I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

OAeE 658.1:330.131.7

?AAeEAAE* IAOAEss AIEIAeEIE??AIA

Ioe?iea nooiaiy ?eceeo a i?aei?e?iieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.02.03. – I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy, ieaioaaiiy oa
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?eith

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Iaeana).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

I?aeai?iee Aiaoie?e Caoa?iae/,

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e noaoenoeee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?aiaoo?ia Aieiaeeie?
Ieoaeeiae/,

Iaeanueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
?inoeooo ca’yceo

I?i?noa?noaa ca’yceo Oe?a?ie,

ia/aeueiee iaoeiaiai
a?aeae?eo,

Aieiaiee iao?ieia I?i?noa?noaa
ca’yceo Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Ai??nia Ieaa A?eai?iae/,

Iaeanueeee ?iiiaaoe?eiee
?iioa/iee oeaio?,

Aieiaa i?aae?iiy,

Aieiaiee ?aaeaeoi? aeo?iaeo
“Ia?eao-?aa’th”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee

(i. Oiaeueieoeueeee).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 25 ethoiai 2000 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.41.055.01 .a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
aeiiii?/iiio

oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 65026, i. Iaeana, aoe. I?aia?aaeainueea, 8

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai

aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 24 n?/iy 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Ia?e?oai I.N.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue noai?aiiy aeiiii?ee
?eieiaiai oeio ? anaa?/iee ?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.
Nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i? ia?aaaaea? oi?aiai-iina?aaeieoeueea
i?aei?e?iieoeoai. Iaeiae iiaeaeueoa i?iaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i
iiaeiia aeaanoe ia ia?oee ieai i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/a i?aei?e?iieoeoai,
yea ia? i??i?eoaoia cia/aiiy. Naia o ae?iaie/iio na?aaeiaeu?
noai?th?oueny aaaaonoai noni?euenoaa.

Any ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue o??ie ia ?eieo cae?enith?oueny a oiiaao
iaaecia/aiino? — ?ic?eao iaeaaiaeaeaieo ca’yce?a i?ae ?anioae?eaie
eieeoiueiai N?N?, iie?oe/ii? oa aeiiii?/ii? ianoaa?eueiino?, ?ioeyoe??,
iaaeineiiaeeo caeiiiaeaanoaa, iaoiae?a ? oi?i i?eaaoecaoe?? oiui. O
ca’yceo c oeei on? ae?? i?aei?e?ioey a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia
iiaeooue aooe c iiaiith aecia/ai?noth iai??eiaai? ? i?i?aoiaai?, oiio
any i?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue ? ?eceeiaaiith.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeth?oueny ia’?eoeaiith
iaiao?aei?noth ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai e?euee?nii?
ioe?iee nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo aeey i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/eo
o??i.

Ainiiaea?nueea na?aaeiaeua noa? ana a?eueo iaaecia/aiei, ? o
i?aei?e?ioey aeieeathoue iayni?noue ? iaaiaaiai?noue a io?eiaii?
e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo, a oiio c?inoa? ? nooi?iue i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
?eceeo.

O iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? aaea iaeiie/aii aeinoaoi?e aeina?ae o
aeine?aeaeaii? ?eceeo, i?aaenoaaeaii eiai eeaneo?eaoe?th, i?e/eie
aeieeiaiiy, oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia ?ecee, a oaeiae i?iaiae?ciaaii
ao?aoe, ye? iiaea iiianoe o??ia aiane?aeie i?eeiyooy ?eceeiaaieo
??oaiue. Ia?ae?/aieie i?iaeaiaie caeiaeenue o/ai?-aeiiii?noe
A.A.A?oeeinueeee, N.?.Iaeiia/iee, I.A.A?aaiaee, I.A.Eaionoa,
E.A.Oa?ooeiaa, ?.A.Aaeaaaiia, I.E.Onoaiei, A.A.?aecaa?a oa ?i. Iaeiae
aaaaoi ieoaiue aecia/aiiy ioe?iee nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo
caeeoathoueny iaaeine?aeaeaieie.

Iaaeinoaoiy oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia ioe?iea nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
?eceeo aeey eiie?aoiiai aeaeo ae?yeueiino? aai eiie?aoii? ae?iaie/i?
neooaoe?? a iniiaiiio aecia/eea oaio aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. ??
ci?no ni?yiiaaii ia ?ic?iaeo iaoiaeeee ioe?iee nooiaiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo aeey i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/i? o??ie ia
i?eeeaaeao i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa i. Iaeane.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe ?c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeany ia aac? oaiaoe/ieo ieai?a eaoaae?e ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee
? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a
iaaeao oaie “No/ani? oaiaeaioe?? aeaiiiiiie?caoe?? aeiiii?ee,
ia?aoai?aiue oi?i aeaniino? ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy”, ui ?ic?iaeth?oueny
ca?aeii c oaiaoe/iei ieaiii i?aeaoc?anueeeo iaoeiaeo ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
i?ia?ai ia 1997-1999 ??., caoaa?aeaeaiei iaeacii I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie ?37 a?ae 13.02.1997?.( i?aenoaaa aeey aeeiiaiiy IAe? -??oaiiy
Eii?ae?iaoe?eii? ?aaee oi?aa?neoaoo, i?ioieie ?2 a?ae 11.03.1997?.).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei e?euee?nii? ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo
i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/i? o??ie o no/anieo a?o/eciyieo oiiaao ? i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei cieaeaiiy (i?i?i?caoe??) aioo??oiueiai ?eceeo
o??ie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? aecia/ai? oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

· aecia/eoe nooi?noue iiiyooy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo aeey
i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/i? o??ie;

· nenoaiaoecoaaoe oaeoi?e, ye? aeeeeeathoue aioo??oi?e ?ecee o??ie;

· ?ic?iaeoe eeaneo?eaoe?th aeae?a ?ecee?a, ui aeieeathoue o i?ioean?
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?;

· ocaaaeueieoe iniiai? ae?th/? iaoiaeeee ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo;

· aecia/eoe aeeiai?eo o?iainiaiai noaio, e?aaeeoini?iiiaeiino? oa
eiia??iino? aaie?oonoaa i?aei?e?inoaa;

· noai?eoe iaoiaeeeo e?euee?nii? ioe?iee nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
?eceeo i?iieneiai? o??ie a oiiaao iaaeinoaoeo ?ioi?iaoe??;

· cai?iiiioaaoe oeyoe i?i?i?caoe?? ?eceeo o??ie c o?aooaaiiyi ??
aioo??oi?o ?ano?n?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeaee ciiao io?eiaoe ianooii? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? iathoue iaoeiao ?
i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue a oiiaao ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue ia i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoaao a Oe?a?i?:

