I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

Aeaae/oe ?ai? C?iia?eiae/

OAeE 618.1-089:616-072.1

IIA?AOEAIA AIAeINEII?ss A EIIIEAENIIIO E?EOAAII? AE?II*I? AACIE?AeIINO?

14.01.01-AEOOA?NOAI OA A?IAEIEIA?ss

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Iaeana – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /e.-ei?. AII Oe?a?ie
Caii?iaeai Aaea??e Ieeieaeiae/ Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ?aaithoa E?ae?y ?aai?aia, ?inoeooo
iaae?ao???, aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? AII Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eaiiyi ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ooieoe?? ae?iie, i. Ee?a

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Eaoo Noai?neaa Na?a?eiae/, Ee?anueea
iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea , caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Cae?inueeee Ieaenaiae? Ieaen?eiae/,
Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
ia?eiaoaeueii? iaaeeoeeie. Aeeoy/i? oa i?aee?oeiai? a?iaeieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I.
Aiaiiieueoey, eaoaae?a aeooa?noaa oa a?iaeieia?? ?1

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 13-00
aiae.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.600.01 i?e Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (270026, i. Iaeana, i?iaoeie
Aae?oianueeee, 2).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (270026, i. Iaeana, i?iaoeie
Aae?oianueeee,3).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

i?ioani? A. I.
Aeai?aeia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. inoaii? aeanyoe??//y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iei
iia??oaiiyi aeieia?/ii? neooaoe??, ui i?e?iaeiuei a?aeia?aaeo?oueny ia
caei?ia’? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa o?eaaeino? aeeooy ethaeeie. Iaeiei ?c
i?ia?aeieo oaeoi??a oaei? neooaoe?? ? oa, ui o na?aaeiaeu? i?iaeeaaiiy
no/anii? ethaeeie ?nio? aeecueei 6 iei. o?i?/ieo niieoe, ye?
iaaeoiaeyoue aei ?? i?aai?cio c iia?o?yi, aiaeith oa ?aeath a
i?aeaeuaieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo, a ?iaeoeaaoe?y oeeo niieoe a?aeaoaa?oueny a
ia/?ioe?. A?eueo?noue oeeo niieoe iathoue ae?aci? aaiaoio?iii?
aeanoeaino?, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy aino?eo oa o?ii?/ieo
aaiaoeo?a (Y. I. Aa?eiaa, 1994; A. O. Aiaeei, 1990).

Aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao oiene/ieo niieoe ia ii?oieia?/iee noai ia/?iee
nueiaiaei? i?enay/aia cia/ia e?euee?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa ee?i?/ieo
?ia?o. O aeeiiaieo ?iaioao aeine?aeaeai? iaoaaie?ci aoaeaaiae?a,
a?oai?i?a (A. A. Eaieei, 1987; I. E. Aooia, 1987; TH. E. Aoaneee. 1990),
aeoeai?noue ??cieo oa?iaio?a, i?ioeane ia?ieneaeaoe?? (TH. E. Aoaneee,
1991; C. E. Ceyiooaeeiiaa,1991; A. N. Eiaeiia, 1991) aia?aaoe/iee iai?i
(A. A. Aaeioniaa, 1995). A?eueo?noue aaoi??a aaaaeathoue, ui oei
?ioeiiei iaoai?ciii, yeee a?ae?a?a? eeth/iao ?ieue a iaoiaaiac?
oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy ? aeoeaaoe?y a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy (TH.
E. Aoaneee, 1991; A. N. Eiaeiia). O e?oa?aoo?? oaeiae ? ie?ai?
iia?aeiieaiiy, ye? noinothoueny ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ye oa?iaioaoeaii? oae ?
iaoa?iaioaoeaii? aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie. Ia aeeaey/enue ia oaeo
e?euee?noue ?ia?o, aei oeueiai /ano iaia? oe?e?niiai oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
eaaeeoue a iniia? aeano?oeoeaieo ci?i a ia/?ieia?e ee?oei? ? yeei /eiii
oe? ci?ie a?aeia?aaeathoueny ia iieacieeao e?ia?. Oaea yaeua,
a??ia?aeii, ca’ycaia c ??cieie i?aeoiaeaie aei iinoaiiaee aenia?eiaioo,
a?aenooi?noth nenoaiiino? aea/aiiy iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano. Ia aeaeue o
anueiio ??ciiiai?oo? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, ui oi?eathoueny iaoiaaiaco
oiene/ieo aaiaoeo?a iaia? ?aeeii? aeoiee, uiaei ioneiaeo iaoai?ci?a
o?aaeaiiy, oiaoi oeo ia?aeiieo ci?i ye? ia?aaeothoue a?noieia?/iei
i?iyaai ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?e i?aaio, ia aeine?aeaeai? oaeiae iaoai?cie
ia?aeiii? ?aaeoe?? ? a naiiio aaiaoioeeo? ia ae?th aaaioa ? yeei /eiii
aiie iiaeooue aooe a?aeia?aaeaieie ia a?io?i?/ieo iieacieeao e?ia?.

Ia nueiaiaeaiiy a iaaee/i?e iaooe? aeinoaoiuei oe?iei aeeneooothoueny
ieoaiiy i?i “e?eoe/i?” iaoaaie?/i? i?ioeane, “e?eoe/i?”i?aaie oa
oeaieie, a oaeiae “e?eoe/i?” ee?oeie oa ee?oeii? no?oeoo?e ye?
oi?iothoue ia?aeiio ?aaeoe?th — a?aeiia?aeue ia ae?th aoaeue-yeiai
iani?eyoeeaiai oaeoi?o ye ciai?oiueiai oae ? aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.
C oe??? oi/ee ci?o aei oaeeo “e?eoe/ieo” nenoai iaiao?aeii a?aeianoe
i?ioeane, ui caaacia/othoue ?ai?iaeoeoe?th ee?oeie ? ia?o ca ana ?ieue
o?iiaoeio, yeee yaey? niaith niaoeeo?/iee eiiieaen AeIE c yaea?ieie
a?eeaie. Ia i?aenoaa? oiai, ui i?aeioeeainiiia aeaa?aaeaoe?y o?iiaoeio
yaey? niaith neeaaeiee i?ioean, oi a oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ? aaaeeeaei
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a iine?aeiaieo aoai?a aeni?an?? aaiiia,
o?aine?eioe??, i?ioeaneiao oa aeoiaeo ?IE c yaea?. A?aeiii (A. I.
Eooia?, 1988), ui a ?aaoeyoe?? i?ioean?a o?aine?eioe?? aaaeeeao ?ieue
a?ae?a?athoue a?eee o?iiaoeio, ye? aeeiiothoue ye ianiaoeeo?/iee
(a?noiie), oae ? niaoeeo?/iee (iaa?noiiia? a?eee) eiio?ieue. Ii?ooaiiy
AeIE-a?eeiaeo aca?iiae?e a o?iiaoei? ? ca’ycai? c oeei ci?ie
o?aine?eioe?? o ee?oeiao o?aaeaiiai i?aai?cio iaoiiaeththoueny, ye
ii?ooaiiyie ia?aeiii? no?oeoo?e, oae ? ci?iaie ca?yaeo a?eeiai? iieaeoee
(I. Ae. Eiaaoe, 1991). A ca’yceo c oeei, aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeo?eaoe?e
a?ee?a o?iiaoeio, yea ? aeeiai?/iei ? iia?eueiei i?ioeanii, iiaea aooe
iaeiei ?c ?aii?o e?eoa???a ioe?iee noaio aaiaoioeeo?a. Ni?eeiath/e aei
oaaae oi?aa?naeueio ?ieue oeeee?/ieo ioeeaioeae?a o ?aaoeyoe??
iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a ia ??cieo ??aiyo i?aai?caoe?? i?aai?cio, ie
aaaaea?ii, ui aea/aiiy ?o ai?noo oa aca?iia?aeiioaiue i?ae niaith i?e
oiene/ieo o?aaeaiiyo ia/?iee, aeicaieeoue c’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino?
aca?iica’yceo ?o c iiaeeo?eaoe?eieie ci?iaie a?ee?a. E??i oiai, nooo?aei
iiiaioii o oeueiio aniaeo? ? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ? aca?iia?aeiinei o
nenoai? IIE-AIN, a oaeiae oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aca?iiae?? oe??? nenoaie c a?aooaaiiyi iaaaaeaieo aeua i?ioean?a.

A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui aaaaoueia aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
aeiaaaeaia ni?euei?noue aeayeeo iaoai?ci?a ooeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei ia/?iee
i?e a??onieo aaiaoeoao, oa aaiaoeoao, aeeeeeaieo ae??th NNl4, oi
?ic?iaea iacaaieo ieoaiue aeicaieeoue ?ice?eoe ?ai?oa ia a?aeii?
iaoio?c?ieia?/i? iaoai?cie oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy ia/?iee, c’ynoaaoe, yeei
/eiii aeano?oeoeai? ci?ie a ee?oeiao ia/?iee a?aeia?aaeathoueny ia
ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ieo iieacieeao ia?eoa??eii? e?ia? oa aeno?aiiethaaoe ?o
ia aiaeia?/i? i?e o?ii?/ieo a??onieo aaiaoeoao, ye? yaeythoueny iaei??th
?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai ioi?iie caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy ieaiaoe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? ? o?aaiaioii eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy c oaie: “Aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a iaoiaaiaoe/ii? ?
ae??oioa?ai?? oai?eo aaiaoeoii c a?aooaaiiyi aeieia?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy”. ? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0193U039629, AEIO
01.07.04./022.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aea/aiiy
iaoiaaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a oiene/iiai oa a??oniiai o?aaeaiiy ia/?iee ia
iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?ooaiue ?aaeoe?e iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ee?a o?iiaoeio,
ci?i ii/aoeiaeo aoai?a aeni?an?? aaiiia yaea? ee?oei ia/?iee, ?o cayccie
c? noaiii ?aaeien-nenoaie ? ia oe?e i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeoe oeyoe
aeni?an-ae?aaiinoeee oa oa?iaeieia?/ii? ei?aeoe??.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee noi?ioeueiaai? ne?aeoth/?
caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe ??ai? iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a
o?iiaoeio yaea? ee?oei ia/?iee o o?c?ieia?/ieo oiiaao oa i?ney
oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy oao?aoei?iaoaiii.

2. Aeine?aeeoe aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a iiaeeo?eoth/eo no?oeoo?o a?noii?a
o?iiaoeio yaea? ee?oei ia/?iee (aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ac, iaoeeo?ainoa?ac,
oeAIO-caeaaeieo i?ioa?ie?iac), o o?c?ieia?/ieo oiiaao ? i?e oiene/iiio
o?aaeaii? CCl4.

