I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e

oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

A?eue TH??e Ai?eniae/

OAeE 666.97

ioe?iea OA o?aooaaiiy aecioa?i?? Oeaiaio?a

o oaoiieia?? cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia??a

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.05 — Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e ia eaoaae?? “O?ceei-o?i?/ia iaoai?ea ?
oaoiieia?y aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ae?ia?a”

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee oa oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ooa?ia-Ia?oae Ieaenaiae? Aieiaeeie?iae/,
eaoaae?a “O?ceei-o?i?/ia iaoai?ea ? oaoiieia?y aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a
? ae?ia?a” Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee oa oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Aicianainueeee A?oae?e Aiaoie?eiae/, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith
“I?ioeane oa aia?aoe a oaoiieia?? aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a” Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? O?eaoia Eaa A?eai?iae/, eaoaae?a
“A?o?oaeoo?a oa ?iaeaia?i? aeooeoaaiiy” Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Aei?i?iiao?ianueea i?aiaeia i?aei?e?inoai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
?inoeoooo aoae?aaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie o
ni?aaao aoae?aieoeoaa, a?o?oaeoo?e ? aeeoeiai? iie?oeee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “9” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.059.01 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, ca aae?anith: 310078, i. Oa?e?a,

aoe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca
aae?anith: 310078, i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “12” eeiiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee _____________
Eini?i I.A.

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Ae??oaiiy ?yaeo cia/ieo aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai
iia’ycaia c ooee?caoe??th aai caoi?iiaiiyi oiene/ieo, ?aae?iaeoeaieo oa
?ioeo ??ciiaeae?a a?aeoiae?a i?iieneiaino? oa aia?aaoeee. Cie?aia,
aenieoaoaoe?y ?aaeoi??a aoiiieo aeaeo?inoaioe?e noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
i?e?iaeiei i?ioeanii cai?ie a?aei?aoeueiaaieo oaieiaeae?eyth/eo
aeaiaio?a (OAAE). Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a ??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ? nooee noia
a?aeoiae?a yaea?iiai iaeeaa (NNAssI) a ianeaieo aaioeeueiaaieo aaoiiieo
eiioaeia?ao (AAE) ia niaoe?aeueieo iaeaeai/eeao. Oea iaeei ?c aa??aio?a
caoi?iiaiiy OAAE, iioe?aiee a NOA, O?aioe??, Aiae?? oa ?io. e?a?iao.
Aenieee nooi?iue a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? eiino?oeoe?? iaoiiaeth?
a?aeiia?aei? aeiiae aei aeanoeainoae ? oaoiieia?? aaoiio. O oeueiio
eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo ia noaaeyoueny aeiiae aei ?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino?.

Ianeai?noue eiioaeia?a — oaeoi?, ui aecia/a? aeiiae aei aeai?o
eiiiiiaio?a ? neeaaeo aaoiio, iaa?oiooaaiith oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a,
?aaeei?a oaa?aeiaiiy. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy i?e oeueiio a?ae?a?a?
oaieiaeae?eaiiy aaoiio a ?acoeueoao? yecioa?i?? oeaiaioo.
Oaieiaeae?eaiiy, ye aioo??oi? aeaea?aei oaiea, iiaea /eieoe iaaaoeaiee
aieea ia oa?iiiai?oaeaiee noai ? aeeeeeaoe iiyao aeaoaeo?a no?oeoo?e
aaoiio. Iacaaaeath/e ia ii?aoeueiaai?noue aaaaoueio aniaeo?a ioe?iee ?
o?aooaaiiy oeueiai yaeua ia ae??oaii ?yae caaaeaiue ei?aeoiiai
aecia/aiiy oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iieno ooieoe?? oaieiaeae?eaiiy aeey i?iaiico
oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o oaa?ae?th/iio aaoii?. Neeaaei?noue ?o ae??oaiiy
oo?oaeith? ?ic?iaeo ? inai?iiy oaoiieia?e aaoiio ia no/aniiio
?ioi?iaoe?eiiio ??ai?. I?e oeueiio ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i oaieiaeae?eaiiy
aeeiio? iiaea?eio ?ieue. C iaeiiai aieo, aeai? i?i oaieiaeae?eaiiy ia
??cieo noaae?yo a?ae?aoaoe?? aeicaieythoue iaa?oiooaaoe aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy oeaiaio?a ? aeiaaaie, c ?ioiai — ioe?iea ? o?aooaaiiy
aecioa?i?? iaiao?aei? aeey i?ecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a
oaa?aeiaiiy aaoiio a ?aaeueieo oiiaao.

Iaoa ?iaioe. ?ic?iaea ? inai?iiy oaoiieia?? cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia??a
c o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oeaiaio?a.

Caaea/? ?iaioe:

— ioe?iea i?eaeaoiino? oeaiaio?a Oe?a?ie ca aeaieie i?i oaieiaeae?eaiiy
aeey oaoiieia?? eiioaeia??a;

— aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ae?? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie ieanoeo?eoth/iai ?
iia?o?yaoyaoth/iai oei?a ia oaeaee?noue ? iiaiioo oaieiaeae?eaiiy ia
?aii?o noaae?yo a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaio?a;

— oi?ioaaiiy aaie?a ii?iaoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo aeaieo ? aaoiiiciaa/eo aac
ciaiue aeey aecia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaioiaeaiiy AAE;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? iai?oaeaiue a
aaoiiieo ae?iaao oeee?iae?e/iiai oeio;

— i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? iai?oaeaiue o aaoii?, ui
oaa?ae??, c o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oeaiaioo;

— ?ic?iaea “?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c oaoiieia?? aaioeeueiaaiiai aaoiiiiai
eiioaeia?a nooiai noiao a?aeoiae?a yaea?iiai iaeeaa. ?ioi?iaoe?eia
nenoaia eiio?ieth yeino? ? ae?iaieoeoaa aaoiiieo ?ia?o i?e aeaioiaeaii?
aaioeeueiaaiiai aaoiiiiai eiioaeia?a”;

— a?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiy aeaiaio?a ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoiieia?? i?e
aeaioiaeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ? i?iieneiaeo eiioaeia??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe:

— ca oa?iie?iaoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?ioean?a oaa?aeiaiiy oeaiaio?a
o i?enooiino? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie iaa?oioiaaia ?oiy i?eaeaoi?noue aeey
oaoiieia?? cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia??a;

— aeey ??oaiiy caaea/? oaieiia?aiino a aaoii?, ui oaa?ae??, aia?oa
aaaaeaiee o?ceei-o?i?/iee ia?aiao? — oiiaiee nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy
(a?ae?aoaoe??) oeaiaioo ca aeaieie oa?iie?iaoe/iiai aiae?co;

— cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ? iiaeaethaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo
iie?a ? iai?oaeaiue o aaoiiieo ae?iaao oeee?iae?e/iiai oeio c
o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oeaiaioo;

— onoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? iai?oaeaiue
o cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia?ao caeaaeii a?ae oa?iie?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
oaa?aeiaiiy oeaiaio?a;

— ?ic?iaeaia no?oeoo?a ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoiieia?? cae?ciaaoiiieo
eiioaeia??a, aaca aaoiiiciaa/eo ciaiue yei? aeiiiaiaia iaoiaeeeith
?ic?aooieo ? i?iaiico oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? iai?oaeaiue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— ioe?iaia ?ieue oa?iie?iaoe/iiai oaeoi?a i?e oaa?aeiaii? oeaiaio?a o
i?enooiino? aeiaaaie iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei o oaoiieia??
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia??a;