· ia iniia? i?aeoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue cae?eniaii nenoaiaoecaoe?th
iiaeyae?a ? e?eoe/iee aiae?c ?nioth/eo oi/ie ci?o i?i iiiyooy
“i?aei?e?iieoeueeee ?ecee” ? iaoiaee eiai ioe?iee;

· cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aioo??oi?o ?ecee?a i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/i?
o??ie yea a?aoiao? oaia??oi?e noai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?/eo
noa’?eo?a a Oe?a?i? ? i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaea?ae ?o aeieeiaiiy;

· ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy noaoenoe/iiai iaoiaeo
ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo ? oi?i o?aooaaiiy iioi/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ye?
aeicaieythoue iia?aoeaii ioe?ieoe ?ecee o??ie i?e i?eeiyoo? eiie?aoiiai
??oaiiy;

· ?aeiiaiaeiaaia nenoaia caoiae?a, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia cieaeaiiy
(i?i?i?caoe?th) ?ecee?a ca ?aooiie aioo??oi?o ?aca?a?a o??ie, ui
aeiiiiiaea iie?aueoe iieiaeaiiy o??ie ia ?eieo;

· iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o ae?eiaiai ia?oia?a ia ?eieo ?
caeeth/aiiy eiio?aeo?a, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia cieaeaiiy nooiaiy ?eceeo
o??ie;

· ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea e?euee?nii? ioe?iee nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
?eceeo i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/i? o??ie a no/anieo ?eieiaeo oiiaao,
aeei?enoaiiy yei? aeicaieeoue aecia/eoe nooi?iue ?eceeo ia
i?aei?e?inoaao aoaeue-yei? aaeoc? ? oi?ie aeaniino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, aeiaaaeai? aei ??aiy
iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie oa i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. Aiie ciaeoee ?
iiaeooue ciaeoe iiaeaeueoa canoinoaaiiy i?e ae??oaii? aeooaeueieo
caaaeaiue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
i?iieneiai — ae?iaie/i? o??ie ia ?eieo

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei cieaeaiiy nooiaiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo aoee ai?iaaaeaeai? o i?aeoeeo ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? AAO “Oi/iao” (aeo i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? 17 a?ae 3.02.1999
?ieo ), a oaeiae aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia eaoaae??
?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa IAeAO i?e aea/aii? eo?no
“Aeiiii?ea oa i?aai?caoe?y i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny oa
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?eieia? aaaeae? oa
noeioee ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?/eo nenoai” (Iaeana, IAeAO, 1997 ?.),
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie i?aoe?,
aeiiii?ee oa iiaeaethaaiiy” (Oiaeueieoeueeee,1998 ?.), i?aenoieiaeo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1997-1999 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 6
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, caaaeueiei ianyaii, yeee iaeaaeeoue aaoi?o, 1,6 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 216 noi??iie, o oiio /ene?
iniiaiiai oaenoo 143 noi??iee. O ?iaio? i?noeoueny 6 iaethie?a, 5
oaaeeoeue, 51 oi?ioea, 8 aeiaeaoe?a, ianya yeeo caeia? 62 noi??iee.
Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae iae?/o? 115 iaeiaioaaiue ia 9 noi??ieao.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, aecia/ai? iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy, aena?oeai? iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ai?iaaoe?y
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie ioe?iee nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
?eceeo.

I??i?eoaoia cia/aiiy a no/ani?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie iiaeiii iaoe
ae?iaie/a i?aei?e?iieoeoai, oiio ui a noa?? ae?iaieoeoaa noai?th?oueny
iaoe?iiaeueia aaaaonoai noni?euenoaa ? naia aiii ? iaea?eueo
?eceeiaaiei.

?acii c iiiyooyi ?eceeo aoee iiaeai? aecia/aiiy nooiaiy ?eceeo ? ioe?iee
nooiaiy ?eceeo.

?ecee — oea eiia??i?noue (caa?ica) ao?aoe i?aei?e?ioeai /anoeie
?ano?n?a, iaaeiio?eiaiiy i?eaooe?a aai iiyaa aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?ao
aiane?aeie cae?eniaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Ana oea iiaea
i?eaanoe o??io aei aaie?oonoaa.

Nooi?iue ?eceeo — oea eiia??i?noue iiyae ao?ao, a oaeiae ?ici??
iiaeeeaeo caeoe?a a?ae ieo, oiaoi oea ?ici?? i/?eoaaii? iaaaea/? a
i?ioean? aeinyaiaiiy i?aei?e?ioeai nai?? iaoe, yea ? ooieoe??th
ianooiieo ia?aiaieo:

R=r*I, aea
(1)

R — ?ici?? (nooi?iue) ?eceeo;

r — ?iia??i?noue iiyae ao?ao (?ecee);

I — ?ici?? ao?ao.Ioe?ieoe ?ecee — oea icia/a? aecia/eoe e?euee?niei aai
ye?niei oeyoii eiai nooi?iue (?ici??).

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui o an?o ?nioth/eo
iaoiaeeeao, ye? iienai? a e?oa?aoo??, ?icaeyae ieoaiiy ioe?iee nooiaiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo i?iaiaeeany ia oiiaieo i?eeeaaeao aai aiia
canoiniaoaaeany o?eueee aei iaeiiai aeaeo ?eceeo. Ie??i oiai, ioe?iea
nooiaiy ?eceeo ae?iaeyeany aeey ?iaanoeoe?eieo eiiiai?e, eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a, aoae?aaeueieo ? oi?aiaeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Oiio iaie aia?oa c?iaeaia ni?iaa e?euee?nii? ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo ia
i?eeeaae? iaaieo i?aei?e?inoa i. Iaeane c aeei?enoaiiyi aooaaeoa?nueei?
oa noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?.

Ca iaoith aeoieith, ie??i ciai?oi?o ?ecee?a, ye? ia caeaaeaoue a?ae
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa, ia i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/o o??io a i?ioean? ??
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? iiaeooue aieeaaoe /ioe?e aeaee
aioo??oiueiai ?eceeo:

i?aai?caoe?eii-ae?iaie/ee, eiia?oe?eiee, o?iainiaee, ?iaanoeoe?eiee.

Eiaeiiio c oeeo aeae?a aioo??oiueiai ?eceeo aaoi?ii aoei aeaii
aecia/aiiy ? aeyaeai? aeaea?aea ?o aeieeiaiiy.

