee cia/ieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oae, a ia?oiio
aeiaaeeo ie io?eiaee ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio aecia/aiiy aetheice aei 10
iI, iaeiae, a aiae?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? i?iaoeueeoaaiiy eeniai neeueii
oneeaaeith? i?ioeaaeo?o aecia/aiiy aetheice. Ei?iiia?e?caoe?y ae
eaoaeace iieacaea iacia/ia ?icoe?aiiy aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciio naini?a,
oiio ui oa?iaio ia i?iaeoeo?, a eeoa /anoeiai ?aaaia?o? aaea
aeei?enoaiee ?ai?oa eenaiue [Aecyaeaae/ oa ?i., 1995].

Ianooiiei aoaiii ?iaioe aoei aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoe?ai?aeo eae?y ye
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai eenith ieenethaa/a. Aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoe?ai?aeo
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy nooiaiy caeeneaiiy ?ic/eio ana?aaeei?
oa?iaioiiai oa?o (a a?aeiia?aeii aei cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy i?ia?aeiino?),
ine?eueee aaia?o?oueny o?e i?ioiie ia iaeio iieaeoeo aetheice cai?noue
iaeiiai ye o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiiai einoano?aoo eenith.

I?eioeei eiiaeoeoiiao??? neeaaea?oueny c aei??thaaiue caaaeueii?
i?ia?aeiino? c?acea, ? /ooeea?noue aeao/eea ciaioo?oueny i?e ca?eueoai?
oiiiai? i?ia?aeiino? ?ic/eio. Oaeei /eiii aaea i?e eiioeaio?aoe??
oa?eoe?ai?aeo 40 iI ? aeua, a oiiaao aeniei/anoioii? eiiaeoeoiiao???, ia
niinoa??aaeiny a?aeaoeo a?inaini?a ia aianaiiy aetheice. Oiio iaiao?aeii
aoei i?iaanoe aeiaeaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia, i?e yeeo i?a ae aooe
aeei?enoaiee oa?eoe?ai?ae eae?th i?e aecia/aii? aetheice ca aeiiiiiaith
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?a.

Ia ?en. 7 i?eaaaeaii aaei?ooaini? e?ea? aeey eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai
aetheiciiai a?inaini?a a 5 iI oinoaoiiio aooa?? (?I 7,4), ui i?noea 150
iI eiioeaio?aoe?th oa?eoe?ai?aeo eae?y aei oa i?ney aeiaaaeaiiy o ?ic/ei
5 iI aetheice. Ie iiaeaii aa/eoe 10-e?aoia ca?eueoaiiy aaei?oaino ia
iecueeeo /anoioao oa a?aenooi?noue ci?i ia aenieeo /anoioao. Oea iiaeia
iiynieoe aeaeo?iaeoeaieie aeanoeainoyie naiiai oa?eoe?ai?aea eae?th.
Oiio iiaeaeueo? aenia?eiaioe ca o/anoth oa?eoe?ai?aea i?iaiaeeeenue ia
/anoio? no?oio 3 Aoe.

Eae?a?oaaeuei? e?ea? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai aetheiciiai a?inaini?a o 10 iI
oinoaoiiio aooa??, ?I 7,4 ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e oa?eoe?ai?aeo
i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 8. Iiaeia aa/eoe, ui i?e aeei?enoaii? aenieeo
eiioeaio?aoe?e oa?eoe?ai?aeo eae?a?oaaeueia e?eaa aeinyaa? iane/aiiy i?e
a?eueo aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo aetheice. I?e 160 iI eiioeaio?aoe??
oa?eoe?ai?aeo aeeiai?/iee ae?aiacii ?iaioe naini?a ?icoe?th?oueny aei 20
iI. Iaeiae iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? oa?eoe?ai?aeo ia
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaeaeueoiai ?icoe?aiiy aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciio
a?inaini?a, aea aeaui ca?eueoo? eiai /ooeea?noue.

?en. 7. Aaei?ooaini? e?ea? aeey eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai aetheiciiai
a?inaini?a a 5 iI oinoaoiiio aooa?? (pH 7,4), ui i?noea 150 iI
oa?eoe?ai?ae eae?th aei (1) oa i?ney (2) aeiaaaeaiiy o ?ic/ei aetheice
aei eiioeaio?aoe?? 5 iI.

