IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?CEEE IAI?AI?IA?AeIEE?A

OAeE 539. 219;

535.36; 535.37

THOEI*OE AIEIAeEIE? IEAENAIAe?IAE*

IIOE*I? AEANOEAINO? E?AII??AEO, AA?IAI??AEO ? AOAEAOeAAEO IAIINO?OEOO?,
IAeA?AEAIEO ?IIEAIOAOe??TH

(01.04.07 – o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea)

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, Iaoe?iiaeueia
aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: *e.-ei?. IAI Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Aaeao Ieoaeei sseiae/,

?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAIO,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: *e.-ei?. IAI Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Aeiinueeee ?aai Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo o?ceee IAIO

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a

N.i.n., e.o.-i.i.,

A?eee Ieeiea Ieoaeeiae/

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea Noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea,

eaoaae?a o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “19” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 1415 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.199.01 a ?inoeooo? o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

252650, Ee?a – 28, i?iniaeo Iaoee, 45.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie (252650, Ee?a-28, i?iniaeo Iaoee, 45).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “18” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Io??iaiei I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y o?ceea iecueei?ici??ieo
oaa?aeio?eueieo no?oeoo? ?icaeaa?oueny iaaecae/aeii oaeaeeeie oaiiaie.
Ia?ao?ae aei iaiioaoiieia?e oa aea/aiiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a oaeeo no?oeoo?ao ? ii noo? iiaei aoaiii o ?icaeoeo
o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a.

O?ceea ? oaoiieia?y iaiino?oeoo?, ia iniia? i?yiiciiieo
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ?icaeaaeany iine?aeiaii a?ae aeaii??ieo nenoai
(eaaioiaeo yi oa iaaea?aoie) aei iaeiii??ieo nenoai (eaaioiaeo ieoie) ?
ioeuei??ieo nenoai (eaaioiaeo oi/ie). Oea aeicaieeei, cie?aia, noai?eoe
eaca?e c ?aei?aeii iecueeei ii?iaii aaia?aoe?? oa iiaeeea?noth ci?ie
aeiaaeeie oaee? aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Io?eiaiiy iaaea?aoie, eaaioiaeo ieoie oa eaaioiaeo oi/ie ia iniia?
iai?yiiciiieo Si oa Ge i?eioeeiiai ?icoe?th? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
oeeo aaea aeineoue aeia?a aea/aieo iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, cie?aia a
iioiaeaeo?ii?oe?. A 1990 ?ioe? aoei iieacaii, ui ii?enoee e?aii?e,
io?eiaiee aeaeo?io?i?/iei o?aaeaiiyi, i?iyaey? ?ioaineaio
oioiethi?i?noeaioe?th (OE) o aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?o. Iaeiae a ca’yceo
c aeayeith ianoaa?euei?noth eiai na?oeiaei?ii?ithth/eo oa?aeoa?enoee oa
iiaaieie iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie ia?yaeo c aeine?aeaeaiiyi ii?enoiai
e?aii?th ii/aee ?icaeaaoeny aeueoa?iaoeai? oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy
aei?ii?ithth/iai iaiie?enoae?/iiai Si a SiO2-iao?eoe?. Aeiaeaoeiaei
noeioeii aei oeueiai aoei iaiaaaiiy iaea?aeaoe a?eueo i?inoee
iiaeaeueiee ia’?eo aeey o?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue eaaioiai?ici??ieo
aoaeo?a.

Aeey io?eiaiiy iaiie?enoae?/iiai e?aii?th (nc-Si) a SiO2–iao?eoe? aoei
aeei?enoaii ?yae o?aaeeoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii ?yae
iiaeo. Iaei??th ?c naieo ia?niaeoeaieo ? io?eiaiiy nc-Si a SiO2-iao?eoe?
a ?acoeueoao? ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a Si+ a oa?i?/ii ae?iuaiee ia iiaa?oi?
e?aii?th oa? SiO2. Ci?ithth/e aia?a?th oa aeico ?iieaioaoe?? oa
aa??thth/e oaiia?aoo?o oa /an a?aeiaeo iiaeia eiio?ieueiaaii ci?ithaaoe
?ici??e oa eiioeaio?aoe?th nc-Si ? oei naiei aieeaaoe ia
na?oeiaei?ii?ithth/? oa?aeoa?enoeee oaeeo no?oeoo?. Aaaeeeai, ui aeaiee
iaoiae iiai?noth noi?niee c oaoiieia??th aeaioiaeaiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo
i?e?inoai ia aac? e?aii?th.

sse aeia?a a?aeiii, a i?ioean? ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a ooai?ththoueny
?aae?aoe?ei? aeaoaeoe, ye? oaeiae iiaeooue aooe oeaio?aie
aei?ii?ithaaiiy o aeaeei?e iaeano?. A ca’yceo c oeei i?eioeeiiai
?icae?eeoe aianie ??cieo iaoai?ci?a aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Oey caaea/a neeaea
ia?oo oe?eue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ae?oaa oe?eue ?iaioe aoea oaeiae iia’ycaia c o?ce/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
?iieaioiaaiiai Si. Iiaa eaea i?i oiie? i?eoiaai? ae?aeaeo?e/i? SiO2 oa
iai?ai?ia?aeieeia? SiC oa SixGe1-x oa?e a e?aii??, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aaaaoioa?iaeo ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai. A?aeiii, ui
o?eaaeee /an aeey noai?aiiy i?eoiaaieo oa??a SiO2 a Si aeei?enoiaoaaeany
aenieiaeiciaa ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a O+ (2-3(1018 ci-2) a e?aii?e c
ianooiiei aenieioaiia?aoo?iei a?aeiaeii. Oea i?eaiaeeei aei oi?ioaaiiy
oa??a SiO2 oiaueiith (300-400 ii. C iiaeaeueoei c?inoaiiyi ?ioaa?aoe??
aeoeaieo aeaiaio?a ia iaeeieoeth ia’?io oae? oiaueie ae?aeaeo?e/ieo
oa??a aaea ia iiaeooue caaeia?eueieoe nueiaiaei?oi? iio?aae
i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee. Ciaioaiiy aeice ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a I+ i?eaiaeeoue aei
neioaco a?eueo oiieeo, aea ianoao?iiao?e/ieo oa??a SiOx. A ca’yceo c
oeei ? aeooaeueiei noeioeueiaaia ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ??no i?aoeei?oao?a SiO2
a e?aii??. sse a?aeiii, oe? i?ioeane iia’ycai? c i?i?i?caoe??th a?eueii?
aia?a?? nenoaie. Iaeiei c oaeoi??a, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei i?i?i?caoe??
a?eueii? aia?a?? nenoaie oa iiaeaeueoiai ?ioaineaiiai ca?iaeaeaiiy oa
?inoo SiO2-oace, iiaea aooe aeiaeaoeiaa ?iieaioaoe?y c a?aeiia?aeiith
aia?a??th oa aeicith ?ii?a N+.

A inoaii?e /an cia/io oaaao i?eae?eythoue oaeiae neioaco a e?aii??
i?eoiaaieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo oa??a SiC, ye? ii nai?i aeanoeainoyi
cia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae a?aeiia?aeieo aeanoeainoae e?aii?th.
No?oeoo?e c i?eoiaaiei oa?ii SiC iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye
SOI-no?oeoo?e (silicon-on-insulator), ui iathoue a iaaieo oiiaao
ia?aaaae ia?aae o?aaeeoe?eieie no?oeoo?aie c SiO2-oa?aie. Oea ia?o ca
ana aeu? ?aae?aoe?eia no?ee?noue oa oaieii?ia?aei?noue oa?o SiC. E??i
oiai oa? SiC iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ye “noii-oa?” i?e o?aaeai? e?aii?th
i?e aeaioiaeai? i?e?inoai. A ca’yceo c oeei aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
oi?ioaaiiy SiC-oace ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo, ye ? o
aeiaaeeo neioaco SiO2-oace, iniaeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue i?ioeane,
iia’ycai? ?c noeioeueiaaiei ca?iaeaeaiiyi oa ?inoii SiC-oace. Oea
iaoiiaeth? cia/iee ?ioa?an aei aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ?iieaioiaaiiai oa
?ic/eiaiiai a e?aii?? eenith ia oi?ioaaiiy SiC-oace.

Ana aeuaneacaia ? iaoiiaeth? iaoeiao ? i?eeeaaeio aeooaeuei?noue aeaii?
?iaioe.

Ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo oa?eoee aei aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
aoee i?iaaaeai? o ?aieao ieaiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?OI
IAI Oe?a?ie ii oai? “Iioeea ? niaeo?ineii?y iiaeo iaoa??ae?a: a oiio
/ene? eaaioiai-?ici??ieo nenoai ia iniia? aoiia?ieo iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa
niieoe A2A6, A3A5, A4A6”, a oaeiae ii oai? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?iaeoo INTAS
“93-1327EXT ”E?euee?niee aiae?c iaoa??ae?a i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee”.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii?
iioe/ieo oa no?oeoo?ieo aeanoeainoae iaiino?oeoo? e?aii?th, aa?iai?th oa
aoaeaoeth, iaea?aeaieo ?iieaioaoe??th a?aeiia?aeieo ?ii?a a
SiO2-iao?eoe? oa a e?aii??a? ieanoeie ? aeeth/a? ne?aeoth/? eiie?aoi?
caaea/?:

Ia?aeaeueia iioe/ia oa ?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy
iaiieeanoa?ieo no?oeoo? e?aii?th, aa?iai?th ? aoaeaoeth i?e ?iieaioaoe??
a?aeiia?aeieo ?ii?a o SiO2-iao?eoeth oa anoaiiaeaiiy aeii?ioth/eo
i?ioean?a aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaea?aeoaaieo no?oeoo?.