— ca aeaieie oa?iie?iaoe/iiai aiae?co aecia/aiee ?yae ia?aaaae
aeei?enoaiiy iecueeioa?i?/ieo oeaiaio?a ? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie, ui
cieaeothoue oaieiaeae?eaiiy, o oaoiieia?? cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia??a;

— ?ic?iaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiaa nenoaia ioe?iee yeino?
eiiiiiaio?a, aeiai?o ? ei?eaoaaiiy neeaae?a aaoiio aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia??a;

— ?ic?iaeaii “?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaoiieia?? aaioeeueiaaiiai aaoiiiiai
eiioaeia?a nooiai noiao a?aeoiae?a yaea?iiai iaeeaa. ?ioi?iaoe?eia
nenoaia eiio?ieth yeino? ? ae?iaieoeoaa aaoiiieo ?ia?o i?e aeaioiaeaii?
aaioeeueiaaiiai aaoiiiiai eiioaeia?a”;

— oaoiieia?y ae?iaieoeoaa eiioaeia??a inai?ia ia Caii??cuee?e AAN.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

— aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e, aea?? ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue;

— i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ? ia?iaea ?oi?o ?acoeueoao?a;

— ?ic?iaea eaei?eiao?a oa?iiniiai oeio aeey aecia/aiiy oaieiaeae?eaiiy
a aaoii?;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? iai?oaeaiue o
aaoii?, ui oaa?ae??, ae?ia?a oeee?iae?e/iiai oeio.

O ioae?eaoe?yo ?c ni?aaaoi?aie caeiaoaa/ai aeeiiaia ianooiia:
?ic?iaeaia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo ? iiaeaethaaiiy
oa?iie?iaoe/ieo aeaieo [1], ca aeaieie oa?iie?iaoe/iiai aiae?co
c?iaeaiee aea?? oeaiaio?a ? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia??a [2], aea/aia oaieiaeae?eaiiy aaoiio a
i?eia’?eoiiio eaei?eiao?? oa?iiniiai oeio a eaai?aoi?ieo ? ae?iaie/eo
oiiaao, io?eiai? aeai? caianai? a aaco ciaiue ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoiieia??
iiiie?oiiai aaoiio [4], aeey oi?ioaaiiy aace ciaiue ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
oaoiieia?? cai?iiiiiaaia iaeia c oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioeano oaa?aeiaiiy —
aaee/eia nooiaiy ia?aoai?aiiy (a?ae?aoaoe??) oeaiaioo [5], i?iiiio?oueny
??oaiiy caaea/? oaieii?ia?aeiino? o ae?iaao oeee?iae?e/iiai oeio c
a?aie/ieie oiiaaie 3-ai ?iaeo c o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oeaiaioo [6],
cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o aaoii?, ui
oaa?ae??, oeee?iae?e/ieo eiioaeia??a c o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oeaiaioo
oa iaa?oioiaaia aeei?enoaiiy ooieoe?? ci?ie oiiaiiai nooiaiy
ia?aoai?aiiy ca aeaieie oa?iie?iaoe/iiai aiae?co [7].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia oe?eiio
?yae? eiioa?aioe?e, a o./: ui??/ieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
OAeOOAA (1995-1999), 7 I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c eaei?eiao??? oa
oa?i?/iiai aiae?co (Caeiiaia, Iieueua, 1997); I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani? i?iaeaie aoae?aaeueiiai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa” (Iaica, 1998); 38-io I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? c
i?iaeai iiaeaethaaiiy e iioei?caoe?? eiiiiceo?a (Iaeana, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii iaoa??aeao aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii n?i ?ia?o.

Ianya ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a oa
caaaeueieo aeniiae?a. ?iaioa ai?uo? 102 noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
45 ?enoie?a, 18 oaaeeoeue, ia?ae?e e?oa?aoo?e ?c 113 iaeiaioaaiue ? 10
aeiaeaoe?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Aaioeeueiaai? aaoiii? eiioaeia?e — ii??aiyii iiaee oei cae?ciaaoiiieo
ae?ia?a aeey caoi?iiaiiy a?aeoiae?a oaoiiaaiii? i?e?iaee, oaoiieia?y
yeeo ia?aaeaa/a? ?yae iniaeeainoae ? niaoeeo?/i? aeiiae aei eiiiiiaio?a
aaoiio, aeanoeainoae aaoiiieo noi?oae, ia?aiao??a aaoiioaaiiy ?
aeo?eioaaiiy a iiaeoaoe?.

Eiioaeia? yaey? niaith cae?ciaaoiiiee ae??a oeee?iae?e/iiai oeio. A?i
neeaaea?oueny ?c aaoiiii? iaieiiee, a?iaoo?iiai ea?eano ? aioo??oiuei?
iaoaeaai? iae/aeee. Aaaa?eoe ae?iao, ii: aenioa — 5810, ciai?oi?e
ae?aiao? — 3378, oiaueia no?iee — 682, aenioa aeieua — 600, oiaueia
iae/aeee — 80. Ia’?i aaoiio — 36 i3. Iiaeoeue iiaa?oi? – 3 i-1.

Aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? eiioaeia??a iio??aii aoei ae??oeoe
aeae?eueea caaea/. A ?o /ene? — ioe?iea oa o?aooaaiiy iieaciee?a
oaieiaeae?eaiiy ye oaeoi?a, ui aecia/a? i?eaeaoi?noue oeaiaio?a ?
o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie ii?yae c i?ecia/aiiyi neeaae?a oa aeai?ii ia?aiao??a
oaoiieia?? AAE.

Aiae?c aeiaie? oe?iei? ca e?euee?noth aeaea?ae ? ianyao e?oa?aoo?e i?i
?ieue oaieiaeae?eaiiy a oaoiieia?? ca??iiai oa iiiie?oiiai, a o./.
ianeaiiai, aaoii?a na?ae/eoue i?i iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai? aniaeoe aieeao
oaieioe a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaio?a ? cia/aiiy ?ic?iaee ei?aeoieo iaoiae?a
ioe?iee oa o?aooaaiiy eiai iieaciee?a (?.Canaaeaoaeaa,
A.Iao?ia-Aeai?nia, ?.Caii?iaeaoeue, I.Ia??enueeee, O.Ieyo) i?e
?ic?aooieao i?oei?nieo oa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaa?ae?th/iai
aaoiio (N.Ieaenaiae?ianueeee, I.Aaicae?a, A.Aeoiaaaoeueeee, A.Eoe’yiia,
I.Nieia’yi/ee).