3. Aecia/eoe o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a?noii?a oa i?ioeane aca?iiae??
a?noii?a ? iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a c AeIE a ee?oeiao ia/?iee ?ioaeoieo
oaa?ei oa i?ney ae?? oao?aoei?iaoaio.

4. Anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? a?ineioaco ? aeoiaeo ?c yaea? ee?oei
ia/?iee ?IE, a oaeiae caeaaei?noue oeeo i?ioean?a a?ae ai?noo oeeee?/ieo
ioeeaioeae?a, ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a oa ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
AIN ca oiia oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy CCl4.

5. I?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? iacaaieo i?ioean?a a?ae noaio oa
aca?iia?aeiinei o nenoaiao IIE-AIN, oeAIO, oeAIO ? c’ynoaaoe ye aiie
a?aeia?aaeathoueny ia inoaii?o a ia?eoa??ei?e e?ia? ?ioaeoieo oaa?ei oa
i?ney ae?? oao?aoei?iaoaio.

6. I?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio nenoaie
IIE-AIN a a?eo?ioeeoao oa ne?iaaooe? a aeeiai?oe? ia?aa?ao a??onieo
aaiaoeo?a ? ni?anoaaeoe ?acoeueoaoe c aiaeia?/ieie iieacieeaie a
aaiaoioeeoao oa a e?ia? i?e oiene/iiio o?aaeaii? ? ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee
aeni?an-ae?aaiinoeee.

7. Ia iniia? EEN ieacie e?ia? ?ic?iaeoe iiaee ne?ei?iaiaee iaoiae
ae?aaiinoeee, e?eoa???a aaaeeino? ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiiy oa aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaii? oa?ai??

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa io?eiaii aeai?, ye?
na?ae/aoue, ui iniiaiith eaieith iaoiaaiaoe/ieo c?ooaiue i?e ??cieo
oi?iao aaiaoeo?a yaeythoueny ii?ooaiiy a iaoaaie?ci? a?ee?a. Aiie
iinyoue oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa? ? iaeaea ia caeaaeaoue a?ae
aeaoa?i?ioth/iai oaeoi?o.

Aia?oa iieacaii ii?ooaiiy ??ai?a iiaeeo?eaoe?e a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo
a?ee?a o?iiaoeio yaea?, iniaeeaino? ci?i aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a, ye?
iiaeeo?eothoue no?oeoo?o a?noii?a o?iiaoeio yaea? aaiaoioeeo?a.
Anoaiiaeaii o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a?noii?a, ??ai? aca?iiae??
a?noii?a ? iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a c AeIE aaiaoioeeo?a, caeiiii??iino?
a?ineioaco oa aeoiaeo c yaea? aaiaoioeeo?a ?IE, a oaeiae ?aaoeyoi?iee
aieea ia oe? i?ioeane oeeee?/ieo ioeeaioeae?a, ? caeaaei?noue noaio
ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a oa aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie ca oiia
oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy ia/?iee.

Aia?oa aea/aia oe?eueia ea?oeia oa iieacaii cia/aiiy ? aca?iicacycie
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio nenoai IIE-AIN, oeAIO, oeAIO ia ??cieo noaae?yo
oiene/iiai oa a??oniiai aaiaoeo?a. Anoaiiaeaii ieoiiee aeeaae ie?aieo
eiiiiiaio?a aeine?aeaeaieo nenoai o iaoio?c?ieia?/i? iaoai?cie o?aaeaiiy
ee?oei ia/?iee ? ?o aca?iicacycie c ooieoe?iiaeueieie ii?ooaiiyie a
a?eo?ioeeoao oa ne?iaaooe? e?ia?.

Aia?oa aeyaeaii oioiaeiino? oa ?ica?aeiino? ci?i ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noaio aeine?aeaeaieo nenoai o ne?iaaooe? oa a?eo?ioeeoao ca oiia
oiene/iiai ? a??oniiai aaiaoeo?a.

Aia?oa anaa?/ii aeine?aeaeai? iaoai?cie ae?? aaio?aeo. Iaea?aeai? iia?
aeai? i?i iiceoeaiee aieea aaio?aeo ia i?ioeane oinoi?eethaaiiy,
iaoeethaaiiy, AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a
o?iiaoeio yaea? ca oiia oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy oa?o?aoei?iaoaiii.
Aecia/aii iiceoeaiee aieea aaio?aeo ia aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a,
iiaeeo?eoth/eo no?oeoo?o a?noii?a o?iiaoeio yaea? ee?oei ia/?iee i?e
oiene/iiio o?aaeaii? oa?o?aoei?iaoaiii. A aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa
ee?i?/ieo oiiaao aeieacaia aeniea aoaeoeai?noue aaio?aeo i?e e?eoaaii?
oiene/ieo oa a??onieo aaiaoeo?a, ye? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iniiai?
iaoio?c?ieia?/i? c?ooaiiy i?e o?aaeaii? ia/?iee.

Ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa ee?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeai?
iaoai?cie ii?ooaiiy a?eieneioacoth/i? ooieoe?? ia/?iee ca oiia
oiene/iiai oa a??oniiai aaiaoeoo, noi?ioeueiaaia ?iai/a a?iioaca,
c’yniaai? ?ai?oa iaa?aeii? eaiee iaoiaaiaco oe??? iaoieia??.

Aia?oa io?eiai? aeai? i?i aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy EEN, ye
aeni?an-iaoiaeo o ae?aaiinoeoe?, ioe?ioe? aaaeeino? ia?aa?ao
caoai?thaaiiy oa aoaeoeaiino? oa?iaeioa?ai??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? a cia/i?e
i??? ?icoe?eee ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i ii?ooaiiy iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a,
ye? eaaeaoue a iniia? oiene/iiai oa a??oniiai o?aaeaiue aaiaoioeeo?a,
oe? ?acoeueoaoe a?aee?eaathoue iia? ia?niaeoeae aeey ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a
oe?eani?yiiaaii? ei?aeoe?? o?aaeaiue ia/?iee. Eiiieaenia ioe?iea
a?eie-neioacoth/iai aia?aoo yaea? ee?oei ia/?iee ? iaoai?ci?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ieenethaaeueieo i?ioean?a, ooieoe?iiaeueii?
ni?iiiaeiino? aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie, nenoaie oeeee?/ieo ioeeaioeae?a,
o?ieaeenoeueo?aeiiai iai?io, ai?noo i??eaeeiiaeo ioeeaioeae?a c
ianooiiei aiae?cii io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia?niaeoeaia a ieai?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ? iaae?eiino? ae?aaiinoeee nooiaith, aeeaeie
aeano?oeoeaieo i?ioean?a o ee?oeiao ia/?iee oa eiio?ieth ca
aoaeoeai?noth e?eoaaeueieo cania?a. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino?
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ?ioaineai?noth ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a,
ooieoe?iiaeueiei noaiii aioeieneaeaioieo iaoai?ci?a oa
o?ieaeenoeueo?aeiei iai?iii a a?eo?ioeeoao oa ieaci? e?ia?, iathoue
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey i?aeoe/ii? aaiaoieia??. Aia?oa o
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa ee?ie/ieo oiiaao aeiaaaeaia ? iaa?oioiaaia
aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy EEN o yeino? aeni?an-iaoiaeo aeey
ae?aaiinoeee nooiaith aaaeeino? ? i?iaiico ia?aa?ao oa aoaeoeaiino?
oa?aiaaoe/ieo caoiae?a i?e oiene/ieo oa a??onieo aaiaoeoao. Ia i?aenoaa?
i?iaaaeaieo ianoaaeaiue aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaiiy EEN aeey
aeyaeaiiy a?oi ?eceeo ii ia/?ieiaeo iaoieia?yo o ?aa?iiao c ??ciei
noaiii aeinenoai.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeai? iia? aeanoeaino?
a?aeiiiai i?aia?aoo aaio?aeo. C’yniaaii, ui a?i iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia
i?ioeane o?aine?eioe?? a?ee?a o?iiaoeio, iie?auo? aca?iiae?th AeIE c
oeeie a?eeaie, aieeaa? ia noai a?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ui iiaeeo?eothoue
a?eee o?iiaoeio oa aeeeeea? ii?iae?caoe?th o?ieaeenoeueo?aeiiai iai?io.

Io?eiai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue iaa?oiooaaoe
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy aaio?aeo ca oiia oiene/iiai ? a??oniiai
aaiaoeoo.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? a ee?i?/i? caeeaaee i?noa Iaeane oa
iaeano?, a oaeiae o i?aeoeeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaa/aeueiee
i?ioean ?yaeo eaoaae? iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii naiino?eii ?ic?iaeaia
aeine?aeieoeueea i?ia?aia, naiino?eii i?iaaaeai? a?io?i?/i?, a?io?ce/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ye a oiiaao aenia?eiaioo, oae ? a oiiaao ee?i?ee.
I?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, c?iaeai? aeniiaee, noaoenoe/ia
ia?iaea iaoa??aeo oa ioi?ieaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iioae?eiaai?
iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??, ii?eethaeiaii ia can?aeaiiyo Iaeanueeiai
a?aeae?eaiiy Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?ioaeoe?ii?no?a (Iaeana
1997, 1998); ia can?aeaiiyo Iaeanueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa o?c?ieia?a oa iaoio?c?ieia?a (Iaeana 1996,1997);
The Fourth International Symposium on Maritime Heal (Oslo, June 21 to 25
1997), European Conference on Travel Medicine. (Venice, 1998); Ia IV
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eiia?anna “?aaaeeeoaoeey a iaaeeoeeia e
eiioii?aaaeeeoaoeey”. (Ni/e, 1998); Ia V cc?cae? ?ioaeoe?ii?no?a Oe?a?ie
(Oa?iii?eue, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 25 iaoeiaeo ?iaioao
c ieo 15 o aeo?iaeueieo noaooyo oeaio?aeueieo aeaeaiue ca oaoii, 1
noaooy o iaoeiaiio iin?aieeo, 2 aeo?iaeuei? noaoo? o ?iicaiieo aeo?iaeao
ca oaoii, aeaio iiiia?ao?yo , 2 iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo, oa 3 ?iaioe
o iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e oa neiiic?oi?a.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii
ia 351 noi??ioe? iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 40 oaaeeoeue, 51 ?enoiie
? aea? noaie. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e,
?icae?eo iaoa??aeo oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue, 5-o ?icae?e?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a, ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee neeaaea?oueny ?c 271 a?o/eciyieo oa
271 ca?oa?aeieo aeaea?ae

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaaaeai? ia 980 noaoaaic??eeo uo?ao naioeyo ianith 180 — 200 a, ye?
oo?eioaaeenue a noaiaea?oieo oiiaao oa ia noaiaea?oi?e ae??o? a?aa??th.
I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue an? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oaa?eie aoee
?icae?eai? ia ne?aeoth/? a?oie: 1) ?ioaeoi? oaa?eie — eiio?ieueia a?oia;
2) oaa?eie i?ney aioo-??oiueioeoieiaiai aaaaeaiiy ie?eiiai ?ic/eio CCl4;
3) io?o?i? CCl4 oaa?eie, yeei aai-aeeee aioo??oiueii/a?aaeiii ?ic/ei
aaio?aeo; 4) io?o?i? CCl4 oaa?eie, yeei aioo-??o-iueii/a?aaeiii aaiaeeee
I?AO-2, 5) oaa?eie, yeei ia?aae aaaeaiiyi NNl4 aaiaeeee aaio?ae.