I?aai?caoe?eii- ae?iaie/ee ?ecee aeieea? a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa ?
iia’ycaiee c iaiiaeeea?noth aeeiiaiiy o??iith nai?o iaia’yce?a ca
eiio?aeoii aai aeiaiai?ii ?c caiiaieeii. Aeaea?aeaie eiai aeieeiaiiy ?:

· iaa??ii aea?aia no?aoaa?y o??ie;

· iacaaeainiaai?noue ?iciiae?eo aioo??oi?o ?ano?n?a o??ie;

· c?inoaiiy aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai;

· cieaeaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa;

· iai?iaeoiai? iiaiaaaaeaiiy, iia? oaoiieia??;

· iaocaiaeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? i?ae ie?aieie i?ae?icae?eaie o??ie;

· cieaeaiiy ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? o??ie;

· iacaaeiaieaiiy ?ia?oiee?a o??ie ? ?ecee caaanoiaie;

· ?icaieioaiiy eiia?oe?eii? oa?iieoe?;

· i?eeiyooy iaa??iiai ??oaiiy ea??aieeaie;

· ao?aoe iaeia.

Eiia?oe?eiee ?ecee aeieea? i?e ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a ia ?eieo ca oiia
iaiaae?eiino? ia?oia??a o ni?euei?e ae?yeueiino? ? coiiaeth?oueny
ianooiieie oaeoi?aie:

· a?aenooi?noth aeanii? i?o? ia ?eieo caooo;

· iaa??iei aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe??;

· cieaeaiiyi ianya?a ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??;

· iiaaii i?aai?ciaaiei oiaa?i?ooii;

· a?aenooi?noth aai iaa??iith i?aai?caoe??th ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue;

· iiieeeiaei oe?iiooai?aiiyi;

· ao?aoith niiaeeaa/?a;

· iacaaeia?eueiei aeeiiaiiyi eiio?aaaioii oiia aeiaiai?o;

· iacaaeainiaai?noth iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? ia ?eieo.

O?iainiaee ?ecee iiaeeeaee o ca’yceo ?c ao?aoaie o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
(a?ioiaeo cania?a), a oaeiae ?iia??i?noth iaaeeiiaiiy o??iith nai?o
iaia’yce?a ia?aae ?iaanoi?aie. A?i iiaea aeieeiooe aiane?aeie:

· iia??oaiiy o?iainiaiai noaio o??ie;

· ianeaiino? aeaniiai eai?oaeo;

· cieaeaiiy i?eaooe?a;

· aeieeiaiiy iaia?aaeaa/aieo aeo?ao;

· iiaeeeaiai aeeo/aiiy ae?eiaei ia?oia?ii /anoeie a?ioiaeo cania?a c
onoaaiiai oiiaeo o??ie;

· iaaeieao ca aaea iinoaaeaiee oiaa?;

· iacao?aaoaaiino? aaea ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoe??;

· ci?ie eo?no aaetho;

· c?inoaiiy a?aenioeiaeo noaaie ca iiceeo;

· iaaeinoaoeo aeanieo ia?aiaeo cania?a;

· iaio?eiaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e a?ae eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ?iaanoeoe?eieo
eiiiai?e.

?iaanoeoe?eiee ?ecee iia’ycaiee ?c niaoeeo?eith aeeaaeaiiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueeith o??iith a?ioiaeo cania?a o ??ci? i?iaeoe e
iaoiiaeth?oueny:

· iaiaa?oioiaaiei aeeaaeaiiyi ?iaanoeoe?e;

· iaacoe?ithaaiiyi ?iaanoeoe?eii-o?iainiaiai ii?ooaeth;

· cieeiaiiyi aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy ia oeyoo ?aae?caoe?? iaaiiai i?iaeoo;

· iani?aoeueiaoaaiiyi aea?aiiai iaoiaeo o?iainoaaiiy;

· ca?eueoaiiyi iiia?aaeiuei? aa?oino? i?iaeoo;

· cieaeaiiyi eo?no aeoe?e ia a??ae?;

· eiia??i?noth aeieeiaiiy ao?ao aiane?aeie aeio?eiaiiy o??iith a??aeiaeo
oaiae;

· i?eioniaei ca?eueoaiiyi ?ai?oa caieaiiaaiiai ?ici??o aeea?aeaiae?a ii
aeoe?yo aai aeieao ii iayo o??ie;

· aeeaaeaiiyi aaeeei? noie a?ioiaeo cania?a a iaeei i?iaeo.

An? aeua ia?a?aoiaai? aeaea?aea ?eceeo aieeaathoue ia ?acoeueoaoe
ae?yeueiino? o??ie, oiio ?o iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe, ioe?ieoe ? cieceoe aei
?aaeueieo iaae.

Aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ioe?iee nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo
iieacaa, ui oi?aa?naeueiiai niiniao aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaia?. Aoaeue-yeee
c ieo ia? nai? ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee. Aieiaiei iaaeie?eii ?o ? oyaeea
io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaaeinoaoiy aeinoia??i?noue e?euee?nii? ioe?iee
nooiaiy ?eceeo.

Ca iaoith aeoieith, o?eueee eiia?iiaaia aeei?enoaiiy an?o iaoiae?a
aeicaiey? ae??oeoe iinoaaeaia caaaeaiiy c aeinoaoi?i nooiaiai oi/iino?.
I?e ioe?ioe? nooiaiy aioo??oi?o ?ecee?a ae?iaie/i? o??ie
canoiniaoaaeenue ianooii? iaoiaee: noaoenoe/iee, aiae?co aei?a/iino?
aeo?ao, a?aeiinii? ioe?iee ?eceeo ia iniia? aiae?co o?iainiaiai noaio
i?aei?e?inoaa oa aenia?oieo ioe?iie.

?icae?e 2. Aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai
iaoai?cio ea?oaaiiy ?eceeii.

Ca iaoith aeoieith, i?e ioe?ioe? nooiaiy ?eceeo ia?aaaaeiei ?
noaoenoe/iee iaoiae. Ca iayai?noth ia o??i? iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??
?ic?aooaaoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo nooiaiy ?eceeo iiaeia ca aeiiiiiaith
oi?ioe, ye? aaea aeaaii oni?oii canoiniaoaaeeny a oai??? eiia??iino? ?
noaoenoeoe?.

Iaeiae ?nioth/? oi?ie iae?eo iioi/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia ai?uathoue a naaa
aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? iieaciee?a, ye? iaiao?aeii iaoe a iioi/i?e
ca?oiino? o??ie aeey iia?aoeaii? ioe?iee nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
?eceeo noaoenoe/iei iaoiaeii.