A oaoiieia?? ianeaieo aaoii?a, aei yeeo iiaeia c iaaiei i?eiouaiiyi
a?aeianoe AAE, aecioa?i?y oeaiaio?a ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aioo??oi?
aeaea?aei oaiea, ui a?aoiao?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a
a ?ic?aooieao oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? iai?oaeaiue o ae?iaao, eiino?oeoe?yo
? nii?oaeao. Neeaaei?noue ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaea/ iia’ycaia ?c
i?ieea?noth cia/aiue — oaieiaeae?eaiiy, oaiei?iiino?, eiao?oe??io?a
oaiei- oa oaiia?aoo?ii?ia?aeiinoe, ui aoiaeyoue aei aeeoa?aioe?eiiai
??aiyiiy oaieiiai?io, iniaeeai cia/ii? ia ?aii?o noaae?yo oaa?aeiaiiy.
Oai?aoe/i? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo iieaciee?a oaieiaeae?eaiiy a?oioothoueny
ia aeineoue iaaeeaeaieo i?aaeeao aaeeoeaiino? cia/aiue oaieioe
a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo oaieioai a?ae?aoaoe?? iniiaieo ee?iea?ieo
i?ia?ae?a, ia/eneaii? o. ca. oaiia?aoo?ieo ooieoe?e oa ?io.
Aenia?eiaioaeueia aecia/aiiy aecioa?i?? o oa?iinieo eaei?eiao?ao
iia’ycaia ?c cia/iith iia??oi?noth ?acoeueoao?a. Oiio iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy oaiei- ? ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a iineoue aeinoaoiuei
oiiaiee oa?aeoa? ? iio?aao? naiai iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo a
iaoiaeieia?/iiio ieai?.

Iio??aii aaaaeaoe iaea?eueo ?ic?iaeaieie ia aii??e/iiio ??ai?
oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe ?aaoethaaiiy — cieaeaiiy aai ca?eueoaiiy
oaieiaeae?eaiiy oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo oeaiaio?a, o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie,
i?ae?a??aii aai ioieiaeaeaiiyi aaoiiieo noi?oae ? aaoiio. Aoaeue-ye?
oaoiieia?/i? ??oaiiy ?aae?cothoueny ca ?aooiie ooo/ieo (ciai?oi?o) aai
i?e?iaeieo (aecioa?i?y) oaieiaeo aieea?a ia oaa?ae?th/ee aaoii ? eiai
aia?aaoe/iee iioaioe?ae.

Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? i?eeiyoeo aa??aio?a aeeth/a? aenia?eiaioaeueia
aecia/aiiy oa?iie?iaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae oeio dQ/dt=f(t) ? Q=f(t) c ?o
aeei?enoaiiyi i?e ?ic?aooieao oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai
noaio ae?iao aai eiino?oeoe?? a aoaeue-yeee caaaeaiee iiiaio /ano.

O caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? iiaeia aaaaeaoe i?aaii??iei iieiaeaiiy i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ioe?iee oa o?aooaaiiy ae?? oa?iie?iaoe/iiai oaeoi?a o
oaoiieia?? aaoiio. Naia eiai ia??aiicia/i?noue ? iniiaiith i?e/eiith
ia??aiii??iino? oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o aaoii?, ?icaeoeo aeaoi?iaoe?e ?
iai?oaeaiue a o?e? ae?ia?a ? eiino?oeoe?e.

Iiaeeeaino? oa?iie?iaoe/iiai aiae?co ?aaeoe?e a?ae?aoaoe?? a
?cioa?i?/ieo ? ia?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao, ye? aoee iieacai? ?ai?oa aeey
ca??iiai cae?ciaaoiio, e?euee?ni? caeaaeiino? i?ae ia?aiao?aie
?i?oaoe?eieo iiaeaeae e?iaoeee oaieiaeae?eaiiy oa ia?inoaiiy i?oeiino?
aeicaieythoue ?aae?coaaoe aeaiaioe ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e (?O)
aaoiio. Iiae?ai? ?ic?iaee a?aeii? ?c oaoi?/ieo iien?a eiii’thoa?ieo
?ioa?aeoeaieo nenoai NOA, Aeai?? oa ?io. e?a?i, aeeth/athoue ye
iaia’yceia? aeaiaioe aecia/aiiy oaieiaeae?eaiiy aaoiio a niaoe?aeueieo
i?eia’?eoieo eaei?eiao?ao ? iaeaoe i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey iaea?aeaiiy
oa ia?iaee aeaieo i?i aecioa?i?th oa i?oei?noue aaoiio.

A iniiao ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?? AAE iieeaaeaii i?eioeei noai?aii? a
OAeOOAA ?O “Oa?iiaao”. Aei ia? aoiaeyoue aaiee ii?iaoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo
aeaieo (AAe) ? aaca aaoiiiciaa/eo ciaiue (AC) c i?aaeeaie ? iaoiaeeeaie
aeiai?o neeaae?a aaoiio, aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a oaieiaeae?eaiiy a
?cioa?i?/ieo ? ia?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao. Aeey oaoiieia?? AAE aaca ciaiue
iiaeiia aooe aeiiiaiaia ?ioi?iaoe??th ia iniia? i?iaiicieo ?ic?aooie?a
oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio aaoiio a ia?a??cao
eiioaeia?a.

I?e aeeiiaii? aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a?aeiia?aei? iaoiaeeee,
i?eeaaee oa iaeaaeiaiiy aei??thaaeueii-ia/enethth/iai eiiieaeno
oa?iie?iaoe/iiai aiae?co eaei?eiao?e/iiai oeaio?o aoae?aaeueiiai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.I. I/aaeeiaa-Iao?inyia. E??i oiai, ?ic?iaeaii ?
aeaioiaeaii oa?iiniee (i?eia’?eoiee) eaei?eiao? aeey aei??o
oa?aeoa?enoee oaieiaeae?eaiiy ae?iaie/eo neeaae?a aaoiio aaciina?aaeiuei
i?e aeaioiaeaii? AAE. Ia?iaea oa iaeiie/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?iaiaeeeeny c
aeiiiiiaith iaeaoo i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey IBM-noi?niiai ia?niiaeueiiai
eiii’thoa?a.

Aeey ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea c iiaeaeeth
ae?iao oeee?iae?e/iiai oeio (?en. 1).

Ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaiiiai caaaeaiiy oneeaaeith?oueny ?yaeii ianoaaei.
Na?aae ieo — aecia/aia aeua ci?ia cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a oaiei?iiino?,
oaiei- ? oaiia?aoo?ii?ia?aeiino? aaoiio ia ?aii?o noaae?yo
oaa?aeiaiiy (aei 5…10 aiae), a oaeiae aaee/ei oaiia?aoo?e ana?aaeei?
ae?iao aiane?aeie oiai, ui ?icaeaa?oueny oaieiiai?i. I?ney i?eeiyooy
?yaeo aeiiouaiue oa iaiaaeaiue iaea?aeaia nenoaia ??aiyiue, yea iieno?
ci?ie oaieii?ia?aeiino? aaoiio ae?iao c o?aooaaiiyi oiiaiiai nooiaiy
ia?aoai?aiiy (a?ae?aoaoe??), oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ana?aaeei? eiioaeia?a
oa oiia oaieiiai?io c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai.

??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? c aioo??oi?i aeaea?aeii oaiea a
oeee?iae?e/ieo eii?aeeiaoao caieno?oueny o aeaeyae?

(1)

aea r – u?euei?noue aaoiio, ea/i3;

n – ieoiia oaiei?ii?noue aaoiio, Aeae/ea*°N;

l – eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino? aaoiio, Ao/i*°N;

Oe – aeo?aoe oeaiaioo, ea/i3;

Q28 – oaieiaeae?eaiiy oeaiaioo a 28 ae?a, Aeae/ea;

a28 – oiiaiee nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy a 28 ae?a.

