IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IAAeOAA?AeEO IAOA??AE?A ?i. A.I. AAEOEss

EOOeAE IEAENAIAe? IEOAEEIAE*

OAeE 621.793:539.216.2

IIOEI?CAOe?ss IIOE*IEO OA?AEOA?ENOEE

CAOENIEO I?INA?OETHTH*EO IIE?EOO?A ?C

AII?OIEO A?Ae?IAAI?CIAAIEO AOAEAOeAAEO

IE?AIE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue — 05.02.01 “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai”

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a ?i. A.I. Aaeoey IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee,

Aiioa? Ieaenaiae? A?eai?iae/,

?inoeooo iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a ?i. A.I.Aaeoey

IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Eiiaeiaa ?a?na Aanee?aia,

?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/a eaai?aoi???th

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe,

Ia?aaa?oaeei Aaneeue Ieoaeeiae/,

?inoeooo iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a ?i. A.I. Aaeoey

IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oeaio?aeueia eiino?oeoi?nueea ath?i “A?naiae”, i.
Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “14” n?/iy 1999 ?. i 1330 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.230.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a

?i. A.I. Aaeoey IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254074 Ee?a-74, aoe.
Aaoicaaiaenueea, 2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a ?i. A.I. Aaeoey IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aaoicaaiaenueea,2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “10“ a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
A.E.Iaeno?aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

Aeiaciiiae?ai? aoaeaoeaa? ie?aee iathoue aaaaoiia?oeyth/o ia?niaeoeao
ii aeei?enoaiith a yeino? oaoiieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a a aaaaoueio aaeocyo
no/anii? i?iieneiaino?. Oea iia’yco?oueny ye ?c ?yaeii ?o o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae, oae ?c a?aeiinii iecueeith nia?aa?o?noth io?eiaiiy.
Ei?eniith iniaeea?noth i?ioeano neioaco aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie ?
iiaeeea?noue inaaeaeaiiy ia ??ciioeii? iaoa??aee i?e oaiia?aoo?ao
aeecueeeo aei e?iiaoii?. Cia/i? aa??aoe?? aeanoeainoae aeiaciiiae?aieo
ie?aie (AII), ye? caaeathoueny oeyoii ci?ie oiia neioaco, aeicaieythoue
io?eioaaoe iie?eooy ?c iaiao?aeieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. A caeaaeiino? a?ae
iaoiaeo oa oaoiieia?/ieo oiia io?eiaiiy oe?eia caai?iiaii? ciie AII
iiaea ci?ithaaoenue a iaaeao a?ae 0,2 aei 3 aA, ae?aeaeo?e/ia
i?iieei?noue a?ae 2 aei 16, i?e?ioaa?ae?noue a?ae 1 aei 20 AIa. Aaea
nueiaiaei? aeiaciiiae?ai? aoaeaoeaa? ie?aee i?iiiiothoueny a yeino?
iie?eoo?a ??ciiiai?oieo eiino?oeoe?e ?iaeaia?iiai oa iaaee/iiai
i?ecia/aiiy. Aeeiiothoueny ?iaioe ii canoinoaaiith aeiaciiiae?aiiai
aoaeaoeth a iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo i?eeaaeao oa o yeino?
aoaeaoeaaeo ?aioaai?anueeeo aeca?eae.

Ca inoaii? ?iee cia/ieie oaiiaie ae?inei aeei?enoaiiy ?io?a/a?aiiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ye o iaoeiaeo ?iaioao, oae ? a aaaaoueio oaoi?/ieo
aaeocyo. Aeaoae? oa aocee ?io?a/a?aiii? aiia?aoo?e iiaeii? iaoe
??ciiiai?oi? o?ce/i? ? o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oa caaeiaieueiyoe aeinoaoiuei
aei?noeei aenieoaoaoe?eiei aeiiaai. Oae aeaioiaeaiiy i?iieneiai?
aia?aoo?e aeiaaa? no?eeino? iioe/ieo aeaoaeae aei ??ciiiai?oieo aac?a oa
?ic/eiiee?a, oiaoi aei oeo oiia, a yeeo aiie aoaeooue aenieoaooaaoenue.
Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey aeei?enoaiiy iioe/ieo iaoa??ae?a ? ?o oi?ioa
i?ici??noue a iio??aiiio niaeo?aeueiiio ae?aiacii?. I?ina?oeaiiy iioeee
cia/ii ?icoe?th? iiaeeea?noue aeai?o iaiao?aeiiai i?ici?iai iaoa??aeo.

Ia aeaiee /an ia ?nio? oi?aa?naeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? oiio aeoaea /anoi
i?eeiathoueny eiii?ii?ni? ??oaiiy oa cae?enith?oueny aea?? iaoa??ae?a c
iaaieie iioe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

I?ina?oethth/? iie?eooy, ui canoiniaothoueny a ?*-iioeoe? oa
iioiaeaeo?ii?oe? ia caaeiaieueiythoue aeiiaai, ui iia’ycai? c ?o
oaiia?aoo?iith, ?aae?aoe?eiith oa iaoai?/iith no?ee?noth, o?i?/iith
?ia?oi?noth. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aa??aoe?y ?o iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae
iia’ycaia c? cia/ieie oaoiieia?/ieie o?oaeiiuaie. Oaoiieia?y iaianaiiy
aaaaoueio ie?aeiooai?thth/eo iaoa??ae?a aeiaaa? iaa??aaiiy i?aeeiaeee
aei cia/ieo oaiia?aoo?. A yeino? iio?aeieo ?aaaaio?a aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeaooiiaaacia/i? oa aenieioiene/i? aace.

A ?*-iioeoe? oe?iei canoiniaothoueny e?aii??a? oa aa?iai??a? aeaiaioe.
Iath/e aeoaea iaea iiaeeiaiiy a ?*-niaeo?aeueiiio ae?aiacii?, iioe/i?
aeaoae? ?c oaeeo iaoa??ae?a ii?yae c oeei aeathoue aaeee? ao?aoe aia?a??
na?oeiaiai iioieo ca ?aooiie cia/ieo eiao?oe??io?a o?aiae?anueeiai
a?aeaeaaiiy. Caaaeaiiy ii ciaioaiith oeeo ao?ao iiaeia ae??oeoe oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy i?ina?oethth/eo a-N:I iie?eoo?a oa aaaaoioa?iaeo
??ciioeiieo iano?eeeo i?ina?oethth/eo ?ioa?oa?aioe?eieo no?oeoo? ?c
ciai?oi?i i?ina?oethth/ei ? aiaeii/an ooieoe?iiaeueii caoeniei
aeiaciiiae?aiei oa?ii, yeee caaacia/oaaoeia aenie? iaoai?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Iniiaiith i?iaeaiith i?e inaaeaeaii? iioe/ieo iie?eoo?a ia iniia? a-N:I
ie?aie ? caaacia/aiiy ?o iaeii??aeiino? ia aaeee?e ieiu?, oi?ioee
aaeaac?eiee eiioaeo ?c i?aeeiaeeith, i?i?iaeueia e?euee?noue noi?iii?o
aeii?oie oa aeinyaiaiiy ? noaa?eueia a?aeoai?aiiy iaaii? no?oeoo?e, yea
caaacia/eoue iaiao?aei? iioe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Iaoiae inaaeaeaiiy
aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie ?c ieacie noeioeueiaaii? A*-?ic?yaeii caaeiaieueiy?
iaaaaeaiei aeua aeiiaai.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee iioe/ieo iie?eoo?a aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia
caaaeuei? iieacieee yeino? ? i?aoeac?ei?noue ia?aiao??a iioe/ieo
i?eno?i?a. A ca’yceo c oeei caaaeaee aeooaeueieie ? :