Oiio c iaoith aii?yaeeoaaiiy cae?aiiy ? ia?iaee iaiao?aeieo noaoenoe/ieo
aeaieo iaie i?iiiio?oueny noaia “AEo?iaeo iae?eo iioi/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? o??ie”, a yeee iaiao?aeii ai?uaoe iieacieee, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iianyeaeaiio ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue o??ie. Aei
ieo a?aeiinyoueny:

· e?euee?noue aeiaaee?a oni?oiiai i?iaaaeaieo iia?aoe?e — noni;

· e?euee?noue aeiaaee?a iaaaeaei i?iaaaeaieo iia?aoe?e — niaaae;

· caaaeueia e?euee?noue aeiaaee?a iia?aoe?e ii aeaiiio aeaeo
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? — ncaa;

· e?euee?noue aeiaaee?a iaaiiai ??aiy ao?ao aiane?aeie iaaaeaei
i?iaaaeaieo iia?aoe?e — niaaae;

wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@???? ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????°????°=???uAy??????·

/anoioa aeieeiaiiy ao?ao

· e?euee?noue ao?ao o aa?o?niiio ae?aaeaii? aiane?aeie iaaaeaei
i?iaaaeaieo iia?aoe?e, o oiio /ene?: iaoa??aeuei?, o?oaeia?, o?iainia?,
ao?aoe /ano, ?io? aeaee ao?ao;

· ?iia??i?noue aeieeiaiiy ao?ao aiane?aeie i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ( o ae?iaie/iio ? eiia?oe?eiiio i?aei?e?iieoeoa?);

· nooi?iue ?eceeo ii eiaeiiio aeaeo ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? aai ii
eiaei?e iia?aoe?? aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith 1.

Nei?enoaaoenue iioi/iith noaoenoe/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th, i?aei?e?iaoeue
iiaea ioe?ieoe nooi?iue ?eceeo ii eiaeiiio aeaeo ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? aai eiie?aoi?e iia?aoe?? ca a?aeiieie oi?ioeaie ca
aeiiiiiaith noaoenoe/iiai iaoiaeo:

1. ?ic?aooaaoe iaoaiaoe/ia i/?eoaaiiy, aeenia?n?th,
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy, eiao?oe??io aa??aoe??..

2. I?ecia/eoe iaeano? (ciie) ?eceeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae ianya?a ao?ao ?
anoaiiaeoe ?oa?aei? ianyae iieaciee?a iiaeeeaiai, e?eoe/iiai ?
eaoano?io?/iiai ?eceeo.

3. Iiaoaeoaaoe e?eao ?iciiae?eo eiia??iino? aeieeiaiiy iaaiiai ??aiy
aeo?ao.

4. Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo caoiae?a ae?iaeoe i??eoaaiiy i?i noai iioi/ieo
ni?aa ia i?aei?e?inoa? ? i?eeiyoe ??oaiiy i?i i?iaaaeaiiy (aai
iai?iaaaeaiiy) iaeaooi?o ainiiaea?nueeeo iia?aoe?e.

Iaeiae ioe?ieoe nooi?iue ?eceeo, aeei?enoiaoth/e oeth iaoiaeeeo,
iiaeeeai a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui oaiaea cae?enithaaeany a ieioeiio a
i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao aai c iaeiei ? oei naiei ia?oia?ii
aeae?eueea ?ac?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeaeeny ieoaiiy, ye? iia’ycai? c i?i?i?caoe??th
?eceeo ia o??i? ca ?aooiie ?? aioo??oi?o ?aca?a?a. Aeey ae??oaiiy oe???
i?iaeaie aaoi?ii aoea ?ic?iaeaia aieaoa “I?i iiooe oeyo?a cieaeaiiy
aioo??oi?o ?ecee?a o i?ioean? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/i? o??ie”. A aieaooaaii? acyee o/anoue 38 aenia?o?a,
c ieo: ea??aieee i?aei?e?inoa, iaiaaeaea?e, aieiai? aooaaeoa?e — 7 in?a
(18% c /enea iieoaieo); i?eaaoi? i?aei?e?ioe? — 9 in?a (24%), aeeeaaea/?
aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a i. Iaeane — 14 in?a
(37%), ?io? oao?aoe? — 8 in?a (21%). Ca aeaieie aieaooaaiiy
cai?iiiiiaai? aeaye? oeyoe cieaeaiiy aioo??oi?o ?ecee?a aeey
i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/eo o??i, c yeeo iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy iathoue:

Aeey i?aai?caoe?eii — ae?iaie/iai ?eceeo:

1) i?e iaa??ii aea?ai?e no?aoaa?? o??ie aeioe?eueii:

— ia?aaeyiooe naith no?aoaa?th;

— i?iaanoe noa?aiiee aiae?c ?eieo;

— aecia/eoe ia?eaoeiaia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iiaaae?iee o??ie ia ?eieo;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?iaiic ?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e;

2) i?e c?inoaii? aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai iiaeeeai:

— ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? iaeeieoe?
i?iaeoeoe?? (iai?eeeaae, e?ea?aeaoe?y ao?ao a?ae a?aeo);

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noai caian?a ? aeo?ao;

— i?iaanoe cai?io iaeieo aeae?a iaoa??ae?a ?ioeie, a?eueo aeaoaaeie;

— cieceoe aeo?aoe ia eoi?aeth, aeinoaaeo ? caa??aaiiy iaoa??ae?a;

3) i?e cieaeaii? ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny:

— c?iaeoe aiae?c i?e/ei cieaeaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa;

— ia?aa??eoe ae?eni?noue oa iioeiaeuei?noue ieai?a;

— i?iaanoe aiae?c iinoa/aiiy iaoa??ae?a, ne?iaeie;

— ?ic?aooaaoe ? i?iaiae?coaaoe a aeeiai?oe? ianooii? iieacieee:
eieeaaiiy ??ai?a ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, i?iaeaaeo, oe?i, iinoaaie,
ianyao, caian?a ? ne?iaeie oa ?i.;

4) o aeiaaeeo iaocaiaeaeaiino? aca?iiae?e i?ae ??cieie i?ae?icae?eaie
o??ie, iaaeinoaoiueiai eiio?ieth ia an?o aoaiao ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano
iaiao?aeii:

— i?iaanoe aiae?c i?e/ei ?iceaaeo aca?iiae?e o eieaeoea?;

— aeei?enoiaoaaoe a i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy o??iith iioeaaoe?th i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?aoe? ?ia?oiee?a;

— cieceoe aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th a oi?aae?ii?;

— iaeaaiaeeoe eii?aeeiaoe?th i?ae neoaeaaie;

— caaacia/eoe eiio?ieue iaiaaeaea??a on?o ??ai?a ca ?iaioith
i?ae?icae?e?a;

