IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i. ?. ?. IA*IEEIAA

IAEUeIEE Ie?ineaaa ?iiai?aia

OAeE 808.3 — 313.1 + 883/092/

IIIIANOEEA OAI??A E?IE EINOAIEI

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.01 — oe?a?inueea iiaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. E. Ae. Ooeinueeiai

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ea?iaiei TH??e

Ieaenaiae?iae/, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eo/ee Aaneeue

A?eoi?iae/, E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae

— eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Coaia Ieeiea ?aaiiae/,

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai oa neia’yinueeiai iiaiciaanoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 13.30 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, oeo? E 41.051.02 a Iaeanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (270058, i. Iaeana, O?aioeocueeee aoeueaa?,
24/26, aoae. 91).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (270057, i. Iaeana, aoe. I?aia?aaeainueea,
24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “27” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee *a?ii?aaiaiei ?. I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Iiiianoe/i? nooae?? iathoue a Oe?a?i? i?oei? o?aaeeoe??, a a?ae /an?a E.
E. Oe?eoeea ? aeineoue /?oeo i?aai?caoe?th. A?aeiia?aeii ia?ii e
aecia/i? caeiaooee, ?aae?ciaai? o aeaeyae? neiaiee?a, iiiia?ao?e,
aeena?oaoe?e, noaoae, eiioa?aioe?e oiui, ye? aeicaieeee cia/iith i??ith
c’ynoaaoe neeaae aeanieo iaca oe?a?inueei? iiae, ?o aaiaco, ?noi?e/iee
?icaeoie oa iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Iaeiae o oeeo aaeocyo
iac?iaeaiiai, ia?ica’ycaiiai ua cia/ii a?eueoa, i?ae iaea?aeaieo
inyaiaiue.

A o aea/aii? aeeooy aeanieo iaca o aeoao iiaeaiiy, o oaenoao ? iniaeeai
— o oaenoao ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e oaeoe/ii c?iaeaii ua ae?ae iaei.
Oeei ? aecia/a?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Inoaii?ie ?ieaie
?ic?iaea oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee iii?oii aeoea?coaaeanue.
I?ioa oey aeoea?caoe?y noino?oueny, aeania, o?eueee i?iciaeo oai??a ?
iaeaea aeeeth/ii iaeiiai (c aeaa’yoe!) ?ic?yaeo aeanieo iaca —
aio?iiii?i?a. Oaeee noai iiaeia c?icoi?oe, ai a eeane/i?e oa iniaeeai
iia?oi?e e?oa?aoo?? iaio? i?ica, a na?aae aeanieo iaca iaeaieeaia?oeie ?
iaeoaeeaai?oeie ? aio?iiii?ie. Oa c?icoi?oe ia icia/a? aei?aaaeaoe e
i?eeiyoe. Noa?a ?ic?iaee oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee iano?eii
iio?aao? ? ?icoe?aiiy, ? iiaeeaeaiiy, iio?aao? ye?nieo ci?i.

Iiac?y ia? nai? ?noioi? iiiianoe/i? iniaeeaino?, ? ?o o?aaa c’ynoaaoe,
ine?eueee aeani? iacae ? ? caaaeaee aoee ?noioiei, ooieoe?iiaeueii
cia/ouei neeaaeieeii iiaoe/ieo oai??a, ye ? oai??a ?ioeo ?iae?a
e?oa?aoo?e. Iaeiith c oaeeo iniaeeainoae ? iia?oy iiac?? ia oe?oa eiei
aeanieo iaca, yea i?inoi iaiiaeeeai caanoe aei aio?iiii?i??. Iiiianoeea
iiaoe/ieo oaeno?a aeineoue aino?i noaaeoue ieoaiiy i?i iaoiaeeeo, i?i
niiniae aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanieo iaca o ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo??. ??/ o o?i,
ui a??oiaaiee oaeno noaiiaeoue a?ae/ooiee ni?ioea aeeo/aiith c iueiai
aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy naieo o?eueee ii?i?a, aeiaaath/e ia i?inoi
a?aooaaiiy eiioaenoo, a ?icaeyaeo a onueiio aeeneo?n?, o iaaeao
ooaeiaeiueiai oe?eiai.

Iiac?y E?ie Einoaiei, aeaeaoiiai no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai iiaoa, a
iiiianoe/iiio ieai? i?aeoe/ii ia aea/aeany, a aiia oiai iio?aao?, ai
ii?ie aaoi?ee ? iaeiei c iaeaino??oeo aeae?a ?? neiaanii? ca?i?. Aeeaiea
i?iaeoiai?noue o i?aeai??, o?e?a?aiia ia?iaea i?e aeei?enoaii? aeanieo
iaca iane/o? ?o o oai?ao E?ie Einoaiei cia/iith iiaoe/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th
oa aaaaoiiai?oieie ooaeiaei?ie ooieoe?yie. ?ice?eooy oe??? ?ioi?iaoe??
oa ooieoe?e noaiiaeoue cia/iee ?ioa?an ye aeey ?icaoaeiae oai???
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee, oae ? aeey aeeaoiai i?ciaiiy oai?/ino? E?ie
Einoaiei.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia a iaaeao iaoeiai? oaie “Ia?ac
na?oo a ooaeiaeiueiio neia? oa niiniae eiai ?ioa?i?aoaoe??”, ui
?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith oe?a?inueei? iiae oa e?oa?aoo?e
I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. E.
Ae.Ooeinueeiai.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ? aiae?c iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o, eiai iaiiaiaiiy oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a on?o iiaoe/ieo oai?ao E?ie Einoaiei, eiai aeaeici?ie
caeaaeii a?ae /ano oa aeai?o, a?ae oaiaoeee oa oeyo?a ?aae?caoe?? oe???
oaiaoeee.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iio??aii ae??oeoe ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

— aeyaeoe an? aeani? iacae an?o iiiianoe/ieo ?ic?yae?a, oaeeo? a oai?ao
E?ie Einoaiei;

— anoaiiaeoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo iiiianoe/ieo ?ic?yae?a o oai?ao
iiaoane oa aeeiai?eo oeueiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy;

— c’ynoaaoe aioeeeeiiaaee/ia nieneiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy aeanieo iaca,
anoaiiaeoe o? ?o naiaioe/i? aa??aoe??, ui c’yaeythoueny a aeaiiio
aaeeoeia? ? coiiaeai? eiioaenoii oai?o;

— aecia/eoe oo /e oo aeni?aneai?noue (o o?i /ene? e ioeueiao) ? ii
iiaeeeaino? nooi?iue oa oa?aeoa? aeni?aneaiino? aeanieo iaca o iiaoe/ieo
oaenoao E?ie Einoaiei;

— aena?oeeoe noee?noe/ia, ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy oaeeoeo
iiaoanith ii?i?a, ?icaeyaeath/e eiaeai oaeeoie aeanii? iacae cie?aia ?
c?noaaeyth/e oaeeoee oiai ae ii?ia a ??cieo oai?ao ? oaeeoee ??cieo
ii?i?a o iaeiiio oai??;

— oei naiei aecia/eoe, ye ? a ye?e i??? aeani? iacae a ooaeiaei?o oai?ao
E?ie Einoaiei i?aoeththoue ia oe? oai?e, aa?ooue o/anoue o iiaoaeia?
ooaeiaeiueiai oe?eiai.

Iaoa??aeii ?iaioe noaee an? ca??ee iiaoe/ieo oai??a E?ie Einoaiei,
aeaeai? a Oe?a?i? — a?ae ia?oi? “I?ii?iiy caie?” (1957 ?.) ? aei
inoaiiuei? c iioae?eiaaieo “Aea?aia” (1989 ?. ). Aea/aii, oaeei /eiii,
onueiai a?n?i iiaoe/ieo eiea aaoi?ee — ana, ui ?, ie??i ca??ee a??o?a
aeey ae?oae “Aoceiiaee oea?” (1987 ?.).

Aieiaiei iaoiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaa eiioaenooaeueiee aiae?c. Ia?aaoe
aaia?aeueiei ?iai/ei i?eeiiii aea/aiiy iiaoe/ii? iiiianoeee E?ie
Einoaiei o oaeno?, a ia aeeo/aiiy ?? c oaenoo (ui iei? a ?iaioao c
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee ia?aaaaea?), ie iaiaaa?iiny iine?aeiaii
iienoaaoe ii?ie o neeaae? oeo oai??a, o yeeo aiie aaeeo?. Oei naiei
ciaeoia nai? canoinoaaiiy ? o?aaeeoe?eiee aeey e?iaa?noe/ieo ?ia?o
oaeiai ?iaeo iieniaee iaoiae. Aeineoue oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny oaeiae
iaoiae aioo??oiueiai c?noaaeaiiy (ye i?aaeei — o iaaeao oai?/ino? E?ie
Einoaiei) oa e?euee?niee iaoiae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui a
aeena?oaoe?? oia?oa cae?eniaii iiiia?ao?/iee iien iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o
iiac?e E?ie Einoaiei. Oa e acaaae? iiiianoe/iiai aiae?co onueiai
oai?/iai aei?iaeo aeiaeiiai iiaoa a oe?a?inueeiio iiaiciaanoa? ua ia
aoei. Iiiianoeea iiac??, ye aeyaey?oueny, iii?oii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
iiiianoeee i?ice oei, ui aiia cia/ii a?eueoa iane/aia ia?aiinieie,
eiiioaoeaieie cia/aiiyie ? aaeeaa?oueny ye can?a ia?aciino?, ia? aeuo
aeni?aneaio iai?oao. O i?e oaea ia iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i iai?aiee noaoon
aio?iiii?i?a, c yeeie ciaaathoueny (aai e aeoiaeyoue ia ia?oa i?noea)
oiiii?ie. O noeoiiiio iiiianoe/iiio i?inoi?? oai??a E?ie Einoaiei
aio?iiii?ie caeiathoue iaioa 40%. Ie??i oeeo aeaio iiiianoe/ieo
?ic?yae?a, o iiac?? aaaiaeoeie ? oaii?ie e ano?ii?ie, a ia??aeei oaeiae
?aeaii?ie. ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aaoi?nueeeie iciaeaie ?iaioe E?ie Einoaiei c
aeanieie iacaaie ?, na?aae ?ioiai, oa, ui aiia: 1) oiiei a?ae/oaa? ?
aaeaeaaoii a?aeoai?th?, ieaea? (aea i?e iio?aa? ni?eeai e na?aeiii
o?ainoi?io?) iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?io naiaioeeo ii?i?a, ae?iaeaio a?eaie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e iia?; 2) oe?iei aaeeaa? iae??ciiiai?oi?o?
aeani? iacae c onueiai na?oo, oyae?th/e aei ii?i?/ii? aeiaaeueiino?.

Oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea iaa?ae?eaiiai a?ae eiioaenoo, oe?eueiiai aiae?co
iiac?eii? ii?i?? ? i?eaeaoiith aeey canoinoaaiiy i?e iiiianoe/iiio
aea/aii? aoaeue-yeeo iiaoe/ieo oai??a. ?ice?eooy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iaoai?ci?a ae?? aeanieo iaca o iiac?? ni?eyoeia
ooi/iaiith oa iiaeeaeaiith oai?aoe/ieo canaae e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee ?
— oe?oa — noee?noeee (iiaiciaanoai) oa iiaoeee (e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai) o
aniaeoao, i?e/aoieo aei iiiianoe/iiai eiiiiiaioo ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea aeiiiiiaoe o nooae?yo iiaoe/ii? iiae, niaoeeo?ee
iiaoe/ii? ia?aciino?, o i?ciaii? oiieiu?a ?iaioe iaeno?a ?c neiaii.

O aeu?e oeie? ?iaioa iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia o eo?nao no/anii? iiae,
noee?noeee, ?noi??? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, a iiiianoe/ieo niaoeeo?nao oa a
iaienaii? eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o. Aiia i?noeoue iaoa??aee aeey
iiiianoe/iiai neiaieea oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee eieenue aoaea
iaia’yceiai noai?aiee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “??aeia iiaa — caii?oea
aacnia?oy iaoe??” (Iaeana, 1998), i?aeaoc?anuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoe?iiaeueia iaioaeuei?noue ? eoeueoo?a” (Iaeana, 1999), a oaeiae ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae oa e?oa?aoo?e
I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. E.
Ae. Ooeinueeiai (1998, 1999).

C aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo noaoae.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. AEai?iaee i?aeo?ae aei ?icaeyaeo iiiianoeee
oai??a E?ie Einoaiei coiiaea aeae?eaiiy o?ueio ?icae?e?a aeena?oaoe??, o
yeeo aea/a?oueny, a?aeiia?aeii, ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeanieo iaca o: 1)
a??oao, 2) iiaiao, 3) ?iiai? “Ia?ony *o?ae”. O ia?oiio oa ae?oaiio
?icae?eao iaoa??ae aeoeeoaaiee o?iiieia?/ii — ca /anii ioae?eaoe??
ca??ie iiac?e oa ca /anii iaienaiiy iiai. Aeena?oaoe?y caaa?oo?oueny
aeniiaeaie ? nieneii aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e, ui iae?/o? 215
iiceoe?e. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 195 n., ianya aac nieneo aeaea?ae
— 178 n.

Iniiaiee ci?no

O “Anooi?” ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oi?ioeth?oueny eiai iaoa oa caaaeaiiy, aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia ?
i?aeoe/ia ei?enoue.

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “Iiiianoeea iiac?e E?ie Einoaiei” o o?ueio
nai?o ii/aoeiaeo i?ae?icae?eao i?enay/aiee caaaeueiioai?aoe/iei
i?iaeaiai e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee, ui aena?oeththoueny a aniaeo?
?ic?iaethaaii? oaie. Eaeaoueny i?i nooi?noue e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee ye
ie?aiiai iai?yieo e?iaa?noe/ii? iaoee i?i aeani? iacae — iiiianoeee, i?i
iniaeeaino? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee iiac?? ii??aiyii c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi
aeanieo iaca o i?ic? oa ae?aiaoo?a??, i?i niaoeeo?eo e?oa?aoo?ii?
iiiianoeee E?ie Einoaiei a iaaeao caaaeueieo iniaeeainoae iiac?eiiai
aaeeoeo aeanieo iaca.

Aea/aiiy ii?i?? oe?a?inueei? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e, iath/e aaea iaai?
inyaiaiiy (E. I. Aaeae, TH. I. Ea?iaiei, A. I. Eoeao, E. O. Ianaiei, O.
A. Iaie?ianueea oa ?i.), oaeoe/ii eeoa ?icii/eia?oueny. Ia?o? i?aoe? a
oe?e oea?ei? c’yaeeeny eeoa a 1963-1965 ??. Iiaiioe?iia aea/aiiy
e?oa?aoo?ii? ii?i?? iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae ?? aiae?co a iaaeao oe?eiai
oaenoo ? a on?e noeoiiino? (a ia ?icaeyaeo ie?aieo, ia aea??, aeanieo
iaca). Iniaeeaith i??ith oey oaca noino?oueny iiac??, aea ii?ie, ia
a?aei?io a?ae i?ice e ae?aiaoo?a??, ia?aaaaeii iicanthaeaoi?, /ei
coiiaeaiee a?eueoee nooi?iue naiaiaee uiaei aaeeoeo (/e oieeiaiiy)
aeanieo iaca, cia/ii ieae/? iieacieee ia?aaaae aio?iiii?i?a, c yeeie
ciaaathoueny oiiii?ie e oaii?ie, a?eueoa ianiaaeai?noue aeanieo iaca
eiiioaoe?yie, iaoaoi?e/iei oa neiaie?/iei iaiiaiaiiyi. A/ai?
aeae?eythoue a?ae i’yoe (TH. I. Ea?iaiei) aei ainueie (I. ?. Oiiyeiaa)
iniaeeainoae, ui a?ae??ciythoue oaeeoie aeanieo iaca o iiac?? a?ae ?ioeo
?iae?a e?oa?aoo?e.

On? oe? iniaeeaino? aeyaeythoueny ? a iiac?yo E. A. Einoaiei, o yeeo
aeani? iacae noathoue iiaooi?i oaenoiooai?thth/ei /eiieeii,
cina?aaeaeoth/e iaaeiei naaa /e ia an? ia?ace iiac??, noathoue
i?aee?aneaieie iiaieie ciaeaie iaiiaoi?iino? — oa?aeoa?ii? i?eeiaoe
oai??a iiaoane. Ca nai?i neeaaeii iiiianoeeii oai??a E?ie Einoaiei
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny anainyaei?noth, aeiaaeuei?noth, ca noee?noe/iei
caaa?aeaiiyi — aenieith aeni?aneai?noth, ae?aaeaiith aaeaa?aioii, ca
niiniaii aeei?enoaiiy — iaoe?iiaeueiei inieneaiiyi, aa/aiiyi iaae
aa?aaaie a?/ii? ??ee — Aei?i?a.

Iniiaio ae /anoeio ia?oiai ?icae?eo aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? aeieeaaeiee
aiae?c aeeiai?ee aaeeoeo aeanieo iaca o a??oao, oi?uaieo o an?o
iioae?eiaaieo ca??eao E?ie Einoaiei. ?icaeyae aaaeaoueny iine?aeiaii, a
o?iiieia?/iiio ii?yaeeo, ca??ea ca ca??eith.

O ia?o?e ca??oe? “I?ii?iiy caie?” (1957 ?.) ii?i?a iaei — eeoa 15 o 23
oaeeoeao. Na?aae ieo ca e?euee?noth (8) ia?aaaaeathoue aio?iiii?ie, a ca
aaeeoeaie (12) — oiiii?ie. On? aeani? iacae aenooiathoue o i?yiiio,
iao?iia?/iiio nain?, aea aiaeii/an on? iathoue aaaiiee eiiioaoeaiee
eiiiiiaio ? aeni?aneaio ianiaao.

O ae?oa?e ca??oe? “A?o?eea” (1958 ?.) ii?i?a ua iaioa — ia 46 a??o?a
i?eiaaea? eeoa 10 aeanieo iaca o 13 aaeeoeao, i?e/iio ia?aaaaeathoue ooo
oiiii?ie — ?o 7 o 10 aaeeoeao. 60% ii?i?a nyaathoue ca iaae? Oe?a?ie,
oiae? ye o ia?o?e ca??oe? oaeeo ii?i?a o?eueee 40%. C’yaey?oueny e
oaeeoie ii?ia a i?ea?iaeueiiio cao/aii? (Aano?, a ia Anoii?y) — i?eeii,
yeee E?ia Einoaiei aeei?enoiao? e i?ci?oa. Iiaoana ii/eia? aeoiaeeoe ia
iiceoe?? nai?? ii?i?/ii? aeiaaeueiino?. Ii?ie aeoeaii aeeth/athoueny o
caoeia?o, ia yeo oae uaae?? oai?e iiaoane.

Ca??ea “Iaiae??aee na?oey” (1961 ?.), oi/ a??o?a ooo iaioa, i?ae o
iiia?aaei?o ca??eao, aeeth/a? aaea a?eueoa aeanieo iaca — 27 o 36
aaeeoeao, i?e/iio c?inoa? ?o ?icia?ooy. Ie??i aio?iiii?i?a, oiiii?i?a oa
oaii?i?a, oia?oa c’yaeythoueny ano?ii?ie (*oiaoeueeee Oeyo, Noiaea?e) e
?aeaii?ie (“? ni?aa? “Eioea” oe?a?iea”). O ca??oe? i?iaeiaaeo? c?inoaoe
nooi?iue ii?i?/ii? aeiaaeueiino? ?, ui iae?noioi?oa, nooi?iue
iaenoa?iino? iiaoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ii?i?a. ?icoe?th?oueny aiie?ooaea
eiiioaoeaiiai iaiiaiaiiy aeanieo iaca — ?iiae? ianiiae?aaiiai, aea
caaaeaee iiaoe/ii ocanaaeiaiiai; ?aei?noue ii?ia e ooaeiaeiueiai oe?eiai
noa? aoeaaeueii ia?ic?eaiith; ii?i?/ia aeni?aneai?noue
o??ciiiai?oith?oueny, iaaoaa? ?ioeiiino? e aeia??eeaino?, iaaeeaea?oueny
aei /eoa/a.