Oiene/iee aaiaoeo aeeeeeaee oeyoii iaeii?aciaiai aioo??oiuei-oeoieiaiai
aaaaeaiiy ca aei-iiiiaith ciiaeo 50 % ie?eiiai ?ic/eio CCl4 ?c
?ic?aooieo 5 ia/ea iane. I?ney aaaaeaiiy ie?eiiai ?ic/eio CCl4
i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei a?aee aei aen-ia—-?e-iaioo /a?ac 24, 48, 72,
120 aiaeei oa ia 14 oa 21 aeaiue. Ia’?eoii aeey aenia-?eiai-oaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoea ia/?iea, a?eo?ioeeoe oa ne?iaaoea ia?eoa??eii?
e?ia?.

Aaio?ae i?aia?ao ae?iaieoeoaa o??ie Knoll Farmaceutici Spa ?oae?y
i?n-oeoue aeoeaio ?a/iaeio aaeaiaoeii?i 1,4-aooaiaeenoeueoao.
Aaeaiaoeii?i (S-aaeaiicee-4-iaoeii?i) – a?ieia?/ia niieoea, yea
i?noeoueny o an?o oeaieiao i?aai?cio. Eiai iieaeoea i?eeia? o/anoue o
a?eueoino? a?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ye aeiii? iaoeeiai? a?oie, ? ye
iiia?aaeiee o?c?ieia?/ieo o?ieiaeo niieoe.

C iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?? aaio?aeo ia iaoai?cie ianiaoeeo?/ii?
?ace-noaioii-no? i?aai?cio eiai aaiaeeee i?aeaeine?aeiei oaa?eiai
aioo??oiuei-i/a?aaeiii 2 ia aaio-?aeo a 0,5 ie ?ic/eiieea, ui
a?aeiia?aea? 5 ia ia 1 ea iane.

Aaaaeaiiy aaio?aeo i?aeaeine?aeiei oaa?eiai i?iaiaeeee a ia?oo aeiao
aea?/? c ia?a?aith a 12 aiaeei, a iio?i eiaeai aeaiue ia i?i-oyc? 14
ae?a. I?ney aaaaeaiiy aaio?aeo, aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei a?aee aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue /a?ac 24, 48, 72, 120 aiaeei ia 14 oa 21
aeaiue. Oaea iinoaiiaea aenia-?eiaioo aeicaieyea aeyaeoe iniaeeaino?
iaoio?c?ieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a ?icaeoeo aeano?oeoeaieo ii?ooaiue
iaoaaie?cio a?ee?a, oa noai ianiaoeeo?/ieo aaeaioeaieo iaoai?ci?a, i?e
oiene/iiio aaiaoeo? ? aeyaeoe iaoai?cie aieeao ia cacia/ai? i?ioeane
aaio?aeo a aeeiai?oe? ia?aa?ao oe??? iaoieia??. Aea?aia aeica aaio?aeo
a?aeii-a?aea? ?aeiiaiaeiaai?e aeiaia?e aeic? aaio?aeo i?e e?eoaaii?
??cieo ii?ooaiue ooi-eoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?iee o ethaeae. C iaoith
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy ca aeiiiiiai EEN-iao??? ie?ai?e a?oi?
i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei aaiaeeee I?AO-2 i?aia?ao, neioaciaaiee o
Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, yeee yaey? niaith
eii?aeeiaoe?eio niieoeo aa?iai?th c i?eioeiai?aeii. I?AO-2 aaiaeeee
aioo??oiuei/a?aaii ia i?ioyc? 2-o oeaei?a ?c ?ic?aooieo 11 ia/ea iane
o?ea.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoio?c?ieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a ?icaeoeo aaiaoeo?a o
ethaeae aoee ianoaaeai? 90 oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee aaiaoeo A a a?oe? a?ae 40
aei 60 ?ie?a, /ieia?e?a 80, ae?iie 10. Eiio?ieueio a?oio neeaaeaee
aeiii?e oiai ae a?eo. Ae?a-aiic o?ii?/iiai a??oniiai aaiaoeoo A noaaeee
ia i?aenoaa? ia?ea?iiai aiae?co io?eiaieo ?ioiioa?iaioiei oa
?aae?i?ioiiei iaoiaeaie. I?e oeueiio oa-eiae a?aoiaoaaee aiaiianoe/i?,
ai?aeai?ieia?/i? oa ee?i?/i? aeai?.

Ae?oao a?oio neeaaeaee 30 oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee aaiaoeo A na?aaeiuei?
aaae-eino? ia?aa?ao, ye? io?eioaaee caaaeueiiaecia/aio aacenio oa?ai?th.
O?aoth a?oio (30 in?a) neeaaeaee oai?? ia o?ii?/iee aaiaoeo A
na?aaeiuei? aaaeeino? ia?aa?ao, ye? io?eioaaee ie??i aacenii? oa?ai??
aaio?ae.

Ia’?eoii aeey aeine?aeaeaiue o oai?eo aoee a?eo?ioeeoe oa ieacia
ia?e-oa??eii? e?ia?. E??i oeueiai aoei i?iaaaeaii ianoaaeaiiy a?oi
?eceeo o *i?iiaeeuenueeee cii? 60 /ieia?e, o Eai?ia?aaenuee?e iaeano? 41
/ieia?e, o ?ecnuee?e cii? 41 /ieia?e, o Ee?anuee?e iaeano? 51 /ieia?e ?
o Iaeanuee?e iaeano? 77 /ieia?e

I?ney aeaeai?oaoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei, oaeaeei i?iaiaeeee ?icoei
/a-?aaii? ii?iaeieie ? caae?aee ia/?ieo, yeo i?iieaaee o?e/?
ioieiaeaeaiei o?c?i-eia?/iei ?ic/eiii. Iio?i oeaieio ia/?iee caaaeoaaee
ia oi?c?iiieo aaaao ? aeei-?enoiaoaaee aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.
Aiiiaaiecoaaiiy oeaiei ia/?iee i?iai-aeeee a na?aaeiaeu? aeae?eaiiy, yea
neeaaeaeiny ?c 0,145 I ?ic/eio KCl yeee i?noea o nia? 3.3 iI.
EINI3 c ?I — 7,4.

ssae?a aeeo/aee ca iaoiaeii Pogo (A. O. Pogo, 1967). O?iiaoei
io?eioaaee ii iaoiaeo Oaia oa ni?aaaoi??a a iiaeeo?eaoe?? Oiainueeiai oa
ni?aaaoi??a (1978). Eaa?eueii iia’ycai? c AeIE iaa?noiiia? a?eee
io?eioaaee aiane?aeie ia?iaee i/euaiiai o?iiaoeio 0,35 I NaCl ?I — 7,5
(F. Strause, 1982). A?noiie aeno?aaoaaee 0,25N I2SO4 i?enaaeaeoaaee
aoeaoiiii, i?iieaaee aoaiieii ? e?io?e?coaaee. ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? a?noiie
io?eio-aaee o?aeoe?iioaaiiyi noia?ieo a?noii?a iaoiaeii
aaeueo?eueo?aoe?? ia a?iaae? ?-60, oa na-oaaeaen? G-100 (E. L. Bocm.,
1973). O?aeoe?th i?oeii iia’ycaieo iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a io?eioaaee (i?ney
aeno?aeoe?? a?noii?a) oeyoii ia?iaee o?iiaoeio 0,5N HClI4 i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 100°N ia i?ioyc? 20 oaeeei. Noia?i? iaa?noiiia? a?eee
io?eioaaee ?c i/euaiiai o?iiaoeio ca iaoiaeii Ainoie E. (E. Ainoie,
1976). Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ee?a in vivo oaa?eiai
aioo??oiueii/a?aaeiii (?c ?ic?aooieo ia 100 a iane) aaiaeeee: i?e
aei-ne?aeaeai? oinoi?eethaaiiy — 6,0 IAe NaH232PO4 ca aea? aiaeeie aei
aeaeai?oaoe??, i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aoeaoeethaaiiy — 6,0 IAe 14NI3NIINa ca
i?aoi?e aiaeeie aei aeaeai?-oaoe??, i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy — 8,0 IAe 3I-?eaice ca 2 aiaeeie aei aeaeai?-oaoe??;
i?e aeine?aeaeaii? iaoeethaaiiy — 8,0 IAe 3I-iaoeeiao?iieio ca 1,5
aiaeeie aei aeaea-i?oaoe??.

Aeaeo?ioi?ac a?noii?a i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii Panhyim oa Chalkley
(1969). Ca-oa?aiaai? aae? neaioaaee ia niaeo?ioioiiao?? Specord — UV —
Vis. Eiioeaio-?aoe?th a?eeo aecia/aee ii Desoye (1980). I?ae?aooiie
?aae?iaeoeaiino? a ciiao aaeth i?iai-aeeee ii iaoiaeo Aloye (1979).

I?aia?aoe AIO-caeaaeii? i?ioa?ie?iace ? ? ?? io?eioaaee ?c ia/?iee
ca?aeii Dastugue ? ni?aaaoi??a (1973). Aeoeai?noue i?ioa?ie?iac
aecia/aee ii iaoiaeo Uno ? ni?aaaoi??a (J. Uno, 1976). I?aia?aoe
a?noiiaoeaoeeac A oa A io?eioaaee ?c o?iiaoeio ia/?iee. ?o aeoeai?noue
aecia/aee ii Gallwitz (1970; 1972). Aeae?eaiiy, i/euaiiy i?aia?a-o?a
a?noiiiaoeeac ? oa ?? ?c o?iiaoeio ia/?iee ii iaoiaeo Gallwitz (1971);
aeoea-i?noue iie?-(AAeO-?eaici)-iie?ia?ace ii Caae?oa?e? oa ?i. (1980).