5) aeey oieeiaiiy i?eeiyooy iaa??ieo ??oaiue ea??aieeaie o??i
aeioe?eueii:

— i?iaiaeeoe noa?aiiee i?aea?? ea??aiee?a aeueo ? na?aaei?o eaiie,
aoaeoeaio iioeaaoe?th ? noeioethaaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?;

— aeae?eyoe eiooe ia i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ea??aieo eaae??a;

— caeo/aoe aei ?iaioe aeina?ae/aieo aenia?o?a — eiinoeueoaio?a c?
noi?iie;

6) o aeiaaeeo cieaeaiiy ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? o??ie ne?ae:

— ia?aaoaeoaaoe ?iaioo o??ie ia aeione i?iaeoeoe??, yea ei?enoo?oueny
iiieoii;

— oi?iaaaeaeoaaoe a iiaee oiaa? ci?ie, ui iie?auothoue eiai niiaeea/?
aeanoeaino?;

— i?iaeaaaoe na?e oiaa? ca oe?iaie ieae/eie, i?ae o eiieo?aio?a.

Aeey eiia?oe?eiiai ?eceeo:

1) i?e a?aenooiino? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeanii? i?o? ia ?eieo
caooo iaiao?aeii:

— noa?aiii aiae?coaaoe ?eiie;

— ioe?ieoe iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? o??ie ia eiie?aoiiio ?eieo aai eiai
naaiaio?;

— aea?aoe naaiaio ia ?eieo ? oo?eioaaoe nai? iiceoe??;

— ni?anoaaeoe ?eieiao eii’thieoo?o c? an?ia ?ano?naie o??ie;

2) o aeiaaeeo iaa??iiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeua ne?ae:

— cae?aoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i noai ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua;

— aea/aoe ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe ? caeiie caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai
oa?aeoa?o;

— aiineoe aeiaeaoeia? ci?ie a a?cian — ieai, ieaie ae?iaieoeoaa oa
?iaanoeoe?ei? ieaie;

3) i?e iacaaeainoaaii? iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? oiaa??a ia ?eieo
aeioe?eueii;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe a aeeiai?oe? aaee/eio ? no?oeoo?o iioi/iiai ae?eniiai
iiieoo;

— cae?aoe noaoenoe/io ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a ia aaee/eio
iiieoo (aai aenia?oi? ioe?iee iiieoo);

— i?iaanoe aiae?c no?oeoo?e ?eieo, aeanoe/iino? iiieoo ii oe?iao, oaii?a
c?inoaiiy niiaeeaaiiy;

— aaanoe oe?iiao aeene?ei?iaoe?th;

— i?e iaae?ii? iiieoo — iaaaeia i?eeiyooy ianooiieo caoiae?a: c?inoaiiy
??aiy e?ea?aeiino? ca ?aooiie i?enei?aiiy ?aae?caoe?? aeaioiaeaii?
i?iaeoeoe??, nei?i/aiiy oiaa?ieo caian?a, caeoiie ne?iaeie, iaoa??ae?a;
cieaeaiiy oe?ie ia aeanio i?iaeoeoe?th oa ca?eueoaiiy ?? ani?oeiaioo;

4) o aeiaaeeo c?inoaiiy eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae ia ?eieo iaiao?aeii
i?iaanoe noa?aiiee aiae?c ?iaioe o??i — eiieo?aio?a ? c?a?aoe ianooiio
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i:

— ani?oeiaio i?iaeoeoe??, yea aeionea?oueny oa ?aae?co?oueny;

— i?noea eiieo?oth/i? o??ie ia na?oiaiio ?eieo;

— aaiee, /a?ac ye? o??ia aeeiio? nai? iia?aoe??;

— ?o o?iainiaee noai ? ca’ycee c ?ioeie o??iaie;

i?iaiic ci?i no?aoaa?? eiieo?aio?a ? aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieo c
ieo;

— iiaeeeao ?aaeoe?th eiieo?aio?a ia ae?eiao aeoeai?noue i?aei?e?inoaa;

5) o ?ac? aeieeiaiiy caoiaa?aiiy i?iaeoeoe?? ia o??i? /a?ac iecueeee
ianya ?? ?aae?caoe?? o?aaa:

— ?ic?iaeoe caoiaee uiaei noeioethaaiiy i?iaeaaeo i?iaeoeoe??;

— iie?aueoe ani?oeiaio ? ye?noue i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeionea?oueny;

— ?aoaeueii i?aeae?aoe eiia?oe?eieo iina?aaeiee?a;

— noeioethaaoe caoo i?iaeoeoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith ?aeeaie;

6) i?e iacaaeia?eueiiio aeeiiaii? eiio?aaaioii oiia aeiaiai?o
iaiao?aeii:

— c?iaeoe caieo o a?aeiia?aeiee aaie i?i ieao?aeiini?iiiaei?noue
ia?oia?a;

— i?e oeeaaeaii? oaiaee aeei?enoaoe iineoae no?aoiai? eiiiai??;

— aei oeeaaeaiiy oaiaee aaanoe a eiio?aeo nenoaio oo?aoieo naieoe?e ca
eiaeia acyoa ciaia’ycaiiy;

— iie?aueoe ?iaioo aeanii? th?eaee/ii? neoaeae;

7) a aeiaaeeo ?ic?eao iaeaaiaeaeaieo ca’yce?a ?c iinoa/aeueieeaie
aeioe?eueii:

— i?e caeeth/aii? aeiaiai?o ia?aaeaa/aoe oo?aoi? naieoe?? ia aeiaaeie
a?aeiiae iinoa/aeueieea a?ae nai?o ciaia’ycaiue;

— iinoaaeyoe iaoa??aee (ne?iaeio) aaciina?aaeiuei aei ?iai/eo i?noeue,
iaieiath/e neeaaenuee? i?ei?uaiiy.