*aoaa?oa ca??ea E?ie Einoaiei “Iaae aa?aaaie a?/ii? ??ee” aeeoea eeoa a
1977 ?., i?ney 16 ?ie?a aeiooaiiai iia/aiiy, coiiaeaiiai ?aaeyinueeith
oeaico?ith. Iiaoana a oe?e ca??oe? inyaea aa?oei nai?? iaenoa?iino?, a
o?i /ene? e iiiianoe/ii?, ? oeo aa?oei o iiaeaeueo?e oai?/ino? ia
iaeeoeea. Ii?ie aaeeoi a?eueoa i?ae o iieiaei? (65%) a??o?a ca??ee. Oaea
iiiianoe/ia iane/aiiy oa?aeoa?ia ? aeey an?o ianooiieo ca??ie, oiae? ye
o iiia?aaei?o aeani? iacae c’yaeyeeny uiiaea?eueoa o /aa?o? a??o?a. O
128 a??oao ca??ee aeei?enoaii 207 aeania ii?i?a (oiaoi aac o?aooieo
eaenai niioea, i?nyoeue, ye? oai?aoe/ii ? aeanieie iacaaie, aea
canoiniaothoueny iiaoanith ye iacae caaaeuei?), ui aaeeo? a 305
aeiaaeeao. Canoiniaaii an? ?nioth/? a iia? aeaa’youe ii?i?/ieo
?ic?yae?a, c yeeo aio?iiii?ie caeiathoue iieiaeio iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o
ca??ee (50,5%), a aeae? eaeooue oiiii?ie (26,7%), oaii?ie (15%),
ano?ii?ie (2,9%), o?aiaoii?ie, ?aeaii?ie — ? eeoa ii iaeiiio o?iiii?io,
a?aii?io e ciii?io.

O ca??oe? ?noioii c?inoa? ii?i?/ia aeiaaeuei?noue. Ona ethaenoai a on?
a?ee naiai ?nioaaiiy — inue iiiianoe/iee o?iiioii ca??ee, noa?a eaoo
aeoiee e ia?aaeeaaiue iiaoane. Ci?ith?oueny ye?noue ?aae?caoe??
iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o a??o?a. Ia/oaai? iiaaoi?nuee? iaoaoi?e (“Ua
eiaeai iaeue/ee nai nia? Aaooiaai”, “y — Iie?iac?y”), ?acth/a ii?i?/ia
neiaie?ea (“A?o??a naaa?eey, ioceea — Naa?euey!”), oi?iiy canooieoe
ii?iii ?iceiaee ianyaii nai?? aiioe?eii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oaeno (“nieth,
i?i/eoaaoe nia? I??ii”), aeooeaia ii?i?/ia caoeia?a, i?ea?iaeueia
canoinoaaiiy iiiianoe/ieo ia?eo?ac — on? oe? aeaeaoi? inyaiaiiy ca??ee
ciaeoee nai? ?icai?oaiiy e iiaeeaeaiiy a ianooiiiio oai?/iio aei?iaeo
iiaoane. Ca??ea acaaae? ciaiaio? i?iaeiaaeaia i?ci?oeie oai?aie iii?oia
c?inoaiiy neiiao?e E?ie Einoaiei aei aeanieo iaca oa ?o ae?aciaeo
ni?iiiaeiinoae. Ii?i?y a?ae oe??? ca??ee noa? ua a?eueo aaaiiei
neeaaeieeii einoaie?anueei? iiac??.

Iiiianoe/iee i?ino?? ca??ee “Iaiiaoi?i?noue” (1980 ?.) ia? noiae?
e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e ? oaae aeeth/a? an? ?nioth/? ii?i?/i? ?ic?yaee,
ia?aoiaoth/e 323 aeani? iacae a 467 oaeeoeao. Aea caaaeueia ii?i?/ia
iane/ai?noue ooo c?inoa? — ia eiaeai a??o i?eiaaea? a na?aaeiueiio 4,6
iiiiaaaeeoee (o iiia?aaei?e ca??oe? — 3,6 iiiiaaaeeoee), i?e/iio
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ic?yae?a aeaui ci?ith?oueny — ieoiia aaaa aio?iiii?i?a
cieaeo?oueny (41,2%), a aaeeaai?noue oiiii?i?a (28,2%), oaii?i?a (17%)
oa ano?ii?i?a (5,6%) — i?aeaeuo?oueny. Ine?eueee iai?yiie iiaoe/ii?
caoe?eaaeaiino? a ca??oe? eaea ia?aaaaeii ia aoe? — ia oaanue na?o, a
aaeea, aei “?en?a ?noi???”, oi oe?a?inueea i?eiaeaaei?noue ii?i?? ooo
iii?oii c?inoa?, ui, c?aooith, ci?ith?, aea ia i?eiaioo? ii?i?/ii?
aeiaaeueiino? iiac?? E?ie Einoaiei. O ca??oe? inyaiooi noia?aenioeiao
?aeaaaioi?noue /anoeie e oe?eiai, ii?ia e oaenoo. Ae?aciaa iiooaei?noue,
ae?eia?noue eiaeii? iacae c?inea, iaaoea naino aeooiaiiai nea?ao.
Iii?oii ci?oeith?oueny aethc?ei?noue, ?ioa?oaenoia?noue oaeeoeo ii?i?a,
na?aae yeeo /eiaeo aeieth neeaaeathoue ae?ii/? ?iaia, ui coiiaeaii
iineeaiith oaaaith iiaoane aei i?noey ae?iee a ?noi??? ethaenoaa. Ii?ie
noathoue eiioeaio?iaaieie ao?eaiiyie aiioe ? caniaii aciiiai? iiae.
Ii?.: “? aieinii aeeaiei, iioio?ei, | ye aeaai?e iaaeo??niooee aeca?i: |
— Aaoo?ei, Aaoo?ei, Aaoo?ei! — | eoia? iai? iaacaeia?i”. Caaaeyee
aaciaaeaeth aioeeeeiiaaee/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui ?? ianooue o nia? aeani?
iacae, iiaoana iaaaaeaieie ?yaeeaie canoaeeea (a 1980 ?ioe?!) ?oeiaoe?th
1708 ?. ?in?enueeeie a?enueeaie aaoueiainueei? noieeoe?. O ca??oe?
iii?oii c?inoathoue a?ae?ei? caoe?eaaeaiiy iiaoane — a?ae?eieo oaii?i?a
oa i?oii?i?a ooo eeoa ia iaeio iacao iaioa, i?ae aioe/ieo, aeoeaii
aaeeaaieo iath e ?ai?oa.

O ca??oe? “Naae iaoaio/eo neoeueioo?” (1987 ?.) e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni?
ia?aiao?e iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o aeaui ci?iththoueny, iaeiae
caeeoathoueny oeiiai einoaie?anueeeie. Ca??ea aeeth/a? eeoa 36 a??o?a, c
yeeo ii?ie aaeeoi a 20. ?o ooo 53 o 89 aaeeoeao, i?e/iio a?aecia/ai? a
iiia?aaei?o ca??eao oaiaeaioe?? aeeiai?ee aio?iiii?i?a ? oiiii?i?a
i?ecaaee aei oiai, ui ia?oeo oaeeoi iaioa (28,2% on?o ii?i?a), i?ae
ae?oaeo (41,5%). C?inea oaeiae oaeeaai?noue oaii?i?a (18,9%) oa
ano?ii?i?a (5,7%). Ia eiaeai a??o c aeanieie iacaaie i?eiaaea? 4,5
iiiiaaaeeoee. Iii?oii ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue ii?i?a, ui noinothoueny
Oe?a?ie: i?i ui ia ieoe, a oyaia aei ??aeiiai. I?ioa iiiianoe/iee
i?ino?? caeeoa?oueny aeiaaeueiei: ca iaae? Oe?a?ie nyaa? ia iaioa 50%
ii?i?a. Iiaoana ni?eeia? na?o na?oeai oe?a?iee ? ieii caieyieia. I?e
oeueiio na?aae aeania oe?a?inueeeo ii?i?a ia?aaaaea? aeaiioaoeaia
cia/aiiy (caaaeaee c eiiioaoeaiei aeiaeaoeii), a na?aae ii?i?a
ca?oa?aeieo — eiiioaoeaia cia/aiiy. Aeaiioao ooo a?aeoiaeeoue ia ae?oaee
ieai, ine?eueee oey ii?i?/ia a?oia neoao? ia?aaaaeii caniaii
cia?aaeaiiy, a ia iicia/aiiyi ia’?eoa cia?aaeaiiy. E?ia Einoaiei o
ca??oe? ciaeoea “i??o ?a/ae”, ciaeoea nai? i?eeiie ?iaioe c aeanieie
iacaaie ? nai? oethaeai? aeaea?aea iiiiaiaiiy aa?a ii?i?/ii? iae?o?e.

Ca??ea “Aea?aia” (1989 ?.) ai?uo? 146 a??o?a, ui ia ioae?eoaaeeny
?ai?oa. Na?aae ieo ii?ie aaeeoi a 75. Onueiai ?o ooo 169 o 274 aaeeoeao.
C?inoaiiy i?iaeiaaeeee o?eueee oaii?ie (23,7% on?o ii?i?a). Aio?iiii?ie
ae ciiao noaee iaeoaeeaai?oei ii?i?/iei ?ic?yaeii (34,9%), oi/ oiiii?ie
a?aenoaee a?ae ieo ia aeoaea ?noioii (24,3%). ? a ca??oe? ? an? ?io?
?ic?yaee aeanieo iaca. Aeiaaeuei?noue iiaoe/iiai ieneaiiy iiaoane ciiao
aeaiaeeoue ia ia?aaei?e ieai anana?oith ii?i?th. Oe?a?inuee? ?aae?? ooo
?iaiothoueny o?eueee 17,3% aio?iiii?i?a ? 22% oiiii?i?a, oiae? ye ?aae??
aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey — 60,3% aio?iiii?i?a ? 58,5% oiiii?i?a. Ao?i, oe?
inoaii? ii?ie ciiao ae oaee neoaothoue ia?aaaaeii caniaii cia?aaeaiiy:
“Aeooa, c?oeiiaaia, ye O?iy”, “Iaia? Iioea?oa — i?ooi ia Naeue???”.
Oiaoi ii?ie oe? aeaiiino?othoue ?a?iiaenueea ieneaiiy e
?ioaeaeooaeuei?noue iiac?? E?ie Einoaiei, a ia cia?aaeathoue onth ?a?iio
/e oaanue na?o. Iaeoaeeaai?oee oiiii?i o ca??oe? — Oe?a?ia. sse ? a on?o
?ioeo ca??eao a??o?a E?ie Einoaiei, o “Aea?aiiio” eaenaia niioea
ia?aaaaea? eaenaio i?nyoeue, i?e/iio ia?aaaaea? ?noioii (15 oaeeoe?a
i?ioe 6).