Aeey io?eiaiiy aeniei i/euaieo aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ac ?c yaea? ia/?iee uo??a
ca iniiao aoa aeei?enoaiee iaoiae Syres ? Gallwitz. I/euaiiy
a?noii-aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ac eiio?ieth-aaee oeyoii aei??thaaiiy aeoeaiino?
oa?iaio?a. Aeei?enoiaoth/e a yeino? noano-?aoo noia?i? a?noiie ia/?iee ?
(?-14N) aoeaoee-eiaicei A (o??ia “Amersham”, Aa-eeeia?eoai?y),
a oaeiae aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ii (R. K. Laemmly, 1973). ?ieoaaoe?eia
na?aaeiaeua aeey ae-cia/aiiy aeoeaiino? aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ac yaea? ee?oeie
ia/?iee a e?ioeaaiio ia’?i? ) 0,5 ie i?noeei: 30 iI o?en-ICl aooa?, ?I
7,9; 0,7 iI ECl, 0,2 iI

AAeOA; 7 iI NH4Cl 4 iI b-ia?eaioiaoaiie, 7,5 % ae?oea?ei, 20 iea
i?aia-?aoo noia?ieo a?noii?a, 4*10-4 IAe (? — 14N) — aoeaoee-eiaiceia A
(ieoiia aeoeai?noue — 198 IAe/iiieue) ? aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ace a?ae 5 aei 25
iea.

I?ioa?ie?iace ?c ia/?iee uo??a aeae?eyee ii iaoiaeo Tichonisky (Z.
Tichonisky, 1974). Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oinoi?eethaaiiy aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ac
in vitro c aeiiiiiaith oeAIO-caeaaeieo i?i-oa?ie?iac ?ieoaaoe?eia
na?aaeiaeua a e?ioeaaiio ia’?i? 0,5 ie i?noeei: i?aia?ao
aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ace 10 iea, i?ioa?ie?iace 5 iea, 30 i I o?en- ICl aooa?
?I 7,5; 0,7 iI NH4Cl; 0,2 iI AAeOA; 7 iI 4 iI b-ia?eaioi-aoaiie, 20 iI
AOO; 4 iI oeAIO; 4*10-2 IAe (g-32?) AOO (o??ia “Amerscham”, ieoiia
aeoeai?noue 14* 104 IAe/iiieue).

Caeaaei?noue aeoeaiino? aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ac a?ae ?o oinoi?eethaaiiy ca
aeiiiii-aith oeAIO-caeaaeieo i?ioa?ie?iac aeine?aeaeoaaee,
aeei?enoiaoth/e ?ieoaaoe?eia na-?aaeiaeua, ui i?noeoue a e?ioeaaiio
ia’?i? 0,5 ie; 30 ie o?en- ICl aooa? ?I 7,5; 0,7 iI ECl; 0,2 iI AAeOA; 7
iI NH4Cl; 4 iI b-ia?eaioiaoaiie; 20 iI AOO; 4 iI oeAIO; 10 iea
aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ace ? a?ae 2 aei 10 iea i?ioa?ie?iace. *a?ac 20 oa.
?i-eoaaoe?? i?e 37° N i?iae ioieiaeaeoaaee ia eueiaeo, aiineee 4 * 10 -4
IAe (?-N14) aoeaoe-eeiaiceia A ? 20 ia i?aia?aoo noia?iiai a?noiia.
?ieoaaoe?th i?iaiaeeee 20 oa. i?e 37° N. ?aaeoe?th coieiyee aeiaeaaaiiyi
0,5 ie 10% OOI. Ca iaeeieoeth aeoeaiino? aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ac i?eeiaee
e?euee?noue iiieue aoeaoaoo, aeeth/aiiai a 1ia a?noii?a ca 1 oa.

I?i oinoi?eethaaiiy aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ac in vivo noaeeee ii aeeth/aiith 32?
?c NaH232PO4, ieoiia aeoeai?noue — 88 IAe/iiieue, yeee aaiaeeee
aioo??oiueii/a?aaeiii ?c ?ic?aooieo 6,0 IAe ia 100 a aaae oaa?eie ca 2
aiae. aei aeaeai?oaoe??.

AeIE ?c ia/?iee aeae?eyee ii iaoiaeo Eao ? ni?aaaoi??a (1975). Aeey
io?e-iaiiy AeIE c ieoiiith ?aae?iaeoeai?noth aeei?enoiaoaaee iiaeaeue
iiaeaaeaiiy ? a?ae-iiaeaiiy ?a-ie?eaoe?? AeIE oeeeeiaaenei?aeii (I. ss.
Aieeia, 1979). AeIE aeae?eyee /a?ac 60 aiae. i?ney
aioo??oiuei-i/a?aaeiiiai aaaaeaiiy oeeeeiaaenei?aea (0,2 ia ia 100 a
aaae) ? /a?ac 2 aiae. i?ney aioo??oiueii/a?aaeiiiai aaaaeaiiy
3I-oei?aeeia (8,0 IAe ia 100 a aaae). ?aeiino-?oeoe?th eiiieaen?a
a?noii-AeIE ? IAA-AeIE i?iaiaeeee ii iaoiaeo Bryan (1978) c aea-yeeie
iiaeeo?eaoe?yie. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?noii/AeIE a eiiieaenao aecia-/aee ii
iaoiaeo Johnson oa ?i. (1972).

Ci?io iioe/ii? u?eueiino? eiiieaen?a a?noii-AeIE ? IAA-AeIE i?e ?o
ieaaeaii? ?a?-no?oaaee ia niaeo?ioioiiao?? Perkin-Semer i?e 260 ii ?
caienoaaee ?? ye ooieoe?th oaiia?a-oo?e. Iio?aeio a?ia?o?iiiino?
aecia/aee ca oi?ioeith Li i Bohner (1971). Aeey aecia/aiiy nooiaiy ?
oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae?? a?eie-AeIE aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae o?enaoe?? a?ee?a
c AeIE ia i?o?ioeaetheicieo o?eueo?ao (A. N. Eiaeiia, 1994). Ai?no a?eea
a i?iaao aecia/aee ii Lowry.

I?e aea/ai? neioaco ? aeoiaeo ?IE ?c yaea? aeei?enoiaoaaee aacee?oeiio
ne-noaio ?cieueiaaieo yaea?, cai?iiiiiaaio Meisler ? Tropp (1969),
caaacia-/o-th/o neioac ??cieo oei?a ee?oeiieo ?IE a ni?aa?aeiioaii?,
aeecueeiio aei o?c?iei-a?/-iiai. A yeino? i?/aiiai iiia?aaeieea neioaco
?IE aeei?enoiaoaaee 3I-OO? (ieoiia ?aae?iaeoeai?noue 25,6 104 IAe
/iiieue). Aeae?eaiiy o?iiaoeio ?c yaea? ee?oei ? ae-cia-/aiiy eiai
iao?e/ii? aeoeaiino? a nenoai? c ?IE-iie?ia?acith E. Coli i?iai-aeeee
ca?aeii iaoiaea Zhelabovskaja i Berdishev (1972).

Oeeoicieue io?eioaaee oeyoii iine?aeiaiiai oeaio-?eooaoaaiiy ee?oeiiiai
aiiiaaiaoo i?e 20000 ? 105000g. O?aeoe?iioaaiiy ioeea?-ii-aeo eeneio
i?iaiaeeee ii iaoiaeo Schmindt i Thannhauser ( 1945). E?euee?noue AeIE a
i?aia?aoao yaea? ? o?iiaoeio aecia/aee niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ii ii iaoiaeo A.
N. Ni???ia (1958).

Aeey io?eiaiiy iaoeaieo i?aia?ao?a ?IE ?c yaea? aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae
Scherrer (1945), a ?c ?ieoaaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua — iaoiae Swan oa ?i.
(1967 — 1978). O?ae-oe?iioaaiiy i?aia?ao?a ?IE cae?enithaaee a e?i?eiiio
a?aae??io? 5 — 20% naoa?ice a ?ioi?? SW-40 i?aia?aoeaii? oeaio?eooae
Beckman L2-65 A i?e 30000 g ai?iaeiaae 4 aiae., a i?aia?ao?a ?II, ye?
yaeythoue niaith noia?iee ?eaiioeea-ii?ioa?aeiee iaoa??ae, ui
ae-a?eue-iy?oueny ?c yaea? a ?ieoaaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua ca /an ?ieoaaoe??
(20 oa) — a a?aae??io? eiioeaio?aoe?? 15 — 30 % naoa?ice i?e 3000g
ai?iaeiaae 3 aiae. i?e 3°N a ?ioi?? SW-50,1 oeueo?aoeaio?eooae Beckman
(NOA). Eiao?oe??ioe naaeeiaioaoe?? ?IE ? ?II ?ic?aoiaoaaee ii oi?ioe?
Martin ? Ames (1961). ?icii-ae?e iie? A+ ? iie? A- — ?IE cae?enithaaee
ia ie?ai (aO)-oeaetheic-ieo eieiieao, ae-ei?enoiaoth/e i?iiene Aviv i
Leder (1972).

Aeey aecia/aiiy ?aae?iaeoeaiino? i?aia?ao?a ?IE ? ?II a?iiie?ia?e
ina-aeaeoaaee o?eoei?ioeoiaith eeneioith ? inaaeee ia?aiineee ia
i?e?ii?ia? o?eueo?e (neeio?eueo?e aai oeaetheici? o?eueo?e).
?aae?iaeoeai?noue i?ia ia i?e?ii?iaeo o?eueo?ao ae-cia/aee a
oieoieueiiio noeeioeeyoi?? ia aaoiiaoe/iiio e?/eeueieeo SL-400 o??ie
“Intertechnigue”. Aeoeai?noue noia?ieneaeaeeniooace aecia/aee ii
caeaoiino? oa?iaioo ?i-a?aoaaoe ?aaeoe?th a?aeiiaeaiiy i?o?ineiueiai
oao?icie?y noia?ieneae-ai?ii-?aaee-ea-eii (R. Fried, 1975). Oaeaee?noue
ooai?aiiy noia?ieneaeai?ii?aaeeeaea ioe?ithaaee ii oaeaeeino?
a?aeiia-eaiiy i?o?ineiueiai oao?icie?y a na?aaeiaeu?, ui i?noeoue IAAeI.
A?aeiia-eaiiy i?o-?ineiueiai oao?icie?y aecia/aee ii ci?i? iioe/ii?
u?eueiino? i?e aeiaaeei? oaee? 540 ii. Aei?? iioe/ii? u?eueiino?
i?iaiaeeee /a?ac 1, 3, 5, oa. ia NO-46 i?ioe eiio?ieueii? i?iae, ui ia
i?noeoue IAAeI. Aeoeai?noue ae?aaeaee a oiia-ieo iaee-ieoeyo iioe/ii?
u?eueiino? ia 1 a oeaieie aai 1 ie a?eo?ioeeoa?ii? iane.