?en. 8. Eae?a?oaaeuei? e?ea? aeey aetheiciiai eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai
a?inaini?o o 10 iI oinoaoiiio aooa??, ?I 7.4, ca ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?e
oa?eoe?ai?aeo eae?th (1 — 80 iI, 2 — 120 iI, 3 — 140 iI, 4 — 150 iI, 5 —
160 iI oa 6 — 200 iI).

Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ??cieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oaeoi??a oa ?o aieeao ia
aeaeyae eae?a?oaaeueieo e?eaeo aetheiciiai eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai
a?inaini?a o i?enooiino? oa?eoe?ai?aea eae?th iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe oaeei
/eiii (?en. 9). Iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? iniiai? iaeano? eiioeaio?aoe??
aetheice oa i?ioeane, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ca o?ae eae?a?oaaeueieo e?eaeo
a oeeo iaeanoyo: (1) — a?ieaoae?oe/ia ?aaeoe?y, aieiaiei /eiii,
aecia/a?oueny ieeneaiiyi FADH2 ca aeiiiiiaith eenith; (2) a oiiaao
«eeniaaiai aeao?oeeoo» ?aaeoe?y aecia/a?oueny ieeneaiiyi FADH2
oa?eoe?ai?aeii eae?y, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo
i?ioii?a; (3) iniiaiee aeeaae a aiie?ooaeo a?aeaoeo a?inaini?a ii/eia?
aiineoe ci?ia aooa?ii? ?iiino? oa ?I ana?aaeei? oa?iaioiiai oa?o.

?en.9. Aieea ??cieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oaeoi??a ia aeaeyae eae?a?oaaeueieo
e?eaeo aetheiciiai eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?a o i?enooiino?
oa?eoe?ai?aea eae?th (a?iioaoe/ia oyaeaiiy).

Oaeei /eiii, aoea iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?aiiy aeeiai?/iiai
ae?aiaciio ?iaioe eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai aetheinaini?a aei 20 iI ca ?aooiie
aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoe?ai?aeo eae?th ye aeueoa?iaoeaiiai ieenethaa/a. Aea
caeaaei?noue a?ae aooa?ii? ?iiino? caeeoa?oueny [Dzyadevich et al.,
1998], aei oiai ae aei??thaaiiy iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe o?eueee ia
iecueeeo /anoioao, ui aeaui oneeaaeith? i?ioeaaeo?o aei??thaaiue, aea
aeicaiey? ?iaioo a na?aaeiaeuao c aaeeeith ?iiiith neeith.

O iiaeaeueo?e ?iaio? iniiaio oaaao aoei neiioeaio?iaaii ia aeei?enoaii?
aeiaeaoeiaeo iaia?ai ??cii? i?e?iaee, ye? iaiinyoueny caa?oo
oa?iaioaoeaii? iaia?aie aeey iiaeeo?eaoe?? naini?a. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo
noai?th?oueny aeeooc?eiee aa?’?? aeey i?iieeiaiiy a iaia?aio iieaeoe
aetheice, o oie /an ye ?ic/eiaiee eenaiue ia? ciiao a?eueii i?ioiaeeoe
ana?aaeeio iaia?aie.

Ia ?en. 10 i?eaaaeai? eae?a?oaaeuei? e?ea? cae/aeiiai aetheiciiai
naini?a oa naini??a iiaeeo?eiaaieo ??cieie aeiaeaoeiaeie iaia?aiaie.

?en. 10. Eae?a?oaaeuei? e?ea? cae/aeiiai aetheiciiai eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai
a?inaini?a (1) oa naini??a iiaeeo?eiaaieo ??cieie aeiaeaoeiaeie
iaia?aiaie: 2% IAA (2), IOAO (3), Nafion (4) ? IAEN (5), io?eiai? a 5 iI
oinoaoiiio aooa??, ?I 7,4.

Aeei?enoaiiy 2 % IAA-iaia?aie aeicaiey? ?icoe?eoe aeeiai?/iee ae?aiacii
?iaioe aeao/eea aei 10 iI c iacia/iei ciaioaiiyi /ooeeaino? (e?eaa 2).
Iiaeeo?eaoe?y naini?a a?eueo u?eueiith aeiaeaoeiaith 5 % IAA-iaia?aiith
ia i?ecaiaeeea aei iiaeaeueoiai ?icoe?aiiy aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciio
?iaioe naini?a, aea eiai /ooeea?noue cia/ii iaaeaea. Aeey naini?a c
aeiaeaoeiaith 10 % IAA-iaia?aiith a?aeaoe?a ia aeiaeaaaiiy aetheice ia
niinoa??aaeinue acaaae?. Iiae?ai? ?acoeueoaoe aoee oaeiae io?eiai? aeey
iie?oao?aa?ae?ioo?aiiaeo iaia?ai. Aeei?enoaiiy 2% IOAO-iaia?aie
aeicaiey? ?icoe?eoe aeeiai?/iee ae?aiacii ?iaioe aeao/eea aei 15 iI aac
iia??oaiiy /ooeeaino? (e?eaa 3).