Iiaoe/io ia?iaeo ii?i?a o a??oao E?ie Einoaiei iaee?ioa oa?aeoa?ecothoue
?yaeee naii? iiaoane: “Iaieaieie ia?aaie | oaaaeo?o neiaai | ianoa/o
i?e?iaieueoa | ? caeaee i?e?a?ai”. Oey ia?iaea iieyaa? o aeoai?aii?
aaeaeaaoiiai ooaeiaeiueiio oe?eiio aieueoaaeo aeni?an?? ? aaaiaeoino?,
aeaaaeaiino? o oi?ioethaaiiyo aeoiee. Aeey a?eueoino? aaeeoe?a aeanieo
iaca o a??oao oa?aeoa?iei ? iaoaoi?e/iee neie?aoeci, eiee ia i?yia
cia/aiiy ii?ia iaeeaaea?oueny (ia onoaath/e oeueiai i?yiiai cia/aiiy)
cia/aiiy ia?aiinia, ui noai?th? /e aa?a o/anoue o noai?aii?
ooaeiaeiueiai ia?aco. Ii/aoeiaee aoai ?icaeoeo iiiianoe/ii? ?iaioe
iiaoane iiaeia caaaeii aecia/eoe ye aenoaineaiee: ?aea iaeiie/aiiy
oaeeaaiino? ii?i?a ? o??ciiiai?oiaiiy niinia?a ?o ia?iaee. I?ney
ia??iaeo aaeeeiai iia/aiiy ?icii/eia?oueny aoai ?ioaineaiee: inyaiooa
iiiianoe/ia iaenoa?i?noue ? a?aeiaeaeai? iioeiaeuei? iiiianoe/i?
ia?aiao?e aeicaieythoue E?i? Einoaiei c iaeneiaeueiith aa?iii?ei?noth
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ii?i?/i? iaoa??aee aeey iiaoaeiae nai?o iiaoe/ieo
nii?oae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iiiianoeea iiai E?ie Einoaiei” nii/aoeo
c’yniaothoueny caaaeuei? iiiianoe/i? caeiiii??iino? aaeeeiai iiaoe/iiai
oai?o ii??aiyii c iaeei, oiaoi iiaie ii??aiyii c a??oai. Iiaia, ye
i?aaeei, ia? ?icai?iaiee nthaeao, ieceo aca?iiiia’ycaieo iiae?e ? ?o
o/aniee?a — ia?niiaae?a. Ia?niiaae?a o?aaa ?iaioaaoe, i?e/iio c
aaaaoi?aciaei iiaoi?aiiyi. A iiac?y ia oa?ieoue iiaoi?aiue aac
niaoe?aeueiiai noee?noe/iiai ocanaaeiaiiy. Oiio i?iaeaia ii?i?/ieo
iiaoi?aiue (? niinia?a ?o oieeiaiiy) ? aaaiiei /eiieeii iiaoaeiae
iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o iiaie. Ii?ie iathoue i?aoethaaoe ia oe?eee
ooaeiaei?e oaeno, a a?i o iiai? ianyaei?oee, i?ae o a??o?. Oiio ooo ia
aeani? iacae eyaa? a?eueo aaaiia ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?e
oeueiio iiiianoeea iiaie caeeoa?oueny iiiianoeeith iiac?eiith,
aoaeoth/enue ca caeiiaie a??oiaaiiai oaenoo c eiai eiiioaoeaiei —
o?iia?/iei oa aeni?aneaiei iaiiaiaiiyi.

O ianooiieo i?ae?icae?eao i?iiiio?oueny, o o?iiieia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino?,
aiae?c iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o an?o iioae?eiaaieo iiai E?ie Einoaiei.

Ia?oee aaeeeee ai?/iee oa?? iiaoane “Eacea i?i Ia?o” oa?aiee o
oieueeei?i? oaoe. A?aeiia?aeii aoaeo?oueny ? eiai iiiianoeea. C
ia?niiaae?a eeoa /aoaa?i iathoue ?iaia — Ia?eny (oae 27 ?ac?a), aiia ae
Ia?a (“Io?anoeee aeeoeio — Ia??y. A i?icaaee ?? — Ia?a”) oa ??
i?ioeeaaei?noue Aaey ? aeai? /aeeoi?a c iieniaeie ieac?iiaeueieie
?iaiaie — Ioae?a Aaaa ? Aeo?iee *ieia?e. Ii?i?/ia ia?o?y oe???
iiaie-eacee iiaoaeiaaia oe?eaai e ocanaaeiaii, c “aeieia?/iith”
oiiii?i??th (Ia?ao?anoy Aeeneaaeoeue) e iaeeaeaiiyi ?ineei. Iniaeeai
aaeaeith e oiieith ? a?a ni?acao/ieie ?iaiaie Ia?eny — Ia?a. ?ioo?oe?y
iiaoane ioioiaeith? ?iciaaeiaoaai? aoeiieiaaie eaenaie ia?a “caiaco?a” ?
ia?a “ceee aeoo”, a aeeaiea ocanaaeiai?noue oe??? iiceoe?? noaaeoue
i?iaeaio “iiac?y ? iaoea”, yea iaiaeii?aciai ae?eia? o ca’yceo c aeoaea
oe?eaaeie iiiianoe/ieie ?ioa?i?aoaoe?yie E?ie Einoaiei.

Ae?oaee aaeeeee oa??, eacea (iiaia) “Iaiae??aee na?oey”, i?noeoue
o?eueee aeaa ii?ie ocae/a?iiai oeio — aaaa O?a?y oa non?aenueeee ?aai,
ui iaceaathoue ai?ciaee/ieo, ia aeeth/aieo aei nthaeaoo in?a. I?ioa
iiiianoe/iee i?ino?? iiaie aaaaothuee, aea — oieueeei?ii iaeaooiaaiee,
eaceiaee, iiaoaeiaaiee c eiioaenooaeueieo, ieac?iiaeueieo aeanieo iaca.
Aieiaiee aa?ie ooo Iaiae??aiee, eiai aaoueee — ceeaei? (iaea e?oa?a ia
caaaaea? oeueiio iicia/aiith aooe eiioaenooaeueiith aeaniith iacaith),
oiniaeaiiy ethaenueeiai aeeooy ? ethaenueeiai ai?y, c yeeie no??/a?oueny
Iaiae??aiee, caiiaithth/e nai? aaeeea na?oea, — O?IUe IIE?A, A?*IA IAOE,
NAIIOA (c iaienaiiyi aaeeeeie e?oa?aie onueiai iaeiaiiy), aieiaiee
noi?ioeaiee — Aanee?ne. Ona oea — aiaeyoeae, ui caciaee a oai??
ii?i?caoe??, i?e/iio — a ??ci?e i???. ?acii aiie noai?ththoue
eaceiai-aeaai?e/iee iiiianoe/iee i?ino??, ui aa?iii?eii ii?aeio?
ae?aaith oe?a?inueeo oieueeei?io o?aaeeoe?th c a?aeaaaeiei iiaaoi?noaii
? a?ae?a?a? aeoaea ?noioio oaenoioa??io ?ieue.

Ii?i?y iaaaeeei? ianyaii iiaie “*aeea ia e?eaeei?” neeaaea?oueny
aeeeth/ii c aaia?ao?/ieo iaca. O?noue oaeeoeo ooo oiiii?i?a neoaothoue
ia?aaeon?i aeey aae?anaoe??, eieae?caoe?? cia?aaeoaaiiai (Iieueua, i.
Uaoe?i). Aea e ooo aieiaia eie?c?y oai?o ae?aaea?oueny ia aac o/ano?
aeanieo iaca: “I Iieueui! | ss c I?eaei?i?ia’y. | ss a?noue o oai?io
e?ath”, ii?.: “?, ia?aoo?, ii Iae?? — | oaii?e, oe?ie?e — | ia inoaii?e
e?eaeei? | naiioiy /aeea ieeaa”.

Iiaie E?ie Einoaiei, iioae?eiaai? i?ney o?eaaeiai aeiooaiiai iia/aiiy,
a?aecia/athoueny iniaeeai aeineiiaeeie, aaeaeaaoieie oai?ia?
iiiianoe/ieie iiaoaeiaaie. Iiaia-aaeaaea “Ne?onueea iae?nnay” ia? aeoaea
oe?ieee iiiianoe/iee i?ino??, oi/ ?? aaciina?aaei? ae?eia? iniae
aac?iaii?. Oey aac?iaii?noue ia oii? cia/iiai ii?i?/iiai iane/aiiy oai?o
noa? aaaiiei ooaeiaei?i i?eeiiii. Aieiaiee aa?ie — i?inoi a?ae, a?a/ei.
Aaoi?ea ia noaea aeaaaeoaaoe eiai ?i’y, uia ia i?oe i?ioe ?noi?e/ii?
?noeie, ? oeei i?aeiyeany aei ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aco aa?iy. Iaeneioi, ia
yeee ?aea iiaoana, — i?eeii aioiiiiac??, iia?oi? ia aioe/iee
iiiianoeeii: a?ae-iaiae??aiee ?iaio?oueny Iae?nna?i, eiai ae?oaeeia —
Iaiaeiiith, ye ?iia??i? ne?onuee? ae?y/? — “noaiiaee I?aeneoaeue”,
“ne?onueeee Ae?iaai”, “i?aeia Iaan?eay, no?oiea aeiiueea Noiienueeiai
oea?y”.

O iiai? acaaae? iaia? aeiaeiiai ii?ia, aeaaaeaiiai iiaoanith. ?
iiooaeiee oa? aio?iiii?i?a — iaca ?noi?e/ieo in?a (ia?aaeo? “aaoueei
?noi???” Aa?iaeio, iacaaiee 10 ?ac?a), oiiii?i?a ? oaii?i?a, ui
aeoeeiaothoueny a aea? e?i?? — a?aoeueeo oa oe?a?inueeo, cia/iith i??ith
ii?aeiaio ?c ne?onueeith. Oea — can?a nyaiooe aeoie?a neia’yinoaa,
i?ciaoe “oi?eueia noa?a aeii noa?iaeie”, ii?aeiaoe ieioea c no/aniei: “A
ii Aei?i?o, aea iei? Aei?i?iaan, aeeee aaea oea?nuee? ne?oe — ia?aeaoe”,
“Ia i?ai?/ — iaa?e, aea oaia? Iie?nny”. Aa?i?a?-a?aeia?, ca?nii, aeeae/a
a?aoeueea ii?i?y, a cia?aaeoaaiei iiae?yi (iiaei?iae ii Aei?i?o a?ae
Ieuea?? aei Noiith), ye ? nai?e aaoi?oe? — oe?a?inueea. Ii?aeiaiiy,
ia?aieao?iiy oeeo e?i?e ? noai?th? iiiianoe/io /a??ai?noue “Ne?onueei?
iae?nna?”.