Aeey o?iainiaiai oa ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?ecee?a:

1) i?e iia??oaii? o?iainiaiai noaio o??ie iaiao?aeii:

— i?iaanoe ?aoaeueiee aiae?c o?iainiai? ca?oiino? ? iiooe “ oai?eo”
noaoae — caeoe?a, i?ino?i/aii? caai?aiaaiino? oiui;

— o aeiaaeeo c?inoaiiy ae?iaie/eo caian?a — c’ynoaaoe ?o i?e/eie ?
i?iaanoe aioo??oiuei — o?iainiaee aiae?c;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aio nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao, cieaeaiiy aeaa?oi?nueei?
caai?aiaaiino?;

— eoioaaoe iineoae niaoe?ae?ciaaieo i?aei?e?inoa ( o?ainii?oieo,
aoae?aieo);

— ooeaoe aeiaeaoeia? aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy;

— i?iaiaeeoe iiooe iao?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a iiiaeaiiy iaoa??aeueii? aace
? i?enei?aii? iiaea?i?caoe?? iniiaieo oiiae?a o??ie;

2) o aeiaaeeo cieaeaiiy i?eaooeo ? ao?aoe a?ioiaeo eioo?a
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny:

— ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeeoe ia o??i? ia?aa??ee aooaaeoa?nueei? oa
noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?;

— caeo/eoe aei ?iaioe aeina?ae/aiiai aieiaiiai aooaaeoa?a;

— eiio?iethaaoe aeieeiaiiy iiaeo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a;

— ?aoaeueii ieaioaaoe iaeaooi? aeo?aoe;

— noai?eoe ?aca?aiee (?eceeiaee) oiiae ia o??i?, eiooe yeiai iiaeia
aoaea aeei?enoiaoaaoe o aeiaaeeao iaia?aaeaa/aieo (oi?n — iaaei?ieo)
ianoaaei;

3) aeey oieeiaiiy ao?ao a?ioiaeo cania?a i?e caeeth/aii? oaiaee
iaiao?aeii oaeiae i?eeiyoe ianooii? caoiaee:

— nei?enooaaoeny iineoaaie no?aoiai? eiiiai??;

— ?iciiae?eeoe ?eceee i?ae ia?oia?aie;

— i?eoyaiooe aei aeeiiaiiy i?iaeoo caniae aai/o?ieo (?eceeiaeo) oiiae?a;

4) i?e ?ici?uaii? aaeeei? noie a?ioiaeo eioo?a a iaeiiio i?iaeo?
iaiao?aeia ?o aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y;

5) aeey caiia?aaiiy ianieaoe ca iinoaaeaiee oiaa? iaiao?aeii i?eeiyoe
ianooii? caoiaee:

— aeoea?coaaoe ?iaioo aeanii? th?eaee/ii? neoaeae uiaei ianiea/aieo
oiia;

— i?aai aeaniino? ia i?iaeoeoe?th ia?aaeaaaoe iieoioeth i?ney 100 %
nieaoe;

— caeeth/eoe c aaieii oaiaeo ia oaeoi?eiaiaa ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeanii?
aeaa?oi?nueei? caai?aiaaiino?;

— aaanoe aei eiio?aeoo oiiae canoaaieo ieaoaae?a oa oo?aoi? naieoe??.

Iaiao?aeii oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ioe?iea oa cieaeaiiy nooiaiy ?eceeo
caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o ae?yeueiino? o??ie, iniaeeainoae i?iaeoeoe??,
yea aeaioiaey?oueny, noaio aea?aieo oe?eueiaeo ?eie?a, i?eeiyoi? nenoaie
oiaa?i?ooo oa a?ae ?ioeo oaeoi??a.

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a cieaeaiiy ?eceeo ia i?aei?e?inoa? ? aea?? iaae?eiiai
ia?oia?a aeey ae?eiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia “Aieaoa
aeai?o ia?oia?a aeey ae?eiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa” ? i?iaaaeaii aenia?oia
iieooaaiiy ea??aiee?a 24 eiia?oe?eieo o??i, o oiio /ene? ca iai?yieaie
ae?yeueiino?: ae?iaie/a — 11 in?a (46% iieoaieo),
oi?aiaaeueii-iina?aaeieoeueea — 5 in?a (21%), ?aae?caoe?eia — 1 iniaa
(4%), iaaeaiiy iineoa — 7 in?a (29%). Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aieaooaaiiy
cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey i?aei?e?ioe?a. Ia?aae caeeth/aiiyi
eiio?aeoo c ae?eiaei ia?oia?ii ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeio?eioaaoeny ianooiieo
i?aaee:

1. Iaaanoe aeia?aeee i?i aaie, ui o?iaino? o??io-ia?oia?a.

2. Ioe?ieoe o?iainiaee noai o??ie-ia?oia?a.

3. Ni?iaoaaoe io?eiaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ye?noue aeeiiaiiy eiio?aaaioaie
ia?oia?nueeeo iaia’yce?a ca iiia?aaei?ie oaiaeaie.

4. Iaaeaoe aeac?aee nai?e th?eaee/i?e neoaea? uiaei ia?aa??ee caeiiiino?
oaiae o??i-eiio?aaaio?a.

5. I?ney i?aeienaiiy eiio?aeo?a (aeiaiai??a) iaiao?aeii ia?aaeaa/eoe
iiaeeea? oo?aoi? naieoe?? ia aeiaaeie ?icoi?aiaiiy oaiaee aai iaye?niiai
?? aeeiiaiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo i?iieneiai- ae?iaie/i? o??ie a oiiaao ia
aecia/aiino?, aeie-noaia yei? iiaeaia ia ?en.1.

Iaoiaeeea ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo, yea cai?iiiiiaaia aaoi?ii, ?
oi?aa?naeueiith ? iiaea canoiniaoaaoeny ia i?aei?e?inoaao aoaeue-yei?
aaeoc? ? oi?ie aeaniino?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Ioe?iea nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo ia
i?eeeaae? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa i. Iaeane” i?iaiaeeoueny eiiieaenia
ioe?iea nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo ia 3 i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoaao i.Iaeane ??cieie iaoiaeaie. Nii/aoeo oea caaaeaiiy
ae??ooaaeiny iaoiaeii a?aeiinii? ioe?iee ?eceeo ia iniia? aiae?co
o?iainiaiai noaio i?aei?e?inoa.

I?e oeueiio, ie??i aooaaeoa?nueei? ? noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?
i?aei?e?inoa, aeei?enoiaoaaeany iaoiaeeea Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? Oe?a?ie “ I?i i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co o?iainiaiai noaio
i?aei?e?inoaa — ai?aeieea i?e io?eiaii? a?aeno?i/ie (?icno?i/ie)” ?
“Iaoiaeeea ioe?iee aaieo aeey oo?eioaa/a iiceee”.

Aiane?aeie aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
i?aei?e?inoai ?1 ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeano? ii?iaeueii? no?eeino?, ui
a?aeiia?aea? cii? i?i?iaeueiiai ?eceeo. A iueiai aenieee ??aaiue
e?ea?aeiino? ? aeinoaoiuei aeanieo ia?aiaeo cania?a. O?iainiaee noai
i?aei?e?inoaa ?2 ? iano?eeei, ui a?aeiia?aea? iaeano? i?aeaeuaiiai
?eceeo. A iueiai iecueeee ??aaiue e?ea?aeiino?, aea aeinoaoiuei aeanieo
? ia?aiaeo cania?a. I?aei?e?inoai ?3 ?icoaoiaaii a iaeano? e?eoe/iiai
noaio, ui a?aeiia?aea? cii? e?eoe/iiai ?eceeo. Ca 1996-1997??. aiii
caciaei na?eicieo caeoe?a ? ? i?eioeeiiaei aaie?ooii.