Iaoiaeii niaeo?ineii?? eiia?iaoe?eiiai ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea (E?N)
ioe?ieoe ?ici??e noi?iiaaieo iaiie?enoae?o?a Si oa Ge a SiO2-iao?eoe?,
ui ooai?ththoueny a ?acoeueoao? ?iieaioaoe?? ? aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
a?aeiaeo.

Aeine?aeeoe aieea iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? A*-ia?iaee o ieaci?, ui i?noeoue
?iie aiaeith oa acioo, ia ci?io OE e?aii??aeo iaiino?oeoo? o
SiO2-iao?eoe?.

Iaoiaeii niaeo?ineii?? E?N aeine?aeeoe no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? ii?enoiai
e?aii?th, io?eiaiiai i?e ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao?ao i?ioeano
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai o?aaeaiiy.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iioe/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeeoe aieea ?iieaioiaaieo aoii?a
aoaeaoeth ia ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ??no i?eoiaaieo SiO2-oa??a a e?aii?? ?
aieea aoii?a eenith ia ?iiii-i?iiaiaaee neioac i?eoiaaieo SiC-oa??a a
e?aii??.

Ioe?ieoe aaee/eie iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue, ui aeieeathoue a
i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao e?aii?th i?e neioac? i?eoiaaieo SixGe1-x-oa??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Anoaiiaeaii, ui OE no?oeoo? Si/SiO2, ?iieaioiaaieo ?iiaie Si+, a
niaeo?aeuei?e iaeano? a?ae 2 aA ? a?eueoa, iaoiiaeaia ia?aiaai?oieie
aeaoaeoieie oeaio?aie ?aae?aoe?eiiai iioiaeaeaiiy o SiOx-iao?eoe? (x(2),
ui ooai?ththoueny a ?acoeueoao? ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui yne?aaa /a?aiia OE (1.7 aA) a no?oeoo?ao Si/SiO2,
?iieaioiaaieo e?aii??i, ui i?iyaey?oueny i?ney a?aeiaeo i?e O=1100iN a
aoiinoa?? N2, iaoiiaeaia ooai?aiiyi iaiie?enoae?o?a c na?aaei?ie
?ici??aie a aeae?eueea iaiiiao??a. Iaoai?ci aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia
iia’ycaiee aaciina?aaeiuei c ?aeiia?iaoe??th i?e ia?aoiaeao ciia-ciia a
iiaeeo?eiaai?e ca ?aooiie eaaioiaiai aoaeoo aia?aaoe/i?e aeaeo?iii?e
no?oeoo?? e?aii?th, a eiia??ii iaoiiaeaiee ?aeiia?iaoe??th c o/anoth
oeaio??a eieae?ciaaieo ia ?ioa?oaen? Si/SiO2.

Iieacaii, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a aeo?aeiiai
e?aii?th oa oiia aeaeo?io?i?/iiai o?aaeaiiy iiaeooue ?aae?ciaoaaoeny
??ci? no?oeoo?e ii?enoiai e?aii?th: a?ae noi?o? iaiie?enoae?/iiai ?
aii?oiiai aei i?e?ie?enoae?/iiai, ui ? iaoiiaeth? ??ciiiai?oi?noue eiai
niaeo??a E?N.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?aei?ii?noue ?iiieo ?aae?on?a aoii?a eenith oa
aoaeaoeth a?ae ?iiiiai ?aae?ona e?aii?th iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia i?e
iiaea?ei?e ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a I+ oa N+ aeey aoaeoeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy a
e?aii?? i?eoiaaieo oa??a SiO2 aai SiC.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue cia/iiai i?aeneeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? /a?aiii? OE
(1.7 aA) aeey c?ace?a iaiie?enoae?/iiai Si i?ney ia?iaee ?o o
iecueeioaiia?aoo?i?e A* – ieaci?, ui i?noeoue ?iie acioo oa aiaeith.

I?iaeaiiino?iaaia iiaeeea?noue aecia/aiiy na?aaei?o ?ici???a
iaiie?enoae?o?a Si a SiO2-iao?eoe? iaoiaeii iecueei/anoioii?
niaeo?ineii?? E?N.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iayai?noue eenith a e?aii?? (?ic/eiaiiai aai
?iieaioiaaiiai) ni?ey? ?iiiiio-i?iiaiaaiio neioaco SiC.

Iieacaii, ui ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a C+ noeioeth? ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ??no
i?eoiaaiiai SiO2–oa?o i?e neioac? inoaiiueiai ?iieaioaoe??th ?ii?a O+ a
e?aii?e c ianooiiei aenieioaiia?aoo?iei a?aeiaeii.

Anoaiiaeaii aaee/eie oa ?iciiae?e iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue a
i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao Si, ui aeieeathoue i?e ?iiii-i?iiaiaaiio neioac?
i?eoiaaiiai oa?o SixGe1-x.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a iaea?aeai? an?o
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a niaeo?ineii??
E?N oa OE. Eiio iaeaaeeoue nooo?aa ?ieue a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a oa iaienaii? iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a oaeiae o/anoue o
eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao ??ciiai ??aiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia I?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Iioe/ia ae?aaiinoeea iaoa??ae?a ? i?eeaae?a aeey Iioi-
I?e?i- ? Eaaioiai? Aeaeo?ii?ee”, Ke?a, Oe?a?ia, 1997; “24?e
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a” ??onaeei, ?c?a?eue,
1998; I?aeia?iaei?e Eiioa?aioe?? “E-MRS-98”, No?anao?a, O?aioe?y, 1998;
I?aeia?iaei?e Eiioa?aioe?? “E-MRS-99”, No?anao?a, O?aioe?y, 1999;
“Iioe/ia ae?aaiinoeea iaoa??ae?a ? i?eeaae?a aeey Iioi- I?e?i- ?
Eaaioiai? Aeaeo?ii?ee”, Ke?a, Oe?a?ia, 1999; Ana?in?enueeiio neiiiceoi?
ca o/anoth a/aieo c e?a?i NIAe ”Aii?oi? oa i?e?ie?enoae?/i?
iai?ai?ia?aeieee” Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1998; I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia??
“?aae?iniaeo?ineii?y eiiaeainiaaieo na?aaeiaeu”, Ee?a, 1998;
I?aeia?iaei?e oeie?-eiioa?aioe?? c aeooaeueieo ieoaiue o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, Ae?iaiae/, Oe?a?ia, 1999; I Anaoe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani? i?iaeaie iai?aai?/ii? o?i??”, Ee?a, 1999, An?
iaoa??aee, ui oa?eoee a aeena?oaoe?th aeiiia?aeaeeny ia nai?ia?ao ?OI
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 20 ?ia?o, a oiio /ene? 7 a
i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, 3 noaoo? a o?oaeao i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?e oa 10 oac. Ia?ae?e iniiaieo ?ia?o iaaaaeaiee a e?ioe?
aaoi?aoa?aoo.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae. Aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 140 noi??ieao ? i?noeoue 61 ?enoiie ? 1
oaaeeoeth.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeai?o oaie aeena?oaoe??,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ? caaea/? ?iaioe, iieacaia iaoeiaa iiaecia oa
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i
ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe, no?oeoo?o oa ianya aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e. Cie?aia, ?icaeyiooi
iniiai? ?iaioe ii OE oa E?N ii?enoiai e?aii?th oa iaiie?enoae?o?a
e?aii?th oa aa?iai?th, io?eiaieo ??cieie oaoiieia?yie. ?icaeyaea?oueny
iiaeaeue “i?inoi?iai? ei?aeyoe?? oiiii?a”, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? niaeo??a E?N c?ace?a, ui i?noyoue iaiie?enoae?oe.
Iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe inoaii?o aeine?aeaeaiue iaiie?enoae?o?a a
SiO2-iao?eoe?, io?eiaieo ?iiiith ?iieaioaoe??th c ianooiiei
aenieioaiia?aoo?iei a?aeiaeii. A?eueo aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaea?oueny
?ioa?oaenia iiaeaeue Eaiai?oeo, yea aeicaiey? ei?aeoii iiynieoe iniiai?
aeanoeaino? OE iaiie?enoae?o?a a SiO2-iao?eoe?.

E??i oiai ?icaeyiooi ?yae ?ia?o i?enay/aiee iioe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oae
caaieo SIMOX-no?oeoo? oa no?oeoo? c i?eoiaaieie SiC-oa?aie.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith
eaaioiaeo oi/ie a SiO2-iao?eoe?, noi?iiaaieo ?iiiith ?iieaioaoe??th oa
ianooiiei aenieioaiia?aoo?iei a?aeiaeii. Aeey io?eiaiiy c?ace?a, ui
i?iyaeyee OE o aeaeeiiio ae?aiacii?, ia ieanoei? p-Si (100) oa?i?/iei
ieeneaiiyi ae?iuoaaeeny ie?aee SiO2 oiaueiith 600 ii. A SiO2-iao?eoeth
?iieaiooaaeeny ?iie Si+ c aia?a??th 150 eaA ? aeicith 6(1016 ni-2.
Ia?iieaioiaai? c?acee ia i?iyaeyee OE i?e caoaeaeaii? aei?ii?ithaaiiyi
Ar+-eaca?a c (=488 ii.