?en.1. Noaia aeey ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a

Ci?ia oiiaiiai nooiaiy ia?aoai?aiiy i?e a?ae?aoaoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e ? /ano aecia/a?oueny ca ae?acii

, (2)

aea a0 ? a1 – eiao?oe??ioe, ui aecia/athoueny ca eaei?eiao?e/ieie
aeaieie a ?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao i?e aeaio ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao

(a0 – aac?ici??iee eiao?oe??io, a1 – ia? ?ici??i?noue 1/°N);

T0 – oaiia?aoo?a, i?e ye?e aecia/a?oueny eiao?oe??io a0, °N;

a — oiiaiee nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy oeaiaioo a iiiaio /ano t.

Ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ana?aaeei? eiioaeia?a iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi

. (3)

Ooo ra – u?euei?noue iia?o?y, ea/i3;

na – ieoiia oaiei?ii?noue iia?o?y, Aeae/ea*°N;

a1 – eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/?, Ao/i2*°N;

l1 – eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino? noae?, Ao/i*°N;

Ta — oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y ana?aaeei? ae?iao, °N;

Ti – ii/aoeiaa oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y, °N;

r1 – aioo??oi?e ?aae?on eiioaeia?a, i;

h – oiaueia e?eoee, i;

H – aenioa no?iee, i.

Oaiia?aoo?i? iai?oaeaiiy aeey oeee?iae?a c eiioeaio?e/iei e?oaeei
ioai?ii ?ic?aoiaothoueny ca a?aeiieie caeaaeiinoyie A.Eiaaeaiea c
iii?aaeith N.Ieaenaiae?ianueeiai aeey a?aie/iiai cia/aiiy iiaeoey
ieoo?ai i?oaeii? aeaoi?iaoe??, caeaaeiiai a?ae a?eo ? oaeaeeino? iaai?o
aaoiiii i?oeiino?.

Ia?oee aoai ?iaioe aoa i?enay/aiee iaa?oiooaaiith i?eaeaoiino?
oeaiaio?a oe?a?inueeeo ae?iaiee?a ? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie aeey oaoiieia??
AAE. Ca?aeii c aeiiaaie ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, a o./. ASTM N150-94,
oaieioa a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaio?a ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe 70 eae/a o a?oe?
7 ae?a. A?aoiaoaaeinue, ui, a?aeiia?aeii c iiia?aaei?ie ?ic?aooieaie,
oaiia?aoo?a aaoiio AAE iiaea aeinyaaoe 60…70°N.

Aeey eaei?eiao?e/iiai aiae?co aea?aii iecueei- ? na?aaeiueiaethi?iaoi?
oeaiaioe oe?a?inueeeo ? iieaeaanueeiai caaiae?a. Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
aeey oeaiaio?a, ye? aea/athoueny, cia/aiiy oaieioe a?ae?aoaoe?? ca 7
ae?a iaaeeaeaii ??ai? oeei iieacieeai i?e oaiia?aoo?? 40°N ca 24 aiae.
Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioo iaa?oioiaaii ?yae ia?aaaae oeaiaio?a oaeeo
caaiae?a: Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee (61 eae/a) > ?eaieoeueeee (50
eae/a) > ?aaii-O?aie?anueeee (48 eae/a) > Caeieaoiianueeee (44 eae/a).

Oaoiieia?y eiioaeia??a ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy ?yaeo o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie
?aaoeyoi??a aeanoeainoae aaoiiieo noi?oae, no?oeoo?e aaoiio
(iia?o?yaoyaoaaiiy). A?aeiii, ui aeiaaaee oeeo oei?a ia iniia? IA?,
ni?eyth/e iie?auaiith ?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae, nei?i/aiith aiaeiai?noo
? aeo?ao oeaiaioo, oiia?eueiththoue a?ae?aoaoe?th ia ?aii?o noaae?yo
aiane?aeie ?o aaeni?aoe?? ia aeo?aeiiio a’yaeo/iio ? iiaiooai?aiiyo,
cieaeoth/e iieacieee oaieiaeae?eaiiy.

O ?iaio? aeeiiaii oa?iie?iaoe/iee aiae?c oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?e
oaa?aeiaii? aeacaieo aeua oeaiaio?a o i?enooiino? ieanoeo?eaoi??a — N-3,
?aia?eae-1000 ? Iie?o?ae-997, iia?o?yaoyaoaaeueieo aeiaaaie — niiee
aea?aaii? iieeaii? (NAeI) ? Iaee?i-aa?. Aeiaaaee, a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaoiieia?/ieo i??eoaaiiue, aaiaeyoueny ie?aii aai a eiiieaen?.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui an? aeiaaaee, ye?
aaiaeyoueny, cieaeothoue iieacieee oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?e a?ae?aoaoe??
oeaiaio?a. sse i?eeeaae ?icaeyiaii aeai? i?i oaeaee?noue (a) ? iiaiioo
(a) oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?e oaa?aeiaii? ?eaieoeueeiai oeaiaioo (?en.2).

?en. 2. E?iaoeea oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?e oaa?aeiaii? ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo I500

o i?enooiino? aeiaaaie: 1 – eiio?ieueiee neeaae; 2 – noia?ieanoeo?eaoi?
N-3;

3- eiiieaen “Iie?o?ae+?aia?eae”; 4 – Iaee?i-aa?

An? aeiaaaee, ui aaiaeyoueny, oiia?eueiththoue ii/aoeiao a?ae?aoaoe?th.
Cieaeo?oueny cia/aiiy iniiaiiai aeciaoaeoo, ca?eueoo?oueny /an
aeinyaiaiiy iaea?eueoi? oaeaeeino? oaieiaeae?eaiiy. Oe? oaeoe neoaeaoue
aacia?a/iei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ni?aaaaeeeaino? oyaeaiue i?i iaoai?ci
aieeao neeueieo ieanoeo?eaoi??a ia oaeaee?noue ? iiaiioo a?ae?aoaoe?eii?
aca?iiae?? a ?acoeueoao? ia?aaaaeii? ?o aaeni?aoe?? ia iiaiooai?aiiyo.
Aeiaaaea N-3 oiia?eueith? /an ianoaiiy iaeneioio aecioa?i?? ia 7…8
aiae, a eiai cia/aiiy cieaeo?oueny a 1,5 ?ace c 50 aei 34 eae/a. I?e
?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue oaoiieia?? AAE oea aeicaieeoue a?eueo o?eaaeee
ia??iae caa??aaoe aeanoeaino? aaoiiii? noi?o? i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? a?ae
iiiaioo aeaioiaeaiiy aei oi?ioaaiiy. E??i oiai, ui ia iaio aaaeeeai,
iecueea ?ioaineai?noue i?ioean?a oaa?aeiaiiy oeaiaioo a i?enooiino?
aeiaaaee aoaea ni?eyoe cieaeaiith oaeaeeino? ?ic?a??aaiiy aaoiio a o?e?
eiioaeia?a. Oey ianoaaeia i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ? cieaeaiiyi ?ioaa?aeueieo
cia/aiue oaieiaeae?eaiiy a ia?oo aeiao i?ae ae??th an?o aeiaaaie, ye?
aea/athoueny.