I?ney ioe?iee o?iainiaiai noaio i?aei?e?inoa aoea ni?iaiiciaaia
eiia??i?noue ?o aaie?oonoaa a iaeaeeae/iio iaeaooiueiio (2-3 ?iee) ca
aeiiiiiaith ?iaeaeno iiceeini?iiiaeiino? (Z-?aooiea Aeueoiaia).

Ca io?eiaieie cia/aiiyie iieaciee?a aoee c?iaeai? ianooii? aeniiaee:
i?aei?e?inoai ?1 i?ioyaii o?ueio ?ie?a iaei aeoaea iecueeo eiia??i?noue
aaie?oonoaa; i?aei?e?inoai ?2 a 1995 ?. iaei aeoaea iecueeo eiia??i?noue
aaie?oonoaa, aea o ca’yceo c iia??oaiiyi eiai o?iainiaiai noaio a 1996
?. ?iia??i?noue aaie?oonoaa aoea aaea aenieith, a a 1997 ?. noaea aeoaea
aenieith; i?aei?e?inoai ?3 i?ioyaii onueiai ia??iaeo, ui ?icaeyaeaany,
iaei aeoaea aenieo eiia??i?noue aaie?oonoaa.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aooaaeoa?nueei? ca?oiino? aeicaieea oaeiae
aeei?enoaoe ie?ai? oi?iaeuei? e?eoa???, ye? aeathoue ciiao i?iaiicoaaoe
iia??oaiiy noaio ni?aa ia i?aei?e?inoa? ? eiia??i?noue eiai aaie?oonoaa.

Aiae?c ?nioth/iai ?eceeo ia eiaeiiio c o?ueio i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa
i?iaiaeeany ca iaoiaeii aenia?oieo ioe?iie ia iniia? ?ic?aooieo
noa’?eoeaii? eiia??iino? iaaaaeaieo iiae?e. I?e oeueiio ioe?iea eiaeiiai
c /ioe?ueio aeae?a aioo??oiueiai ?eceeo i?iaiaeeeanue ia iniia? 10 eiai
oaeoi??a, ye? aoee iaeiaeiaeie aeey an?o i?aei?e?inoa.

Aeey aecia/aiiy eii’thieoo?ii? ao?eaooeaii? ioe?iee eiaeiiai oaeoi?a
aoei caeo/aii 10 aenia?o?a c /enea i?aei?e?ioe?a ? aeeeaaea/?a eo?no
iaiaaeiaioo AIC i.Iaeane. Aiae?coth/e ?oi? aeoiee, eiaeiiio oaeoi?o iaie
aoei i?enai?ii aae (A?), yeee oa?aeoa?eco? nooi?iue ?eceeo ca ?aooiie
aeaiiai oaeoi?o, a?ae 1 aei 10, a oaeiae naith ieoiio aaao (W?), yea
a?aeia?aaea? aeieth aieeao oaeoi?o a caaaeuei?e e?eueeino? ?eceeo.
Na?aaei?e ??aaiue ?eceeo aeey ?-ai oaeoi?o ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

?en. 1. Aeie-noaia ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/i? o??ie a
oiiaao iaaecia/aiino?

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??u?? ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-??????@????? ???u?th??????
wmetafile8? ??E????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy ??p?? ???&? ?MathType?? Bi –
?aia i-ai oaeoi?a;

Wi – ii?iiaaia aaaa i-ai oaeoi?a a caaaeuei?e ioe?ioe?;
wmetafile8? ??r???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy ??F?? ???&?
?MathType??????u@th??????

wmetafile8? ??‹?? ?5???????? ???????yyy????????????
dT???

????’yy???

????’yy??? ???????

????yyy???? ???????uoy??????Ca ?acoeueoaoaie eii’thieoo?ii?
ao?eaooeaii? ioe?iee oaeoi??a ca aeanyoeaaeueiith oeaeith aoei aecia/aii
iaae? cii ?eceeo (?en.2).

Ia iniia? aiae?co an?o aeae?a aioo??oiueiai ?eceeo aoei neeaaeaii
“aaeain aeaeeaaiiy” i?aei?e?inoa, a?aeiia?aeii aei yeiai i?aei?e?inoai
? 1 ciaoiaeeoueny a cii? i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo. I?aei?e?inoai ?2 — oaeiae
a cii? i?aeaeuaiiai ?eceeo, aea aeeae/a aei e?eoe/iiai. I?aei?e?inoai ?3
ciaoiaeeoueny a cii? e?eoe/iiai ?eceeo. .

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee

1. Nueiaiaei? i?iieneiaa i?aei?e?iieoeoai ? iniiaiei aeaeii
ae?yeueiino?, ni?iiiaeiei a?ae?iaeeoe aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie. Ca oiia
iaaecia/aiino? aiii iia’ycaii c iino?eiei ?eceeii, ioe?ieo yeiai
aeioe?eueii i?iaanoe ca aeiiiiiaith ye?niiai ? e?euee?niiai aiae?co.

2. Ia iniia? i?aeoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue cae?eniaii nenoaiaoecaoe?th
iiaeyae?a ? e?eoe/iee aiae?c ?nioth/eo oi/ie ci?o i?i iiiyooy
“i?aei?e?iieoeueeee ?ecee”

3. Ca iane?aeeaie ye?niiai aiae?co aoei ?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th
aioo??oi?o ?ecee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ae?iaie/o o??io, ? aecia/aii
aeaea?aea ?o aeieeiaiiy.

4. Aiae?c iaoiae?a ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo aeyaea, ui oi?aa?naeueiiai
niiniao aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaia?, eiaeai c ieo ia? nai? ia?aaaae ?
iaaeie?ee.

5 .Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy e?euee?nii? ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo ia?aaaaeiei ?
noaoenoe/iee iaoiae. Aeey eiai aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaai? nenoaia
iieaciee?a ? noaia “AEo?iaeo iae?eo iioi/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? o??ie”, ye? aeicaieythoue i?aei?e?ioeyi iia?aoeaii
i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy i?i iaeaooith oaiaeo aai aiae?coaaoe noai ni?aa ia
o??i?.