C iaoith ?iciaaeoaaiiy aiane?a ??cieo iiaeeeaeo iaoai?ci?a
aei?ii?ithaaiiy a niaeo? OE i?iaiaeeany iinooiiaee a?aeiae c?ace?a a
aoiinoa?? acioo i?e oaiia?aoo?ao a?ae 300iN aei 1200iN ia i?ioyc? 15 oa.
oa ia?aeaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o iaoiaeaie OE, AI? oa E?N. A
aaciina?aaeiuei ?iieaioiaaieo c?aceao ?a?no?oaaeany ?ioaineaia nioaa OE
c iaeneioiii 620 ii. Oa?i?/iee a?aeiae i?eaiaeea aei iinooiiaiai
ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeaii? nioae. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei
anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?th i?ae ?ioaineai?noth nioae OE oa ?ioaineai?noth
AI?-e?i??, yea a?aeiia?aea? ?icoii?yaeeiaaiiio SiOx, aea x(2. Cia/aiiy
x(2 ia iaia’yceiai aeieea? o?eueee i?e iayaiino? iaaeeeoeiaiai Si a
SiO2, a iiaea aooe iia’ycaia oaeiae ?c aenieith eiioeaio?aoe??th
aaeain?e eenith a n?ooe? SiO2, ui aeieeathoue i?ae /an ?iieaioaoe??.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oe??? a?iioace aoei io?eiaii ia eiio?ieueieo c?aceao,
ui ?iieaiooaaeeny ?iiaie Ar+ (E=200 eaA, D=3(1016ni-2) oa Ne+ (E=100
eaA, D=3(1016ni-2). Aeey oeeo c?ace?a ia OE oa AI?-niaeo?ao aaa/a?oueny
ia o?eueee iiae?ai?noue niaeo?ai no?oeoo?, ?iieaioiaaieo ?iiaie Si+, aea
e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ei?aeyoe?y i?ae ?ioaineai?noth nioa OE oa
AI?-e?i?e. Aeiaeaoeiaei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi aeaoaeoii? i?e?iaee nioa c
iaeneioiii 620 ii neoaeeoue oie oaeo, ui i?e oa?i?/iiio a?aeiae?
(O(600iN), a oaeiae ia?iaoe? a iecueeioaiia?aoo?i?e A*-ieaci?, ui
i?noeea ?iie aiaeith oa acioo, iaeii/anii cieeaee niaeo?e OE oa AI?.
Inoaii? iiaea aooe ?acoeueoaoii “cae?eiaoaaiiy” aoiiaie aiaeith
ia??aaieo ca’yce?a a SiOx-iao?eoe?.

Iaeiae i?e oaiia?aoo?? a?aeiaeo 1100iN oa aeua a niaeo?? OE aeieeaea
?ioaineaia nioaa c iaeneioiii (740 ii. Ii nai?io aia?aaoe/iiio
iieiaeaiith aiia ni?aiaaea? c iaea?eueo /anoei iieiaeaiiyi nioae
ii?enoiai e?aii?th. C oiai oaeoo, ui a c?aceao Si/SiO2, ?iieaioiaaieo
?iiaie Si+ oa a?aeiaeaieie i?e O=1100iN iaoiaeii i?ina?/oth/i?
aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? ca?a?no?iaaii e?aii??a? iaiie?enoae?oe, a
oaeiae, ui a c?aceao Si/SiO2, ?iieaioiaaieo ye ?iiaie Ar+ oae ? ?iiaie
Ne+, oey nioaa ia c’yaey?oueny iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aiia
iia’ycaia c ooai?aiiyi iaiie?enoae?o?a Si. Aeiaeaoeiaa i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
oeueiio ie io?eiaee ca aeiiiiiaith iecueei/anoioiiai E?N, a niaeo??
yeiai niinoa??aaeany nioaa c (=60 ni-1, ui a?aeiia?aea? oae caai?e
“aeeoath/?e” iiae? e?aii??aeo iaiie?enoae?o?a. C /anoioiiai iieiaeaiiy
aeaii? nioae aoa ioe?iaiee na?aaei?e ?ici?? nc-Si, ui neeaaea? (4 ii.
Oeae ?ici?? aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c na?aaei?i cia/aiiyi, io?eiaiei ii
?acoeueoaoai i?ina?/oth/i? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? aeey aiaeia?/ieo
no?oeoo?.

sse iieacaee iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiy nioae OE c
iaeneioiii 740 ii ia iia’ycaii c aaciina?aaeiueith ?aeiia?iaoe??th
aeaeo?ii-ae??eiaeo ia? i?e ia?aoiaeao ciia-ciia a iiaeeo?eiaai?e
aeaeo?iii?e no?oeoo?? e?aii??aeo eaaioiaeo oi/eao. C e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo
ii i?ina?/oth/?e aeaeo?iii?e i?e?ineii?? aeey c?ace?a, ui i?noyoue
iaiie?enoae?oe Si a SiO2-iao?eoe?, a?aeiii, ui c ?inoii /ano a?aeiaeo,
na?aaei? ?ici??e oaeeo e?enoae?o?a c?inoathoue. Oiio ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
/ano a?aeiaeo ne?ae aoei a /aeaoe ci?uaiiy iaeneioio nioae OE a /a?aiio
iaeanoue niaeo?o, i?e oiia?, ui ?aeiia?iaoe?y aeaeo?ii-ae??eiaeo ia?
a?aeaoaa?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei a iaiie?enoae?oao. Iaeiae ia aenia?eiaio?
i?e c?inoaii? /ano a?aeiaeo aei 30 oa. niinoa??aaeiny iacia/ia ci?uaiiy
iaeneioio nioae a aieoao iaeanoue (aei 720 ii ), a iiaeaeueoee a?aeiae
ia i?eaiaeea aei ci?uaiiy nioae, a ci?ithaaeany eeoa ?? ?ioaineai?noue.

E??i oiai iecueeioaiia?aoo?ia A*-ieaciiaa ia?iaea c?ace?a i?eaiaeeea
aei cia/iiai (a aeae?eueea ?ac?a) c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? nioae OE, ui
iiynith?oueny aeeooc??th aoii?a aiaeith aei ?ioa?oaeno Si/SiOx oa
ianeaaoe??th ia??aaieo ca’yce?a, ye? ? oeaio?aie aacaei?ii?ithaaeueii?
?aeiia?iaoe??.

Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeia?a iiyniththoueny
?ioa?oaeniith iiaeaeeth Eaiai?oeo: eaca?ia aei?ii?ithaaiiy aaia?o? a
e?aii??aeo eaaioiaeo oi/eao aeaeo?ii-ae??eia? ia?e, ui eieae?cothoueny
ia ?ioa?oaen? e?enoae?o/SiOx, oae ye aia?aaoe/iee ??aaiue ?ioa?oaeno
ieae/ee ca iiaeeo?eiaaiee eaaioiai-?ici??iei aoaeoii ??aaiue e?enoae?oo
? cia/ii ieae/ee ca aia?aaoe/iee ??aaiue aii?oiiai SiO2. *a?ac iaaiee
/an aiie ?aeiia?iothoue c aei?ii?ithaaiiyi na?oea. A ?acoeueoao?
iaeneioi nioae OE ia ci?ith? naiai iieiaeaiiy c ?inoii na?aaei?o
?ici???a iaiie?enoae?o?a.