?acoeueoaoe eaei?eiao?e/iiai aiae?co iaiiaiththoue a?aeiia?aei? aaiee
aeaieo ? aaco ciaiue ?O “Oa?iiaao-I” ? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeiai?o ?
iia?aoeaiiai ei?eaoaaiiy neeaae?a aaoiio a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? ae?iaie/eo oaeoi??a.

Aeaiaioe ?O inai?i? ia?niiaeii aoae?aaeueii? eaai?aoi??? OA
Caii??cueei? AAN. Noi?iiaaia ? ooieoe?iio? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiaa
nenoaia ?O AAE, o yeo aaiaeyoueny a?aeiiino? eiio?ieth yeino?
eiiiiiaio?a, neeaaeo aaoiio, aeanoeainoae aaoiiii? noi?o? ca iieacieeaie
eaaeioeeaaeaeueiino?, u?eueiino?, e?eueeino? aoyaiooiai iia?o?y,
oaiia?aoo?e.

O na?ii? 1996 ?. i?e aeaioiaeaii? iaoo?iiai iaeaoo AAE
a?aei?aoeueiaoaaeeny ia?aiao?e oaoiieia??. Ia oe?e noaae?? a?aecia/aany
cia/iee ?iceeae aeanoeainoae aaoiiii? noi?o? oa aaoiio. Iniaeeaee
?ioa?an i?aaenoaaey? aiae?c oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i o aaoii?, yeee oaa?ae??
(?en. 3). Iaeneiaeueiee ?ic?a??a aaoiio aiane?aeie aecioa?i?? oeaiaioo
a?aecia/a?oueny /a?ac 19…22 aiae. Oa?aeoa?i? a?eueo aenie? cia/aiiy
oaiia?aoo? a?ey aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? no?iee eiioaeia?a, i?ae ia
ciai?oi?e. Ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo? i?ae ieie i?e ioieiaeaeaii? aaoiio
eieeaa?oueny a?ae 24 aei 10°N. Iaea?eueo ?noioi? cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai
a?aae??ioa a ia?a??c? II-II no?iee, yea ?ic?a??aa?oueny aei 68°N. Oey
/anoeia ae?iao, oaeei /eiii, iaea?eueo iaaacia/ia c oi/ee ci?o
iiaeeeainoae aeyaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iai?oaeaiue, ye? ia?aaeuothoue
aeiionoei? cia/aiiy. Oaiia?aoo?i? iiey a ia?a??cao no?iee ? aeieua
ci?iththoueny aeineoue ieaaii ? ia 7 aeiao oaiia?aoo?a a ieo
ae??aith?oueny.

Aeey ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee aieeao aeo?ao oeaiaioo ? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie ia
?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo? aeeiiaii ?ic?aooiie oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o
no?ioe? AAE ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith c aeei?enoaiiyi iaeaoo
“Mathematica 3.0”. Ia ?en. 4 iaaaaeaii i?eeeaae ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo
iie?a aeey aaoiio aac aeiaaaie (a) ? c eiiieaenii “Iie?o?ae+?aia?eae”
(a). I?e ia/eneaiiyo aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeai? i?i oaieiaeae?eaiiy
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo I500 ?eaieoeueeiai caaiaeo a ?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao 20 ? 40°N.

C iaaaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeaeii, ui a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo iaeneioi
oaiia?aoo?ii? e?eai? aei 6 aiae ciaoiaeeoueny a na?aaeei? no?iee. Iio?i
a?i iia?eueii ci?uo?oueny aei aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi?. Oea iiynith?oueny
iaioith oaieia?aeaea/ath ? iaeiie/aiiyi oaiea a ii?iaeiei?, caiiaiaii?
iia?o?yi. Iaeneiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a aaoiio — 67°N cao?eniaaia ia
a?aenoai? 80 ii a?ae aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? no?iee /a?ac 36 aiae
oaa?aeiaiiy. Oaiia?aoo?iee a?aae??io o oeae iiiaio aeinyaa? 26°N. A
iiaeaeueoiio oaiia?aoo?a a no?ieao AAE iia?eueii cieaeo?oueny aei
21…23°N /a?ac 165 aiae.

?en. 3. Oa?aeoa? oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i o aaoii?

a – noaia ?ici?uaiiy aeao/ee?a; a – oaiia?aoo?i? iiey

20…166 – /an oaa?aeiaiiy, aiae

I?e aeei?enoiaoaaii? eiiieaeno “Iie?o?ae+?aia?eae” oaieiaeae?eaiiy
oeaiaioo cieaeo?oueny (aeea. ?en. 2), a ioaea, iiaeiia
ciaioeoenue ? oaiia?aoo?a o ae?ia? i?e oaa?aeiaii? aaoiio.
Ca?eueoo?oueny o?eaae?noue ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, ui aieeaa? ia /an
aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueoeo cia/aiue oaiia?aoo? o ia?a??cao. ?ic?aooiie
oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a iieacaa, ui iaeneiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a aaoiio
aiane?aeie naii?ic?a??ao aeinyaa?oueny /a?ac 42 aiae ? neeaaea? 57°N.
Aaee/eia oaiia?aoo?iiai a?aae??ioo – 21°N. Iio?i aaoii iia?eueii
ioieiaeaeo?oueny ? /a?ac 165 aiae oaiia?aoo?a cieaeo?oueny aei 21…23°N.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaiico aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe ia?aiao?e
oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a a ia?a??cao AAE c e?euee?niith ioe?ieith aieeao
oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, iai?eeeaae, aeaeo oeaiaioo oa o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie,
ci?ie oaiia?aoo? aaoiiii? noi?o? ? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith i?iaiicoaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?ieo iai?oaeaiue a aaoii? AAE ? aaaeeeai aeey caaacia/aiiy
o??ueiino?eeino? ae?iao. Aeey aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iai?oaeaiue a
ii?iaeiueiio oeee?iae?e/iiio o?e?, yeei ? ? AAE, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
caeaaeiino? A. Eiaaeaiea. I?e oeueiio a?aoiaoaaeanue i?ieea?noue iiaeoey
ieoo?ai i?oaeii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiio a?ae /ano oaa?aeiaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a, i?iaaaeaieo aeey oaa?ae?th/iai aaoiio c
eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith ca ii/aoeiaith oaiia?aoo?ith oeeaaeee noi?o?
20°N, iieacothoue, ui ?aae?aeuei? iai?oaeaiiy sr ? noeneath/eie ii an?e
oiauei? no?iee ? aei??aiththoue ioeth ia aioo??oi?e ? ciai?oi?e
iiaa?oi?. Iaeneiaeueia aaee/eia oeeo iai?oaeaiue cao?eniaaia /a?ac 56
aiae ia a?aenoai? 360 ii a?ae iae/aeee (320 ii a?ae iiaeoaee) e
noaiiaeoue 0,7 ean/ni2.

Oaiaaioe?ei? sq oa inueia? sz iai?oaeaiiy aeinyaathoue nai?o
iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue a oi/eao oeee?iae?a c a?aie/ieie
oaiia?aoo?aie. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo na?ae/aoue, ui iaea?eueo?
?icoyaoth/? iai?oaeaiiy aeieeathoue a?ae coneeue sq e sz ia ciai?oi?e
iiaa?oi? no?iee /a?ac 56 aiae ? noaiiaeyoue 5,8 ean/ni2. Iaeneiaeuei?
noeneath/? iai?oaeaiiy i?ae ae??th coneeey sz cao?eniaai? ia a?aenoai?
80 ii a?ae iae/aeee ? aeinyaathoue aaee/eie 3,2 ean/ni2.