Aeei?enoaiiy aeiaeaoeiai? iao?ii-iaia?aie i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icoe?aiiy
aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciia ?iaioe naini?a aei 10 iI, a oaeiae aei cia/iiai
ca?eueoaiiy aaee/eie a?aeaoeo naini?a (e?eaa 4). Aoaeo ca?eueoaiiy
aaee/eie a?aeaoeo naini?a iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui iaaaoeaiee ca?yae
iie?ia?a ia?aoeiaeaea? i?iieeiaiith ana?aaeeio oa?iaioii? iaia?aie
a?eueieo iaaaoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie aooa?o ?, oaeei /eiii, aeieo?
aeiaeaoeiaee eaiae «iieaaoaii?» aeeooc?? i?ioii?a ?c iaia?aie, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy i?ia?aeiino? a iaia?ai?.

Aiaeia?/iee aoaeo niinoa??aa?oueny i?e aeei?enoaii? aeiaeaoeiai?
iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaiii? IAEN-iaia?aie (e?eaa 5). Ca?eueoaiiy aiie?ooaee
a?aeaoeo a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iiyniy?oueny oei, ui i?e aeei?enoaii?
IAEN-iaia?ai ca ?aooiie iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi
ana?aaeei? iie?ia?o noai?th?oueny aeeooc?eiee aa?’?? aeey a?eueieo
i?ioii?a, oei naiei aeieoth/e cae/aeio aeeooc?th i?ioii?a ?c iaia?aie.

Aiie?ooaea a?aeaoeo aetheiciiai a?inaini?a aeoaea caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia
i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo, a naia aooa?ii? ?iiino? oa ?iiii? neee
aiae?ciaaieo ?ic/ei?a. Ia ?en. 11 i?aaenoaaeaii caeaaei?noue aiie?ooaee
a?aeaoeo naini?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? aooa?iiai ?ic/eio aeey naini??a c
aeiaeaoeiaeie iaia?aiaie oa aac ieo.

?en. 11. Caeaaei?noue aaee/eie a?aeaoeo eiiaeoeoi-iao?e/iiai aetheiciiai
a?inaini?a aac (1) oa c aeiaeaoeiauie IAEN (2), iao?ii (3), IOAO (4) oa
IAA (5) iaia?aiaie a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? aooa?iiai ?ic/eio. Aei??thaaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue a eae?e-oinoaoiiio aooa??, ?I 7,4, eiioeaio?aoe?y aetheice
— 1 iI.

C ?enoieo aeaeii, ui i?e aeei?enoaii? aeiaeaoeiai? IAEN-iaia?aie (e?eaa
2) aieea aooa?ii? ?iiino? ia aaee/eio a?aeaoeo naini?a caeeoa?oueny
i?aeoe/ii oaeei aea, ye ? o naini??a aac aeiaeaoeiai? iaia?aie. Iiynieoe
oea iiaeia oaeei /eiii. C iaeiiai aieo iaiiny/e iiceoeaii ca?yaeaeaiee
iie?ia? caa?oo oa?iaioii? iaia?aie ie aeieo?ii eaiae cae/aeii? aeeooc??
i?ioii?a, ui ooai?ththoueny a iaia?ai?. A c ?ioiai aieo iiceoeaii
ca?yaeaeaiee iie?ia? i?eoyao? aei naaa a?euei? ai?iie ?c ?ic/eio (a oiio
/ene? ? ai?iie aooa?o), a ?acoeueoao? /iai ?o eiioeaio?aoe?y a?ey
iaia?aie ca?eueoo?oueny, oei naiei ca?eueooth/e iiaeeea?noue ?o
i?iieeiaiiy ana?aaeeio iaia?aie ? aca?iiae?th c i?ioiiaie, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy eaiaeo «iieaaoaii?» aeeooc??. A?aoiaoth/e,
ui aieiaiei oaeoi?ii caeaaeiino? aaee/eie a?aeaoeo naini?a a?ae aooa?ii?
?iiino? ? iayai?noue eaiaeo «iieaaoaii?» aeeooc??, c?icoi?ei, ui aoaeo
aieeao ia a?aeaoe naini?a aooa?ii? ?iiino? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
caeeoa?oueny.