Ianooiia /anoeia ?iaioe iia’ycaia c aeine?aeaeaiiyi aa?iai??aeo
iaiieeanoa??a. sse a?aeiii, ia’?iiee Ge ? ia’?iiee Si, ? iai?yiiciiieie
iai?ai?ia?aeieeaie, ui ia aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
aei?ii?ithth/eo iioiaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a. A ii??aiyii? c e?aii??i
aeaeo?iii? aeanoeaino? aa?iai?th cia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny. A ca’yceo c
oeei aeine?aeaeaiiy eaaioiaeo oi/ie Ge a SiO2–iao?eoe? i?aaenoaaeyei
cia/iee ?ioa?an. Iaie aoei aeine?aeaeaii aeaa oeie c?ace?a. Aeey ?o
io?eiaiiy ia e?aii??a?e ieanoei? ae?iuoaaany oa? SiO2, oiaueiith 500 ii.
C?acee ia?oiai oeio (I) ?iieaiooaaeeny ?iiaie Ge+ a SiO2-oa? c
aia?a??th 150 eaA ? aeicith 4.1(1016ni-2, c?acee ae?oaiai oeio (II) —
?iieaiooaaeeny c /ioe?ia ??cieie aia?a?yie oa aeicaie. Noia?ia aeica
neeaaeaea 3.48(1016 ni-2. ?iieaioaoe?y a iaeei oa? SiO2 ?ii?a Ge+ c
??cieie aia?a?yie aeicaiey? aeinyaoe ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo ?o ii
oiauei? oa?o. A niaeo?ao OE c?ace?a II oeio aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney
?iieaioaoe?? i?iyaeythoueny aea? nioae a iaeano? 500-700 ii. Aeai? nioae
cieeathoue i?ney oa?i?/iiai a?aeiaeo i?e 300iN ? a niaeo?? OE
i?iyaey?oueny nioaa, aiaeia?/ia o?e, ui ?a?no?oaaeany a c?aceao I oeio
oa i?e ?iieaioaoe?? SiO2 ?iiaie Si+. ?? ci?ie a i?ioean? a?aeiaeo
iiae?ai? aei nioae OE a c?aceao, ui aoee ?iieaioiaai? ?iiaie Si+.
I?e?iaea an?o nioa OE a iaeano? 500-700 ii, ye? aeieeathoue
aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a Ge+ a oa? SiO2, iia’ycaia c
?aae?aoe?eieie aeaoaeoaie. I?e a?aeiaeao c?ace?a iaio oei?a i?e 900iN a
niaeo?ao OE aeieea? nioaa OE c iaeneioiii 535 ii, aea ?ioaineai?noue ??
a aeae?eueea ?ac iaioa i?ae OE a SiO2-iao?eoe?, ?iieaioiaai?e ?iiaie
Si+. Iaoiaeii niaeo?ineii?? E?N i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ooai?aiiy
iaiie?enoae?o?a Ge a SiO2 i?ney oa?i?/iiai a?aeiaeo i?e 900iN, a oaeiae
ioe?iaii ?o na?aaei?e ?ici??, yeee neeaaea? 4.5 ii.

Aeae? a ?iaio? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy c?ace?a Si/SiO2,
?iieaioiaaieo aoaeaoeai. OE aii?oiiai aoaeaoeth ? e?aii?e-aoaeaoeaaeo
oa??a oe?iei aeine?aeaeo?oueny c iaeyaeo ia ia?niaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo no?oeoo? o na?oeiaei?ii?ithth/eo i?eeaaeao, iniaeeai
aeenieayo. ssaeyei ?ioa?an aeine?aeeoe c?acee Si, io?eiai?
?iieaioaoe??th ?ii?a N+ oa ca aeiiiiiaith iiaea?eii? ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a
N+ ? Si+ a SiO2-iao?eoeth. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeaioiaeaii aeaa
oeie c?ace?a. Aeey an?o c?ace?a aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ieanoeie p-Si (100),
ia yeeo iaoiaeii oa?i?/iiai ieeneaiiy aoa ae?iuaiee oa? SiO2, oiaueiith
600 ii.

A c?acee I oeio ?iieaiooaaeeny o?eueee ?iie N+ c aia?a??th 80 eaA ?
aeicith 6(1016ni-2, a a c?acee II oeio ye ?iie N+ oae ? ?iie Si+.
?iieaioaoe?y cae?enithaaeany i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??. A i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c?acee a?aeiaethaaeeny a aoiinoa?? acioo i?e oaiia?aoo?ao
a?ae 100iN aei 1100iN. *an a?aeiaeo aa??thaaany a?ae 15 oa. aei 10 aiae.

Aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney ?iieaioaoe?? ?a?no?oaaeany oe?iea nioaa OE c
iaeneioiii 600 ii. I?e oa?i?/ieo a?aeiaeao aei 600iN ?? iiaaae?iea
iiae?aia aei nioa OE, ui aeieeathoue a c?aceao Si/SiO2, ?iieaioiaaieo
?iiaie Si+. Iaeiae i?e a?aeiaeao aeua 600iN ?ioaineai?noue aeaii? nioae
iinooiiai c?inoaea. Iiaeeea?noue a-N:I ooai?thaaoe o?e ??ci? noaa?euei?
eiio?ao?aoe?? sp3, sp2 oa sp1 i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaeeo?eaoe?? eiai
aeaeo?iiii? no?oeoo?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ca’yce?a
iaaiiai oeio. Uia anoaiiaeoe ei?aeyoe?th i?ae OE oa no?oeoo?ith
?iieaioiaaiiai ? a?aeiaeaiiai aoaeaoeth iaie ia?aeaeueii c OE
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny niaeo?e E?N. A niaeo?ao E?N aeey c?ace?a a?aeiaeaieo
i?e 600iN ?a?no?oaaeeny 2 nioae: G-nioaa (graphitic) c iieiaeaiiyi
iaeneioio 1585 ni-1 ? D-nioaa (disordered) c iieiaeaiiyi iaeneioio 1355
ni-1. C ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaeo Si/SiO2:C+-no?oeoo? c?inoaei
a?aeiioaiiy ID/IG (ID, IG – ?ioaa?aeuei? ?ioaineaiino? D ? G nioa) oa
a?aeaoaaany cnoa G-nioae o aeniei/anoioio iaeanoue. Oae? ci?ie a
niaeo?ao E?N ei?aeththoue ?c c?inoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? nioae OE c
iaeneioiii (600 ii.

Ca?aeii a?aeiii? iiaeae? ?iaa?oniia, a-N ie?aee i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith
aoaeaoeaao n?oeo ?c sp3-ca’yceaie, a ye?e ciaoiaeyoueny eeanoa?e, ui
iathoue eiio?ao?aoe?th sp2. Ca?eueoaiiy /enea iaeanoae ?c sp3-ca’yceaie
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cnoao iaeneioio G-nioae a iecueei/anoioio noi?iio ?
iaaiaee cnoa o aeniei/anoioio noi?iio na?ae/eoue i?i c?inoaiiy aeie?
eeanoa??a ?c sp2-ca’yceaie. Ni?anoaaeyth/e iao? ?acoeueoaoe c
aeuaiaaaaeaieie e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui c
?inoii oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaeo c?inoa? aeiey aoaeaoeaaeo eeanoa??a, ui
iathoue sp2-eiio?ao?aoe?th, aea eieae?cothoueny caoaeaeai? eaca?iei
aei?ii?ithaaiiyi aeaeo?ii-ae??eia? ia?e, a iio?i ?aeiia?iothoue c
aei?ii?ithaaiiyi na?oea.

A c?aceao II oeio i?e caoaeaeaii? aei?ii?ithaaiiyi c (=488 ii
aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney ?iieaioaoe?? ?a?no?oaaeany oe?iea nioaa c
iaeneioiii 600 ii. Ci?ie ?? ?ioaineaiino? iiae?ai? aei ci?i a c?aceao I
oeio, iaeiae i?e oaiia?aoo?? a?aeiaeo aeua 900iN a niaeo?? OE
?a?no?othoueny aea? nioae c iaeneioiaie 560 oa 720 ii, ui aeaui
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae iieiaeaiiy iaeneioi?a nioa OE ye aeey c?ace?a I
oeio oae ? aeey c?ace?a Si/SiO2:Si+. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo c?ace?a
iaoiaeii E?N iieacaei, ui a niaeo?ao aaciina?aaeiuei ?iieaioiaaieo
c?ace?a II oeio ?a?no?othoueny aacno?oeoo?i? nioae a iaeano? 1300-1600
ni-1. I?ney oa?i?/iiai a?aeiaeo aeua 900iN a niaeo?? E?N /?oei
i?iyaeythoueny D ? G nioae, iiae?ai? aei nioa ?icn?thaaiiy c?ace?a I
oeio. Iaeiae ?ioaineai?noue aeaieo nioa cia/ii iaioa, ui iiaea aooe
iane?aeeii oiai, ui /anoeia aoii?a aoaeaoeth eaea ia oi?ioaaiiy
SiC-oace.

Caoaeaeaiiy aei?ii?ithaaiiyi acioiiai eaca?o c (=337.18 ii niaeo??a OE
c?ace?a II oeio, ui aoee a?aeiaeai? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1150iN ia i?ioyc? 4
aiaeei aeicaieeei ca?a?no?oaaoe a niaeo?? OE ua iaeio nioao c iaeneioiii
450 ii. Iiyao aeaii? nioae eia?/ii ca’ycaoe c ooai?aiiyi iaiie?enoae?o?a
SiC i?e aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio a?aeiae?, ine?eueee aiaeia?/ia nioaa
a?aeiia aeey ii?enoiai SiC. Oaeei /eiii a aeai?e /anoei? ?iaioe iieacaia
iiaeeea?noue io?eiaiiy noaa?eueii? ?ioaineaii? OE c iaeneioiii 600 ii
i?e ?iieaioaoe?? a oa? SiO2 ?ii?a N+ oa ?ioaineaii? nioae c iaeneioiii
450 ii i?e iiaea?ei?e ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a N+ oa Si+.