*eiaei iiiianoe/ieo ciao?aeie o ae?aiaoe/i?e iiai? “Ni?a o Oei?aioe??”.
I?iaeaia iiaie — iane??cia o oai?/ino? E?ie Einoaiei — i?i a?/ia e
oe?iia: “sse o?nii a iai’yo? noi??/! | sse ??aeei caiaeyoueny oeoaie! |
Noai?eoe ??/, | noai?eoe ??/, | eio?a i?eiee ia ?icoaia!” ? oiio oa??
iane/aiee i?ioenoaaeaiiyie, ia?aoai?aiiyie, ?icaeai?iiyie. Neoeueioo?e
iaeeaathoue aai — oaiooue. Ia?io? noa? ni?aii, a ni?a — ia?io?ii. ? ana
oea ciaoiaeeoue ii?i?/ia ao?eaiiy e ii?i?/ia oae?aciaiiy.

Aieiaiee aa?ie iiaie ?oae?enueeee neoeueioi? Aeaeiaaio?ai/anei ?onoe/?
(1474-1554) o?ao?o? a oaeno? a aeaio ?iinoanyo — ye Noa?ee, ui aeiaeeaa?
a?eo a iiianoe?? i. Oo? o O?aioe?? ? na?e oai?/ee oaeaio oo?aoea, ?
Oei?aio??oeue, ui aaaea ao?oeeaa aeeooy o Oei?aioe?? e oai?eoue
iaoaio/a. Naia ooo oaeeoi oi?ioeo, ui noaea iacaith an??? ca??ee, aea
aia?oa aoea iioae?eiaaia iiaia: “yeae ia na?o? aeanue eeoeany | i?e Naae
Iaoaio/eo Neoeueioo?”. ?iciiae Noa?iai c Oei?aio?eoeai o iiianoe?nueeiio
naaeo, oiaoi oaeoe/ii a??e? ?icaeoie ?onoe/?, neeaaeathoue iniiaiee
ianya oaenoo iiaie. I?e oeueiio ia aeoaea i?eaeaoia aeey iiaoe/ii?
ia?iaee eiaiiy neoeueioi?a iaaoaa? ? iiaoe/iino?, ? aa??aoeaiino?, ?
iaa?oue aoeiieia?/ii? ?icoeo?iaee: “y, neoeueioi? iaa?oue ?iaiai nai?i,
y — ?onoe/?, y — ?onoeea, y — eai?iue”.

Ia?aoai?th?oueny ? Ia??aeea — ethaia ? neoeueioo?iee aeoa??
Oei?aio?eoey. Aiia iiia?ea, neoeueioo?a cieeea. Aea oi — iaoaio/a. ?
oiio neoeueioo?a iaeeaa? e i?eoiaeeoue o iiianoe?nueeee naae. Ooo ia?io?
? ieioue iathoue ?aeeia ieeicao/ia iicia/aiiy — Ia??aeea, ui ? ii?i?/iei
ae?aaeaiiyi ?aeiino?, ia?ic?eaiino? aeeaiai aeeooy ? aeeaiai ienoaoeoaa.

Oe? o?aa?/i? ia?ace ?icaeai?iiy ?aeeiiai ? ?aeiino? ?icaeai?iiai oa?niai
a?aeaeca?eaeththoueny o o?ao?ao aeaio /aioe?a, iicia/aieo eeoa
eiioaenooaeueieie ii?iaie: Ia?oee iiiao, Ae?oaee iiiao, a oaeiae o ua
iaei?e ia?? ae?eiaeo in?a, ii?i?/ii iicia/aieo ye Noae?iiaaiee /i?oee ?
a?ao Aeii?i?e, c yeeo /i?oy/iai a?eueoa a inoaiiueiio.

Onueiai a iiai? o?ao?othoue 72 ??ci? aeani? iacae, oaeeo? 282 ?ace. C
ieo 25 — caaaeoaai? ?noi?e/i? iniae. Iae/ano?oa, 9 ?ac?a, ae?eia?
aai?aeueiee o/eoaeue ? eieaaa ?onoe/?, yeee ?iaio?oueny o?eueee
I?eaeaiaeaeaei aai o?eueee Aoiia??io?. Ooo oaae aaa/a?ii aieiaiee
iiiianoe/iee i?eeii iiaie — ?icaeai?iiy. Aea o?aaaae?eiiio ?icaeai?iith
?onoe/? ia Oei?aio?eoey ? Noa?iai i?ioenoi?oue ?icaeai?iiy oi?ie,
?iaioaaiiy I?eaeaiaeaeaei Aoiia??io? — i?e iiai?e ?aeiino?, oe?e?niino?
ci?noo, iin?y oeueiai ?iaioaaiiy, ye nai I?eaeaiaeaeaei
i?ioenoaaey?oueny ?onoe/?: “Oe — ?onoe/?, a a?i — Aoiia??io?”. Ii?i?/ii
ae?aaeaia eiioeaioe?y ?icaeai?iiy oae /e ?iaeoa a?aeaeoa e oaeeoeii
aeayeeo ?ioeo aio?iiii?i?a (Eaiia?aei aea A?i/?, Naaiia?iea).

Oi/ ae?y a?aeaoaa?oueny o O?aioe??, iiaia — i?i ?oae?th. Oe?eaai, ui ?
caaaeoaaieo in?a, ? oiiii?i?a, ui i?aaenoaaeythoue ?oae?th, a iiai? o
/ioe?e ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae oeo, ui noinothoueny O?aioe??. Na?aae
oiiii?i?a (?o o iiai? 21) ia?aaeo?, c?icoi?ei, Oei?aioe?y, iayaia ? a
caaieiaeo: 25 oaeeoe?a. Ii/oooy aei Oei?aioe??, iaiiaiaii?
eiioaenooaeueiei ci?noii “Aaouee?aueia”, i?iiecothoue onth iiaio. ?acii
c Oei?aioe??th oa oei?aio?eoeyie a iiai? /anoi caaaeothoueny iacae ??
o?ai?a — aacoe?iieo nea?aieoeue ienoaoeueeeo inyaiaiue. Aaaeeeaee
eiiiiiaio iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o iiaie noaiiaeyoue oaeiae ?aeaii?ie —
aeeeth/ii iacae neoeueioo?, ui c?icoi?ei aeey oai?o i?i neoeueioi?a. I?e
oeueiio ?aeaii?ie iaaiith i??ith ?ic/eiythoueny a oaeno?, oae /e oae
ceeaath/eny c aio?iiii?iaie. Oaii?ie iiaie, ui ia iaeaaeaoue ae?eiaei
iniaai (na?aae inoaii?o aenooiathoue ? aeaa’youe ioc, c yeeie oaae
a?aeaoaathoueny ia?aoai?aiiy — iaa?oue ia ?icaeai?iiy, a ?ico?i?iiy),
neoaothoue caniaaie ia?aciino?, ui inyaa?oueny a i?eoaiaii?e iiaoan?
aoi?enoe/i?e iaia??: “On? aieiaea?? — I?ie?onoe”.

Iia?oth/e aeeeth/ii ?noi?e/iei, caaeaiei oaiith iaoa??aeii, E?ia
Einoaiei aeaoaeoaaea iiiianoe/iee i?ino?? iiaie iai?i/oae iaenoa?ii.
A?ae iniiaii? iiiceoe??-?icaeai?iiy ye a?ae ii?i?/iiai oeaio?o i?ae
?icoiaeyoueny ii?i?/i? ae oaee? — a?ae o?aaaae?eieo ? aie?nieo aei
eii?/ii-ao?eaneieo.

I?eioeeiiai a?aei?iiei ? iiiianoe/ia ?ica’ycaiiy ae?aiaoe/ii? iiaie
“Aeoia i?i a?ao?a iaacianueeeo”, ui oai?eeany iaeii/anii ?c “Ni?aii o
Oei?aioe??”. Ooo — i?yeeo ?icaeai?iue ? ia?aeea?a. Iiiie?oiei, a?aeeeoei
c iaoaeo oa?aeoa?ai o?ueio “a?ao?a iaacianueeeo” a?aeiia?aea?
aacaa??aioia ?o ii?i?/ia iicia/aiiy — o?eueee Iaaethe, Oiieeaiei, Naoii
*a?iye. Eeoa a iaeiiio aeiaaeeo, o aeeth/aiiio a iiaio o?eaeo c
Euea?anueeiai e?oiieno, aaoi?ea ciooaia aoea iaaanoe aaeeoo oai oi?io
Aaneeue Oiiaoee, i?ioa aeey naiai oai?o ia?aea (a ia aeoai?eea, ye
aaaea? aeaooi c aeine?aeiee?a) iioeiaeueiee aeey caaeoio ?noi?e/iee
aa??aio Oiieeaiei, ye ia?aea eiai, c e?eueeio cana?ae/aieo aeaea?aeaie,
? aeey aaoueiaia Iaaethea. Oaenoiaa aacaa??aioi?noue ?iaioaaiue “a?ao?a
iaacianueeeo” aeaiiino?o? ? ?o iaceaii?noue, ? oieueeei?i? canaaee
iiaoaeiae iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o iiaie.

Oe? canaaee ?aaeaiaiooaaee e aeoaea iaiaaeaio e?euee?noue oaeeoeo a
iiai? aeanieo iaca — ? aio?iiii?i?a (caaaeothoueny ua iiia?aaeieee
Iaaethea — ea??aieee ca?ieieo iianoaiue ?aai Noeeia oa Iaeeaaeei), ?
oiiii?i?a (iaceaathoueny ia?aaaaeii ia’?eoe, iia’ycai? c Iaaetheiaei
iianoaiiyi: “/a?ac onth Ae?a?io”, “O?noue oeny/ i?ae Eoiaeeaie eyaei”,
“Ioea oae? ? Iaeeaaeea aeaeaee. | ? aan i?ae Ai?iaeoeath aiie ae”).
Iniaeeao oaaao i?eaa?oa? a?aeoiiii?iiee caia?a/iee i?eeiaoiee
iaacianuee? (a?aoe), oaeeoee o?eueee a caaieiaeo oai?o. A?i ii?i?/ii
eiioeaio?o? a nia? caaeoi oai?o, ui ? aioeoacith aei ae?e “a?ao?a
acianueeeo”, ia?niiaae?a a?aeiii? oieueeei?ii? aeoie. Iaeaeaa oe?
aioii?i?/i? i?eeiaoieee, aacaeiaaiii aiioeaiaai? oaenoii, iathoue ia
aaia?ao?/io, a oieueeei?io, aeaea?aeueio aae?anaoe?th, iaaoaath/e
yne?aai ioe?iiiai naino.