Eiee aeei?enoiao?oueny aeiaeaoeiaa iao?ii-iaia?aia, oi aetheiciee
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iee a?inaini? noa? iaio /ooeeaei aei ci?ie aooa?ii?
?iiino? na?aaeiaeua (e?eaa 3). Oaea ciaioaiiy aieeao aooa?ii? ?iiino? ia
a?aeaoe naini?a iiaeia iiynieoe aeanoeainoyie iao?ii-iie?ia?o. Oiaoi
i?enooi?noue iao?ii-iaia?aie aoaeoeaii aeieo? o?ainii?o
iaaaoeaii-ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie aooa?o /a?ac iaia?aio, aiane?aeie /iai
aeieo?oueny eaiae «iieaaoaii?» aeeooc?? i?ioii?a ?c iaia?aie. Oaeei
/eiii ciaioo?oueny aieea aooa?ii? ?iiino? na?aaeiaeua ia aaee/eio
a?aeaoeo naini?a.

I?e aeei?enoaii? aeiaeaoeiaeo IAA-iaia?aie (e?eaa 5) oa IOAO-iaia?aie
(e?eaa 4), aieea aooa?ii? ?iiino? na?aaeiaeua ia aaee/eio a?aeaoeo
aetheiciiai eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?a noa? ua iaioei. Oea iiaea
aooe iiyniaii aa?’??ieie aeanoeainoyie a?ae?ioiaieo iie?ia?ieo ie?aie
aeey aeeooc?? a?ae?io?eueieo /anoeiie aooa?o.

Oaeiae aoei aea/aii aieea ?iiii? neee ?ic/eio ia aaee/eio a?aeaoeo
naini?a [Aecyaeaae/ oa ?i., 1995, A?oeiiaa, 1998]. Iieacaii, ui i?e
aeei?enoaii? aeiaeaoeiaeo iaia?ai aieea ?iiii? neee ia aaee/eio a?aeaoeo
aeaui ciaioo?oueny.

Ii??aiyiiy iia?aoe?eii? noaa?eueiino? oa a?aeoai?thaaeueiino? ?iaioe
naini?o (c aeiaeaoeiaeie iaia?aiaie oa aac) iieacaei, ui naini?e c
aeiaeaoeiaeie iao?ii oa IAEN iaia?aiaie aeaiiino?othoue e?au?
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Oae, ?iceeae aaee/ei a?aeaoeo ia aeiaaaeaiiy 1 iI
aetheice aeey cae/aeiiai naini?a neeaaeaa a?ey 10%. O aeiaaeeo naini?a c
aeiaeaoeiaeie iaia?aiaie ?iceeae ciaiooaaany aei 5 % oa cia/ii
ca?eueooaaeanue iia?aoe?eia noaa?euei?noue.

Aeei?enoaiiy eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo a?inaini??a aeey aiae?co ?aaeueieo
c?ace?a

Aiae?c eiioeaio?aoe?e aetheice a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? uo??a

sse ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aee ne?iaaoeo e?ia? uo??a c *i?iiaeeuenei?
ciie a?ae/oaeaiiy. Eiio?ieuei? aecia/aiiy aetheice a e?ia? i?iaiaeeee ii
noaiaea?oi?e iaoiaeeoe? c aeei?enoaiiyi oa?iaioiiai iaai?o «Ae?aaethe»
Euea?anueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a (i.Euea?a, Oe?a?ia)
oa ca aeiiiiiaith aiae?caoi?a «Aenai-A» (Eaoa?y).

Aeey aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e aetheice a?inaini?iei iaoiaeii
aeei?enoiaoaaee /anoeio eae?a?oaaeueii? e?eai? aei 1,5 iI o iiaeaeueiiio
?ic/ei?, ui a?aeiia?aeaei 60 iI aetheice a ia?icaaaeai?e ne?iaaooe?
(?icaaaeaiiy a 40 ?ac?a).