A inoaii?e /anoei? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo aeine?aeaeothoueny niaeo?e E?N
ii?enoiai e?aii?th. A?aeiii, ui ii?enoee e?aii?e ? eiiiiceoe??th
ia?aaoey?ieo iao?e/ieo oa ieoeiiiae?aieo no?oeoo?, ia yeeo a caeaaeiino?
a?ae oiia io?eiaiiy iiaea ciaoiaeeoeny aii?oiee e?aii?e, a?ae?eaee,
ieneaee, neeienaie oa ?io? o?i?/i? niieoee. A?aeiii, ui aeey aii?oiiai
oa iaiie?enoae?/iiai e?aii?th iineaaeththoueny i?aaeea a?aeai?o aeey
iai?oaeiiai ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea, a ca’yceo c /ei oaea nenoaia
i?aaenoaaey? cia/iee ?ioa?an c oi/ee ci?o niaeo?ineii?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii E?N. Iaie iieacaii, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae aeo?aeieo ieanoei Si oa ia?aiao??a
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai i?ioeano iiaeooue ?aae?ciaoaaoeny ??ci? nenoaie
ii?enoiai e?aii?th: iaiie?enoae?/iiai, noi?o? iaiie?enoae?/iiai oa
aii?oiiai oa i?e?ie?enoae?/iiai. A oie aea /an an? oe? aeaee ii?enoiai
Si i?iyaeyee aoaeoeaio OE o aeaeeiiio ae?aiacii?, ui iiaea aooe
iia’ycaii c aaeni?aiaaieie ia iiaa?oi? e?enoae?o?a oa?aie SiHx, SiOx oa
?i.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iioe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith e?aii?th c
i?eoiaaieie ae?aeaeo?e/ieie SiO2 oa iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeie SiC ? SixGe1-x-
oa?aie, iaea?aeaieie ?iiiith ?iieaioaoe??th a?aeiia?aeieo ?ii?a a
e?aii?e c ianooiieie aenieioaiia?aoo?ieie a?aeiaeaie. Oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaia aaaaoueia aaoi?aie aeniea aeica ?iieaioaoe?? (2-3(1018
ni-2) ia aeicaiey? noi?ioaaoe ae?aeaeo?e/i? oa?e oiio? 300 ii. C ?ioiai
aieo aeei?enoaiiy iecueeiaeiciai? ?iieaioaoe?? i?eaiaeeoue aei
oi?ioaaiiy ianoao?iiao?e/ieo oa??a SiOx c x(2, ui cieaeo? iai?oao
i?iaith. Uia ae??oeoe aeaio i?iaeaio aaaeaii noeioethaaoe ca?iaeaeaiiy
oa ??no i?aoeei?oao?a SiO2. Ie aeei?enoaee aeey oeueiai aeiaeaoeiao
?iieaioaoe?th ?ii?a N+. C?acee ?iieaiooaaee i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??
?iiaie I+ c aia?a??th A=150 eaA ? aeicith 1(1017 ni-2. I?ney oeueiai
/anoeia ?o ?iieaiooaaeany ?iiaie N+ c aeicith 2(1016 ni-2 ? aia?a?yie
E1=80 eaA oa E2 =120 eaA. A?aeiae i?iaiaeeany i?e oaiia?aoo?? O=1150iN
ia i?ioyc? 3 aiaeei a aoiinoa?? a?aiio.

Iaea-aiae?c eenith a Si iieacaa, ui aeiaeaoeiaa ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a N+
nooo?ai ci?ith? ?iciiae?e aoii?a eenith i?ney a?aeiaeo, i?e/iio aeey
??cii? aia?a?? ?iieaioaoe?? (oiaoi aeey ??cieo i?io?e?a ?iciiae?eo
aoii?a N) cia/ii ci?ith?oueny i?io?eue caeyaaiiy oa eiioeaio?aoe?y
aoii?a eenith. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aoiie aoaeaoeth i?iyaeythoue
noeioethth/o ae?th ia i?ioeane ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?inoo SiO2-oace. Ia ??no
i?aoeei?oao?a SiO2 cia/iee aieea iathoue oaeiae iaoai?/i? iai?oaeaiiy,
ui aeieeathoue a e?aii?? a ?acoeueoao? ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a oa iiaeaeueoeo
oa?i?/ieo a?aeiae?a. Aeei?enoiaoth/e niaeo?ineii?th E?N ie aeine?aeeee
?iciiae?e iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue a e?aii?? ii aeeaei?, ciiaeoth/e c?acee
c ??ciith aeiaaeeiith oaee?. sse aeia?a a?aeiii /anoioe aeanieo
eieeaaiue aoii?a e?enoaeo caeaaeaoue a?ae neeiaeo eiinoaio i?aeaoiiii?
aca?iiae??, ui aecia/a? caeaaei?noue /anoio oiiiiieo nioa a niaeo?? E?N
a?ae aaee/eie ? ciaeo iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue a ciiaeoth/eo oa?ao. Aoei
iieacaii, ui o aeiaaeeo ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a N+ a iaeanoue i?aoeei?oaoe??
eenith iaoai?/i? iai?oaeaiiy noeneo cia/ii ciaioothoueny. Oea iiaea aooe
?acoeueoaoii oiai, ui i?ae /an aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo iaoai?/i?
iai?oaeaiiy, ye? noai?ththoueny i?aoeei?oaoaie SiO2 /anoeiai
eiiiainothoueny ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy i?e?ii?aoeei?oao?a SiC, a oea
ni?ey? iiaeaeueoiio ?inoo SiO2-oace.

I?aenoiiaoth/e io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaiiai i?ae?icae?eo, iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui aeae?ath/e iaeaaeiei /eiii aia?a?th oa aeico ?ii?a N+,
iiaeia ?aae?coaaoe aeinoaoiuei aocueeee ?iciiae?e iiia?aaeiuei
i?i?iieaioiaaieo ?ii?a I+, a ?acoeueoao? /iai aonoeia ?iciiae?eo
i?aoeei?oao?a SiO2 cia/ii c?inoa?. Oeae oa? iiaea aenooieoe ye
ca?iaeeiaee i?e iiaoi?i?e ?iieaioaoe?? eenith. A ?acoeueoao? oiieee
i?eoiaaiee ae?aeaeo?e/iee oa? noao?iiao?e/iiai SiO2 iiaea aooe
?aae?ciaaii i?e aeineoue iecueeiaeicia?e ?iieaioaoe?? eenith (2(1017
ni-2).

A ianooiiiio i?ae?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ii ?iiii-i?iiaiaaiio
neioaco i?eoiaaieo SiC-oa??a a Si. Ia?niaeoeaiei iaoiaeii noai?aiiy
oaeeo oa??a ? ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a aoaeaoeth a e?aii?e. Ii?yae c iecueeei
??aiai caa?oaeiaiue ? ii??aiyii iaaenieeie oaiia?aoo?aie neioaco oeae
iaoiae caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy oa?o SiN ia iaiao?aei?e aeeaei?
i?e ci?i? aia?a?? ?ii?a, ui ?iieaioothoueny. Ine?eueee iaie aoa
iieacaiee ?noioiee noeioethth/ee aieea aeii?oee aoaeaoeth ia i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy i?eoiaaiiai oa?o SiO2 a e?aii??, yaeyei cia/iee ?ioa?an
aeine?aeeoe aieea eenith ia oi?ioaaiiy i?eoiaaiiai oa?o SiN.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ieanoeie p-Si i???ioaoe?? (100), ae?iuai? iaoiaeii
ciiii? ieaaee (Fz-Si) ? *io?aeueneiai (Cz-Si). Eiioeaio?aoe?y eenith o
aeo?aeieo ieanoeiao Fz-Si ? Cz-Si neeaaeaea 1(1016 ? 6(1017 ni-3
a?aeiia?aeii. Ieanoeie ?iieaiooaaeeny ?iiaie N+ ? oa?i?/ii
a?aeiaethaaeeny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 1250iN i?ioyaii 4 aiaeei a aoiinoa??
a?aiio.

A niaeo?? ?*-i?iioneaiiy ieanoei Cz-Si i?ney ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a
aoaeaoeth niinoa??aathoueny o?e nioae, ?icoaoiaai? a iaeanoyo 600, 800 ?
1100 ni-1. Ia?oa nioaa a?aeiia?aea? eieeaaiiyi Si-C ca’yce?a.
A?aeiia?aei? aoiie aoaeaoeth ciaoiaeyoueny a iieiaeaii? cai?uaiiy a
a?aooe? e?aii?th. Iacia/ia ii ?ioaineaiino? nioaa c iaeneioiii 1100 ni-1
oa?aeoa?ia aeey e?aii?th, ui i?noeoue eenaiue, ? a?aeiia?aea? eieeaaiiyi
Si-O-Si ca’yce?a. Iayai?noue nioae c iaeneioiii 800 ni-1 ? oa?aeoa?iith
aeey Si-C ca’yceo a a?aooe? ea?a?aeo e?aii?th ? na?ae/eoue i?i
oi?ioaaiiy i?eoiaaiiai SiN-oa?o aaciina?aaeiuei a i?ioean? ?iieaioaoe??.
A?aecia/eii, ui niaeo? ?iieaioiaaii? ieanoeie Fz-Si a oe?eiio iiae?aiee
aeuaiienaiiio, iaeiae nioaa c iaeneioiii 1100 ni-1 a iueiio i?aeoe/ii
a?aenooiy, ui iaoiiaeaii iecueeith eiioeaio?aoe??th aoii?a eenith o
aeo?aei?e ieanoei?. E??i oiai, ?ioaineai?noue nioae c iaeneioiii 800
ni-1 aeaui iaioa ii aiie?ooae?, i?ae ?ioaineai?noue aiaeia?/ii? nioae a
ieanoei? Cz-Si.