— i?iaeaie iie?auaiiy iioe/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iie?eoo?a (?icoe?aiiy niaeo?aeueii? iaeano? i?ici?ino?, ciaioaiiy
iiaeeiaiiy, iie?ioaiiy oa?i?/ii?, iaoai?/ii? oa ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?,
ca?eueoaiiy noaa?eueiino? ? oa?i?io aenieoaoaoe??), iie?auaiiy
aeieia?/ii? /enoioe ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a ;

— cai?ia o?aaeeoe?eieo ie?aeiooai?thth/eo iaoa??ae?a aeniei?
oiene/iino?, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a iniiaiiio aeey ?* iaeano? niaeo?o,
ia iaio oiene/i? aai aeieia?/ii iaoe?aeeea? ;

— iiooe iiaeo iiaeeeainoae oaeineiiaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo
ie?aeiooai?thth/eo iaoa??ae?a c iaoith iie?auaiiy ?o aeanoeainoae, a
oaeiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ie?aeiooai?thth/eo iaoa??ae?a ? iioei?caoe?y
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a iaianaiiy oiieiie?aeiaeo iie?eoo?a.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue: ?ic?iaea i?ina?oethth/eo iie?eoo?a ia
iniia? a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie, oeyoii aea/aiiy ?o
no?oeoo?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa aeanoeainoae o aca?iica’yceo c
oaoiieia?/ieie oiiaaie inaaeaeaiiy oa a neeaae? aaaaoioa?iaeo
i?ina?oethth/eo iie?eoo?a. I?iaaaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaii iaoiiaeaii?
iioei?caoe?? iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a-N:I iie?eoo?a ii ?acoeueoaoao
aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia:

1. Ae?noaee iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aieeao
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a inaaeaeaiiy oa ?iei?ii?oaaiiy acioii a i?ioean?
neioaco ia no?oeoo?o ? iioe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeaoeaaeo
a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo ie?aie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aa??aoe?y aaee/eie na?aaeiuei?
aia?a?? ?ii?a a i?ioean? inaaeaeaiiy (A?) oa neeaae ?iai/i? aaciai?
noi?o? — iniiai? /eiieee, ui aeicaieythoue io?eioaaoe ie?aee ?c
eiino?oeoeaii iaoiiaeaieie cia/aiiyie iieacieea caeiieaiiy a?ae 1,6 aei
2,3 oa i?i?iaeueiei eiao?oe??ioii iiaeeiaiiy — aei 0,01.

2. Aia?oa io?eiaii aeai? ii niaeo?aeuei?e caeaaeiino? oioiaieueoa?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee e?aii??aeo niiy/ieo aeaiaio?a ?c a-N:I iie?eooyie a
ae?aiacii? 400-900 ii. Iioei?caoe?y iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa oiauei
/aa?oueoaeeueiaeo i?ina?oethth/eo a-N:I iie?eoo?a caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy
eiao?oe??ioo ei?enii? ae?? niiy/ii? aaoa?a? ia 40 %.

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a-N:I ie?aie a
iecueei/anoioiiio ae?aiacii? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue iieacaee, ui
ciaioaiiy nooiaith a?ae?iaai?caoe?? ie?aee oa c?inoaiiy e?eueeino?
o?eaiiaeueieo ca’yce?a ca?eueoo? a?aeiinio ae?aeaeo?e/io i?iieei?noue c
1,7 aei 8. Aaaaeaiiy a a-N:I ie?aeo acioo, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
aonoeie aeaeo?iiieo noai?a a aa?oei? aaeaioii? ciie, yea i?iyaey?oueny
c?inoaiiyi aaniethoieo cia/aiue ae?enii? /anoeie eiiieaenii?
ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? a iaeano? e?ath iiaeeiaiiy oa i?aeciiieo
ia?aoiae?a, ciaioaiiyi iioe/ii? oe?eie caai?iiaii? ciie ? ca?eueoaiiyi
a?aeiinii? ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? a iecueei/anoioiiio ae?aiacii?
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue aei 17.

4. Aecia/aiiy na?oei?icn?yiiy a a-N:I ie?aeao ? anoaiiaeaiiy ei?aeyoe??
i?ae ?? aaee/eiith oa iniaeeainoyie no?oeoo?e iiaa?oi? ie?aee, iieacaee
iiaeeea?noue cieaeaiiy na?oei?icn?yiiy iioe/iiai aeaiaioo aei 0,003 % ca
?aooiie ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? a?ao?oieo e?enoae?o?a, oeyoii inaaeaeaiiy
ie?aie i?e i?i?iaeueieo iai?oaao aaoici?uaiiy — 100 200 A.

5. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenio ioe?ieo i?ina?oethth/eo oa caoenieo
aeanoeainoae aaaaoioa?iaeo i?ina?oethth/eo iie?eoo?a ?c aaaaeaiiyi aei
?o neeaaeo a?ae?iaai?ciaaii? aoaeaoeaai? ie?aee a ?*-niaeo?aeueiiio
ae?aiacii? 2-14 iei. Oaoiieia?/ii a?aei?aoeueiaaii io?eiaiiy a-N:I
iie?eoo?a c iioeiaeueieie iioe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ye? iaaeathoue
ciai?oi?e iiaa?oi? AOI iioe/iiai aeaiaioo iaoai?/io i?oei?noue “0” a?oie
(INO-3-1901-85) oa i?aeaeuothoue eiai ao?iiaoe/i?noue ? caaacia/othoue
i?iioneaiiy aei 93-95 %.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy: Aeeth/aiiy a-C:H ie?aie a aaaaoioa?ia? eiiiiceoe??
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iie?eoo?a aeicaiey? cia/ii iie?aueoe iaoai?/io
i?oei?noue ? no?ee?noue ?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue iioe/iiai aeaiaioo, a a
ii?aeiaii? c aenieicaeiiethth/eie iaoa??aeaie, oae? ie?aee ciiaeooue
iaeii/anii neoaeeoe aioea?aeaeaath/eie iie?eooyie. Oaoiieia??, ye?
aoaeooue ?ic?iaeai? c canoinoaaiiyi oaeeo iie?eoo?a, aeicaieyoue
noai?eoe iioe/i? aeaiaioe ye?nii iiaiai ??aith, ui nooo?ai iie?aueoue
oi/i?noue ? aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee iioe/ieo i?eno?i?a. Iioe/i?
aeaiaioe i?aeaeuaii? iaoai?/ii? no?eeino? c a-N:I iie?eooyie aoaeooue
aeei?enoiaothoueny o oaieia?ci?ao, aaci-, aieiaiaiae?caoi?ao, eaca?ieo
nenoaiao, iao?ieia?/i?e aia?aoo?? aeey iioe/ieo aei??thaaiue oa
??ciioeiieo iioiaeaeo?iiieo aeaiaioao. Iioaioe?eieie niiaeeaa/aie oaei?
aia?aoo?e ? i?eeaaeiaoae?aieoeoai, o?i?/ia, aaciaa i?iieneiaino?,
iaaeeoeeia oa ?io? aaeoc? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie : Aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeai? o
aeai?e ?iaio?, a iniiaiiio aeeiioaaeenue o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiaoeeith
i?iaeaie 1.3.3.1. “Ooai?aiiy oa ??no e?enoae?a ? ie?aie” ii oaiao “Aieea
oiia inaaeaeaiiy ia i?ioeane ?inoo, oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e ? ciiio aoaeiao
aeiaciiiae?aieo ie?aie a-N:I oeio” (aeeiioaaeanue ca?aeii ??oaiiy A/aii?
?aaee ?II IAI Oe?a?ie a?ae 30.06.1994?.) oa “Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? a-N:I ie?aie i?e ?iei?ii?oaaii? ?o aeaiaioaie III oa V
a?oie a i?ioean? ?inoo, aieeao oaiia?aoo?e oa ei?ioneoey?ii-ae?iiii?
ia?iaee”(aeeiioaaeanue ii iinoaiia? Ath?i AOOII IAI Oe?a?ie a?ae
06.27.1996 ?. ?10).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe: Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia XVII
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo “Iieo/aiea, naienoaa e
i?eiaiaiea naa?ooaa?aeuo iaoa?eaeia” (i.Ee?a, ea?oaiue 1992?.),
Iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? e?a?i NIAe “Aeiac: Oeceea e yeaeo?iieea» (?in?y,
i.Iineaa, ethoee 1993?.), 4-io I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? ii oaiaeaioe?yo
oa iiaeo canoinoaaiiyo oiieeo ie?aie ?acii ?c 11-th eiioa?aioe??th ii
aenieiio aaeooio, aca?iiae?? oa oiieeo ie?aeao (TATF/HVITF 94)
(I?ia//eia, i.Ae?acaeai, aa?acaiue 1994?.), Ae?oaiio i?aeia?iaeiiio
neiiic?oi? ii aeiacieo ie?aeao (ISDF-2)(A?ea?onue, i.I?ine, o?aaaiue
1994?.), I?aeaea?aeaai?e eiioa?aioe?? e?a?i NIAe “Aeiaciiiaeiaiua ieaiee
oaea?iaea» (i.Oa?e?a, /a?aaiue 1994?), 8-io Anana?oiueiio ea?ai?/iiio
eiia?an? oa Oi?oi? ii iiaeo iaoa??aeao (CIMTEC)(?oae?y, i.Oei?aioe?y,
/a?aaiue-eeiaiue 1994?.), 4-e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii iiaiio
aeiaco : iaoea oa canoinoaaiiy (ICNDST-4) (ssiii?y, i.Eiaa, eeiaiue
1994?.), 2-e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “E?enoae?caoe?y C-BN oa aeiac?a
i?e iiieaeaieo oeneao” (C-BN & D-95)(Iieueua, i.Aa?oaaa, /a?aaiue
1995?.), O?aoueiio i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiiceoi? ii aeiacieo ie?aeao
(ISDF-3) (?in?y, i.Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, /a?aaiue 1996?.), 7-e ?a?iiaene?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii aeiaco, aeiaciiiae?aieo oa nii??aeiaieo iaoa??aeao ?acii
c 5-th I?aeia?iaeiith eiioa?aioe??th ii iiaiio aeiaco : iaoea oa
canoinoaaiiy (ICNDST-5)(O?aioe?y, i.Oo?, /a?aaiue 1996?.),
I?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? “I?ia?aneai? oaoiieia??
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo ie?aie ? no?oeoo? oa ?o canoinoaaiiy o oioii?oe? “
(i.Oaeai?iae, aeiaoaiue 1996?.), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii iioe/ieo
iaoiaeao ae?aaiinoeee (OPTDIM-97)(i.Ee?a, /a?aaiue 1997?.), VII
Ana?in?enuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeiacu a oaoieea e yeaeo?iieea” (?in?y,
i.Iineaa, o?aaaiue 1997?.), VI I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?ceea ?
oaoiieia?y oiieeo ie?aie” (i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee, o?aaaiue 1997?.),
I?aeia?iaei?e oeie?-eiioa?aioe?? aeey iieiaeeo a/aieo (SSPFA-97)
(n.Eaoeeaae?, /a?aaiue 1997?.), 8-e ?a?iiaenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ii
aeiaco, aeiaciiiae?aieo oa nii??aeiaieo iaoa??aeao ?acii c 4-th
I?aeia?iaeiith eiioa?aioe??th ii canoinoaaiith aeiacieo ie?aie ?
nii??aeiaieo iaoa??ae?a (Aiae?y, i.Aae?iao?a, na?iaiue 1997?.),
Ana?in?enueeiio neiiic?oi? ca o/anoth a/aieo c e?a?i NIAe “Aii?oiua e
iee?ie?enoaeee/aneea iieoi?iaiaeieee” (?in?y, i.Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, eeiaiue
1998?.), I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “O?ceea ? oaoiieia?y
iaiino?oeoo?iaaieo, aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo iaoa??ae?a” (i.Oaeai?iae,
aa?anaiue 1998?.)

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a — aaciina?aaeiy o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, o/anoue a iaaiai?aii?
oa aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a ?ia?o, o iinoaiiaoe? ?acii ?c iaoeiaei
ea??aieeii eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiue. ?io? ni?aaaoi?e ?ia?o
a?aee o/anoue o i?aeaioiaoe? aeine?aeieo c?ace?a, i?iaaaeaii? ie?aieo
aei??thaaiue oa iaaiai?aii? ?acoeueoao?a.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 5 ?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoeo. Iaoa??ae ?ici?uaii ia 150 a?eooao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
aeeth/ath/e 59 ?enoie?a oa 8 oaaeeoeue. A?ae?ia?ao?y neeaaea?oueny ?c
121 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ?iaioe,
iaaaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aecia/athoue ?? iiaecio.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? a?aeia?aaeaii e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae no/aniiai noaio
aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae,
i?ioean?a inaaeaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy aeiaciiiae?aieo
aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie. ?icaeyiooi iniiai? iiaeaeuei? oyaeaiiy i?i ?o
aioo??oith no?oeoo?o. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a inaaeaeaiiy
oa ?acoeueoao?a aea/aiiy aeanoeainoae aii?oieo a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo
aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie o aca?iica’yceo c eiino?oeoeaieie aeiiaaie aei
iioe/ieo iie?eoo?a, i?aeoaa?aeea iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy nenoaiaoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeanoeainoae oaeeo ie?aie oa iioei?caoe?? ?o iioe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeey ae??oaiiy caaaeaiiy ii aeei?enoaiith a yeino?
i?ina?oethth/eo iie?eoo?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e — iaoiaee/iee. No?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aie
aeeiiaii ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a eieeaaeueii? niaeo?ineii??:
?io?a/a?aiii? (?*) oa eiia?iaoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy na?oea (E?N). Iaaaaeaii
iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo iioe/ieo eiinoaio AII ?c aeaieo ii a?aeaeaaiith oa
i?iioneaiith. Ca aeiiiiiaith oioiiao?e/ii? ?ioaa?oth/i? noa?e i?iaaaeaii
aei??thaaiiy ?ioaineaiino? na?oei?icn?yiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aae?e-iaiiiaiai eaca?a (=632,8 ii) aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a aei oa i?ney
inaaeaeaiiy aoaeaoeaai? ie?aee.

Aaaeeeaei oaoiieia?/iei ia?aiao?ii aeey iioe/iiai iie?eooy ? eiai
oiaueia. Oiaueio a-N:I ie?aie aei??ththaaee ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiei,
ae?iniiao?e/iei oa i?io?eiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii. Aeey aeni?an-eiio?ieth
io?eioaaiiai iie?eooy aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae aecia/aiiy oiaueie ie?aee
ii ?? ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiiio caaa?aeaiith. Aeei?enoaiiy io?eioaaieo ie?aie a
yeino? i?ina?oethth/eo oa caoenieo iie?eoo?a iaeeaaea? iaai? aeiiae ii
yeino? iiaa?oi? ie?aee (/enoioa iiaa?oi? ia ieae/a 13 eeano). Aeey
eiio?ieth yeino? iiaa?oi? oa aaee/eie iaiaeii??aeiinoae ii oiauei?
o?enoaaeinue iieiaeaiiy ?ioa?oa?aioe?eieo i?i?ioi?a ia niaeo?ao
a?aeaeaaiiy ie?aie inaaeaeaieo ia e?aii??a? i?aeeiaeee a OO-aeae. oa
?*-ae?aiaciiao, aeeiioaaeenue aei??thaaiiy niaeo?aeueii? caeaaeiino?
aeeoociiai ?icn?yiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e iiaa?oi? ie?aie
i?iaaaeaii iaoiaeii aoiiii? neeiai? i?e?ineii??.

A ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iaoiaeeeo inaaeaeaiiy oa iien ieaciio?i?/ii?
onoaiiaee aeey io?eiaiiy a-N:I ie?aie. A yeino? ?iai/i? canoiniaoaaeanue
iaoai-aiaeiaaa oa acio-iaoai-aiaeiaaa aaciaa noi?o. Aeei?enoaiee i?e
aeaioiaeaii? onoaiiaee iaa?? iaoa??ae?a aeicaieea cia/ii ciaioeoe
iaeiio?ieueiaaia caa?oaeiaiiy aiane?aeie aaciaeae?eaiiy oa i?aeo?eioaaoe
aenieo ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue aeaoaeae. Aoe?eiio, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?yaeo
i?eioeeiiai iiaeo eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue, caaacia/eei noaa?eueia
a?aeoai?aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ioean?a inaaeaeaiiy
aeiaciiiae?aieo aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? a?aeia?aaeaii aieea oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
ieaciio?i?/iiai i?ioeano ia no?oeoo?o oa aeanoeaino? a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo
aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie. No?oeoo?a oa aeanoeaino? aii?oieo a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo
aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie, io?eioaaieo ?c ieacie A*-?ic?yaeo, aecia/athoueny
noeoii?noth o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oi? ia yeo i?iaaaeeoueny
inaaeaeaiiy oa oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano neioaco. Aea a i?ioean?
ieaciio?i?/iiai neioaco oe? oaeoi?e neeaaeiei /eiii aca?iiiia’ycai? i?ae
niaith. Aa??aoe?y aaee/eie eiaeiiai c ieo i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?aeiia?aeieo
ci?i oiia inaaeaeaiiy a oe?eiio. Iioei?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a
iio?aao? nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaeueii? no?oeoo?e aoaeaoeaaiai
eiiaeainaoo o aca?iica’yceo c oiiaaie ?inoo. Iinoaiiaea caaaeaiiy oeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiaaaea iaeneiaeueiiai ciaioaiiy aca?iicaeaaeiino?
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a oa i?iaaaeaiiy na??? aenia?eiaio?a ?c ci?iith
iaeiiai ?c ieo i?e iaeneiaeueii iiaeeea?e noaa?e?caoe?? ?ioeo. Oaeei
/eiii aoei anoaiiaeaii nooi?iue aieeao eiaeiiai ia?aiao?o ia no?oeoo?o
oa iioe/i? aeanoeaino? aii?oieo a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie.

Aeine?aeaeaii caeaaei?noue no?oeoo?e a-N:I ie?aie a?ae iiooaeiino?
A*-?ic?yaeo. Ie?aee inaaeaeai? i?e i?i?iaeueieo iiooaeiinoyo ?ic?yaeo
aoee iie?ia?iiiae?aieie. Ca?eueoaiiy iiooaeiino? A*-?ic?yaeo aeicaieyei
inaaeaeoaaoe ie?aee, ui oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue niaeo?aie E?N i?eoaiaiieie
aeiaciiiae?aiei aoaeaoeaaei eiiaeainaoai. A ae?aiacii? ci?ie iiooaeiino?
yeiio a?aeiia?aeaee iai?oae aaoici?uaiiy a?ae -200 aei -700 A aiie iaee
iiae?aio no?oeoo?o niaeo??a E?N oa?aeoa?io aeey aeiaciiiae?aieo
aoaeaoeaaeo a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo ie?aie. Iniiaiith oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith
aieeao iiooaeiino? ?ic?yaeo ia E?N niaeo?e a-N:I ie?aie ? ca?eueoaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae D oa G — iie?n — ID/IG. A?aeiioaiiy
ca?eueoo?oueny c 0.61 i?e iiooaeiino? ye?e a?aeiia?aea? aaoici?uaiiy Vb
= -200 A aei 3.44 i?e Vb = -700 A. ?ioith oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ?
aeniei/anoioiee cnoa iaeneioi?a D oa G — iie?n. Iaeneioi G- nioae
ci?uo?oueny c 1532 ni-1 i?e i?i?iaeuei?e aei 1573 ni-1 i?e iaeneiaeuei?e
iiooaeiino? ?ic?yaeo. A /enoiio a?ao?o? G- nioaa o?eno?oueny i?e 1580
ni-1. A?aeiia?aeiee aeniei/anoioiee cnoa c 1320 ni-1 aei 1393 ni-1
niinoa??aa?oueny aeey D-nioae. Iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe, ui c?inoaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae iie?n noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi
iai?aoe?eie G-nioae oa ca?eueoaiiyi iai?aoe?eie D-nioae.

Aiae?c E?N niaeo??a aeine?aeaeoaaieo a-N:I ie?aie iieaco?, ui c?inoaiiy
iiooaeiino? A*-?ic?yaeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icoii?yaeeoaaiiy a?ao?oii?
neeaaeiai? a no?oeoo?? ie?aee, ciaioaiiy ?ici???a a?ao?oieo
i?e?ieeanoa??a oa c?inoaiiy ?o e?eueeino?. Oae, ca?aeii oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?aooie?a iaaaaeaieo o ?iaioao A?iaia, oa ii??aiyiiy c io?eiaieie
caeaaeiinoyie a iiaaae?ioe? niaeo??a E?N, i?aeaeuaiiy iiooaeiino?
coiiaeth? eooiaa ?icoii?yaeeoaaiiy i?aeaoaeaoeaaeo cayce?a.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeeo i?eiouaiiue ? aeniei/anoioiee cnoa G-nioae oa
c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? D-nioae. C?inoaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
?ioaineaiinoae D oa G — iie?n — ID/IG coiiaeaii ?ici??aie iaeanoae
a?ao?oii? neeaaeiai? o ie?aoe?. Ca?eueoaiiy aaee/eie iiooaeiino?
?ic?yaeo aaaea aei ciaioaiiy ?ici???a i?e?ie?enoaee?o?a a?ao?oo a
aaceni?e ieiuei? oa ca?eueoaii? ?o e?eueeino?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ciaioaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoaio a ?iai/?e aacia?e noi?o? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ca?eueoaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae D oa G — iie?n — ID/IG.
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c?inoa? c 1.1 aei 2.7 i?e 100 ia.% oa 20 ia.%
eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoaio a?aeiia?aeii. Ia E?N niaeo?ao oaeiae
niinoa??aa?oueny aeniei/anoioiee cnoa iaeneioio G-nioae. A?i ci?uo?oueny
c 1540 ni-1 aei 1574 ni-1. Oaeei /eiii a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
niinoa??aathoueny caeaaeiino? aiaeia?/i? oei, ui a?aeaoaaeenue i?e ci?i?
iiooaeiino? ?ic?yaeo. Aiae?c io?eiaieo caeaaeiinoae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
ID/IG a?ae iniiaieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a neioaco a-N:I ie?aie
(?en. 1.) iieaco?, ui ie?aee neioaciaai? i?e i?aeaeuai?e
iiooaei?noue ?ic?yaeo oa ?iai/?e aacia? noi?o? c iecueeei ai?noii iaoaio
iathoue iiae?ai? no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?. Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c niaeo??a E?N
c?ace?a ia ??ciioeiieo i?aeeeaaeeao ia iieacaa nooo?ai? caeaaeiino?
no?oeoo?e ie?aie a?ae iaoa??aeo iiaa?oi?.