Aoaeoeai?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?c?a aetheice a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ca
aeiiiiiaith a?inaini?a aoea ia?aa??aia c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo
noaiaea?oieo aeiaeaaaiue. Ia ?en. 12 i?eaaaeai? ii??aiyeuei? e?ea? aeey
aei??thaaiue, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith a?inaini?o oa iaai?o «Ae?aaethe».
C ?enoieo aeaeii, ui o aeiaaeeo aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aetheice ca
aeiiiiiaith a?inaini?a ie ia?ii iaeaea 100% ocaiaeaeaiiy aeaieo (oaeoi?
e?i?eiino? 1,03, iioeaea aecia/aiiy 3%) ia a?aei?io a?ae aecia/aiue ca
aeiiiiiaith «Ae?aaethea» (oaeoi? e?i?eiino? 0,88, iioeaea aecia/aiiy
12%). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i aenieee nooi?iue oi/iino? aeey aei??thaaiue c
aeei?enoaiiyi a?inaini?o. Aeno?aiieyoe?y ae e?eai? ia a?nue o aea?
cia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aetheice a i?ia? (aac ooo/iiai aeiaeaaaiiy
aetheice).

Ia ?en. 13 iieacaii ii??aiyeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aetheice a
ne?iaaooe? e?ia? uo??a, io?eiai? ca aeiiiiiaith o?ueio ??cieo iaoiae?a.
C ?enoieo /?oei aeaeii ei?aeyoe?th aeaieo. E?aua ni?aiaaeaiiy
a?aei?/a?oueny aeey ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith a?inaini?a oa
«Aenaio-A», ui iiaea aooe iia’ycaii c iaeiaeiaeie i?eioeeiaie oi?ioaaiiy
a?aeaoe?a. O aeiaaeeo iaai?o «Ae?aaethe» (oioiiao?e/iee iaoiae) iiaea
iaoe i?noea aieea caaa?aeaiiy c?ace?a ia ?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a.

?en. 12. Ii??aiyeuei? e?ea? aecia/aiiy aetheice a ne?iaaooe? e?ia? ca
aeiiiiiaith eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?o oa oa?iaioiiai iaai?o
«Ae?aaethe».

?en. 13. Ii??aiyeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a, io?eiai? ca aeiiiiiaith
??cieo iaoiae?a.

E?euee?nia ioe?iea ei?aeyoe?? aeaieo, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith o?ueio
iaoiae?a a 29 ??cieo i?iaao ne?iaaoee e?ia? uo??a iieacaea aeniea
ni?aiaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai
a?inaini?a oa aiae?caoi?a «Aenai-A» (eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? — 2,2 %).

A?inaini?e aeaiiino?oaaee iia?aoe?eio noaa?euei?noue i?ioyaii 48 aiaeei
?iaioe, ui aeicaieyei i?iaanoe 200-300 aei???a aetheice a ?aaeueieo
c?aceao ia iaeiiio aeao/eeo.

Aiae?c eiioeaio?aoe?e aetheice a eoeueoo?aeueieo ??aeeiao

Eiio?ieue ? iioei?caoe?y i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa a?ieia?/ii-aeoeaieo
i?aia?ao?a aeiaaa? oaeaeei? oa a?aeoai?thaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
eiioeaio?aoe?th noano?ao?a oa i?iaeoeo?a, a oaeiae i?i eiioeaio?aoe?th
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ? ?o o?c?ieia?/iee noai (ee?oeiia iana, iiaeeiaiiy
N-aeaea?aea (aetheica), noai N-aeaea?aea (aiii?e oa ai?iieeneioe) oiui).
Oiio aoei i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioe ii canoinoaaiith ?ic?iaeaiiai
a?inaini?a aeey aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e aetheice a eoeueoo?aeueieo
??aeeiao.

Eoeueoo?o ee?oei i?e?ii?aai?ci?a Klebsiella ixitoca ae?iuoaaee a
niiaeeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? LB c aeiaaaeaiiyi 40 iI aetheice i?ioyaii aeiae
i?e oaiia?aoo?? 37(N i?e iino?eiiio ia?ai?ooaaii? oa ia??iaee/ii
a?aeae?aee i?iae aeey eiio?ieth ??aith aetheice a na?aaeiaeu?.
Ii??aiyeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a, io?eiai? ca aeiiiiiaith aeaio
iaoiae?a aei??thaaiiy (a?inaini?iee ? eeane/iee oioiiao?e/iee),
i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 14.