A?aeiae ?iieaioiaaieo no?oeoo? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1250iN i?eaiaeeoue aei
??ceiai ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? oa aeayeiai caoaeaiiy nioae c
iaeneioiii 800 ni-1, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo oace SiN oa ??
/anoeiai? e?enoae?caoe??. A?eueo aoaeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy oace SiN ia?
i?noea a ieanoeiao Cz-Si, ui aeyaey?oueny a cia/iiio ca?eueoaii?
iiaeeiaiiy a iaeano? 800 ni-1 a ii??aiyii? c ieanoeiaie Fz-Si. C?inoa?
i?e oeueiio ? a?aeiiniee ai?no e?enoae?/ii? oace SiN. ?iceeaae nioae c
iaeneioiii 800 ni-1 ia aea? aeaiaioa?i? nioae, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
aii?oi?e (a) ? e?enoae?/i?e oac? (n) SiC, aea? cia/aiiy a?aeiioaiiy
?ioaa?aeueieo ?ioaineaiinoae Ia/Ic = 2.99 aeey Cz-Si ? 5.13 aeey Fz-Si.
Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe ?ioa?i?aoiaai? ianooiiei /eiii. I?e
neioac? oa??a SiC o iao?eoe? Si iiaeiii iaoe i?noea cia/ia ciaioaiiy
ia’?io e?enoaeo a iaeano? oi?ioaaiiy SiN oace (ia 48%). C ?ioiai aieo
i?e oi?ioaaii? i?aoeei?oao?a aai nooe?eueii? oace SiI2 a Si
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ia’?io e?enoaeo. Oae, o aeiaaeeo oi?ioaaiiy
nooe?eueiiai i?eoiaaiiai oa?o SiO2 ia’?i iiaeiiee ca?eueoeoeny a 2.25
?ace. I/aaeaeii, ui i?e ooai?aii? ?ioi? oace a Si, oa?iiaeeiai?/ii
a?eueo aea?aeieie ? i?ioeane, ui aeicaieythoue i?i?i?coaaoe a?eueio
aia?a?th nenoaie. I?e neioac? i?eoiaaieo oa??a SiN a e?aii?? oey
neooaoe?y ?aae?co?oueny aeey ieanoei Cz-Si, ui i?noyoue o aeo?aeiiio
noai? aaeeeo e?euee?noue eenith. A i?ioean? ?iieaioaoe?? oa a?aeiaeo
ieanoei Cz-Si i?aoeei?oaoe SiO2, ui ooai?youeny a iaeano? oi?ioaaiiy
oace SiN, aeicaieythoue aeiiiaeoaaoe ci?io ia’?io ? ciaioeoe a?eueio
aia?a?th nenoaie. A ?acoeueoao? a?aeaoaa?oueny a?eueo aoaeoeaia
oi?ioaaiiy oace SiN. A?aecia/eii, ui ine?eueee i?eoiaaiee oa? SiN
oi?io?oueny ? a aaceeniaaiio e?aii??, oi a oeueiio aeiaaeeo, iaea?eueo
eiia??ii i?aoeth? iiaeaeue, a ye?e aaaaea?oueny, ui a ?acoeueoao?
aca?iiae?? o a?eueiiio ia’?i?, ui ooai?th?oueny a i?ioean? neioaco,
i?aeaoceia? aoiie Si aca?iiae?thoue c aoiiaie N ? ye ?acoeueoao iaeia
aeaiaioa?ia eii??ea Si cai?uo?oueny aeaiia eii??eaie (-SiN. A
?acoeueoao? ca?eueoaiiy ia’?io iiaeiii neeaaeaoe anueiai 3.25 %.

Aeey ia?aa??ee cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? aoee i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe ii
aea/aiith aieeao aeiaeaoeiai? ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a eenith (ia?aae
a?aeiaeii) ia aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy oace SiN a ieanoeiao Fz-Si.
Niaeo?e ?*-iiaeeiaiiy no?oeoo?, a?aeiaeaieo i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1250iN
i?ney aeiaeaoeiai? ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a eenith iieacaee, ui a oeueiio
aeiaaeeo ?icoiaeaeaiiy o oi?i?, oe?ei? oa ?ioaineaiino? nioae c
iaeneioiii (800 ni-1 aeey ieanoei Cz-Si ? Fz-Si i?aeoe/ii ia
niinoa??aathoueny. Oaeei /eiii, aeiaeaoeiaa ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a I+
noeioeth? oi?ioaaiiy oace SiN a ieanoeiao Fz-Si, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
cai?iiiiiaaio aeua iiaeaeue.

I?ney aeaeaeaiiy a iie??oth/iio o?aaieeo i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o Si, a
niaeo?ao E?N c?ace?a Cz-Si ? Fz-Si, ui aoee ?iieaioiaai? ?iiaie N+ ?
iio?i a?aeiaeai?, c’yaeeany /?oei ae?aaeaia nioaa a iaeano? 770-780
ni-1. I?aee?aneeii, ui ?aaeeie ?iieaioaoe?? oa a?aeiaeo, ui ie
aeei?enoiaoaaee, iiai?noth a?aeiia?aeathoue oiiaai oi?ioaaiiy
aoaeoeaiiai ea?a?ae-e?aii??aiai “noii-oa?o” i?e o?aaeaii? e?aii?th.
Oaeei /eiii aeaia nioaa ae?enii iaoiiaeaia neaiaeii a?ae noi?iiaaiiai
oa?o ea?a?aeo e?aii?th ? a?aeiia?aea? eiai OI-oiiiiai. Iaeii/anii ie
iaea?aeaee na?ae/aiiy, ui ia iaaeao ca?ai a SiN-oa?? ooai?eeany aii?oia
aoaeaoeaaa ie?aea. Ae?enii a niaeo?ao E?N, /?oei aeyaeythoueny aea?
nioae c iaeneioiaie i?e 1370 ? 1460 ni-1, aeecuee? ii aia?aaoe/iiio
iieiaeaiith aei oae caaieo D ? G — nioa a niaeo?ao E?N aii?oieo
aoaeaoeaaeo ie?aie. Oaeei /eiii, ne?ae aeiionoeoe, ui a i?ioean? neioaco
i?eoiaaieo oa??a SiN ia? i?noea naa?aaaoe?y aoaeaoeth ia a?aieoeyo SiN
i?e?ie?enoae?o?a c ooai?aiiyi aii?oii? aoaeaoeaai? ie?aee. I/aaeaeii, ui
iayai?noue oaei? ie?aee aoaea ia?aoeiaeaeaoe ?inoo ? eiaeanoeaioe??
/anoeiie SiN. A oeueiio ca’yceo oe?eaai a?aecia/eoe aeayeo ??cieoeth a
niaeo?ao E?N a iaeano? 1300-1600 ni-1 c?ace?a Cz-Si ? Fz-Si. A oie /an
ye ?ioaineaiino? aeey D-nioa iaio c?ace?a i?aeoe/ii ca?aathoueny,
G-nioaa c?acea Fz-Si iii?oii ?ioaineai?oa ca a?aeiia?aeio nioao aeey
c?acea Cz-Si. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui o ieanoeiao Fz-Si a i?ioean?
neioaco SiN-oa?o a?eueoa aoii?a aoaeaoeth aeeooiaeo? ia a?aieoe? ca?ai
ia oi?ioaaiiy aoaeaoeaai? ie?aee. I?e oeueiio a?eueoa ?ioaineai?noue
naia G-nioae aeey c?acea Fz-Si na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueoee ai?no
a?ao?oiiiae?aii? oace, yea ? iaea?eueo oa?iiaeeiai?/ii noaa?eueiith
aeio?iiiith oi?iith aoaeaoeth. Oe? ianoaaeie ia?aoeiaeaeathoue
aoaeoeaiiio ?inoo oa?o SiN.

Inoaiith /anoeio o?aoueiai ?icae?eo i?ena’y/aii aeine?aeaeaiith
aaoa?ino?oeoo? Si/SixGe1-x/Si. Iaeei c iaoiae?a io?eiaiiy i?eoiaaieo
SixGe1-x-oa??a a Si ? ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a aa?iai?th a e?aii??ao ieanoeio.
Aaaeeeaith oa?aeoa?enoeeith e?aii??aeo no?oeoo? ?c i?eoiaaieie oa?aie
SixGe1-x ? iayai?noue a ieo aioo??oi?o iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o aaee/eie, ciaeo oa i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiae?eo, iiaea
aeaoe aaaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th aeey ?icoi?iiy iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy
i?eoiaaiiai oa?o SixGe1-x. A?aeiii, ui iaoai?/i? iai?oaeaiiy a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o aaee/eie ? ciaeo iiaeooue ci?ithaaoe ?ooeea?noue
iin??a ca?yaeo, a oaeiae i?eaiaeeoe aei aaia?aoe?? e?i?eieo
aeeneieaoe?e. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ieanoeie
e?aii?th EAeA-10, ui aoee ?iieaioiaai? ?iiaie Ge+ (A=100 eaA, aeice
1.5(1016 ni-2, 6(1016 ni-2 i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao i?aeeeaaeee), a iio?i
oa?i?/ii a?aeiaeai? i?e oaiia?aoo?? O=1200iN a aoiinoa?? a?aiio ia
i?ioyc? 30 oa. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaieo c?ace?a iaoiaeii
niaeo?ineii?? E?N aaeaeiny iieacaoe, ui a oa?ao Si, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny
aeeaoa i?eoiaaiiai SixGe1-x-oa?o aeieeathoue iai?oaeaiiy ?icoyao, a a
naiiio i?eoiaaiiio oa?? iayai? iai?oaeaiiy noeneo.