Ii??aithth/e cia/aiiy coneeue sr, sq, sz ? iaae i?oeiino? i?e
noeneoaaii? ? ?icoyaoaaii?, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iiaeeea?noue
ooai?aiiy o??uei, aeeeeeaieo oaiia?aoo?ieie iai?oaeaiiyie.

Iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy ?icoyaoth/eo iai?oaeaiue aeinyaa?oueny ia
ciai?oi?e iiaa?oi? no?iee, aea noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey ooai?aiiy
aeaoaeo?a iiaa?oi? o aeaeyae? o??uei. ?ic?aooieiaee ii?? aaoiio
inueiaiio ?icoyaoaaiith Rbt /a?ac 56 aiae noaiiaeoue 10,7
ean/ni2, ui a?eueoa a?aeiia?aeieo coneeue sq ? sz, ye?
aeieeathoue o ae?ia? a oie naiee ia??iae /ano. Oaeei /eiii, o
aeiaaeeo canoinoaaiiy iecueeioa?i?/iiai oeaiaioo neeaaeia? oaiia?aoo?ieo
iai?oaeaiue sq e sz ia iiaeooue aeeeeeaoe ooai?aiiy o??uei ia iiaa?oi?
AAE, oiio /an ?iciaeoaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny iio??aiith i?oei?noth aaoiio.

?en. 4. I?iaiic ci?ie oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o aaoii? eiioaeia?a

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui i?e aeiaea?aeaii? oaoiieia?/ieo
aeiia a?aeiinii aeaeo oeaiaioo ? neeaaeo aaoiio, aecia/aiiy /ano
aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeii? i?oeiino? c o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oeaiaioo
iiaeia oieeiooe oa?i?/iiai o??ueiiooai?aiiy. Oe? aeniiaee
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny ?ic?aooieaie aeey oaiia?aoo?e 25 e 30°N.

Aiaeia?/i? ?ic?aooiee oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ? iai?oaeaiue a o?e? AAE
aeeiiaii aeey aenieioa?i?/iiai oaeaeeioaa?ae?th/iai oeaiaioo I500
Caeieaoiianueeiai caaiaeo (?en. 4,a). Cia/aiiy iiaiiai
oaieiaeae?eaiiy ca 24 aiae i?e 40°N aeinyaa? 89 eae/a, ui iaeaea ia 40
eae/a ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/iee iieaciee aeey ?eaieoeueeiai oeaiaioo.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai oeaiaioo oaiia?aoo?a
aioo??oiuei? no?iee eiioaeia?a iiaea aooe a?eueoa 100°N iaa?oue i?e
oaiia?aoo?? iia?o?y 20°N, a cia/aiiy oaiaaioe?eieo ? inueiaeo
?icoyaoth/eo iai?oaeaiue ia ciai?oi?e iiaa?oi? ae?iao a ?ioa?aae?
14…47 aiae ia?aaeueoe i?eionoei?. Oea iiaea iaoiiaeoe ooai?aiiy ?
?icaeoie iiaeiaaei?o ? e?eueoeaaeo iiaa?oiaaeo o??uei ? ua ?ac
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeioe?euei?noue i?eeiyoiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeai?o oeaiaio?a
aeey AAE ca aeaieie eaei?eiao?e/iiai aiae?co.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoiaeeee aeei?enoaii i?e aeaioiaeaii?
i?iieneiaeo AAE a o?aai?-eeii? 1998 ?. Ooieoe?iioaaea
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiaa nenoaia eaai?aoi?iiai eiio?ieth yeino?
eiiiiiaio?a ? i?aeai?o neeaaeo aaoiio, eiio?iethaaeany oaiia?aoo?a ia
iiaa?oiyo iiaeoaee ? iae/aeee eiioaeia?a. A c’ayceo c aenieith e?oiueith
oaiia?aoo?ith 38°N aaoiiia noi?o ioieiaeaeoaaeanue iieeaaiiyi aa?aaaio
aaoiaaoiiici?ooaa/a aiaeith.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie aeicaieeei:

— aea?aoe aeey oaoiieia?? AAE iecueeioa?i?/i? oeaiaioe ? o?i?/i?
aeiaaaee, ui cieaeothoue oaieiaeae?eaiiy ? oaiia?aoo?i? iai?oaeaiiy a
aaoii? ae?iao;

— i?aeaeueoe iaeii??aei?noue aaoiiii? noi?o? ca iieacieeaie u?eueiino?,
?ooeeaino? ? e?eueeino? aoyaiooiai iia?o?y;

— cieceoe oaiia?aoo?i? a?aae??ioe ca oiaueiith no?iee c 26 aei 21°N o
ia??iae iaeneiaeueiiai i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e.

?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? i?e aeeiiaii? ?iaioe, iieeaaeaii a iniiao
ia?niaeoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoiieia?? aaoiiieo ae?ia?a ? eiino?oeoe?e
i?e?iaeiiai oaa?aeiaiiy ?O “Oa?iiaao-I” aeey ae?iaieoeoaa AAE. Ca
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie ?ic?aooieaie ? aeaieie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai a?aeae?eo
Caii??cueei? AAN nenoaia oei/aniaiai nooiai noiao a?aeoiae?a yaea?iiai
iaeeaa a?eueo i?ae o i’youe ?ac?a aeiiii?/i?oa o?ainii?ooaaiiy ?
caoi?iiaiiy ?o o E?aniiy?nueeiio e?a? ?in??.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. ?icaeyiooi iiaeeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? niaoeeo?/ii? caaea/? aeaioiaeaiiy
ianeaieo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia??a aeey noiao a?aeoiae?a oaoiiaaiii?
i?e?iaee c o?aooaaiiyi oaieiaeae?eaiiy i?e oaa?aeiaii? oeaiaioo ?
aaoiio, ye oaeoi?a, ui i?aeeyaa? e?euee?ni?e ioe?ioe? ? ?aaoethaaiith ia
iniia? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo aeey ae??oaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?iaeai.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ? i?iaiico oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ?
iai?oaeaiue o o?e? cae?ciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a oeee?iae?e/iiai oeio c
o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oeaiaio?a ?c iaoith aeio?eiaiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeiia
aei aeanoeainoae aaoiio, i?i?i?caoe?? aai onoiaiiy aeaoaeo?a aiane?aeie
iani?eyoeeaiai ?icaeoeo oa?iiiai?oaeaiiai noaio.

3. Aeeiiaii oa?iie?iaoe/iee aiae?c i?eaeaoiino? iecueeioa?i?/ieo
oeaiaio?a ? o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie ieanoeo?eoth/iai ? iia?o?yaoyaoth/iai
oei?a aeey aeaioiaeaiiy eiioaeia??a. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?yae ia?aaaae aeai?o
oeaiaio?a ca e?eoa???i i?i?i?caoe?? aecioa?i??:
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee (61eae/a) > ?eaieoeueeee (50eae/a) >
?aaii-O?aie?anueeee (48eae/a) > Caeieaoiianueeee (44 eae/a). Iieacaii,
ui ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aeiaaaee aeicaieythoue cieaeoaaoe oaieiaeae?eaiiy ia
?aii?o noaae?yo oaa?aeiaiiy oeaiaio?a ia 15…30%.