I?i eaoaeacio aeoeai?noue noaeeee ii oaeaeeino? ?oeioaaiiy ia?aeeno
aiaeith a iiieue ca 1 oa. i?e aeiaaeei? oaee? 240 ii (M. Ensinger,
1976). Aeoeai?noue oa?iaioo ae?aaeaee a i?aeia?iaeieo iaeeieoeyo (II) ii
e?eueeino? c?oeiiaaiiai noano?aoo a oaeeeio ? a?aeiineee aei 1 ie
a?eo?ioeeoa?ii? iane aai 1 a oeaieie.

Aeoeai?noue aeooao?ii?aaeoeoace aecia/aee iaoiaeii iienaiei A. I.
Aa?aneiiaei ? ni?-aaao. (1976) ? ae?aaeaee a iiieue/oa. IAAeOI ia 1ie
a?eo?i-oeeoa?ii? iane aai 1 a oeaieie.

Aecia/aiiy aeoeaiino? aeooao?iiia?ieneaeace aei ia?aeeno aiaeith (AI1)
i?iaiaeeee ii iaoiaeo D. E. Palgia, W.N. Valentine (1967). Aeoeai?noue
oa?iaioo ae-?aaeaee a iiieue / oa IAAeOI ia 1 ie a?eo?ioeeoa?ii? iane
aai 1 a oeaieie.

Aeoeai?noue aeooao?iiia?ieneaeace aei a?ae?iia?aeeno o?aoaooeeo (AI2)
aecia-/aee iiaeeo?eiaaiei iaoiaeii D. E. Palgia, W.N. Valentine (1967).
Aeoeai?noue oa?-iaioo ?ic?aoiaoaaee aiaeia?/ii AI1.

Aecia/aiiy aeoeaiino? aeooao?iio?ainoa?ace (AO) aei ?-Nl-2,4-
aeei?o?iaai-cieo i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii W. H. Habig ? ni?aaaoi??a (W. H.
Habig, 1974). Aeoeai?noue oa?iaioa ae-?aaeaee a iiieue eii’thaiaaiiai
noano?aoo ca oaeeeio ia 1 a oeaieie aai 1 ie a?e-o?ioeeoa?ii? iane.

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo a?aeiiaeaiiai aeooao?iio a oeaieiao i?iaiaeeee ii
ia-oiaeo, iienaiiio I. ?. I?ioi?iaith (1982). Iaoiae caniiaaiee ia oiio,
ui aeooao?ii, ?aa-aoth/e c iaaeeeoeii aeienaio, ooai?th? niieoeo, ui ia?
iaeneioi iiaeeiaiiy i?e 305 ii. Ci?no a?aeiiaeaiiai aeooao?iio a
a?eo?ioeeoao aecia/aee ca aeiii-iiaith ?aaeoeao Aeeiaia ii iaoiaeo
Bentler (1969) ? e?euee?noue eiai ae?aaeaee a iiieue ia 1 ie
a?eo?i-oeeoa?ii? iane.

Aecia/aiiy ai?noo ? nooiai? a?aeiiaeaiino? i??eaeeiiaeo ioeeaioeae?a
i?iai-aeeee ii iaoiaeo Neaeoa?a ? ni?aaaoi??a a iiaeeo?eaoe?? A. I.
Oaeaiiueiai? (1982). I?eioeei iaoiaea iieyaa? a ?icae?euei?e aeno?aeoe??
ieeneaieo ? a?aeiiaeaieo oi?i i??eaeeiiaeo ioeeaioeae?a ? aeei?enoaii?
aetheici-6-oinoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiacii? ?aaeoe?? aeey aecia/aiiy e?eueeino?
IAAeO. E?euee?noue ae?aaeaee a iiieue ia 1 a oea-ieie.

Ai?no noeueoa?ae?eeueieo a?oi aecia/aee iaoiaeii, iniiaaiei ia
aeei?en-oaii? ?aaaaioo Aeeiaia (1975) -5,5?-aeeo?ia?n-2-i?o?iaaicieii?
eeneioe, yea e?eue-e?n-iei /eiii aca?iiae?? c noeueoa?ae?eeueieie
a?oiaie, ooai?thth/e ci?oaiee aeenoeueo?ae ? ca?eue-ithth/e ai?ii
2-i?o?i-5?-ia?eaioiaaicieii? eeneioe, yea iiaee-ia?oueny i?e aeiaaeei?
oaee? 412 ii. E?euee?noue noeueoa?ae?eeueieo a?oi ?ic?a-oiaoaaee c
o?aooaaiiyi eia-o?oe??ioa iiey?ii? aenoeioe?? ??aiiai i?e 412 ii- 13100
i? ni? ? ae?aaeaee a iiieue ia 1 a oeaieie. Aecia/aiiy aeoeaiino?
ai?iio?ainoa?ac o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii E.I. Inaae/i?
(1979), a?ioai?ethi?i?noeaioe?th ieacie e?ia? i?iaiaeiee ca iaoiaeii
TH.A. Aeaaeeie?iaa (1978).

Aecia/aiiy ??aiy oeeee?/ieo ioeeaioeae?a oeAIO ? oeAIO i?iaiaeeee ca
aei-iiiiaith iaai??a o??ie Amercham (Aaeeeia?eoai?y). ?ici??i?noue
eiioeaio?aoe?? — iiieue ia 1 a oeaieie.

Ai?no ae??iiaeo eiicthaao?a aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaea ?. Ae,
Noaeueii? (1971). E?euee?noue ?o ?ic?aoiaoaaee, aeoiaey/e c aaee/eie
iiey?iiai eiao?oe??ioa ae-n-oeioe?? i?e 233 ii aeey ni?yaeaieo ae??i?a
iie?iaiane/aieo aeueo aee?ieo eeneio, ui aei??aith? 2,2 * 105 ni-1 * i
-1. ?ici??i?noue eiioeaio?aoe?? — iiieue ia 1 a oeaieie aai 1 ie
a?eo?ioeeoa?ii? iane.