Ia E?N niaeo?ao acioiai?uoth/eo ie?aie oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith
i?iyaey?oueny aeniei/anoioiee cnoa D- oa G- nioa. I?e oeueiio, a
ii??aiyii? c ia?iei?ii?iaaieie ie?aeaie, cia/i?oa ci?uoaaeanue D- nioaa
(a na?aaeiueiio ia 50-70 ni-1) ? ?? iaeneioi ciaoiaeeany i?e 1430-1490
ni-1. A aeine?aeaeoaaieo aacacioieo

wmetafile8? ??…? ?-???????? $yFy??? ’a
???ue???????????-?????u?????????????-?????-???/???????????
????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??yy????y?y?y??yy?yyy
????4????5????ug??????? ?en. 1. Caeaaei?noue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ID/IG
a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoaio

a ?iai/?e aacia?e noi?o? oa iiooaeiino? ?ic?yaeo.

ie?aeao iaeneioi D-nioae niinoa??aaany a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia
inaaeaeaiiy a iaeano? a?ae 1320 aei 1400 ni-1. Aiae?c iniiaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ?aiai?anueeeo niaeo??a acioiai?uoth/eo a-N:I ie?aie
iieacaa, ui c ?inoii e?eueeino? acioo a aacia?e noi?o? ca?eueoo?oueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae D oa G — iie?n — ID/IG. Oaeei /eiii,
aeniei/anoioiee cnoa iaio niinoa?aaeoaaieo iie?n oa c?inoaiiy ID/IG
yaey?oueny i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oiai, ui ?iei?ii?oaaiiy a-N:I ie?aie acioii
aaaea aei ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? oa ciaioaiiy aaee/eie o?eaiiaeueii
ca’ycaieo no?oeoo?ieo o?aaiaio?a.

Aaaeeea? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeaeiueiai ii?yaeeo — e?euee?noue oa oei
iaeaeeae/iai ioi/aiiy aoii?a oa ?o i?inoi?iaa ?ici?uaiiy aeine?aeaeaii
ii ?*-niaeo?ao iiaeeiaiiy aii?oieo a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie.
Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieeee ioe?ieoe caaaeueio caeaaei?noue nooiaith
a?ae?iaai?caoe?? ie?aie a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a neioaco (?en. 2.).
Cia/iee aieea ia ca?eueoaiiy nooiaith

wmetafile8? ??Ue? ?-???????? yy???
A????ue???????????-?????u?????????????-?????-???/????????
???????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E??yu??  ¤?????y????y??yy????y?y?y??yy?
yyy????4????5????ug????????en. 2. Caeaaei?noue nooiaith
a?ae?iaai?caoe?? a-N:I ie?aee a?ae

oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a neioaco.

a?ae?iaai?caoe?? a-N:I ie?aie cae?eniththoue aaee/eia eiioeaio?aoe??
aiaeith a ?iai/?e ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? oa iiooaei?noue A*- ?ic?yaeo.
A?aeiinia c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? acioo a a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo aoaeaoeaaeo
ie?aeao a iniiaiiio caeaaeeoue a?ae ca?eueoaiiy eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? a
aacia?e noi?o?.

Aiae?c Iaea-niaeo??a aeniei? ?icae?eueii? caeaoiino? a?ae a-N:I ie?aie
inaaeaeaieo ia i?e?i?aeue?oi? e?aii??a? i?aeeeaaeee iieacaa, ui
iniaeeaino? ?aeue?oo i?aeeeaaeee iiaeooue iaoe nooo?aee aieea ia oei
i?aeaoaeaoeaaeo ca’yce?a aeey ii/aoeiaeo aoai?a ?inoo a-N:I ie?aee. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae e?enoaeia?ao?/ii? i???ioaoe?? oa oa?aeoa?o ?aeue?oo
iiaea noeioethaaoenue ye sp3-, oae ? sp2-a?a?eaeecaoe?y aoaeaoeaaeo
ca’yce?a. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oiaueie ie?aee a?eueoa 100 ii aieea
i?aeeeaaeee i?eieiy?oueny. Aieea ?aeue?oo iiaa?oi?, ?iia??ii, aeieea?
/a?ac ??ciiiai?oiee oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo oa i??aioaoe?? aoiiieo noiaeeiie
ia yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny eiiaeainaoe?y aoaeaoeth ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao
?inoo ie?aee. Aea oaeaeea iaeiie/aiiy aeaoaeo?a o ie?aoe? a ?acoeueoao?
?iiiiai aiiaa?aeoaaiiy i?ae /an i?ioeano inaaeaeaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?icoii?yaeeoaaiiy no?oeoo?e ? aieea i?aeeeaaeee iineaaeth?oueny.

Aecia/aiiy iioe/ii? oe?eie caai?iiaiii? ciie (Ag) ii e?ath
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy a-N:I ie?aie a eii?aeeiaoao Oaooea
iieacaei, ui ii?yae ?c caeaaei?noth Ag a?ae ?ici???a a?ao?oieo
i?e?ieeanoa??a, nooo?aee aieea ia aaee/eio Ag cae?enith? aaee/eia
aiaeiaai? oa acioii? neeaaeiai? o no?oeoo?? ie?aee. Io?eiai? caeaaeiino?
Ag a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo oiia neioaco aeei?enoaii i?e iioei?caoe?? iioe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aoaeaoeaaeo iie?eoo?a.

Cnoa e?ath iiaeeiaiiy a ei?ioeioaeeiao iaeanoue aeey aii?oieo
a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie. caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano inaaeaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
iaea?eueoee aieea o aeei?enoiaoaaiiio ieaciio?i?/iiio ?aaeoi??
cae?enithaaee ci?ia neeaaeo ?iai/i? aaciai? noi?o? ? iiooaeiino?
A*-?ic?yaeo. Iiyniaiiy oe??? aenia?eiaioaeueii? caeiiii??iino? aeiaaaei
aeine?aeaeaiiy iioe/ieo eiinoaio a-N:I ie?aie a oe?ieiio niaeo?aeueiiio
?ioa?aae?. ?ic?aooiee eiiieaenii? ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? a-N:I
ie?aie a ae?aiacii? a?ae 1 aei 6 aA iieacaee, ui i?e c?inoaii? ?iiiiai
aiiaa?aeoaaiiy ie?aee ?c ca?eueoaiiyi iiooaeiino? ?ic?yaeo oa
a?aeiia?aeiiio ciaioaii? nooiaith a?ae?iaai?caoe??, e?ae iiaeeiaiiy
cniao?oueny a iecueeiaia?aaoe/io niaeo?aeueio iaeanoue. A iaeano?
aenieeo aia?a?e, iioe/i? aeanoeaino? aecia/athoueny aeeeth/ii
aioo??oiueith ciiiith no?oeoo?ith. Ca?eueoaiiy Vb oa a?aeiia?aeia
ciaioaiiy nooiaith a?ae?iaai?caoe?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?inoo ?ioaineaiino?
i?eo a iaeneioi? nioae i?aeciiiiai iiaeeiaiiy 2max ? a?aeiia?aeii
ca?eueoaiith ieiu? i?ae e?eaith, ui a?aeiia?aea? caaaeueiiio
iiaeeiaiith. Iaeneioi e?eai? oyaii? /anoeie eiiieaenii? ae?aeaeo?e/ii?
i?iieeiino? 2 iaoiiaeaiee -ca’yceaie. Oiaoi ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aia?a??
?ii?a i?e inaaeaeaii? c?inoa? eiioeaio?aoe?y sp2-eiio?ao?iaaieo
aoaeaoeaaeo ca’yce?a. Ie?aee neioaciaai? ?c aoaeaoeaaiaiaeiaai? noi?o?
?c aeiaaaeyiiyi acioo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oei, ui niaeo?aeueia
caeaaei?noue 2 ci?uo?oueny a noi?iio iaioeo aia?a?e. Iii?oiee ia o?eueee
cnoa e?ath iiaeeiaiiy, a e 2max. O anueiio aeine?aeaeoaaiiio
niaeo?aeueiiio ?ioa?aae? aeey ie?aie eaaiaaieo acioii 2 aeinyaa?
a?eueoeo cia/aiue ? ia?ae?eaa? niaeo?aeueio caeaaei?noue 2 aeey
iaeaaiaaieo ie?aie . O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei 2 ?icoaoiaai? caeaaeiino? 1.
Aaaaeaiiy a a-N:I ie?aeo acioo i?iyaey?oueny c?inoaiiyi aaniethoieo
cia/aiue 2 a iaeano? e?ath iiaeeiaiiy oa i?aeciiieo ia?aoiae?a,
ciaioaiiyi oe?eie caai?iiaii? ciie oa ca?eueoaiiyi aoaeoeaii?
ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino?.