4. Ae??oaii caaea/o ?ic?aooieo ? i?iaiico oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ?
iai?oaeaiue i?e oaa?aeiaii? aaoiio o ae?iaao oeee?iae?e/iiai oeio ii
??aiyiith oaieii?ia?aeiino? c aioo??oi?i aeaea?aeii oaiea, ae?aaeaiei
o?ceei-o?i?/iith ooieoe??th ci?ie nooiaiy ia?aoai?aiiy (a?ae?aoaoe??)
oeaiaioo ca aeaieie aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? eaei?eiao???.

5. Eaei?eiao?e/ia ?ioi?iaoe?y c ?acoeueoao?a oa?iie?iaoe/iiai aiae?co
a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo ? aei???a oaieiaeae?eaiiy aaoiio a niaoe?aeueiiio
oa?iiniiio eaei?eiao??, a oaeiae oaoiieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeei?enoaii
i?e ?ic?iaoe? eiii’thoa?ii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiai? nenoaie eiio?ieth
yeino? eiiiiiaio?a aeey aeiai?o, iia?aoeaiiai ei?eaoaaiiy neeaae?a
aaoiio i?e a?aei?aoeueiaoaaii? ia?aiao??a aeaioiaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ? i?iieneiaeo aaioeeueiaaieo aaoiiieo eiioaeia??a ia
Caii??cuee?e AAN.

6. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue aeanoeainoae aaoiiii? noi?o? ?
aaoii?a, aea/aii oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o ia?a??cao
eiioaeia??a. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii ni?aaaaeeea?noue oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ia?aaeoiia i?i iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a
oaa?aeiaiiy aaoiio a ianeaieo ae?iaao oeee?iae?e/iiai oeio c o?aooaaiiyi
aecioa?i?? oeaiaio?a.

7. Iaa?oioiaaii aa??aio no?oeoo?e ?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoiieia?? aaoiio
“Oa?iiaao-I” noiniaii aei aeaioiaeaiiy aaoiiieo eiioaeia??a, ui
neeaaea?oueny c aaieo ii?iaoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo aeaieo ?c aeiiaaie aei
eiiiiiaio?a aaoiiii? noi?o? oa e?eoa??yie iioei?caoe?? ? aace
aaoiiiciaa/eo ciaiue ?c i?aaeeaie oa iaoiaeeeaie aeiai?o neeaae?a,
aecia/aiiy oaieiaeae?eaiiy oeaiaioo ? aaoiio, ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo
iie?a ? iai?oaeaiue.

8. ?ic?iaeaii “?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaoiieia?? aaioeeueiaaiiai aaoiiiiai
eiioaeia?a nooiai noiao a?aeoiae?a yaea?iiai iaeeaa. ?ioi?iaoe?eia
nenoaia eiio?ieth yeino? ? ae?iaieoeoaa aaoiiieo ?ia?o i?e aeaioiaeaii?
aaioeeueiaaiiai aaoiiiiai eiioaeia?a”, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo ?acii ?c
oa?e?anueeei ?inoeoooii “Aiaa?ii?iaeo” ? iaeanueeei AAO
“Oe?i?aaia?aiaoae” inai?ii ae?iaieoeoai eiioaeia??a ia Caii??cuee?e AAN.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?aooe?? iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo ?iaioao

1. Usherov-Marshak A., Sinyakin A., Zavarski A., Ghil Yu. Application
of calorimetry to knowledge base of informative technology of concrete
// 7th Conference on Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis. — Zakopane
(Poland). — 1997. — P. 111.

2. Ooa?ia-Ia?oae A.A., Neiyeei A.A. Aeeue TH.A. Auai? oeaiaioia e
aeiaaaie aeey ecaioiaeaiey ianneaiuo eiino?oeoeee // Iaoeiaee a?niee
aoae?aieoeoaa. — Oa?e?a: OAeOOAA, OIOA AAO. — 1998. — Aei. 3. — N.
45-48.

3. Aeeue TH.A. I?eiauaeoiue eaei?eiao? aeey ioeaiee oaieiauaeaeaiey a
aaoiia // Iaoeiaee a?niee aoae?aieoeoaa. — Oa?e?a: OAeOOAA, OIOA AAO. —
1998.-Aei. 3. — N. 49-52.

4. Neiyeei A.A., Aeeue TH.A., Eeoaeiia A.A., Ooa?ia-Ia?oae A.A.
Oa?iieeiaoe/aneea iniiau eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee aaoiia // Iaoa?eaeu
Iaaeaeoia?. iao/ii-oaoi. eiio. “Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu no?ieoaeueiiai
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey”. — *anoue 1. — Iaica: Ecae-ai IAANA. — 1998. — N.
55-56.

5. Ooa?ia-Ia?oae A.A., Neiyeei A.A., Aeeue TH.A., Ooia Aai Aiue.
?acaeoea oaoiieiaee aaoiia ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea //
Aii?inu nia?aiaiiiai no?ieoaeueiiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey. — Eueaia:
Eueaianeee oeeeae ia?aciaaoaeueiie eiiiaiee “IIC”. — 1998. — N. 134-140.

6. Aeeue TH.A., Aeiey I.A., Neiyeei A.A., Ooa?ia-Ia?oae A.A. ?an/ao e
iiaeaee?iaaiea oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae i?e oaa?aeaiee aaoiia a
oeeeeiae?e/aneeo eiioaeia?ao // Iaoa?eaeu e 38-io iaaeaeoia?. naieia?o
ii iiaeaee?iaaieth e iioeiecaoeee eiiiiceoia “Iioeiecaoeey a
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiee”. — Iaeanna: Ano?iI?eio. — 1999. — N.22-23.

7. Aeeue TH.A., Aeiey I.A. Iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae i?e
oaa?aeaiee aaoiia a ecaeaeeyo oeeeeiae?e/aneiai oeia // Iaoeiaee a?niee
aoae?aieoeoaa. — Oa?e?a: OAeOOAA, OIOA AAO. — 1999. — Aei. 6. — N.
58-62.

AIIOAOe?ss

A?eue TH.A. Ioe?iea oa o?aooaaiiy aecioa?i?? oeaiaio?a o oaoiieia??
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiioaeia??a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
c niaoe?aeueiino? 05.23.05 — aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee ? ae?iae. —
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Iinoaaeaii ? ae??oaii caaaeaiiy ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?? aaioeeueiaaieo
aaoiiieo eiioaeia??a aeey noiao ?aae?iaeoeaieo, oiene/ieo oa ?io.
oaoiiaaiieo a?aeoiae?a c o?aooaaiiyi aecioa?i?? oaa?ae?th/iai aaoiio.
Ca aeiiiiiaith eaei?eiao?e/iiai aiae?co cae?eniaii aea?? oeaiaio?a ?
o?i?/ieo aeiaaaie aeey aaoiio. Canai?ii ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeia?aeeiao
nenoaio eiio?ieth yeino? eiiiiiaio?a aeey i?aeai?o ? ei?eaoaaiiy neeaaeo
aaoiio. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a ?
iai?oaeaiue a o?e? ae?iao c o?aooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?enoee oaieiaeae?eaiiy ?
oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y. A i?iieneiaeo oiiaao a?aei?aoeueiaaii oaoiieia?/iee
?aaeaiaio aeaioiaeaiiy ae?ia?a ia iniia? “?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c oaoiieia??
aaioeeueiaaiiai aaoiiiiai eiioaeia?a nooiai noiao a?aeoiae?a yaea?iiai
iaeeaa (NNAssI). ?ioi?iaoe?eia nenoaia eiio?ieth yeino? ? ae?iaieoeoaa
aaoiiieo ?ia?o i?e aeaioiaeaii? aaioeeueiaaiiai eiioaeia?a (AAE)”,
cai?iaaaeaeaieo ia Caii??cuee?e aoiii?e noaioe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaoiiiee eiioaeia?, aecioa?i?y, o?i?/i? aeiaaaee,
oaiia?aoo?i? iiey.