Aaaiia i?noea a iiai? caeia? ua o?eueee iaeei ?ic?yae aeanieo iaca —
ano?ii?ie. A?aeiia?aeieeii Io?aanueeiai oeyoo oieueeei?ii? aeoie noa?
iaaaniee *oiaoeueeee Oeyo, iacaaiee ia?eo?anoe/ii (“Ii n??aiee oeyo
/oiaoeueei? a?ecioe”), a a?aeiia?aeieeii aica, ia yeiio aacooue a?aioe?a
ia no?aoo — iaaaniee Aaeeeee A?c. Oaeei niiniaii /?oei, aea oiiei,
iaiaa’yceeai a?aeoai?th?oueny iiaooue iiae?? aac aiioaicii? iaoaoeee.

Iiiianoe/iee i?ino?? iiai E?ie Einoaiei aeoaea ?icia?oee. ? eaeaoueny ia
i?inoi i?i ??cia eiai ii?i?/ia iaiiaiaiiy, a i?i ??cia iiiianoe/ia
?ica’ycaiiy, ??ci? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae. Iiaoana ai?? aeineiiaei e i?oeii
aeaoaeiaoaaoe c aeanieo iaca naio iano/o eiino?oeoe?th nai?o oai??a. ?c
oanoe ?icaeyiooeo iiai o o?ueio ii?i?y oae /e oae aeeth/a? aei naiai
neeaaeo oieueeei?i? aeaiaioe, ui ii?aeiothoueny a iaeei ainaiaeue c
aaoi?nueeeie iiaoaeiaaie. I?e oeueiio a eiaeiiio oai?? iia?oy ia
oieueeei? aea? aeoaea ??ci? iiiianoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe. A ?ioeo o?ueio
iiaoano oaeeth? cono??/ /an?a (“Ne?onueea iae?nnay”), i?inoi??a (“*aeea
ia e?eaeei?”), oiai e oiai ?acii (“Ni?a o Oei?aioe??”). ? a aeineiiaeiio
iiaoe/iiio ae?aaeaii? oeeo i?iaeai iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a?
ii?i?y.

O?ao?e ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? — “Iiiianoeea ?iiaio “Ia?ony *o?ae”.
?iiaiiee iiiianoe/iee i?ino?? ia? nai? iniaeeaino?, ye? ei?eaothoueny
oei, ui eaeaoueny i?i “?noi?e/iee ?iiai o a??oao”. Aaeeea e?euee?noue
ia?niiaae?a, ui ia?aaoaathoue o aca?iiae??, c?inoaiiy aaaiiino? nthaeaoo
a aeai?? ?iiaio iii?oii i?aeaeuothoue a?aenioie i?yiiai, iii?iaoeaiiai
aaeeoeo aeanieo iaca. Iciaea oai?o “?noi?e/iee” aeiaaa? iiaoaeiae
aaoaioe/iiai ii?i?/iiai o?iiioiio, a iciaea “o a??oao” aeiaaa? iiac??. ?
oea i?iyaey? naaa o eiaeiiio aaeeoeo eiaeiiai ii?ia ?iiaio “Ia?ony
*o?ae”. Eiiioaoeai? e aeni?aneai? naie caaaeaee i?enooi? ooo ? a i?yi?e
ii?i?/i?e iii?iaoe??. C’yaeythoueny e aeania eiiioii?ie, oe?iei
aeei?enoiao?oueny (? noai?th?oueny) eoeueoo?ia naiaioeea ii?i?a.

Aio?iiii?i?y ?iiaio i?ae oai?eoue o?e eiea, ui aca?iii ia?aoeiathoueny,
— iieoaanueea, caaaeueiioe?a?inueea e ai?iaea, i?e/iio i?aee?aneaia
iieuenuee?noue inoaiiueiai ae/a?iii iioeao?oueny neooaoe??th XVII no.
Ia?oa c ieo ia’?aeio? iaeaea an?o ia?niiaae?a ?iiaio. Aeey caaieiaiiai
ia?aco iiaoana iaea aaea onoaeaio o?aaeeoe??th oi?io Ia?ony, yea noaea
iaci?ithaaiith ? aeei?enoiao?oueny a on?o neooaoe?yo (30 oaeeoe?a). Aeaa
aeiaaeee aa??thaaiiy — Ia?onaiueea ? ii. Ia?onueee — a?aeaeaathoue
??ciiieaiiaa ocaaaeueiaiiy. Aeiaeaoeiaa iaeiaiiy *o?ae (ui ni?eeia?oueny
iei? ye i??caeua, aea a XVII no. iei ia aoei) ? onoaeaiith ia?iaeiith
ia?a?iaeith oi?ie Oeo?ae, ye aiia a?aeaeoa, noiniaii aaoueea Ia?on?
Ai?ae?y, a “?noi??? ?on?a”. Aeey ia?niiaaea-aioeiiaea Ia?on? iiaoana c
aeaio i?iiiiiaaieo eaaaiaeith ?iai Aaey ? Aaiia ia?aea ia?oa, oei naiei
ua ?ac ao?eeaoe, oaea c cian?i ?ioei (aea a iaio aeiaaeeao iia?oei ia
eoeueoo?io naiaioeeo) iaaaioaaeaiiyi, ae?acenoo ii?i?/io iiiceoe?th,
aeei?enoaio a “Eacoe? i?i Ia?o”.

?iaiiy Aae? Aeoiye?aie, ye ? A?eoeueea Aia?aiea, a ?iiai? aeoeaii
aa??th?oueny. Inoaii?e c oeeo aio?iiii?i?a na?ae/eoueny o neeaae?
Iieoaanueeiai iieeo “?a?no?aie A?enueea Caii?icueeiai” 1649 ?.,
oeeaaeaieie iaeaea iaeii/anii c ?iia??iith aeaoith noaeo iaae Ia?onath,
oi/ ? na?ae/eoueny iaaaeaeaaoii: Eocia Aia?aiei, A?eoeueei Aia?iaieeu.
Ua iaeei c aieiaieo aa?i?a ?iiaio ?aai ?ne?a ?noi?e/ii ioioiaeith?oueny
c nioieeii Iieoaanueeiai iieeo, ui iaceaa?oueny a oeo aea “?a?no?ao” ye
Eaai Ene?aiei. Cacia/aia iai’yoea iaceaa? e iieoaanueeiai iieeiaieea
Ia?oeia Iooea?y (o “?a?no?ao” — Iooea?aiei). Oeth iai’yoeo iiaeia
aaaaeaoe aieiaiei aeaea?aeii iieoaanueei? aio?iiii?i?? ?iiaio. C
ia?niiaae?a oai?o o Iieoaanueeiio iieeo a?aeiaoiaeyoueny ?iaiiy Ai?aaiue
(aea ia Naiai) ?, c iacia/ieie neiaioa??ieie /e oiiaoe/ieie aa??aoe?yie
(? oaae c ?ioeie iniaiaeie ?iaiaie), I?ioeee Eoeaaa?a, Naiai Eaieai/ee,
?iiaoei No?oe, Eanueei *a?ean.

O ?iiai? aeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoueny oeiia? aeey oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii?
aio?iiinenoaie ?iaiiy ae?iie ca /ieia?eii (*o?a?oa, Aia?ai/eoa, ssueoa,
Aeoiy/ea) oa aeiiueie ca aaoueeii (*o?a?aia, Aeoiye?aia). Acaaae?
iieoaanueea aio?iiii?i?y ?iiaio — oi aeeaa ia?iaeia noeo?y, iaenoa?ii e
oi/ii a?aeaeoa iiaoanith ? aeei?enoaia iath ye iiooaeiee can?a
ooaeiaeiueiai iiaeaiiy, ii?. o aoi?enoe/ieo iiiceoe?yo: “? /o?a?anuee?
aieiae ia iaeyo, | ? aeoiye?anuee? aieiae ia iea/ao”; “A a?i Aia?aiei.
A?i aea ia *o?ae”.

Caaaeueiioe?a?inueea aio?iiii?i?/ia eiei ao?eth?oueny ia?aaeon?i a
?iaii? aaoueiai Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee, on? o?e eiiiiiaioe yeiai,
caaaeaee — a?aeiia?aeii aei ia?iaeii? o?aaeeoe?? — iaeii/eaiii,
oaeeaathoueny a ?iiai?, i?e/iio ia?oee c ieo — ye eiioaenooaeueiee ii?i:
“Aaoueiai i?aeienoaaa ua iaeei eeno aei Iioioeueeiai. | Aaoueiai i?eeiaa
iinea a?ae Ea?a/-Io?ce”. ?iaioaaiiy ?ioeo ?noi?e/ieo in?a iaea?aeothoue
ia?aaaaeii o?iiioii?/io ooieoe?th: “ioea iooo ne?ooeee Iaeeaaeea”.
Iniaeeaeo iiaoe/ieo aenio nyaa? aio?iiii?i?y a ?icaeoiao-c?noaaeaiiyo
?iai nayoeo c ?iaiaie, ui oiniaeththoue ai?ioueao ? ioee Oe?a?ie:
“Nenie, Ia?aea??e — io/aieee a??e. | A Aaeaea ui, iae a??e
iaenooieanue?”; “A?eai??aea. Naiai?aea. Iaioeee. | Nayoee A?eai??e… ?
nayoee Naiai…”

Oiiii?ie ?iiaio ??ciyoueny o??th ?ieeth, yeo aeeiiothoue o oai??. ?
iacae, aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c aieiaiith nthaeaoiith e?i??th:
Iieoaaa (iaeoaeeaai?oee oiiii?i, aeei?enoaiee 69 ?ac?a), A?ea Oea?eaa,
Ia?ayneaa, Eoaie oa ?i.; ? a?aeaeaeai? a /an? aai i?inoi??, ia?aaaaeii
ia’?aeiai? iaaeiei oaie aecaieueii? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
?noi??? Oe?a?ie acaaae?: Cai??a, Caa?aae, Aeoaii, Aa?oaaa; Aieeiue,
A?aoeeaaueia, Eeoaa; ? iia’ycai? c aeeoo?aei oeyoii ie?aieo ia?niiaae?a;
? oiiii?ie-neiaiee, ia?aaeon?i Oe?a?ia, Ee?a, Aei?i?i; ?
oiiii?ie-ii??aiyiiy oa i?naii? ia?ace: Aii??a oeyo, Acia, Eiaeeia. Oey
?icia?o?noue aaia?ao?/ieo iaca oa ?o noee?noe/ieo ooieoe?e
coiiaeth?oueny ye ?noi?e/iei aeai?ii ?iiaio, oae ? caaaeueieie
i?eioeeiaie aeei?enoaiiy aeanieo iaca o ??cieo iiaoe/ieo eiioaenoao,
iniaeeainoyie ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aaoi?nueeiai noeeth E?ie Einoaiei.