Iaeiiiaee ae?aeueaeaa?ae aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo ?. Ae.
Noaeueii? ? O. A. Aa??oa?e? (1971). I?eioeei iaoiaea caeeth/a?oueny a
oiio, ui i?e aenie?e oaiia-?aoo?? a eeneiio na?aaeiaeu? iaeiiiaee
ae?aeueaeaa?ae ?aaao? c 2-o?iaa?a?oo?iaith eeneioith, ooai?thth/e
caaa?aeaiee o?eiaoeeiaee eiiieaen c iaeneioiii iiaee-iaiiy i?e 532 ii.
E?euee?noue iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaa?aea ?ic?aoiaoaaee c o?aooaai-iyi
iiey?iiai eiao?oe??ioa aenoeioe?? ??aiiai i?e 532 ii 1,56*105 ni-1* i -1
? ae?a-aeaee a iiieue ia 1 a oeaieie aai 1 ie a?eo?ioeeoa?ii? iane.
Eaca?io ei?aeyoe?eio niaeo?ineii?th ne?iaaoee oa ieacie e?ia?
cae?enithaaee ia EE-niaeo?iiao?? c iaoaiaoe/iith ia?iaeith aeaiieo ca
aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie “Iiiaiia?iue eeanneoeeaoi?”.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeaeaaaee noaoenoe/iiio
aiae?co c aeei?enoaiiyi AII oa iaeaoo i?ia?ai Microsoft Word, Microsoft
Excel, Microsoft Graph 5.0. A??ia?aei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aecia/aee aeei?enoiaoth/e e?eoa??e Nocthaeaioa O?oa?a (1975).
A?aeoeeaiiy aaaaeaeenue a??ia?aeiei i?e ?<0,05. ?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss Ieoaiiy iaoio?c?ieia?/ieo ii?ooaiue, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o oeaieiao ia/?iee ?ioaeoe?eiiai oa oiene/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy a oiiaao ee?i?ee oa aenia?eiaioo ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue, aena?oeai? aeineoue oe?iei, aea aeooaeuei?noue iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee ieoaiue ao?ieia??, iaoiaaiaco, oa?ai?? oa i?io?eaeoeee oeeo o?aaeaiue, aecia/athoueny ia?o ca ana oei, ui, ia aeeaey/enue ia a?aeiia?aei? caoiaee, aiie caeiathoue aaeeeo ieoiio aaao ? i?iyaeythoue oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy (TH. E. Aoaneee, 1984; I. A. Iiaeiaaa, 1991; ss. I. Aiineee, 1992). Oaea yaeua ? iaoiiaeei aei i?iaaaeaiiy iaie aeine?aeaeaiue iaoio?c?ieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a oiene/iiai oa ?ioaeoe?eiiai o?aaeaiiy ia/?iee ia iieaeoey?iiio oa ee?oeiiiio ??ai?, o ni?anoaaeaii? c ii?ooaiiyie o ia?eoa??ei?e e?ia? aeey iiaeeeaino? ?ioaa?aoe?? oa aeno?aiieyoe?? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a a aenia?eiaio? c iiae?aieie a ee?i?oe?, oa oai?aoe/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi iaoiaaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a. Iaeiei ?c oaeeo iai?yie?a aoei aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoo?aineyoe?eieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e a?ee?a o?iiaoeio yaea? ee?oei ia/?iee i?e oiene/ieo o?aaeaiiyo CCl4 oa ni?anoaaeaiiyi oeeo ?acoeueoao?a ?c noaiii i?ioean?a a?eueii-?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, ooieoe?iiaeueiith ni?iiiaei?noth ??cieo eaiie aioeieneaeaioii? nenoaie, o?ieaeenoeueo?aeiiai iai?io, ai?noo ??cieo oi?i i??eaeeiiaeo ioeeaioeae?a, oeAIO oa oeAIO. A ?acoeueoao? oaeiai eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei c’yniaaii, ui aioo??oiueioeoieiaa iaeii?aciaa aaaaeaiiy CCl4 aeeeeea? aeineoue nooo?a? ci?ie aoeaoeethaaiiy, AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy, oinoi?eethaaiiy oa iaoeethaaiiy a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a yaea? ee?oei ia/?iee, i?e /iio iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui ii?ooaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a o iiai?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?i?io i?ney o?aaeaiiy. E??i oiai, ye na?ae/aoue i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iai?aaeai?noue oeeo ii?ooaiue caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio a?eea o?iiaoeio yaea? aaiaoioeeo?a. Iai?eeeaae, i?ioeane aoeaoeethaaiiy noia?ieo a?noii?a i?ney oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy CCl4 o an?o oa?i?iao aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eai?/othoueny, i?e /iio iaeneiaeuei? ii?ooaiiy niinoa??aathoueny ia 72 aiaeeio i?ney oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy ia/?iee (?<0,05). Ia?aeaeueii c oeei a?aeaoaa?oueny ? i?eai?/aiiy AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy noia?ieo a?noii?a ? iaaiaee, i?ioeane oinoi?eethaaiiy noia?ieo a?noii?a i?eai?/othoueny o?eueee ia 72 aiaeeio, o an? inoaii? oa?i?ie aeine?aeaeaiiy aiie ? aeueie ca ??aaiue ?ioaeoieo oaa?ei (?<0,05). Iaoeethaaiiy noia?ieo a?noii?a yaea? ee?oei ia/?iee i?ney ae?? CCl4 ??cei i?eai?/o?oueny o?eueee ia 24 aiaeeio (?<0,05) ? iaeneiaeueii aeoeao?oueny ia 72 aiaeeio. Oaea ia?aaoaeiaa iaoai?ci?a iinoo?aineyoe?eieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e noia?ieo a?noii?a a yae?ao ee?oei ia/?iee i/aaeaeii iaoiiaeth?oueny no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieie ci?iaie a naiiio aaiaoioeeo? oa iaaaoeaiei aieeaii i?aeaeuaieo e?eueeinoae i?iaeoeo?a IIE, aeeiai?ea ci?i yeeo ni?aiaaea? c iacaaieie ii?ooaiiyie i?ioean?a aoeaoeethaaiiy, AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy, oinoi?eethaaiiy oa iaoeethaaiiy noia?ieo a?noii?a. A ye a?aeiii (N. I. Aaneeueaaa, 1994; I. TH. Iaieaineay, 1989; TH. E. Aoaneee, 1991) aei neeaaeo o?aeoe?e a?ee?a o?iiaoeio ia/?iee uo??a aoiaeyoue caeeoee iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio, ye? ? noano?aoaie IIE a o?iiaoei?, ? e?euee?noue iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio a?eueoa a o?aine?eioe?eii-aeoeai?e o?aeoe?? o?iiaoeio, ii??aiyii c ?o e?euee?noth a ?ai?aniaai?e o?aeoe??, ui ei?aeth? c ??aiai IIE o oeeo o?aeoe?yo ye i?e aeoeaaoe?? eiai in vitro. Noeioeyoe?y IIE in vivo aiane?aeie aaaaeaiiy /ioe?ueiooei?enoiai aoaeaoeth i?ecaiaeeoue aei ae?aciiai c?ooaiiy aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo iaio o?aeoe?e. E??i oiai aeieacaii, ui o?aeoe?? o?iiaoeio ia/?iee uo??a iathoue aiaeiaaiio ?IE-iie?ia?acio aeoeai?noue, yea ei?aeth? c ?o o?aine?eioe?eiith aeoeai?noth in vivo. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeeo oaeo?a yaeythoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeo?eaoe?eieo ci?i ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo a?noii?a i?ney oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy CCl4. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeoaea oe?eaaei ? oeae oaeo, ui an? aeine?aeaeai? i?ioeane, a oaeiae ?o ci?ie i?ney aaaaeaiiy CCl4 iinyoue ??cei i?ioeeaaeiee iai?yiie, aea ii aeeaei? iacaeaaeii a?ae iai?aaeaiino? ni?aiaaeathoue c aeeiai?eith ci?i ?ioaineaiino? IIE oa ooieoe?iiaeueiei noaiii aioeieneaeaioieo nenoai. Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa neioac ?o c ?nioth/eie e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaiieie (TH. E. Aoaneee, 1991; Ae. TH. Aooei, 1988) na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaei??th, iaea?eueo /ooeeaith, ia?ea?ieo a?aeiia?aeae ia oiene/ia o?aaeaiiy ? oinoi?eethaaiiy a?ee?a o?iiaoeio. I?iaaaeai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui oiene/ia o?aaeaiiy CCl4 nooo?ai i?iy? ??aaiue oinoi?eethaaiiy a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a. Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiaothoue ci?ie oinoi?eethaaiiy a?noiio I1 oiio, ui a?i i?eeia? o/anoue a oi?ioaaii? no?oeoo? o?iiaoeio aeuiai ii?yaeeo (I. S. Bordero, 1982; E. A. Caaa?neee, 1988). Onoaiiaeaii ui i?e oiene/iiio o?aaeaii? oinoi?eethaaiiy a?noiio I1 ??cei i?eai?/o?oueny a yae?ao aaiaoioeeo?a o an? oa?i?ie aeine?aeaeaiiy (?<0,05). ?c ciaioaii ??aiy oinoi?eethaaiiy a?noiio I1 iiaeia iia’ycaoe ii?ooaiy eiiaeainaoe?? o?iiaoeio, ui aeeeeea? oiene/ii ?iaeoeiaaio cao?eieo i?oica. Ae?y CCl4 ia oinoi?eethaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo a?noii?a, ui neeaaeathoue eiae ioeeainii ? ??ciiiai?aaeaiith. Oae oinoi?eethaaiiy a?noiio I2A nii/aoeo i?aeaeuo?oueny a iio?i niinoa??aa?oueny eiai i?eai?/aiiy (?<0,05), a oinoi?eethaaiiy a?noii?a I2A, I3 oa I4 /a?ac 24 aiaeeie ? i?eai?/aiei, iio?i aeoeao?oueny ? ciiao i?eai?/o?oueny. Iiaeeeai, ui oae? ci?ie ni?eythoue aeayeiio i?aeaeuaiith iao?e/ii? aeoeaiino? o?iiaoeio o ca’yceo c oei, ui ?ai?anoth/a cae?ai?noue a?noii?a a AeIE - iai?aaeaiiio neioac? ?IE caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaith oinoi?eethaaiiy, ui c /anii noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny eiai i?eai?/aiiyi. Ca?aeii ?acoeueoao?a iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, oiene/ia o?aaeaiiy aeeeeea? ia iaeiicia/i? ci?ie oinoi?eethaaiiy eaa?eueii ca’ycaieo iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a o yae?ao aaiaoioeeo?a. Ia ia?oeo aoaiao niinoa??aa?oueny eiai iineeaiiy, a iio?i i?eai?/aiiy. Iacaai? ?icoiaeaeaiiy a ??aiyo oinoi?eethaaiiy a?ee?a o?iiaoeio, i/aaeaeii, iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui i?ae ae??th CCl4 iiaea ciaiooaaoenue cae?ai?noue /anoeie iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a ca’ycoaaoe oinoaoi? caeeoee (TH. E. Aoaneee, 1991), iniaeeai oea noino?oueny eaa?eueii ca’ycaieo iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a na?aae yeeo ?niothoue oa?iaioe, ui i?eeiathoue o/anoue o ooieoe?iioaaii? aaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo (?IE-iie?ia?ace, AeIE-iie?ia-?ace, oa?iaioe iiaeeo?eaoe?? no?oeoo?e eiiiiiaio?a o?iiaoeio) (A. A. Caiio?eineee, 1990; TH. E. Aoaneee, 1990), aeoeai?noue yeeo a naith /a?ao ?aaoth?oueny oeyoii oinoi?eethaaiiy-aeaoinoi?eeth-aaiiy. Iineeaiiy oinoi?eethaaiiy /anoeie a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a i?ney oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy iiaeia iiynieoe oaeiae, ci?iaie ?o eiioi?iaoe?? oa iiyaith aeinooi?a aeey oa?iaio?a aei ae?eyiie oinoi?eethaaiiy, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a. I?eeiath/e aei oaaae oie oaeo, ui oinoi?eethaaiiy a?ee?a o?iiaoeio ? a iniiaiiio oeAIO -caeaaeiei, oi iaie aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo oeAIO a ia/?ioe?. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui aeeiai?ea ??aiy oeAIO ni?aiaaea? c aeeiai?eith ii?ooaiiy i?ioean?a oinoi?eethaaiiy, e??i oiai, ie aaaaea?ii, ui aeioe?eueiei aoei c’ynoaaoe, ye iia’ycai? cacia/ai? a?aei?iiino? a ??aiyo oinoi?eethaaiiy a?ee?a c? ci?iaie aeoeaiino? oeAIO-caeaaeieo i?ioa?ie?iac. ??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy aeicaieeei a ?ice?eoe iaoai?cie ii?ooaiue no?oeoo?e ? ooieoe?? o?iiaoeia ca oiia oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy. Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oa, ui aeoeai?noue i?ioa?ie?iace ? oa i?ioa?ie?iace ?? nooo?ai ci?ith?oueny i?ney oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy. Aea iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui ii??aiyiiy aeeiai?ee oinoi?eethaaiiy a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a c aeoeaiinoyie a?aeiia?aeieo i?ioa?ie?iac ? aeineoue aaaeeith caaea/ath ii ?yaeo i?e/ei. Ii-ia?oa, oiio, ui a ee?oeiao ia/?iee i?e oiene/iiio o?aaeaii? iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue ia?a?iciiae?e e?euee?nieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ioa?ie?iac. Ii-ae?oaa, aeoeai?noue oeeo oa?iaio?a nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy a ee?oei? AOO-aeiii?a oinoaoieo a?oi, ai?no yeeo i?ney oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy CCl4 ciaioo?oueny. Ii-o?ao?, iiee ua cian?i ? ia c’yniaaiei ieoaiiy i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo oeAIO-caeaaeieo i?ioa?ie?iac oa yaea?ieo oeAIO-caeaaeieo ? oeAIO-caeaaeieo i?ioa?ie?iac (Z. Tichonicky, 1974) I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe ? aioo??oiueiee?oeiio eiiia?oiaioae?caoe?th oeAIO-caeaaeieo i?ioa?ie?iac oa ?o o?aineieaoe?th aei noano?ao?a (J. Uno, 1976). Oe? ianoaaeie nooo?ai oneeaaeiththoue ni?anoaaeaiiy aeaieo ii oinoi?eethaaiith a?ee?a o?iiaoeio c aeoeai?noth a?aeiia?aeieo i?ioa?ie?iac. ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy aeoeaiino? ?ic/eiieo oeAIO-caeaaeieo i?ioa?ie?iac c aeei?enoaiiyi a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a ye noano?ao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeniiaie, ui ci?ie ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a aaeai?eaooeeeeacii? nenoaie, i?ney oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy o cia/i?e i??? iaoiiaeththoue ii?ooaiiy aeoeaiino? oeAIO-caeaaeieo i?ioa?ie?iac ? oa ??. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui ci?ie aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai ai?noo oeAIO ni?aiaaeathoue c iieacieeaie e?eueeino? i?ioa?ie?iac. Iiaeeeai, ui oeAIO-caeaaei? oeeoiieaciaoe/i? i?ioa?ie?iace ia o?eueee oinoi?eeththoue no?oeoo?i? a?eee, aea ? aieeaathoue ia aeoeai?noue yaea?ieo i?ioa?ie?iac oa ?ioeo oa?iaio?a, ye? aoyaioo? a ?aaoeyoe?th i?ioean?a iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a oeyoii ?o oinoi?eethaaiiy aai aeaoinoi?eethaaiiy. Oiae? noa? i/aaeaeiei eaneaaeiee oa oi?aa?naeueiee iaoai?ci i?ioean?a iiaeeo?eaoe?? yaea?ieo a?ee?a, o yeiio oinoi?eethaaiiy a?ae?a?a? oeaio?aeueio ?ieue a ?aaoeyoe?? aeoeaiino? oa?iaio?a iiaeeo?eaoe?e. Oea i?eiouaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iaie aenia?eiaioaeueii ? yaey? niaith iaeei ?c iniiaieo oaeo?a, io?eiaieo a ?iaio?. Iaie onoaiiaeaii, ui aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ace iaoe?iee uo??a oinoi?eeththoueny in vitro oeAIO-caeaaeieie i?ioa?ie?iacaie, aeeth/aiiy i?/aiiai oinoi?o a aoeaoeeo?ainoa?ace ia/?iee a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeiae ? in vivo. Ii?yae c oeei, iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui aeoeai?noue aeaaoeaoeeac oaeiae ?aaoeth?oueny oeyoii ?o oinoi?eethaaiiy-aeaoinoi?eethaaiiy (A. E. Ea?iia, 1990; A. E. Aaceaa, 1987; N. A. Ieeoeeia, 1989). ?aaoeyoi?ia ae?y oinoi?eethaaiiy-aeaoinoi?eethaaiiy a?aeiia oaeiae ? aeey oaeeo i?ioean?a ye iaoaaie?ci aoaeaaiae?a, e?i?ae?a, a?ineioac a?ee?a, iaia?aiiee o?ainii?o, i’yciaa nei?i/aiiy, ia?aaea/a ia?aiaiai ?iioeueno oa ?i. Aei /enea oa?iaio?a, ui i?aeeyaathoue oe?e ?aaoeyoe?? a?aeiineoueny ae?eiaaineioaoaca, i??oaaoaeaa?ae?iaaiaca, oinoio?oeoie?iaca, aoeaoee-EiA, ea?aieneeaca, ai?iiaoeee-o?IE-neioaoaca ? aaaaoi ?ioeo (TH. E. Aoaneee, 1990). O ?aaoeyoe?? aeoeaiino? a?eueoino? oeeo oa?iaio?a i?eeiathoue o/anoue ai?iiie, ae?y yeeo iiina?aaeeiao?oueny /a?ac aaeai?eaooeeeeacio nenoaio, yea eiio?ieth? ??aaiue oeAIO. I?ioeane iaoeethaaiiy a?ee?a o?iiaoeio oa ?o ooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue ia o?eueee ca oiia oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy, aea ? i?e ??cieo o?c?ieia?/ieo noaiao, aeine?aeaeai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Nii/aoeo eiinoaooaaeanue a?aenooi?noue ei?aeyoe?? i?ae iai?iii iaoeeueieo a?oi, ??aiai o?aine?eioe?? ? neioacii a?ee?a oa ioeea?iiaeo eeneio (TH. E. Ieo?ioei, 1988; Ae. TH. Aoaneee, 1988). Iio?i aoei aeyaeaii iaoeethaaiy iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a (C. Sanders, 1977; I. A. Aeueoeeia, 1979; E. A. Caaa?neee, 1988), ? ciaeaeaiee aca?iica’ycie ??aiy iaoeethaaiiy a?ee?a o?iiaoeio ? iao?e/ii? aeoeaiino? (A. A. Aeiaeoen, 1988; I. Ae. Eiaaoe), aea ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo ieoaiiyi /ooeeaino? i?ioean?a iaoeethaaiiy a?ee?a o?iiaoeio aei oiene/ii? ae?? CCl4 iaeaea iaia?. Ca?aeii io?eiaieo iaie aeaieie oiene/ia o?aaeaiiy CCl4 iaeaea o an?o aeiaaeeao ?icea?oo oiene/iiai aaiaoeoo i?eai?/o? ?ioaineai?noue iaoeethaaiiy eaa?eueii ca’ycaieo oa i?oeii ca’ycaieo iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a yaea? aaiaoioeeo?a, oiae? ye ia iaoeethaaiiy noia?ieo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo a?noii?a a?i ae?? ii ??ciiio. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao oie oaeo, ui a ia??iae aei 72 aiaeeie i?ney o?aaeaiiy CCl4 ci?ie iaoeethaiiy o cia/iiio nooiai? ei?aeththoue c a?aeiia?aeieie ci?iaie oinoi?eethaaiiy oa aoeaoeethaaiiy. Aiae?coth/e io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe oa ni?anoaaeyth/e ?o c e?oa?aoo?ieie, iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui aeeiai?ea ii?ooaiiy iaoeethaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo a?noii?a a?aeia?aaea? no?oeoo?i? ia?aoiaee o?iiaoeio i?ae aieeaii oiene/ii? ae?? CCl4 ye? aecia/athoueny eiiieaenii iiaeeo?eaoe?e a?ee?a o?iiaoeio. Aeey c’ynoaaiiy iiaeeeaeo aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoeyoe?? ??aiy iaoeethaaiiy a?noii?a oa iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a, ie aeine?aeeee aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a, ui iiaeeo?eothoue ?o no?oeoo?o. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aoei c’yniaaii, ui iaa?noiiia? a?eee aieiae?thoue aooiiaoeethth/ith cae?ai?noth ? oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny onoaiiaeaiei oaeoii (A. E. Aaceaa, 1987; A. A. Aeiaeoen, 1988), i?i iayai?noue iaoeeo?ainoa?ac o neeaae? o?iiaoeio. Ii??aiyiiy ??ai?a aooiiaoeethaaiiy iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a oa ?o iaoeethaaiiy o aeine?aeao in vivo na?ae/aoue i?i a?eueo aenieo ?ioaineai?noue ae?oaiai i?ioeano, iiaeeeai, oea iaiao?aeii iiynieoe oei, ui /anoeia iaoeeo?ainoa?ac i?oeii ca’ycaia c o?iiaoeiii, a /anoeia ia i?oeii ? a ca’yceo c oeei aoaeoueny i?e aeeo/aii? a?ee?a. Oiene/ia o?aaeaiiy CCl4 aeineoue iii?oii aieeaa? ia aeoeai?noue iaoeeo?anoa?ac, aeeo/aieo c ia/?iee i?e an?o aeine?aeaeaieo noaiao. Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaith caaaeueiith caeiiii??i?noth ? oa, ui in vitro, oae ye ? in vivo iaoeethaaiiy a?ee?a o?iiaoeio aeineoue nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eiio?ieueieo aaee/ei (?<0,05). O aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeoeai?noue iaoeeac ia ei?aeth? ?c ci?iaie e?eueeino? eaa?eueieo iaoeeueieo a?oi o a?eeao o?iiaoeio, i/aaeaeii, oea ca’ycaii c ii?ooaiiyi o ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo i?ae ??cieie oi?iaie oa?iaioo i?e ae?? CCl4. E??i oiai, iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe, ui aeeo/ai? iaie iaoeeo?ainoa?ace iaoeeththoue o neeaae? a?eeo caeeoee e?ceio. Aea ii?yae c iniiaieie iaoeeiio?aeieie (? iaoeee?cei) o neeaae? a?ee?a o?iiaoeio iaoeethaaiith i?aeeyaathoue a?a?i?i oa NIII a?oie ai?iieeneio (A. Ae. Aieueonii, 1998; A. A Aeiaeoen, 1988). I?e?iaeiuei aeiionoeoe, ui aeoeai?noue a?aeiia?aeieo a?a?i?iiaoee- ? ea?aien?iaoeeo?ainoa?ac oaeiae ci?ith?oueny i?e oiene/iiio o?aaeaii?. Ia i?aenoaa? ?nioth/eo aeaieo aaaeei c?iaeoe aoaeue-ye? i?eiouaiiy i?i iaoai?ci ?aaoeyoe?? iaoeeo?ainoa?ac ca oiia oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy CCl4. Ca inoaii?e /an o cia/i?e i??? ae?inea oe?eaa?noue aei aea/aiiy aieeao aeciaaiieo oaeoi??a ia i?ioeane AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy a?ee?a o?iiaoeio, o ca’yceo c oei, ui aeneiaeth?oueny i?eiouaiiy, ui ooieoe?y iie?