THE SUMMARY

Ghil Yu.B. An estimation and calculation of cement exotermy in
technology of reinforced-concrete containers. — Manuscript.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
engineering science on a speciality 05.23.05 — building materials and
products. — The Kharkov State Automobile and Highway Technical
University, Kharkov, 1999.

The tasks of development of a technology of ventilated concrete
containers for storage of radioactive, toxic and other techno scraps
with taking into account the heat evolution of hardening concrete are
posed and solved. The choosing of cements and chemical additives for
concrete is realized with the help of calorimetric analysis. The
directory monitoring system of quality of components for a selection and
adjustment of structures of concrete is mastered. The techniques for
calculation of temperature fields and pressure in a product are
developed in view of performances of heat evolution and air temperature.
In industrial conditions the technological rules of manufacture of
products, as a basis of the “Recommendations for a technology of
ventilated concrete container for dry storage of scraps of nuclear fuel
(DSSNF) is completed. The information monitoring system of quality and
production of concrete work at manufacture of the ventilated concrete
container (VCC)”, introduced on the Zaporozhye atomic server.

Key words: concrete container, heat evolution, chemical components,
temperature fields.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeeue TH.A. Ioeaiea e o/ao yecioa?iee oeaiaioia a oaoiieiaee
aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiioaeia?ia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.05 — no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey. —
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Noi?ioee?iaaia e ?aoaia caaea/a ?ac?aaioee oaoiieiaee aeaeaciaaoiiiuo
eiioaeia?ia aeey o?aiaiey iooiaeia i?iiuoeaiiinoe e yia?aaoeee n
niaethaeaieai niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy o?aaiaaiee
ii?iaoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Iainiiaaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue
eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth oaoiieiae/aneeo
caaea/ n i?eiaiaieai eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee.

Ioia/aia iniaay ?ieue oaieiauaeaeaiey a oaoiieiaee ianneaiuo
aeaeaciaaoiiiuo ecaeaeee, a oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioeaiee e o/aoa
yecioa?iee oeaiaioia aeey nieaeaiey e ono?aiaiey oa?ie/aneeo iai?yaeaiee
e aeaoi?iaoeee, eioi?ua iiaoo i?eaanoe e aicieeiiaaieth aeaoaeoia
no?oeoo?u a aeaea oaiia?aoo?iuo o?auei. Aeieacaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue
iieo/aiey eiee/anoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee i oa?aeoa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey
oaiia?aoo?u a na/aieyo eiioaeia?a. Iieacaii, /oi aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie
ia ?aoai ei??aeoii ?yae caaea/ ii?aaeaeaiey e iaoaiaoe/aneiai iienaiey
ooieoeee oaieiauaeaeaiey aeey i?iaiica oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae a
oaa?aeathuai aaoiia.

Iaoiaeii aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie iee?ieaei?eiao?ee inouanoaeai auai?
ieceioa?ie/iuo oeaiaioia e oeie/aneeo aeiaaaie ieanoeoeoee?othuaai e
aicaeooiaiaeaeathuaai oeiia aeey oaoiieiaee aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiioaeia?ia.
I?aaeeiaeai ?yae i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe auai?a oeaiaioia ii e?eoa?eth
ieieiecaoeee yecioa?iee: Eaiaiaoe-Iiaeieueneee (61eae/a) > ?uaieoeeee
(50eae/a) > Eaaii-O?aieianeee (48eae/a) > Caeieaoiianeee (44 eae/a).

Noi?ie?iaai aaie aeaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiii-ni?aai/iie nenoaiu
eaai?aoi?iiai e oaoiieiae/aneiai eiio?iey ea/anoaa eiiiiiaioia e naienoa
aaoiiiie niane e aaoiia.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa e i?iaiica oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae a
oaa?aeathuai aaoiia ecaeaeee oeeeeiae?e/aneiai oeia n eniieueciaaieai
aiia?aoa oaieiia?aiina. Aioo?aiiee enoi/iee oaiea (yecioa?iey)
iienuaaaony n iiiiuueth i?aaeeiaeaiiie ooieoeee ¶a/¶t — eciaiaiey
oneiaiie noaiaie i?aa?auaiey (aeae?aoaoeee) oeaiaioa ii aeaiiui
oa?iieeiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca.

N i?eiaiaieai eioi?iaoeeiiii-ni?aai/iie nenoaiu auiieiai iiaeai?
ninoaaia aaoiiia, eco/aiu oaoiieiae/aneea naienoaa aaoiiiie niane e
oeceei-iaoaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee aaoiia a niioaaonoaee n oeaeyie e
caaea/aie oaoiieiaee aeaeaciaaoiiiuo eiioaeia?ia. Aeey ioeaiee
oaieiauaeaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ninoaaia aaoiia iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
ieiuaaeea aaoiie?iaaiey ecaeaeey neiino?oe?iaai e eniieuecoaony
i?eiauaeoiue eaei?eiao? oa?iiniiai oeia.

Inouanoaeai i?iaiic oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae e iai?yaeaiee i?e oaa?aeaiee
aaoiia a na/aieyo eiioaeia?a. Iieacaii, /oi i?e i?eiaiaiee
ieceioa?ie/iuo oeaiaioia e nieaeathueo oaieiauaeaeaiea aeiaaaie,
iaania/eaaaony aeaaii?eyoiia oa?iiiai?yaeaiiia ninoiyiea, eioi?ia ia
i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth aeaoaeoia no?oeoo?u a aeaea o?auei.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee aiaae?aiu a oaoiieiaeth aaioeee?oaiuo
aaoiiiuo eiioaeia?ia aeey caoi?iiaiey io?aaioaiiuo oaieiauaeaeythueo
yeaiaioia ia Caii?iaeneie AYN. I?iaaaeaiu iaoo?iua ecia?aiey
?ani?aaeaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u a na/aieyo eiioaeia?a, onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua
caeiiiia?iinoe oaieiia?aiina, iiaeoaa?aeeaoea i?aaeeueiinoue auaeaeioouo
i?aaeiinueie e ia?niaeoeaiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth
eiie?aoiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo caaea/.

?ac?aaioaiu “?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oaoiieiaee aaioeee?oaiiai aaoiiiiai
eiioaeia?a nooiai o?aiaiey iooiaeia yaea?iiai oiieeaa. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay
nenoaia eiio?iey ea/anoaa e i?iecaiaenoaa aaoiiiuo ?aaio i?e
ecaioiaeaiee aaioeee?oaiiai aaoiiiiai eiioaeia?a”.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaoiiiue eiioaeia?, yecioa?iey, oeie/aneea aeiaaaee,
oaiia?aoo?iua iiey.

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