C ?ioeo ii?i?/ieo ?ic?yae?a o ?iiai? “Ia?ony *o?ae”, ye ? a ae?aiaoe/i?e
iiai? “Ni?a o Oei?aioe??”, cia/ii? aaaiiino? iaaoaathoue ?aeaii?ie,
ine?eueee a iaio aeiaaeeao ?aeaoueny i?i ieooe?a, i?i oai?oe?a. Aea a
?iiai? i?i i?niaoai?eo Ia?onth, c?icoi?ei, na?aae ?aeaii?i?a iaiothoue
iacae oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo i?naiue, oaeeo? a i?yi?e /e “?ic/eiai?e”
oi?i?. C aeaaaeoeyoe i?naiue, i?eienoaaieo Ia?on? *o?ae, o ?iiai? oae /e
oae caaaeaii aeaa’youe (? ua e?eueea ?ioeo). Na?aae ieo iaeaieeaia?oa,
oaenoioa??ia — iacaa “Cana?o anoaee eica/aiueee”, oaeiae “Ie ia oiaee,
A?eoeth”, ui ae?eia? a neeuei?e iiceoe??, o naiiio e?ioe? oai?o.

O noa?? oaii?i?? oa i?oii?i?? (ia?aaeon?i aa?ii?i??) oe?eeiaeoi
iaiothoue o?enoeyinuee? aeani? iacae, a aioe/ia oaii?i?y iiai?noth
a?aenooiy. Oea iaoeiiai aeey E?ie Einoaiei, aea oa?aeoa?ii aeey
na?oini?eeiyooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo cia?aaeoaaiiai XVII no. Oaeeoie
eiaeii? aeanii? iacae a ?iiai? noa? iaeaiueeei oaaeaa?ii — o oai?? iaia?
aeiaeiiai caeaiai ii?ia, a an? iayai? ? aei?a/ieie, an? ni?eythoue
aeeaoiio ?ice?eooth ooaeiaeiueiai oe?eiai. Iiaoana aeiae?a? oae? ii?ie,
ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ?aae?yi XVII no. ? aiaeii/an aienothoueny a
iiiianoe/iee aeina?ae ethaeeie OO no. I?e an?e oaiaoe/i?e
aeaoa?i?iiaaiino? ii?i?/iiai iaiiaiaiiy oai?o aiii noaiiaeoue aa?iii?eio
?aei?noue ? iiooaeio neeo, ui aeoeaii ae?? ia ?aoeei??ioa, noai?thth/e
niia?aeaeueio aeinoia??i?noue cia?aaeaiiy.

O “Aeniiaeao” aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui o aeiaeiiio aeiaaeeo
aeei?enoaiiy aeanii? iacae E?ia Einoaiei ia iaiaaeo?oueny o?eueee ??
aioeeeeiiaaee/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th, oi/, c ?ioiai aieo, oey
aioeeeeiiaaee/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y caaaeaee (o a?eueo?e /e iaio?e i???)
i?enooiy o aaeeoeo iiaoanith ii?iao. Aea aiia aeiiiaith?oueny ?icia?oeie
eiiioaoe?yie ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeni?aneaiei caaa?aeaiiyi, /anoi
aeineoue ?ioaineaiei. Nooi?iue eiiioaoeaiiai aeiiiaiaiiy aeaiioaoeaiiai
naino aeanieo iaca iiaea aooe aeoaea ??ciei — a?ae iacia/iiai,
iaa?oiiiiai aeiaeaoeo aei ?noioii? ia?aaoaeiae naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e
ii?ia. Oea eiiioaoeaia aeiiiaiaiiy, o?aiey?oueny, caeia? /aa?oue
naiaioe/iiai ianyao aeanii? iacae, iieiaeio, a oi e a?eueoo eiai
/anoeio, aeo?niyth/e aeaiioaoeaiee eiiiiiaio naiaioeee ia ia?eoa??th. A
inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo ii?i noa? eiiioii?iii, cia/aiiy yeiai eeoa
anioe?aoeaii iia’ycaia c aeo?aeiei aeaiioaoeaiei nainii aeanii? iacae.
Caaaeii iaoaoi?e/iee neie?aoeci, oiaoi iaeeaaeaiiy ia?aiiniiai cia/aiiy
ii?ia ia eiai i?yia cia/aiiy (aac eiai onoiaiiy), — iaeia c
iaeoa?aeoa?i?oeo niaoeeo?/ieo iciae e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee E?ie
Einoaiei.

Ae?oaith oaeith iciaeith ? aaeeea ? i?ioyaii ?icaeoeo oai?/ino?
c?inoath/a aaaii?noue aeanieo iaca o ienoaoeuee?e iae?o?? iiaoane. I?e
oeueiio i?eeiaoiith iniaeea?noth ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aaoi?nueeiai noeeth
E?ie Einoaiei ? anaieaiiaee i?aeo?ae, aeiaaeuei?noue ? iaio?ii?/i?noue
iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o ?? oai??a. A iiiianoeoe? iiaoane iaia? oeiiai?
aeey aaaaoueio ienueiaiiee?a iiiceoe?? “nai? — /oaea”. Caethaee
caa?oath/enue aei ?iai Aiia? ? Ano?e, Iooe?i ? Aeie, Aaooiaai ? Aaoa,
Oaeni?? ? Oaeen, Aieueoa? ? ?iaeai, Aeaioa ? I?eaeaiaeaeaei, aiia an?o
?o iin??a ni?eeia? ye nai?o, ??aeieo. Aea yeui aeiae?aoe c iiaoe/ii?
ii?i?? E?ie Einoaiei iaeoaeeaai?oa e iae??aei?oa, oi aiii aeyaey?oueny
o?eueee oe?a?inueeei. O??eoey iaca-neiaie?a, ui i?iiecothoue onth
oai?/?noue iiaoane, — Aei?i?i, Oaa/aiei, Oe?a?ia.

Aieiai? iane?aeee aea/aiiy iiiianoe/ieo aniaeo?a iiac?? E?ie Einoaiei
iiaeia neioacoaaoe o aeaeyae? iieno ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
aeanieo iaca o oai?ao iiaoane. *?oei aeyaeythoue naaa o?noue ooieoe?e.

1. Iii?iaoeaia, nooi iaceaia ooieoe?y ii?i?a noa? i?ia?aeiith oai, aea
iaio? /e aiaeae ia?aaaaea? aeaiioaoeaiee eiiiiiaio naiaioeee aeanii?
iacae, aea aiia neoao? ianaiia?aae aeey oiai, uia ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe
ia’?eo, ui ocoaeueii iicia/a?oueny oe??th aeaniith iacaith. Oey ooieoe?y
? iai?aiith iaioa i?ae o iieiaei? iiiiaaaeeoe?a o einoaie?anueeeo
oai?ao, aea caa??aa?oueny, aiaeae ?oaeeiaioa?ii, ? a on?o ?ioeo
aeiaaeeao.

2. O?iiioii?/ia ooieoe?y noa? i?ia?aeiith oai, aea ii?i niaoe?aeueii
aeaco? ia iaaiee /an ? i?noea aai eeoa ia iaeio c oeeo aeaio eii?aeeiao.
O?iiioii?/ia ooieoe?y a?aeoiaeeoue ia caaei?e ieai (aea, ye i?aaeei, ia
cieea? oe?eeiaeoi) oai, aea aeania iacaa ia ia? niaoe?aeueiiai
nea?oaaiiy ia /anii?ino??, aea eiai a?aeia?aaea?. Cie?aia, oea
noino?oueny iaeaea an??? aio?iiii?i?? (aeaco? ia aoiiiiaio
i?eiaeaaei?noue iin?y) oa oiiii?i?? (aeaco? ia iaaio oa?eoi??th).
Iaoii?noue nioe?aeueia ooieoe?y aeanieo iaca, i?aee?anethaaia a
aaaaoueio iiiianoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? oe?iei a?aeaeoa a oe?a?inuee?e
e?oa?aoo?? O?O-OO no., o oai?ao E?ie Einoaiei i?iyaey? naaa aeineoue
??aeei.

3. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/a ooieoe?y, ca yeith ii?i eaae?o?eo? naia naiai iin?y,
a ia aecia/a? eiai o?iiioii?/iee, nioe?aeueiee /e a?eiaee noaoon,
i?aaenoaaeaia a ii?i?? E?ie Einoaiei aeineoue ?iceiai. Nooi
“i?iiiaenoeo” ii?i?a, ia?aaeon?i aio?iiii?i?a, o iiaoane iaei, ii?.
Oaoey Eeneiiaaeea /e Oaaeaoo Ieea o “Ia?on? *o?ae”. Aea iiaoana oe?iei
aeei?enoiao? i?iiiaeno? iioaioe?? oeo ii?i?a, ui caeiaoee oeth iciaeo
caaaeyee ae?yeueiino? /e nooiino? nai?o iin??a. Eany Oe?a?iea, Iioea?o,
Aeii E?oio; Aaoo?ei, Oei?aioe?y, Aa?oaaa; Ia?oi, Aioae, Aoeaio o
eiioaenoao iiaoane noathoue aeoaea i?iiiaenoeie iaeiaiiyie. Aeey
iineeaiiy oe??? ooieoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny e ia?eo?ace: “e?a?ia,
a?eueoa ca Iiiaei” (=Oe?a?ia), “i?noi, i?ai?noi, i?ai?noi ii?” (=Ee?a).

4. Ooieoe?y ae?aciaino?, ia?aciino?, o?iia?/iino? ioiieth? cia/io
/anoeio ii?i?a, oaeeoeo E?iith Einoaiei. I?ia?aeiith aiia ? aeanue o
o?aoei? iiiiaaaeeoe?a, a a ?ioeo aeiaaeeao oaae o ye?enue i??? i?enooiy
ye eiiioaoeaiee aeiaeaoie. Aeaye? a?oie aeanieo iaca, ia?aaeon?i aioe/i?
i?oii?ie, iaeaea nooe?eue iaoaoi?eciaai?.

5. Aeni?aneaia ooieoe?y oae /e oae ca/?ia? anth ii?i?th E?ie Einoaiei. O
oai?ao iiaoane iaia? oieiaeieo, ia c?a??oeo ii/oooyie aeanieo iaca.
Iiaoana aaeaa?aioii ianiaaeo? aeani? iacae aeni?an??th, a aiie ??
aei?ii?iththoue o oaeno?.