Noaoe?iia?ia oioii?ia?aei?noue niinoa??aaeanue o?eueee aeey a-N:I
ie?aie io?eiaieo i?e i?i?iaeueieo cia/aiiyo iiooaeiino? A* ?ic?yaeo.
Ca?eueoaiiy ??ciioeiieo aeaoaeo?a a ie?aoe? i?e c?inoaii? aia?a??
?iiiiai iioieo i?ae /an inaaeaeaiiy, i?iyaeyeinue cieaeaiiyi
oioii?ia?aeiino?. Aaee/eia ?ioaineaiino? oioino?oio a iaeneioi?
oioi/ooeeaino? caeaaeeoue oaeiae a?ae neeaaeo aaciai? noi?o?,
iaeneiaeueiee oioia?aeeeee o?eno?oueny aeey c?ace?a c 50 %ia. ai?noii
iaoaio. Aei??thaaiiy oioii?ia?aeiino? a ?iioeueniiio ?aaeei? iieacaei,
ui oioia?aeeeee niinoa??aa?oueny ? aeey ie?aie ?iei?ii?iaaieo acioii, a
ia niaeo?aeuei?e caeaaeiino? oioino?oio aeae?eythoueny aeaa iaeneioie
eiai ?ioaineaiino?: (=1250ii oa =540 ii). Aeine?aeaeaii, ui aaee/eia
a?aeiinii? ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? ie?aie a iecei/anoioiiio
ae?aiacii? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue (100 EAoe 2 IAoe), a caeaaeiino?
a?ae oiia neioaco, eaaeeoue a iaaeao 1,7 8. I?enooi?noue a ie?aeao
acioo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?? ca?eueoaiiy (10 17).

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ii iioei?caoe?? iioe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee a-N:I ie?aie oa ?o canoinoaaiith a OO-aeae.
iioiaeaeo?ii?oe? oa ?*-iioeoe?.

Iioei?caoe?th aeeiiaii oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy iaeiioaeoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo
i?e ?icaeyae? i?ioeano inaaeaeaiiy ye aeaiooaeoi?ii? nenoaie. sse
iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? iioe/ii? oe?eie caai?iiaii? ciie
a-N:I ie?aie a?ae neeaaeo ?iai/i? aaciai? noi?o?, iioeiaeueieie (c
iaea?eueoeie ca/aiiyie Eg) io?eioaaeenue c?acee inaaeaeai? i?e na?aaei?o
cia/aiiyo eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoaio (50 60 %ia.) oa i?i?iaeueieo
iiooaeiinoyo A*-?ic?yaeo (Vb= -200 -300 B). A caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo
aeenia?n?eiee ae?aiacii ci?i cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa caeiieaiiy (n) a
a-N:I ie?aeao ia?ae?eaa? iaeanoue a?ae 1,6 aei 2,5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a
ie?aeao oiaueiith aei 2 iei a?aenooi?e a?aae??io n, ye ii oiauei?, oae ?
ii ia’?io c?acea a oe?eiio. Aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy a-N:I ie?aee a
yeino? i?ina?oethth/iai iie?eooy iioiaeaeo?iiiiai aeaiaioo i?e
canoinoaaii? iaeiioa?iaiai aa??aioo aaaeeeaei ia?aiao?ii aenooia?
caaacia/aiiy ei?aiaai? caeaaeiino? n ie?aee a?ae n iaoa??aeo i?aeeiaeee
ia yeo a?i inaaeaeo?oueny. Aeey i?ina?oeaiiy e?aii??aeo iioiaeaeo?iiieo
aeaiaio?a ye? iathoue n3,6 , iaiao?aei? /aoaa?oueoaeeueia? a-N:I
iie?eooy ?c n1,9. Oe?e oiia? caaeiaieueiythoue ie?aee inaaeaeai? i?e
iecueeeo iiooaeiinoyo A*-?ic?yaeo (Vb= -100 -200 B). Iio??aii
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui iaea?eueo oaa?ae? (oaa?ae?noue 10 — 20 AIa) ie?aee
io?eiothoue i?e a?eueoeo iiooaeiinoyo (Vb= -200 -300 B), aea aiie
iathoue aeuee eiao?oe??io caeiieaiiy (n2,1). A oeueiio aeiaaeeo
iioeiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaeaiiino?oaaee a-N:I ie?aee inaaeaeai? ?c
?aaeoe?eieo aaciaeo noi?oae ?c 10-15 %ia. acioo. ?iei?ii?aoe?y acioo o
aoaeaoeaao ie?aeo iiieaeo? cia/aiiy n ? aeicaiey? aeeiiaoe iaiao?aeio
oiiao ii caaacia/aiith ei?aiaai? caeaaeiino?. I?e oeueiio ne?ae caa?iooe
oaaao, ui ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? acioo a aacia?e noi?o? aeua 15 %ia.
ia aoaeoeaia, oae ye aiii noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iei ca?eueoaiiyi
eiao?oe??ioa iiaeeiaiiy ie?aee, ui a oe?eiio iia??oo? aenieoaoaoe?ei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iioiaeaeo?iiiiai aeaiaioo. O aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy
aa?iai??aeo aeaiaio?a (n4) iioeiaeueiei ? canoinoaaiiy a-N:I ie?aie
inaaeaeaieo i?e na?aaei?o iiooaeiinoyo A* ?ic?yaeo (Vb= — 300 — 400 A)
oa cia/aiiyo eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoaio (50 60 %ia.). Oae? ie?aee, aiaeii/an
caaeiaieueiyth/e iaiao?aei? iioe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, i?iaeaiiino?oaaee a
oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue iaeaeu? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?.

Ii??aiyiiy na?oei?icn?yiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a aei oa i?ney
inaaeaeaiiy aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aenieo
iaeii??aei?noue a-N:I ie?aee ? a?aeiia?aeii iaaecae/aeii iecueeo
?ioaineai?noue na?oei?icn?yiiy (ia ??ai? 0,002 — 0,003 %). Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aea/aiiyi i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa i?io?eth
iiaa?oi? a-N:I ie?aie i?iaaaeaieo iaoiaeaie aoiiii? neeiai? i?e?ineii??.

Oae? aeanoeaino? aeacothoue ia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy a-N:I ie?aie
aeey i?ina?oeaiiy iioiaeaeo?iiieo e?aii??aeo aeaiaio?a. I?ina?oethth/?
aeanoeaino? oeeo iie?eoo?a ii?aeiothoueny c ?o aenieith o?i?/iith
no?ee?noth, oi?ioith aaeaac??th aei i?aeeiaeee oa aenieeie iaoai?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Nooo?aith ia?aaaaith i?e canoinoaaii? a-N:I ie?aie ?
iecueea oaiia?aoo?a i?aeeiaeee a i?ioean? inaaeaeaiiy.