AENIIAEE

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iioe/ieo oa no?oeoo?ieo aeanoeainoae e?aii??aeo,
aa?iai??aeo oa aoaeaoeaaeo iaiino?oeoo? a ?iiii?iieaioiaaiiio SiO2 oa
i?eoiaaieo oa??a SiC, SiO2 ? SixGe1-x neioaciaaieo a e?aii?? ?iiiith
?iieaioaoe??th.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??, a?aeiia?aei? aeniiaee oa i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaathoue a ne?aeoth/iio:

?c OE- , AI?- oa E?N-aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo? Si/SiO2, ?iieaioiaaieo
?iiaie Si+, anoaiiaeaii, ui aei?ii?ithaaiiy na?oea a iaeano? aeiaaeei
oaeeue 620 ii ? 740 ii ia? ??cio i?e?iaeo. Ia?oa nioaa OE ia?
?aae?aoe?eii-aeaoaeoio i?e?iaeo, i?e/iio ?? ?ioaineai?noue ei?aeth? c
?ioaineai?noth AI?-e?i?e, ye? iaoiiaeai? ?icoii?yaeeiaaieie iaeanoyie
SiOx, aea x(2. Ae?oaa nioaa OE iia’ycaia ?c oi?ioaaiiyi e?aii??aeo
eaaioiaeo oi/ie a SiO2-iao?eoe?. Iaeiae, iaoai?ci aei?ii?ithaaiiy oe???
nioae ia iia’ycaiee aaciina?aaeiuei ?c ?aeiia?iaoe?eiei i?ioeanii i?e
ia?aoiaeao ciia-ciia a iiaeeo?eiaai?e ca ?aooiie eaaioiaiai aoaeoo
aeaeo?iii?e no?oeoo?? e?aii?th, a iaea?eueo eiia??ii iaoiiaeaiee
?aeiia?iaoe??th c o/anoth ethi?ianoeaioieo oeaio??a ia ?ioa?oaen?
eaaioiai? oi/ee c ioi/oth/ei ieneaeii.

Aia?oa iieacaii, ui aeey noi?iiaaieo e?aii??aeo eaaioiaeo oi/ie a
SiO2-iao?eoe? iecueeioaiia?aoo?ia A*-ia?iaea o ieaci?, ui i?noeoue ?iie
aiaeith oa acioo, i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai (a aeae?eueea ?ac?a)
ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE, iaoiiaeaii? oeeie oi/eaie.

Iieacaii, ui ?iieaioaoe?y ?ii?a Ge+ a SiO2-iao?eoeth c ianooiiei
aenieioaiia?aoo?iei a?aeiaeii i?ecaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy aa?iai??aeo
eaaioiaeo oi/ie, aei?ii?ithaaeuei? aeanoeaino? yeeo iiae?ai? aei
e?aii??aeo eaaioiaeo oi/ie, aea niaeo? aei?ii?ithaaiiy cnoiooee o
ei?ioeioaeeueiaee a?e.

A?aei?ii?noue OE oa E?N-niaeo??a SiO2 ?iieaioiaaiiai ?iiaie C+ aai C+ ?
Si+ iaoiiaeaia oi?ioaaiiyi aoaeaoeaaeo eeanoa??a a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo ?
aoaeaoeaaeo eeanoa??a oa SiC-oace a ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaeeeaa ??ciiiai?oi?noue niaeo??a E?N (aii?oiee,
iaiie?enoae?/iee, i?e?ie?enoae?/iee oa ?o noi?o) aeey c?ace?a ii?enoiai
e?aii?th, iaoiiaeaia eiai no?oeoo?ieie iniaeeainoyie, ye? caeaaeaoue
a?ae aeanoeainoae aeo?aeiiai e?aii?th oa ia?aiao??a aeaeo?io?i?/iiai
o?aaeaiiy.

A?aei?ii?noue eiaaeaioieo ?aae?on?a aoaeaoeth ? eenith a?ae eiaaeaioiiai
?aae?ono e?aii?th i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui aeiaeaoeiaa ?iieaioaoe?y
?ii?a N+ a e?aii?e, ?iieaioiaaiee eeniai, noeioeth? ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ??no
SiO2-oace. Oaeee i?ioean aeicaiey? oi?ioaaoe oiie? ((90 ii) i?eoiaai?
ae?aeaeo?e/i? oa?e i?e ii??aiyii iecuee?e aeic? ?iieaioaoe??
?ii?a I+ (2(1017 ni-2) ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eii? aenieiaeiciai?
?iieaioaoe?? eenith (2(1018 ni-2).

Iioe/ieie iaoiaeaie anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ic/eiaiee aai ?iieaioiaaiee eenaiue
a e?aii??, ni?ey? i?ioeano ?iiii-i?iiaiaaiai neioaco i?eoiaaiiai
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaiai oa?o SiC a e?aii??, ?iieaioiaaii io aoaeaoeai.

Anoaiiaeaii aaee/eie oa ?iciiae?e iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue a
i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao e?aii?th, ui aeieeathoue i?e ?iiii-i?iiaiaaiio
neioac? i?eoiaaiiai oa?o SixGe1-x a Si. Iieacaii, ui a naiiio
i?eoiaaiiio oa?? iayai? iai?oaeaiiy noeneo, a oie /an ye aeeaoa iueiai
iayai? iai?oaeaiiy ?icoyao.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE:

Valakh M.Ya., Yukhimchuk V.A., Bratus’ V.Ya., Konchits A.A., Hemment
P.L.F., Komoda T. Optical and electron paramagnetic resonance study of
light-emitting Si+ ion implanted silicon dioxide layers // J. Appl.
Phys. –1999, V. 85. N1. –P. 163-168.

A?oaiiiia A.A., Aaeao I.ss., Eethe I.E., Iaeueiee A.I., ?iiaithe A.A.,
?iiaithe A.I., THoei/oe A.A. Aeeyiea eenei?iaea ia i?ioeannu
eiiii-eo/aaiai neioaca ne?uouo neiaa ea?aeaea e?aiiey a e?aiiee // OOI –
1998. O. 32, ?12. – N. 1414-1419.

Artamonov V.V., Valakh M.Ya., Klyui N.I., Melnik V.P., Romanyuk B.N.,
Popov V.G., Yukhimchuk V.A. Study of subsurface Si layers with a latent
SiO2 layer // Functional materials – 1998. V.4, N4. –P. 551-554.

A?oaiiiia A.A., Aaeao I.ss., Aieiaee A.A. Aa?aneiia E.E., Ia/eii?oe
A.Ae., Ieioieeia TH.E., THoei/oe A.A. Niaeo?ineiiey E?N
iieee?enoaeee/aneiai e?aiiey // OOAE – 1992. – O. 37, ?5. — N. 669-674.

Aaeao I.ss., THoei/oe A.I. Oioiethi?ianoeaioe?y iaiie?enoae?o?a Ge a
SiO2-iao?eoe? // OOAE. –1999. O. 44. N10. –C. 1273-1276.

Artamonov V.V., Valakh M.Ya., Klyui N.I., Melnik V.P., Romanyuk A.B.,
Romanyuk B.N., Yukhimchuk V.A. Effect of oxygen on ion-beam induced
synthesis of SiC in silicon // Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. –
1999. – B 147, — P. 256-260.

Bratus’ V.Ya., Valakh M.Ya., Vorona I.P., Petrenko T.T., Yukhimchuk
V.A., Hemment P.L.F., Komoda T. Photoluminescence and paramagnetic
defects in silicon-implanted silicon dioxide layers // Journal of
Luminescence. – 1999. – 80, — P. 269-273.

Valakh. M.Ya., Yukhimchuk V.A., Bratus’ V.Ya., Nasarov A.N., Hemment
P.L.F., Komoda T. Optical diagnostics of light-emitting Si clusters in
SiO2 formed by ion implantation // Proc. SPIE. –Kiev (Ukraine). – 1998.
-3359. – P. 284-288.

Yukhimchuk V.A., Melnik V.P., Romanyuk B.N., Popov V.G., Klyui N.I.
Optical study of the influence of oxygen on the synthesis of SiC buried
layer in Cz-Si and Fz-Si // Proc. SPIE. –Kiev (Ukraine). – 1998. -3359.
– P. 375-378.

Bratus’ V.Ya., Valakh M. Ya., Konchits A.A., Yukhimchuk V. A.
Photoluminescence and paramagnetic defects in silicon-implanted silicon
dioxid layers // Proc. Intern. Conf. “E-MRS-1998”. Strasbourg (France).
-1999. –P. B-30.

Yukhimchuk V.A., Valakh M.Ya., Bratus’ V.Ya., et al. Silicon and
germanium dots in silicon dioxide layers: optical and EPR investigation
// Proc. 24th International Conf. on the Physics of semiconductors.
Jerusalem (Israel). –1998. – Section VII (B). N48. –P. 1-4.