6. Oaenoioa??ia ooieoe?y aeanieo iaca i?iyaey?oueny a oai?ao E?ie
Einoaiei ? ye iane?aeie ae?? an?o iiia?aaei?o, ? oeyoii aeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy aeanieo iaca ye cania?a eiaac??, iia’ycoaaiiy no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a oaenoo, ? oei, ui aeani? iacae a einoaie?anueeeo iiac?yo
noathoue — ? oea oaeaeoa i?aaeei, ai?ae aeiyoie — eeth/iaeie neiaaie,
ye? e i?aai?cothoue oaeno.

Ioaea, iiaeaii aeniiaoaaoe, ui aeaniei iacaai o oai?ao E?ie Einoaiei
i?aai?/ii i?eoaiaiia iie?ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue. Aiie, ye i?aaeei,
aeeiiothoue, anoia?a/ eeaneo?eaoi?nuee?e eia?oe?, iaei ia an? iiaeeea?
ooieoe?? iae?aco. Oea, iiaea, noaiiaeoue iaaio o?oaei?noue aeey
aeine?aeiee?a, aea ?iaeoue ii?i?th iiaoane iaiao?aeiei, iane/aiei ?
iiaiioe?iiei neeaaeieeii ?? eaeii?/iiai, aoi?enoe/iiai iiaeaiiy.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Iiiianoe/iee i?ino?? iiaie-aaeaaee “Ne?onueea iae?nnay” E?ie Einoaiei
// Ui??/i? caienee c oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue /
Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. — Iaeana, 1996. — Aei. 3. — N.
69-77.

2. Eiiioii?i?y a ?iiai? “Ia?ony *o?ae” E. Einoaiei // Ui??/i? caienee c
oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue / Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao. — Iaeana, 1996. — Aei. 4. — N. 35-41.

3. Ioe?ii/iee ca?yae aeanieo ?iai o ?iiai? “Ia?ony *o?ae” E?ie Einoaiei
// Ieoaiiy no/anii? iiiianoeee. V?? Anaoe?a?inueea iiiianoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y. Noaoo? oa oace. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997. — N. 121-122. O
ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.A. Ai?aith.

4. Aea/aiiy aeanieo iaca a oe?a?inuee?e ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo?? // Iaoa
oeiea. — 1998. — ?3. — N. 50-52.

5. Oiiii?i?/ia iiea ?iiaio “Ia?ony *o?ae” E. Einoaiei // Ui??/i? caienee
c oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue / Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao. — Iaeana, 1998. — Aei. 5. — N. 63-71.

6. Iiiianoeea ia?oi? iiaoe/ii? ca??ee “I?ii?iiy caie?” E?ie Einoaiei //
Ui??/i? caienee c oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue /
Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. — Iaeana, 1999. — Aei. 6. — N.
88-92.

7. Iieoaanueea aio?iiii?i?/ia eiei a ?iiai? E?ie Einoaiei “Ia?ony *o?ae”
// Caienee c iiiianoeee: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue / Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao. — Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio, 1999. — Aei. 1. — N. 85-91.

8. ?ieue iiaoa a ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e oa caa?aaeaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? iai’yo?: E?ia Einoaiei // ??aeia iiaa — caii?oea
aacnia?oy iaoe??. Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. — E.: Ei. iaeaoa Oe?a?ie, 1999. — N. 150-155.

9. Iiiianoeea iiac?e E?ie Einoaiei: ca??ea “A?o?eea” //
Ainoi/iioe?aeineee eeiaaenoe/aneee nai?iee: Auione iyoue. Nai?iee
iao/iuo o?oaeia / Aeiiaoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao. — Aeiiaoee:
Aeiia//eia, 1999. — N. 115-120.

Iaeueiee I.?. Iiiianoeea oai??a E?ie Einoaiei. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.01 — oe?a?inueea iiaa. — Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa. Iaeana, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiaii eiiieaeniee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ii? iiiianoeee an?o
iiaoe/ieo oai??a E?ie Einoaiei aei ca??ee “Aea?aia” (1989 ?.) aeeth/ii,
c’yniaaii niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ?o iiiianoe/iiai i?inoi?o. Oaeeoie
ii?i?a ??cieoueny caeaaeii a?ae aoai?a oai?/ino? iiaoane oa aeai?o ?
oaiaoeee oai?o. C /anii e?eueeino? oaeeaaieo aeanieo iaca
ca?eueoothoueny, a ?o ooaeiaei? ooieoe?? o??ciiiai?oiththoueny, c?inoa?
ii?i?/ia aeiaaeuei?noue, iineeth?oueny eiiioaoeaia, aeni?aneaia
iaiiaiaiiy ii?i?a — aae aei ia?a?inoaiiy ?o o eiiioii?ie, ci?ith?oueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ii?i?/ieo ?ic?yae?a. Oaeeaai?noue aio?iiii?i?? aeaui
cieaeo?oueny ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy aieeaiaino? oiiii?i?? oa oaii?i??, a
oaeiae ano?ii?i??. Aeiiaeeaee aeia?? ii?i?a oa aeeth/aiiy ?o o iaeaaei?
eiioaenoe ?iaeoue aeani? iacae iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo eiiiiiaio?a oai?o
e ae?eiaei ooaeiaei?i caniaii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?oa?aoo?ia iiiianoeea, iiiianoe/iee i?ino??, ooaeiaei?
ooieoe?? aeanieo iaca, ii?i, eiiioii?i, ii?i?/i? ?ic?yaee, aio?iiii?i?y,
oiiii?i?y, oaii?i?y, ano?ii?i?y.

Iaeueiee I.?. Iiiianoeea i?iecaaaeaiee Eeiu Einoaiei. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.01 — oe?aeineee ycue. — Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E. E. Ia/ieeiaa. Iaeanna, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee auiieiai eiiieaeniue aiaeec eeoa?aoo?iie iiiianoeee anao
iiyoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee Eeiu Einoaiei aei nai?ieea “Aea?aia” (1989 a.)
aeeth/eoaeueii, auyniaiu niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe eo iiiianoe/aneiai
i?ino?ainoaa. Oiio?aaeaiea iieiia ?acee/aaony a caaeneiinoe io yoaiia
oai?/anoaa iiyoannu, oaeaea aeai?a e oaiaoeee i?iecaaaeaiey. Ni a?aiaiai
eiee/anoaa oiio?aaeyaiuo nianoaaiiuo eiai oaaee/eaathony, a eo
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ooieoeee ?aciiia?acyony, aic?anoaao iieie/aneay
aeiaaeueiinoue, oneeeaaaony eiiiioaoeaiia, yeni?anneaiia iaiieiaiea
iieiia — aieioue aei ia?a?anoaiey eo a eiiiioiieiu, eciaiyaony
niioiioaiea iieie/aneeo ?ac?yaeia. Anee a noeoao ia?auo nai?ieeia Eeiu
Einoaiei iieiia iaei — 15 a nai?ieea “I?ii?iiy caie?” e 10 a nai?ieea
“A?o?eea”, oi a iineaaeieo ec iioaeeeiaaiiuo eiea iiyoannu eo eiee/anoai
caiaoii aic?anoaao: “Iaiiaoi?i?noue” — 323 ?aciuo iieia, “Naae iaoaio/eo
neoeueioo?” — 53 iieia, “Aea?aia” (noeoe, ia aoiaeeaoea a i?aaeuaeouea
nai?ieee) — 169 iieiia. A nai?ieeao oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai
noeoioai?aiee, niaea?aeaueo nianoaaiiua eiaia, e n?aaeiaa eiee/anoai
nianoaaiiuo eiai, i?eoiaeyueony ia eaaeaeia ec oaeeo noeoioai?aiee. I?e
yoii oiio?aaeoaeueiinoue aio?iiiieiee ianeieueei nieaeaaony ca n/ao
iiauoaiey aeeyoaeueiinoe oiiiieiee e oaiieiee, a oaeaea ano?iieiee.

Aua caiaoiaa naeaeae ea/anoaaiiua, a ia eiee/anoaaiiua. I?aeoe/anee a
eaaeaeii iineaaeothuai nai?ieea iieiu au?aaeatho ana aieueoa
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, aic?anoaao eo iieeooieoeeiiaeueiinoue.
*aoei ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiia nthaeaoii, iiiianoe/aneia i?ino?ainoai iiyi e
?iiaia “Ia?ony *o?ae” ieeiaaea ia ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei iacaaieai,
iiieiaoeeae. Nianoaaiiua eiaia noaiiayony au?aceoaeyie e iaiaoiaeeiie
yeni?anneaiie oiiaeueiinoe, e ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai caiunea. O?aaiaaoaeueiue
ioai? iieiia e aeeth/aiea eo a iaaeeaaeauea eiioaenou aeaeaao
nianoaaiiua eiaia iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo eiiiiiaioia i?iecaaaeaiey e
aeaenoaaiiui ooaeiaeanoaaiiui n?aaenoaii.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeoa?aoo?iay iiiianoeea, iiiianoe/aneia i?ino?ainoai,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ooieoeee nianoaaiiuo eiai, iiei, eiiiioiiei,
iieie/aneea ?ac?yaeu, aio?iiiieiey, oiiiieiey, oaiieiey, ano?iieiey.

Melnik M.R. Onomastics of Lina Kostenko’s works. — Manuscript.

The thesis for the academic degree of the candidate of philology,
speciality 10.02.01 — the Ukrainian language. — Mechnikov State
University of Odessa, 1999.

In the present thesis complex analysis of literary onomastics of all the
works by Lina Kostenko including her collection “Vybrane” (“Selected”)
(up to 1989) was accomplished; specific peculiarities of their onomastic
space were elucidated. The usage of onyms differentiates according to
the stages of Lina Kostenko’s creative activity, the genre and theme of
a separate work of literature. Being compared to her earlier works the
number of proper names increases in the mature poems of the writer; the
artistic functions of proper names become diverse; their onomastic
globality expands; the connotative and expressive contents of onyms
strengthen until they develop into connotonyms; the proportion of
onomastic classes changes. The frequency of use of anthroponymy
decreases slightly due to the increase of influence of toponymy and
theonymy as well as astronymy. Careful choice of names and their
introduction into proper contexts makes proper names one of the most
important components of the text as well as a powerful artistic means.

Key words: literary onomastics, onomastic space, artistic functions of
proper names, onym, connotonym, onomastic classes, anthroponymy,
toponymy, theonymy, astronymy.

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