No/ani? eiino?oeoe?? a?eueoino? ?ioa?oa?aioe?eieo iie?eoo?a aacothoueny
ia o?aaeeoe?ei?e iiiaieeaoo?? ?nioth/eo ie?aeiooai?thth/eo iaoa??ae?a.
Iie?eooyi c i?inoeo oaeueeiaai?ae?a i?eoaiaiia iaaeinoaoiy iaoai?/ia
(“1-2” a?oie ca INO-3-1901-85) ? ee?iaoe/ia no?ee?noue, a aeey aeayeeo
(PbS, ZnSe) — cia/ii aeniea oiene/i?noue. O aeiaaeeao canoinoaaiiy
iioe/ieo iaoa??ae?a, iano?eeeo aei iaoai?/ieo oa ee?iaoe/ieo
iioeiaeaeaiue, aeieea? iio?aaa o iayaiino? ciai?oi?o oa??a c
i?aeaeuaieie aeiiaaie aei ?o aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee.
Ia?niaeoeaieie a oeueiio iai?yieo ? iioe/ii i?ici?? ie?aee c
a?ae?iaai?ciaaiiai aoaeaoeth. Oae ye, iaeiioa?ia? /aoaa?oueoaeeueia?
i?ina?oethth/? iie?eooy ia caaacia/othoue i?i?ioio o?aiae?anueeiai
a?aeaeaaiiy na?oea o oe?ieiio niaeo?aeueiiio ?ioa?aae?, oi aeey
?icoe?aiiy ?ioa?aaeo i?i?ioio a?aeaeaaiiy aeei?enoiaothoue aaaaoioa?ia?
i?ina?oethth/? iie?eooy (AOI). I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii iaianaiith
ia o?aaeeoe?ei? AOI ?*-iie?eooy ooi?eae?a aa??th oa ?o??th aa?oi?o oa??a
?c a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie aeey iie?auaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo
ia?aiao??a iieacaee, ui ii?yae ?c caaacia/aiiyi aenieeo iaoai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, niinoa??aa?oueny iie?auaiiy iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
(ca?eueoaiiy ao?iiaoe/iino?) aeaiaioo a oe?eiio.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iioiaeaeo?iii? aeanoeaino? ie?aie aii?oiiai
a?ae?iaai?ciaaiiai aoaeaoeth, inaaeaeaieo ?c ieacie A*-?ic?yaeo a
?aaeoi?? ieaia?iiai oeio, a iniiaiiio aecia/athoueny aaee/eiith
na?aaeiuei? aia?a?? ?ii?a (iai?oaith aaoici?uaiiy) a i?ioean?
inaaeaeaiiy oa neeaaeii ?iai/i? aaciai? noi?o?. Aa??aoe?y aeacaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe ie?aee ?c eiino?oeoeaii
iaoiiaeaieie cia/aiiyie iieacieea caeiieaiiy (a?ae 1,6 aei 2,3) oa
iaeneiaeueii aeinyaeiith i?ici??noth (i?i?iaeueieie cia/aiiyie
eiao?oe??ioo iiaeeiaiiy — aei 0,01).

2. Ca?eueoaiiy A*-iiooaeiino? i?eeeaaeaii? aei ?ic?yaeiiai i?ii?aeeo /e
ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoaio a ?iai/?e aacia?e noi?o? aecia/athoue
ci?io aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e ie?aee , ui i?iyaey?oueny o c?inoaii?
a?aeiioaiiy ID/IG a E?N niaeo?ao, yea iaoiiaeaia c?inoaiiyi e?eueeino?
oa ciaioaiiyi ?ici???a a?ao?oieo e?enoae?o?a. Ia E?N niaeo?ao
niinoa??aa?oueny aeniei/anoioiee cnoa D- ? G- nioa oa c?inoaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ID/IG i?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? acioo a aacia?e
noi?o?, ui iaoiiaeaii a?ao?oecaoe??th ie?aee.

3. Iniiaiei /eiieeii, ui aieeaa? ia ca?eueoaiiy nooiaith
a?ae?iaai?caoe??

a-N:I ie?aie aenooia? aaee/eia eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaeith a ?iai/?e
?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? oa iiooaei?noue A*- ?ic?yaeo. I?e i?i?iaeueieo
iiooaeiinoyo (Vb 100 A) ?c /enoiai iaoaio inaaeaeoaaeenue ie?aee, ui
i?noeee aei 50 ao. % aiaeith, a i?e iaeneiaeueieo (Vb 700 A) —
iaa?ae?iaai?ciaai?, oeio a-N.

4. Aeine?aeaeaii, ui iniaeeaino? ?aeue?oo i?aeeeaaeee iiaeooue iaoe
nooo?aee aieea ia oei i?aeaoaeaoeaaeo ca’yce?a aeey ii/aoeiaeo aoai?a
?inoo a-N:I ie?aee (oiaueia aei 100 ii). A caeaaeiino? a?ae
e?enoaeia?ao?/ii? i???ioaoe?? oa oa?aeoa?o ?aeue?oo noeioeth?oueny ye
sp3-, oae ? sp2-a?a?eaeecaoe?y aoaeaoeaaeo ca’yce?a.

5. ?ic?aoiaaii, ui a ae?aiacii? 1,4 — 6,2 aA e?ae niaeo?aeueii?
caeaaeiino? oyaii? /anoeie eiiieaenii? ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? 2
ci?uo?oueny a noi?iio iaioeo aia?a?e i?e c?inoaii? aaee/eie na?aaeiuei?
aia?a?? ?ii?a a i?ioean? inaaeaeaiiy. Iii?oiee ia o?eueee cnoa e?ath
iiaeeiaiiy, a e iaeneioio nioae i?aeciiiiai iiaeeiaiiy. O anueiio
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio niaeo?aeueiiio ?ioa?aae? aeey ie?aie ?iei?ii?iaaieo
acioii 2 aeinyaa? a?eueoeo cia/aiue ? ia?ae?eaa? niaeo?aeueio
caeaaei?noue 2 aeey iaeaaiaaieo ie?aie. O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei 2
?icoaoiaai? caeaaeiino? 1. ?iei?ii?oaaiiy a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo aoaeaoeaaeo
ie?aie acioii i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy aonoeie aeaeo?iiieo noai?a o
aa?oei? aaeaioii? ciie oa a?aeiia?aeiiai ciaioaiiy Ag.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ie?aeao a?aenooi?e ye a?aae??io iioe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ii oiauei?, oae ? i?inoi?ia? iaiaeii??aeiino? /e
oeoeooaoe?? eiao?oe??ioa caeiieaiiy. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?acoeueoaoe
aei??thaaiiy aaee/eie na?oei?icn?yiiy a-N:I ie?aeaie. Oae? iie?eooy ia
iia??oothoue na?oei?icn?yiiy iioe/ieo aeaiaio?a, a i?e iaianaii? ie?aie
inaaeaeaieo i?e iai?oaao aaoici?uaiiy Vb = -100 -200 B niinoa??aa?oueny
iiieaeaiiy na?oei?icn?yiiy oaeiai aeaiaioo a oe?eiio aei 0,003 %.

7. Iieacaii, ui iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoeaii iaiao?aei? iioe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey i?ina?oeaiiy aa?iai??aeo iioiaeaeo?iiieo aeaiaio?a
caaacia/othoue ie?aee aii?oiiai a?ae?iaai?ciaaiiai aoaeaoeth, ye?
inaaeaeai? i?e iai?oaao aaoici?uaiiy Vb = -300 -400 B oa eiioeaio?aoe??
iaoaio a ?iai/?e aacia?e noi?o? 50 60 %ia., a aeey e?aii??aeo aeaiaio?a
— i?e Vb = -200 -300 B oa aiaeia?/i?e iaoaiaiaeiaa?e noi?o? c 5 10
%ia. acioo.

8. ?acoeueoaoe ii aea/aiith niaeo?aeueieo caeaaeiinoae oioiaieueoa?/ieo
ia?aiao??a e?aii??aeo niiy/ieo aeaiaio?a ?c i?ina?oethth/eie iie?eooyie
c aii?oiiai a?ae?iaai?ciaaiiai aoaeaoeth ? iioei?caoe?? ?o iioe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee (n,k) oa oiauei /aa?oueoaeeueiaeo iie?eoo?a aeei?enoaii
aeey i?ina?oeaiiy i?iieneiaeo niiy/ieo aaoa?ae AI “Ieoaaa”.
Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea oa a?aeiia?aei? ?ic?aooiee iieacaee
iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioo ei?enii? ae?? niiy/ii? aaoa?a? ia
40 % ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy i?ina?oethth/i? a-N:I ie?aee.