?en. 14. Ii??aiyeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a eiioeaio?aoe?? aetheice i?e
ae?iuoaaii? eoeueoo?e ee?oei Klebsiella ixitoca. Eoeueoo?o
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ae?iuoaaee a niiaeeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? LB

Ia ae?aa?ai? aeaeii oi?ioa ni?aiaaeaiiy aeaieo, io?eiaieo ??cieie
iaoiaeaie, a oaeiae aeeiai?eo ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e aetheice i?e
?ino? eoeueoo?e ee?oei. Oaeei /eiii iao a?inaini? c oni?oii iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey eiio?ieth ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? a eaai?aoi?i?e
i?aeoeoe?.

?ic?iaeaiee a?inaini? oaeiae aoei canoiniaaii aeey aiae?co ?ioeo
eoeueoo?aeueieo ??aeei, o oiio /ene?, a c?aceao i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, io?eiaieo ia Eaaeeaeeinueeiio caaiae? «Aicei»
aaciina?aaeiuei c oa?iaioa??a (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2.

? i/i C?acie Aeaea?aei Eiioeaio?aoe?y, iI Iioeaea, %

1 Eoaeia i?ioaaca «Aicei», i.Eaaeeaeei 3,7(0,3 8,1

2 Aetheiai?eaca «Aicei», i.Eaaeeaeei 30,0(1,5 5,0

3 Na?aaeiaeua ?aea A?aeae?e aaiaoeee ethaeeie ?IA?A 3,6(0,3 8,3

4 Na?aaeiaeua LB A?aeae?e ?aaoeyoi?ieo iaoai?ci?a ee?oeie ?IA?A 18,0(1,0
5,6

A?inaini?e aeaiiino?oaaee iia?aoe?eio noaa?euei?noue i?ioyaii 48 aiaeei
?iaioe, ui aeicaieyei i?iaanoe 200-300 aei???a aetheice a ?aaeueieo
c?aceao ia iaeiiio aeao/eeo.

AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy aieeao ??cieo oaeoi??a ia ?iaioo
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a oa iioei?ciaaii ?o iniiai?
aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey aiae?co ?aaeueieo c?ace?a o iaaee/i?e
i?aeoeoe? ? a?ioaoiieia??.

Iieacaii, ui aeey aeaioiaeaiiy eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a ia ?
iaia’yceiai aeei?enoaiiy aei?iaeo aeaai?iaeieo iaoae?a ? ciaioaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo ?ici???a aeaeo?iae?a, a i?e oeueiio ye i?aeeeaaeeieo
iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aoaeue-yeee iai?ia?aeiee iaoa??ae
i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee, ui aeicaiey? ni?inoeoe oaoiieia?th oa ciaioeoe
aa?o?noue ae?iaieoeoaa oaeeo ia?aoai?thaa/?a.

Ii??aiyiiy a?inaini??a, noai?aieo ia iniia? oa?iaioo iai?oeee?iace oa
?I-/ooeeaeo iieueiaeo o?aicenoi??a ? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ieaia?ieo
aeaeo?iae?a iieacaei, ui aiie iathoue noiae? ?iai/? oa?aeoa?enoeee,
iaeiae, c oaoiieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o eiiaeoeoiiao?e/i? a?inaini?e i?ino?o?
i?e aeaioiaeai? oa a aenieoaoaoe??, ui ?iaeoue ?o a?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie
aeey ianiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy.

Iieacaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy ae?aiaciio ?iaioe eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai
a?inaini?a aei 20 iI aetheice aeinyaa?oueny i?e aeei?enoaii?
oa?eoe?ai?aeo eae?th ye aeueoa?iaoeaiiai eenith ieenethaa/a, iaeiae a
oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe aei??e ia iecueeeo /anoioao
ci?iiiai no?oio, ui aeaui oneeaaeith? i?ioeaaeo?o aei??thaaiue, aea
aeicaiey? ?iaioo a na?aaeiaeuao c aenieith aooa?iith ?ii?noth oa ?iiiith
neeith.

Canoinoaaiiy iai?ai?iieeieo aeiaeaoeiaeo iaia?ai i?e noai?aii?
aetheiciiai eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iiai a?inaini?a ae??oo? i?iaeaio ?icoe?aiiy
eiai aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciio a oiiaao aeniei/anoioii? eiiaeoeoiiao??? oa
iie?auo? iniiai? aiae?oe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, a naia /ooeea?noue ?
noaa?euei?noue, a oaeiae ciaioo? aieea oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua ia a?aeaoe.