(AAeO-?eaici)-iie?ia?ace iieyaa? ia o?eueee a ?? o/ano? a ?aaoeyoe?? neioaco ?IE ? AeIE, aea ? o/anoth ?? a i?ioeanao ?aia?aoe?? AeIE (N. I. Aaneeueaaa, 1994). AAeO-?eaiceeth-aaiiy a?ee?a o?iiaoeio i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?i ?o no?oeoo?e a ioaea iiaea aooe iaeiei ?c oaeoi??a, ye? ?aaoeththoue aeoeai?noue aaiiio. AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy aeayeeo oa?iaio?a, a naia, ioeeaac ? i?ioaac - ? iaei??th c oi?i ?aaoeyoe?? ?o aeoeaiino?. Oaeei /eiii, nenoaia AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy a?ee?a iiaea aeeiioaaoe ?ieue oi?aa?naeueiiai ?aaoeyoi?a ??ciiiai?oieo iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a a ee?oei?. Ca?aeii iaoeo aeaieo, AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo a?noii?a ca?eueoo?oueny /a?ac 24 oa 48 aiaeei, ca aeeeth/aiiyi a?noiio I3. A oeae aea /an oiene/ia o?aaeaiiy oaa?ei i?eaiaeeoue aei i?ia?anoth/iai i?eai?/aiiy i?ioean?a AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy eaa?eueii oa i?oeii ca’ycaieo c AeIE iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a, ui ei?aeth? c i?eai?/aiiyi aeoeaiino? iie?(AAeO-?eaici)-iie?ia?ace. Oae? ci?ie iiaeooue iaoe aeey ee?oeie e?eoe/ia cia/aiiy o ca’yceo c oei, ui AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a o?iiaoeio iniaeeai oa?aeoa?ia aeey iaoaaie?/ii aeoeaieo ? oaeaeei ?inoo/eo oeaiei (N. I. Aaneeueaaa, 1994). A?aeiii, ui aei neeaaeo iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a aoiaeyoue oae? oa?iaioe, ye ?IE-aca, AeIE-aca, Ca+2 (Mg)-caeaaei? aeciioeeaace a oaeiae iie?(AAeO-?eaici)-iie?-ia?ace. An? aiie iiaeooue a?ae?a?aaaoe ?ieue aeoeaioi??a iie?AAeO-?eaice. A ca’yceo c oeei, aeeeeea? cia/iee ?ioa?an aeine?aeaeaiiy aooi-AAeO-?eaiceethth/i? cae?aiino? iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a o?iiaoeio, a oaeiae ?o iie?(AAeO-?eaici)-iie?-ia?acii? aeoeaiino? ca oiia oiene/iiai o?aaeaiiy CCl4 c aeei?enoaiiyi a yeino? noano?ao?a noia?ieo a?noii?a. sse na?ae/aoue io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aooi-AAeO-?eaiceethth/a cae?ai?noue iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a o aecia/ai?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae ae?? CCl4 oa oa?i?io. I?e oeueiio ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aooi-AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy iaa?noiiiaeo a?ee?a i?ney aaaaeaiiy CCl4 i?eai?/o?oAIIOAOe?? Aeaae/oe E.C. Iia?aoeaiay yiaeineiiey a eiiieaeniii ea/aiee aeaineiai aanieiaeey. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.01 – aeooa?noai e aeiaeieiaey. – Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao IC Oe?aeiu, Iaeanna, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia niaa?oainoaiaaiey ea/aaiie oaeoeee i?e aeaineii aanieiaeee, iaoneiaeaiiii aeenoaeueiuie e i?ieneiaeueiuie o?oaiuie ieeethceyie, ia?eoiiaaeueiui oaeoi?ii, eeiieoai?acenoaioiui iieeeenoicii ye/ieeia, iooai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai i?eiaiaiey iaeieiaaceaiuo yiaeioe?o?ae/aneeo iaoiaeia ea/aiey. Iieo/aiu iiaua iao/ii iainiiaaiiua ?acoeueoaou, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe ?aoatho aaaeioth i?iaeaio ?ai?iaeoeoeaiie aeiaeieiaee – iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe yiaeioe?o?ae/aneeo iaoiaeia ea/aiey a eiiieaeniie oa?aiee aeaineiai aanieiaeey iooai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai i?eiaiaiey ?aciuo oeiia iia?aoeaiie oaoieee ia iniiaaiee eco/aiey iniaaiiinoae eo nenoaiiuo yooaeoia, aeeaeaeoeo e ioaeaeaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia ea/aiey e n o/aoii iaoiaaiaoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiaeeca 776 yiaeioe?o?ae/aneeo iia?aoeee, auiieiaiiuo ca ia?eiae n 1992 ii 1997 aiae, auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe no?oeoo?u iieacaiee aeey auiieiaiey ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuo yiaeineiie/aneeo aiaoaoaeuenoa, aeaia ioeaiea aeeaaiinoe/aneiai cia/aiey eaia?ineiiee, aenoa?ineiiee e eo ni/aoaiiiai i?iaaaeaiey i?e ?acee/iuo oi?iao aeaineiai aanieiaeey, auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe oa/aiey eio?aiia?aoeeiiiiai e ?aiiaai iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai ia?eiaeia i?e auiieiaiee aeeaaiinoe/aneeo e ea/aaiuo eaia?ineiiee e aenoa?ineiiee. Eco/aii e i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenioth n?aaieoaeueioth ioeaieo aeeaeaeoeo e ioaeaeaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia eaia?ineiie/aneeo ?aeiino?oeoeaii-ieanoe/aneeo iia?aoeee i?e aeenoaeueiuo o?oaiuo ieeethceyo, ia?eoiiaaeueiii oaeoi?a a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie oyaeanoe i?ioeanna e i?eiaiaiey Nd-YAG eaca?iie eee yeaeo?ioe?o?ae/aneie iia?aoeaiie oaoieee. Iieacaii, /oi i?eiaiaiea eaca?iie oaoieee niinianoaoao oeo/oaieth ioaeaeaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia eaia?ineiie/aneiai naeueieiaiiaa?eieecena e oeia?eiieanoee e ia ieacuaaao aeeyiey ia yooaeoeaiinoue naeueieiainoiiee. ?ac?aaioaia e aiaae?aia a i?aeoeeo nianoaaiiay iaoiaeeea eaia?ineiie/aneie naeueieiainoiie, iicaieeaoay iiauneoue /anoioo iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuo ?acoeueoaoia aei 24%. Iieacaii, /oi i?e iai?ioiaeeiinoe iaoi/iuo o?oa a i?ieneiaeueiuo ioaeaeao, iaoneiaeaiiuo ei?ioaeueiuie neiaoeyie, iaeaieaa yooaeoeaia e?eiaenoa?ineiie/aneay ?aeaiaeecaoeey (82%), i?e ieiia iaoee – Nd-YAG eaca?iay aenoa?ineiiey (86%), i?e enoie/aneii ia?enaeueieiaeoa e iiaeoey?iii naeueieiaeoa – oaoieea aoaee?iaaiey (50%). ?ac?aaioaii e eco/aii yooaeoeaiinoue e?eieaia?ineiie/aneiai iaoiaea ea/aiey o aanieiaeiuo aieueiuo n yiaeiiao?eicii. Iieacaii, /oi aai yooaeoeaiinoue n?aaieia n ?acoeueoaoeaiinoueth Nd-YAG eaca?iie iaoiaeeee ea/aiey, oooaeoaaony ii ia?a aic?anoaiey noaaeee caaieaaaiey e a ioee/ea io yeaeo?ioe?o?ae/aneie iaoiaeeee iia?aoeee nii?iaiaeaeaaony noeioee?othuei yooaeoii a ioiioaiee ioaeaeueiuo iieacaoaeae O - e A - nenoai eiioieoaoa. ?ac?aaioaii e?eieaia?ineiie/aneee iaoiae ea/aiey eeiieoai?acenoaioiuo aieueiuo n IEss e i?iaaaeaii n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec aai eeeie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe e ai?iiiaeueiuo naeaeaia n oaeiauie i?e i?eiaiaiee Nd-YAG eaca?iie e yeaeo?ioe?o?ae/aneie iaoiaeee ea/aiey. Iieacaii, /oi iacaaeneii io eniieuecoaiie iaoiaeeee eaia?ineiie/aneiai ea/aiey iaaethaeathony iaeiioeiiua ai?iiiaeueiua naeaeae (aic?inoaiea o?iaiy i?iaanoa?iia a nuai?ioea e?iae, iaaeaiea EA e ii?iaeecaoeey niioiioaiey EA / ONA) e n?aaieiua ?acoeueoaou /anoiou ainnoaiiaeaiey iaoeyoeee. ?ac?aaioaii e ai?iae?iaaii iaoiaaiaoe/anee iainiiaaiiua aeai?eoiu aaaeaiey aanieiaeiuo aieueiuo n oaciauie oaeoi?aie, eeiieoai?acenoaioiui IEss n i?eiaiaieai ?acee/iuo yiaeioe?o?ae/aneeo iaoiaeia ea/aiey e n o/aoii aic?anoa aieueiuo, aeeeoaeueiinoe aanieiaeiiai ia?eiaea e eiee/anoaa oaeoi?ia aanieiaeey. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaineia aanieiaeea, ?ai?iaeoeoeaiay yiaeioe?o?aey, eaia?ineiiey, aenoa?ineiiey, yeaeo?ioe?o?aey, aethii-eo?ee a?aiaoiae eaca?, e?eioe?o?aey. Aeaae/oe ?.C. Iia?aoeaia aiaeineii?y a eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii? ae?ii/i? aacie?aeiino?. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.01 – aeooa?noai oa a?iaeieia?y. – Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC Oe?a?ie, Iaeana, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? aaeineiiaeaiiy e?eoaaeueii? oaeoeee i?e ae?ii/?e aacie?aeiino?, iaoiiaeai?e aeenoaeueieie oa i?ieneiaeueieie o?oaieie ieethc?yie, ia?eoiiaaeueiei oaeoi?ii, eeii?oai?acenoaioiei IEss, oeyoii aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai canoinoaaiiy aiaeio??o?a?/ieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy. Io?eiaii iia? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? ae??oothoue aaaeeeao i?iaeaio ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? a?iaeieia?? – i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aiaeio??o?a?/ieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy a eiiieaeni?e oa?ai?? aacie?aeieo ae?iie c oaciaeie oaeoi?aie, eeii?oai?acenoaioiei IEss oeyoii aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?io??o?a?/ii?, Nd-YAG eaca?ii?, e??io??o?a?/ii? oa iaoai?/ii? iia?aoeaii? oaoi?ee. Ca iaoa??aeaie ?ao?iniaeoeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e iieacaiue aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ae?aaiinoe/ieo oa e?eoaaeueieo aiaeineii?/ieo ao?o/aiue, iieacaia ae?aaiinoe/ia ?ieue eaia?ineii?e oa a?noa?ineii?e o aa?eo?eaoe?? i?e/ei ae?ii/i? aacie?aeiino?. Aea/aii ?ioii?, ai?iiiaeuei? oa a?io?i?/i? c?ooaiiy ? iaeaeeae/? oa a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aiaeio??o?a?/ieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy o oai?eo c ??cieie oi?iaie ae?ii/i? aacie?aeiino? caeaaeii a?ae oeio canoiniaoaaii? iia?aoeaii? oaoi?ee. ?ic?iaeaii, aea/aii ee?i?/io aoaeoeai?noue oa ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo aeanio iaoiaeeeo eaia?ineii?/ii? naeuei?iainoii??, e??ieaia?ineii?/iee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy aacie?aeieo oai?eo c ciai?oi?i aiaeiiao??icii oa e??ieaia?ineii?/iee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy eeii?oai?acenoaioieo oai?eo c IEss. ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaiaaii iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? aeai?eoie aaaeaiiy aacie?aeieo oai?eo c oaciaeie oaeoi?aie, eeii?oai?acenoaioiei IEss ?c canoinoaaiiyi aiaeio??o?a?/ieo iaoiae?a oa c o?aooaaiiyi a?eo oai?eo, o?eaaeino? aacie?aeiiai ia??iaeo oa e?eueeino? oaeoi??a aacie?aeiino?. Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?ii/a aacie?aei?noue, ?ai?iaeoeoeaia aiaeio??o?a?y, eaia?ineii?y, a?noa?ineii?y, aethii-?o??e a?aiaoiaee eaca?, e??io??o?a?y.

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