9. Aia?oa, iie?auaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee ciai?oi?o
iiaa?oiiue aaaaoioa?iaeo i?ina?oethth/eo iie?eoo?a ia iniia? ooi?eae?a
aa??th oa ?o??th aeey iioe/ieo aeaiaio?a ?* iioeee, aeinyaiooi ca
?aooiie aaaaeaiiy aei ?o neeaaeo iaoai?/ii no?eeeo (“0” a?oia ii
INO-3-1901-85) oa aeieia?/ii iaoe?aeeeaeo iie?eoo?a ia iniia? aii?oiiai
a?ae?iaai?ciaaiiai aoaeaoeth. Io?eiai? iie?eooy caoeuathoue iano?ee?
iiaa?oi? aaaaoioa?iaeo iie?eoo?a a?ae iaoai?/ieo iioeiaeaeaiue oa
?oei?aiiai aieeao ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ?, iaeii/anii, caaacia/othoue
i?iioneaiiy aei 95 % oa i?aeaeuothoue ao?iiaoe/i?noue a ae?aiacii? 2 14
iei. Oiaoi, ?i i?eoaiaii? ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeanoeaino? ye
i?ina?oethth/iai, oae ? caoeniiai iie?eooy.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a i?aoeyo:

1. Doroshenko A.A., Semenovich V.A., Khandozhko S.I., Kutsay A.M.,
Muinov M.T. The nature of vibrational spectra of diamond-like films //
Journal of superhard materials . — 1993 (Allerton Press, New York). —
?4. — V.15. — P. 13-17.

2. Doroshenko A.A., Kutsay A.M., Semenovich V.A., Gontar A.G.,
Khandozhko S.I., Udovenko A.A. Optical absorption edge of amorphous
carbon films deposited from a hydrocarbon high-frequency discharge
plasma // Journal of superhard materials . — 1995 (Allerton Press, New
York). — ?1. — V.17. — P. 1-5.

3. Gontar A.G., Doroshenko A.A., Kutsay A.M., Khandozhko S.I. Synthesis
and Optical Properties of (a-C:H) Diamond-Like Films for Anti-Reflection
Coatings // Journal of Chemical Vapor Deposition. — 1995. — V.4. — ?1. —
P. 15-21.

4. Vasin A.V., Matveeva L.A., Gorbach T.Y., Gontar A.G., Kutsay A.M.
Auger-Spectroscopic Investigation of a-C:H Films on Micro-Roughness
Substrates // Journal of Chemical Vapor Deposition. — 1997. — V.6. — ?1.
— P. 40-44.

5. Aivazova L.S., Novikov N.V., Khandozhko S.I., Gontar A.G. Kutsay A.M.
The Effect of (a-C:H) Films on the Properties of the n-Si/p-(a-SiC:H)
Solar Cells // Journal of Chemical Vapor Deposition. — 1997. — V.6. —
?1. — P. 52-56.

Eooeae I.I. Iioei?caoe?y iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee caoenieo
i?ina?oethth/eo iie?eoo?a ?c aii?oieo a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo aoaeaoeaaeo
ie?aie.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.01 — iaoa??aeiciaanoai.- ?inoeooo iaaeoaa?aeeo
iaoa??ae?a IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aeei?enoaiiy aiioieo
a?ae?iaai?ciaaieo aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie a yeino? i?ina?oethth/eo oa
caoenieo iie?eoo?a iioe/ieo aeaoaeae OO-aeae. iioiaeaeo?ii?ee oa
?*-iioeee. A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iiaee niin?a iie?ioaiiy
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee aaaaoioa?iaeo i?ina?oethth/eo iie?eoo?a
ia iniia? ooi?eae?a aa??th oa ?o??th oeyoii aeeth/aiiy aei ?o neeaaeo
a-N:I ie?aie. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiaeaie E?N oa ?*
niaeo?ineii?? oa Iaea-niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co aea/aii caeaaei?noue
no?oeoo?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeiaciiiae?aieo aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie a?ae
oaoiieia?/ieo oiia inaaeaeaiiy. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoaii i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? iioe/ieo, iioiaeaeo?iiieo oa ae?aeaeo?e/ieo aeanoeainoae
oeeo ie?aie. Aeacaii oeyoe iioei?caoe?? iioe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a-N:I
ie?aie ca?aeii eiino?oeoeaieo aeiia aei caoenieo i?ina?oethth/eo
iie?eoo?a ?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue iioe/ieo aeaiaio?a i?e i?iieneiaiio
aeei?enoaii?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aii?oi? a?ae?iaai?ciaai? aoaeaoeaa? ie?aee, a-N:I,
aeiaciiiae?ai? aoaeaoeaa? ie?aee, E?N-niaeo?ineii?y, ?*-niaeo?ineii?y,
iioe/i? aeanoeaino?, aaaaoioa?ia? i?ina?oethth/? iie?eooy.

Eooeae A.I. Iioeiecaoeey iioe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee caueoiuo
i?inaaoeyth-ueo iie?uoee ec aii?oiuo aeae?iaaiece?iaaiuo oaea?iaeiuo
ieaiie.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.01 — iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea.- Einoeooo naa?ooaa?aeuo
iaoa?eaeia IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai eniieueciaaiey aii?oiuo
aeae?iaaiece?iaaiuo oaea?iaeiuo ieaiie a ea/anoaa i?inaaoeythueo e
caueoiuo iie?uoee iioe/aneeo aeaoaeae OO-aeae. iioiyeaeo?iieee e
EE-iioeee. A aeena?oaoeee ?ac?aaioai iiaue niinia oeo/oaiey
yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iiiaineieiuo i?inaaoeythueo iie?uoee ia
iniiaa ooi?eaeia aa?ey e eo?ey iooai aeeth/aiey a eo ninoaa a-N:I
ieaiie. Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiuo enneaaeiaaiee iaoiaeaie E?N e EE
niaeo?ineiiee e Iaea-niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca eco/aia caaeneiinoue
no?oeoo?iuo oa?aeoa?enoee aeiaciiiaeiaiuo oaea?iaeiuo ieaiie io
oaoiieiae/aneeo oneiaee inaaeaeaiey. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou
eniieueciaaeenue a enneaaeiaaieyo iioe/aneeo, iioiyeaeo?iiiuo e
aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo naienoa yoeo ieaiie. Oeacaiu iooe iioeiecaoeee
iioe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee a-N:I ieaiie niaeanii eiino?oeoeeiiiuo
o?aaiaaiee e caueoiui i?inaaoeythuei iie?uoeyi ?aai/eo iiaa?oiinoae
iioe/aneeo yeaiaioia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aii?oiua aeae?iaaiece?iaaiiua oaea?iaeiua ieaiee,
a-N:I, aeiaciiiaeiaiua oaea?iaeiua ieaiee, E?N-niaeo?ineiiey,
EE-niaeo?ineiiey, iioe/aneea naienoaa, iiiaineieiua i?inaaoeythuea
iie?uoey.

Kutsay A.M. Optimization of optical characteristics of anti-reflection
protective coatings of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films.- Manuscript.

Dissertation for Scientific Degree of Candidate of Science Engineering
in speciality 05.02.01 — Materials Science.- The Institute for Superhard
Materials of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation deals with the problems of using amorphous
hydrogenated carbon films as anti-reflection and protective coatings for
optical components of UV-VIS optoelectronics and IR optics. A new method
to improve operational properties of barium-and-yttrium-fluoride-based
multilayer anti-reflection coatings by adding a-C:H films into the
coating composition has been suggested. Raman and IR spectroscopy and
Auger spectral analysis were used to study the dependence of
diamond-like carbon film structure characteristics on deposition
parameters. The results obtained were used in studying optical,
optoelectronic and dielectric properties of the films. The ways are
suggested of optimization of a-C:H film optical characteristics to meet
requirements for protective anti-reflection coatings for working
surfaces of commercially used optical components.

Key words: amorphous hydrogenated carbon films, a-N:I, diamond-like
carbon film, Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, optical properties,
multilayer anti-reflection coatings.

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