Noai?ai? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/i? a?inaini?e aoei aeei?enoaii aeey e?euee?niiai
aiae?co aetheice a ?aaeueieo c?aceao (e?ia uo??a, eoeueoo?aeuei?
??aeeie) oa iieacaii aenieee nooi?iue ei?aeyoe?? c ?acoeueoaoaie,
iaea?aeaieie eeane/ieie iaoiaeaie. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?ioieiee e?euee?niiai
aiae?co aetheice a a?ieia?/ieo ??aeeiao ca aeiiiiiaith noai?aiiai
i?eeaaeo.

IA?AE?E ?IA?O, UI IIOAE?EIAAI? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

N.A. Aecyaeaae/, A.A. Ooeueaa, N.A. Iaoeeianeee, A.I. A?oeiiaa, A.I.
Nieaeaoeei, A.E. No?eoa. Oiieiieaii/iue eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneee aeao/ee
aeey oa?iaioiuo aeinaini?ia // Yeaeo?ioeiey.- 1994.- O. 30, ? 8.-
C.982-987.

S.V. Dzyadevich, A.A. Shul’ga, S.V. Patskovsky, V.N. Arkhipova,
A.P. Soldatkin, V.I. Strikha. Thin-films conductometric transducer for
enzyme biosensor // Russian Journal of Electrochemistry (by
Interperiodica, USA).- 1994.- V. 30, No 8.- P. 887-891.

N.A. Aecyaeaae/, I.I. Nieaeaoe?i, A.I. A?oeiiaa, I.A. Ooeueaa, A.A.
?euenueea. Eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iee oa?iaioiee aetheinaini?. Iiooe oeyo?a
iie?ioaiiy aiae?oe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee // Oe?. a?io?i?/iee aeo?iae.-
1995.- O. 67, ? 6.- N. 53-59.

A.I. A?oeiiaa, N.A. Aecyaeaae/, A.I. Nieaeaoeei, A.A. Aeueneay.
Oa?iaioiua aeinaini?u aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaieoeeeeeia ia iniiaa
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneeo ieaia?iuo yeaeo?iaeia e ?I-/oanoaeoaeueiuo iieaauo
o?aicenoi?ia // Oe?. aeioeie/aneee aeo?iae.- 1996. — O. 68, ? 1.- N.
26-31.

A.I. A?oeiiaa. Aeeyiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiuo
iieeia?iuo iaia?ai ia aiaeeoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneeo
aetheiciuo aeinaini?ia // Aeiiieeia?u e eeaoea.- 1998.- O. 14, ? 3.- N.
242-245.

A.P. Soldatkin, S.V. Dzyadevich, Y.I. Korpan, V.N. Arkhipova, G.A.
Zhylyak, S.A. Piletsky, T.A. Sergeeva, T.L. Panasyuk, A.V. El’skaya.
Biosensors based on conductometric detection // Biopolymers and Cell.-
1998.- V. 14, No 4.- P. 268-277.

S.V. Dzyadevich, V.N. Arkhipova, A.P. Soldatkin, A.V. El’skaya, A.A.
Shul’ga, Glucose conductometric biosensor with potassium
hexacyanoferrate(III) as an oxidizing agent // Analytica Chimica Acta.-
1998.- V. 374/1.- P.11-18.

A.P. Soldatkin, S.V. Dzyadevich, A.A. Shul,ga, V.N. Arkhipova, G.A.
Zhylyak, Y.I. Korpan, V.I. Strikha, A.V. El’skaya. Conductometric enzyme
biosensors for determining of concentrations of some substrates and
inhibitors // Abstract Book of 7th European Congress on biotechnology,
Nice, France, 1995, February 19-23.- Paris: “Synelog”.- 1995.- V.1.-
P.92.

S.V. Dzyadevich, V.N. Arkhipova, A.A. Shul’ga, A.P. Soldatkin. Glucose
conductometric biosensor with potasium ferricyanide as an oxidizing
agent // Abstract Book of NATO ARW «New trends in biosensor
development», Kiev, Ukraine, 1998, July 6-9.- P.64.

A.P. Soldatkin, Ya.I. Korpan, S.V. Dzyadevich, V.N. Arkhipova,
N.V.Karpenko, M.Yu. Alesina. Application of enzyme field effect
transistor for glucose analysis in blood serum // Abstract Book of NATO
ARW «New trends in biosensor development», Kiev, Ukraine, 1998, July
6-9.- P.72.