Aiioaoe?y

THoei/oe A.I. Iioe/i? aeanoeaino? e?aii??aeo, aa?iai??aeo ? aoaeaoeaaeo
iaiino?oeoo?, iaea?aeaieo ?iieaioaoe??th. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.07 – o?ceea oaa?aeiai
o?ea. – ?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith iioe/ieo
aeanoeainoae e?aii??aeo, aa?iai??aeo eaaioiaeo oi/ie oa aoaeaoeaaeo
eeanoa??a a SiO2-iao?eoe? oa aeine?aeaeaiith i?eoiaaieo oa??a SiO2, SiC,
SixGe1-x a e?aii??, ui oi?ioaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe?? oa
iine?aeoth/iai aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aei?ii?ithaaiiy Si/SiO2:Si+-c?ace?a a iaeano? 620 ii ? 740 ii iathoue
??cio i?e?iaeo. Ia?oa nioaa OE ia? aeaoaeoio i?e?iaeo. Ae?oaa nioaa
iia’ycaia ?c oi?ioaaiiyi e?aii??aeo eaaioiaeo oi/ie a SiO2-iao?eoe?.
Iaoiaeii niaeo?ineii?? E?N ioe?iaii ?ici??e iaiie?enoae?o?a Si oa Ge a
SiO2. Anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?th i?ae no?oeoo?ieie iniaeeainoyie
aoaeaoeaaeo eeanoa??a a SiO2-iao?eoe? oa ?ioaineai?noth OE
Si/SiO2-no?oeoo?, ?iieaioiaaieo ?iiaie N+. Iioe/ieie iaoiaeaie
anoaiiaeaii, ui a?aei?ii?noue ?iiieo ?aae?on?a aoii?a eenith oa
aoaeaoeth a?ae ?iiiiai ?aae?ona e?aii?th iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia i?e
iiaea?ei?e ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a I+ oa N+ aeey aoaeoeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy a
e?aii?? i?eoiaaieo oa??a SiO2 aai SiC. Aecia/aii aaee/eie oa ?iciiae?e
iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue a oa?ao Si, ui aeieeathoue i?e ?iiii-i?iiaiaaiio
neioac? i?eoiaaieo SixGe1-x-oa??a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaiie?enoae?oe, ?iiia ?iieaioaoe?y, i?eoiaai? oa?e,
oioiethi?ianoeaioe?y, eiia?iaoe?eia ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea.

Aiiioaoeey

THoei/oe A.A. Iioe/aneea naienoaa e?aiieaauo, aa?iaieaauo e oaea?iaeiuo
iaiino?oeoo?, iieo/aiuo eiieaioaoeeae. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 – oeceea
oaa?aeiai oaea. – Einoeooo oeceee iieoi?iaiaeieeia IAI Oe?aeie, Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia yenia?eiaioaeueiiio enneaaeiaaieth iioe/aneeo
naienoa e?aiieaauo, aa?iaieaauo eaaioiauo oi/ie e oaea?iaeiuo eeanoa?ia
a SiO2-iao?eoea e enneaaeiaaieth ne?uouo neiaa SiO2, SiC, SixGe1-x a
e?aiiee, eioi?ua oi?ie?othony eiiiie eiieaioaoeeae e iineaaeothuei
aunieioaiia?aoo?iui ioaeeaii.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eceo/aiea Si/SiO2:Si+-ia?acoeia a iaeanoe 620 ii ? 740
ii eiaao ?acioth i?e?iaeo. Ia?aay iieina OE eiaao
?aaeeaoeeiiii-aeaooaeoioth i?e?iaeo. Eciaiaiey aa eioaineaiinoe
ei??aeee?otho n niioaaonoaothueie eciaiaieyie YI?-eeiee, eioi?ay
niioaaonoaoao iaeanoyi SiOx, aaea x(2. Aoi?ay iieina OE naycaia n
oi?ie?iaaieai e?aiieaauo eaaioiaeo oi/ae a SiO2-iao?eoea ni n?aaeiei
?acia?ii (4 ii. Iaeiaei, iaoaieci eceo/aiey iieinu n iaeneioiii 740 ii
ia naycai iaiin?aaenoaaiii n ?aeiiaeiaoeeiiiui i?ioeannii i?e
ia?aoiaeao ciia-ciia a iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie eaaioiai-?acia?iui yooaeoii
yeaeo?iiiie no?oeoo?a e?aiiey, a aa?iyoiaa anaai iaoneiaeai
?aeiiaeiaoeeae ethieianoeaioiuo oeaio?ia ia eioa?oaena Si/SiO2. Iieacaia
aiciiaeiinoue cia/eoaeueiiai oaaee/aiey eioaineaiinoe iieinu OE n
iaeneioiii 740 ii iooai ieceioaiia?aoo?iie ia?aaioee a A*-ieacia,
niaea?aeauae eiiu aiaei?iaea e acioa.

Iieacaii, /oi eiieaioaoeey eiiia Ge+ a SiO2-iao?eoeo n iineaaeothuei
aunieioaiia?aoo?iui ioaeeaii i?eaiaeeo e oi?ie?iaaieth aa?iaieaauo
eaaioiaeo oi/ie, eceo/aoaeueiua naienoaa eioi?uo iiaeiaiua e?aiieaauo
eaaioiaui oi/eai, ii niaeo? eceo/aiey naeaeioo a ei?ioeiaieiiaoth
noi?iio. Iaoiaeii niaeo?ineiiee E?N ioeaiaiu ?acia?u e?aiieaauo e
aa?iaieaauo eaaioiauo oi/ae, noi?ie?iaaiiuo a SiO2-iao?eoea.

Onoaiiaeaia ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo no?oeoo?iuie iniaaiinoyie oaea?iaeiuo
eeanoa?ia a SiO2-iao?eoea e eioaineaiinoueth OE Si/SiO2-no?oeoo?,
eiieaioe?iaaiiuo eiiaie N+. Iieacaii, /oi ioee/ey a OE e E?N-niaeo?ao
aeey ia?acoeia SiO2 eiieaioe?iaaiiii eiiaie C+ e Si+ e SiO2
eiieaioe?iaaiiii oieueei eiiaie N+, iiaeao auoue naycaii n oi?ie?iaaieai
a ia?aii neo/aa SiC-oacu.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aiciiaeiia ?aciiia?acea niaeo?ia E?N (aii?oiue,
iaiie?enoaeee/aneee, iee?ie?enoaeee/aneee eee eo nianue) aeey ia?acoeia
ii?enoiai e?aiiey, iaoneiaeaia aai no?oeoo?iuie iniaaiiinoyie, eioi?ua
caaenyo io naienoa enoiaeiiai e?aiiey e ia?aiao?ia yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai
o?aaeaiey.

Enneaaeiaaii noeioee?othuaa aeeyiea aoiiia oaea?iaea ia ?ino
i?aoeeieoaoia SiO2. Iieacaii, /oi i?e eciaiaiee yia?aee eiieaioaoeee
eiiia N+ iaiythony i?ioeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey aoiiia eenei?iaea. Iioe/aneeie
iaoiaeaie onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?anoai?aiiue eee eiieaioe?iaaiiue eenei?iae a
e?aiiee niaeaenoaoao eiiii-eo/aaiio neioaco ne?uouo iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo
neiaa SiC a e?aiiee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey n?uoiai
neiy SiC eiaao ianoi naa?aaaoeey aoiiia oaea?iaea n iineaaeothuei
ia?aciaaieai aii?oiie oaea?iaeiie ieaiee ia a?aieoeao ca?ai SiC.

Ii?aaeaeaiu aaee/eiu e onoaiiaeaii ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoaie/aneeo
iai?yaeaiee a iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo e?aiiey i?e eiiii-eo/aaii neioaca
ne?uouo neiaa SixGe1-x a e?aiiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaiie?enoaeeeou, eiiiay eiieaioaoeey, ne?uoua neie,
oioiethieianoeaioeey, eiiaeiaoeeiiiia ?annayiea naaoa.

Abstract

Yukhimchuk V.O. Optical properties of silicon, germanium and carbon
nanostructures, obtained by ion implantation. – Manuscript.

Thesis submitted for a Candidate of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics)
degree in speciality 01.04.07. –Solid State Physics. – Institute of
Semiconductor Physics, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv,
1999.

The thesis is devoted to the experimental studies of optical
characteristics of silicon and germanium quantum dots as well as carbon
clusters in SiO2-matrix and investigation of buried layers in silicon,
formed by ion implantation and subsequent high-temperature annealing.

The emission of Si/SiO2:Si+ samples in the range of 620 nm and 740 nm
is shown to be of different nature. The first photoluminescent band
results from defects. The second band is related to the formation of
silicon quantum dots in SiO2-matrix. The size of Si and Ge
nanocrystallites in SiO2 is evaluated by Raman spectroscopic technique.
A correlation between structural features of carbon clusters in the
SiO2-matrix and the photoluminescence intensity of C+-implanted Si/SiO2
structures is obtained. As follows from the optical methods the
difference in the ion radii of oxygen and carbon from that of silicon
can be used at double implantation of O+ and C+ ions for efficient
formation of SiO2 and SiC buried layers in silicon. The values and
distribution of mechanical strains in Si layers, arising under ion-beam
synthesis of buried SixGe1-x-layers are obtained.

Key words: nanocrystallites, ion implantation, buried layers,
photoluminescence, Raman scattering.

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