A?oeiiaa A.I. Iioei?caoe?y iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo
oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a aeey aiae?co ?aaeueieo c?ace?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.20 — a?ioaoiieia?y.- ?inoeooo a?io?i??
?i. I.A.Iaeeaae?ia IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ii iioei?caoe??
iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a oa
noai?aiith aenieiaoaeoeaieo ? noaa?eueieo nenoai aeey aiae?co ?aaeueieo
c?ace?a. Anaa?/ii aeine?aeaeaii aieea oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a,
iaoa??ae?a, oi?ie oa ?ici???a aeaeo?iae?a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee
ia?aoai?thaa/?a ? ?ic?iaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o
iioeiaeueiiai aeai?o. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ?iai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee
a?inaini??a ia iniia? eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa ?I-/ooeeaeo
iieueiaeo o?aicenoi??a aeey e?euee?niiai aiae?co iai?oeee?io.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eueea oeyo?a oe?eani?yiiaaii? ci?ie aiae?oe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/ieo oa?iaioieo a?inaini??a, cie?aia
/ooeeaino? oa aeeiai?/iiai ae?aiaciio aei??thaaiue, ? i?iaaaeaii ?o
aeaoaeueiee aiae?c. ?ic?iaeaii aetheiciee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iee a?inaini?
aeey aiae?co ?aaeueieo c?ace?a (e?ia? ? eoeueoo?aeueieo ??aeei) aac
iiia?aaeiuei? ?o ia?iaee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiiaeoeoiiao?e/iee oa?iaioiee a?inaini?, ?iiaaeainia
niaeo?ineii?y, aetheica, iai?oeee?i, iaia?aia.

A?oeiiaa A.I. Iioeiecaoeey iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneeo
oa?iaioiuo aeinaini?ia aeey aiaeeca ?aaeueiuo ia?acoeia. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.20 — aeioaoiieiaey.- Einoeooo aeioeiee ei.
A.A.Iaeeaaeeia IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou ii iioeiecaoeee
iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneeo oa?iaioiuo aeinaini?ia e
nicaeaieth aunieiyooaeoeaiuo e noaaeeueiuo nenoai aeey aiaeeca ?aaeueiuo
ia?acoeia. Ananoi?iiia enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea oneiaee i?iaaaeaiey
yenia?eiaioia, iaoa?eaeia, oi?iu e ?acia?ia yeaeo?iaeia ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aia?aciaaoaeae e ?ac?aaioaiu i?aeoe/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey eo iioeiaeueiiai auai?a. I?iaaaeaii n?aaiaiea
?aai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee aeinaini?ia ia iniiaa eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneeo
i?aia?aciaaoaeae e ?I-/oanoaeoaeueiuo iieaauo o?aicenoi?ia aeey
eiee/anoaaiiiai aiaeeca iaieoeeeeeia. I?aaeeiaeaii ianeieueei iooae
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai eciaiaiey aiaeeoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneeo oa?iaioiuo aeinaini?ia, a eiaiii /oanoaeoaeueiinoe
e aeeiaie/aneiai aeeaiaciia ecia?aiee, e i?iaaaeai eo aeaoaeueiue
aiaeec. ?ac?aaioai aetheiciue eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneee aeinaini? aeey
aiaeeca ?aaeueiuo ia?acoeia (e?iae e eoeueoo?aeueiuo aeeaeeinoae) aac eo
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ia?aaioee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiaeoeoiiao?e/aneee oa?iaioiue aeinaini?,
eiiaaeainiay niaeo?ineiiey, aetheica, iaieoeeeeei, iaia?aia.

Arkhipova V.N. Optimization of basic characteristics of conductometric
enzyme biosensors for analysis of real samples. Manuscript.

Thesis for degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Biology, speciality
03.00.20 — biotechnology.-O.V.Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The thesis contains the results on optimization of basic characteristics
of conductometric enzyme biosensors and creation of highly effective and
stable systems for analysis of real samples. Influence of the
experimental conditions, materials, forms and sizes of electrodes on
characteristics of the transducers was thoroughly investigated, and
practical recommendations for their optimal selection were developed.
Working characteristics of biosensors based on conductometric
transducers and pH-sensitive field-effect transistors for determination
of penicillin were compared. Some ways of purposeful change of
analytical characteristics of conductometric biosensors such as
sensitivity and dynamic range of measurements were proposed, and their
detailed analysis was conducted. The glucose conductometric biosensor
for analysis of real samples (blood and cultural media) without
treatment was developed.

Key words: conductometric enzyme biosensor, impedance spectroscopy,
glucose, penicillin, membrane.

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