6. Iaoiae a?aeiinii? ioe?iee nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo
aeei?enoiaoaaany i?e i?iaaaeaii? aiae?co o?iainiaiai noaio i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa i. Iaeane ? a noeoiiino? c ?iaeaenii iiceeini?iiiaeiino?
(Z-?aooieii Aeueoiaia) aeicaieea ni?iaiicoaaoe eiia??i?noue ?o
aaie?oonoaa a iaeaeeae/iio iaeaooiueiio.

7. A?aoiaoth/e aeoiee aenia?o?a, aoea ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia e?eoa???a aeey
ioe?iee eiaeiiai aeaeo ?eceeo ? aecia/ai? ?o eii’theoo?i? ioe?iee, ui
aeiiiiiaei neeanoe “aaeain aeaeeaaiiy” i?aei?e?inoa.

8. Iaoiae aenia?oieo ioe?iie aoei canoiniaaii oaeiae i?e i?iaaaeaii?
aieaooaaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaai? ca ?o ?acoeueoaoaie ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
aeiiiiiaeooue ea??aieoeoao i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/eo o??i cieceoe
(i?i?i?coaaoe) aioo??oi?e ?ecee, iieaaoeoe aea?? ia?oia??a aeey
ae?eiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ? oei naiei iie?aueoe nai? iiceoe?? ia ?eieo.

9. Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeeea ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo
i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/i? o??ie ca oiia iaaecia/aiino? ia? oi?aa?naeueiee
oa?aeoa? ? iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ia i?aei?e?inoaao aoaeue-yei? aaeoc?
? oi?ie aeaniino?.10. Aeie – noaia ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo i?iieneiai –
ae?iaie/i? o??ie a oiiaao iaaecia/aiino? aeiiiiiaea ea??aieeai a?eueo
aoaeoeaii oi?aaeyoe ?eceeii.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue caeiaoaa/a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Noaoo?

1. Aiae?c ?eceeiaeo neooaoe?e ye aeaiaioo oni?oo i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? // ?eieia? aaaeae? oa noeioee ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?/eo nenoai.
Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. Iai?yiie 3. — Iaeana:Iaoeiaee
ca??iee IAeAO, 1997.- N.272-277 (0,3ae.a.).

Iaoiaeu aiaeeca ?eneia a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe //
I?iaeaie i?aoe?, aeiiii?ee oa iiaeaethaaiiy. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. *anoeia 2 — Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1998. –
N.110-114 (0,3ae.a.).

1. Aiaeec aaie?ionoaa i?aaei?eyoee // ?eieia? aaaeae? oa noeioee
?icaeoeo ainiiaea?/eo nenoai. *anoeia ??. — Iaeana: Iaoeiaee ca??iee
IAeAO, 1998. – ( 0,3ae.a).

2. Oeyoe i?i?i?caoe?? (cieaeaiiy) ?ecee?a a i?aei?e?iieoeuee?e
ae?yeueiino? // A?niee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeione
??. — Iaeana, IAeAO. — 1998. –N.199-206 ( 0,3ae.a.).

3. Iaoiaeeea ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo i?iieneiai? o??ie a oiiaao
iaaecia/aiino? // A?niee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue IAeAO, Iaeana, 1999. –N. 18-23 ( 0,3ae.a.).

Oace aenooi?a ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo

1.Aiaeec ?enea a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe // Iaoiaeieia?y
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co a oiiaao ?eieo. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. — Oa?iii?eue, 1997. – N.24-25 (
0,1ae.a.).

Aiioaoe?y

?aaeeaae/ I.A. Ioe?iea nooiaiy ?eceeo a i?aei?e?iieoeuee?e
ae?yeueiino?.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.02.03 — I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy, ieaioaaiiy ?
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?eith. — Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue
ioe?iee nooiaiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo a no/anieo oiiaao Oe?a?ie.

A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea e?euee?nii? ioe?iee nooiaiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo aeey i?iieneiai – ae?iaie/i? o??ie a oiiaao
iaaecia/aiino? ? cai?iiiiiaai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei eiai
cieaeaiiy ( i?i?i?caoe?? ) ca ?aooiie aioo??oi?o ?aca?a?a.

Oi?iaaaeaeaiiy oe??? iaoiaeeee ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? o??ie oa ci?oeiaiiy ?? noaio ia ?eieo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iioae?eiaai? a 6 ?iaioao caaaeueiei
ianyaii 1,6 ae.a.

Cae?eniaii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia AAO “Oi/iao”
i.Iaeane ? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? IAeAO.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nooi?iue i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai ?eceeo, i?i?i?caoe?y
(cieaeaiiy) ?eceeo, i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/a o??ia, aeaee aioo??oi?o
?ecee?a, oaeoi?e ?eceeo.

Aiiioaoeey

?aaeeaae/ I.A. Ioeaiea noaiaie ?enea a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.02.03-I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey, ieaie?iaaiey e
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee.- Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue yeiiiie/aneee
oieaa?neoao, Iaeanna, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ii aii?inai ioeaiee
noaiaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oe?iu
a oneiaeyo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aai
nieaeaieth (ieieiecaoeee ) ca n/ao aioo?aiieo ?aca?aia oe?iu.

Aeooaeueiinoue oaiu enneaaeiaaiey ninoieo a iauaeoeaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe
?ac?aaioee oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo i?iaeai eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee
noaiaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea aeey i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oe?i.

I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey aeaee aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue neaaeothuea
?acoeueoaou, eioi?ua eiatho iao/ioth e i?aeoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue:

— ia iniiaa oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee inouanoaeaiu nenoaiaoecaoeey
acaeyaeia e e?eoe/aneee aiaeec nouanoaothueo oi/ae c?aiey i iiiyoee
“i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?ene” e iaoiaeao aai ioeaiee;

— i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey aioo?aiieo ?eneia oe?iu e i?iaaaeai
aiaeec enoi/ieeia eo aicieeiiaaiey ;

— ?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth noaoenoe/aneiai
iaoiaea ioeaiee noaiaie ?enea e oi?i o/aoa oaeouae eioi?iaoeee,
iicaieythuea iia?aoeaii ioeaieoue ?ene oe?iu i?e i?eiyoee eiie?aoiiai
?aoaiey;

— ?aeiiaiaeiaaia nenoaia ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia nieaeaiea
(ieieiecaoeeth) ?eneia ca n/ao aioo?aiieo ?aca?aia oe?iu ;

— ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiiai yenia?oiiai ii?ina aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
auai?o aeaeiaiai ia?oia?a ia ?uiea e caeeth/aieth eiio?aeoia;

— ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee noaiaie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oe?iu ia
iniiaa iaoiaea yenia?oiuo ioeaiie.

I?aeoe/aneay oeaiiinoue ?aaiou ninoieo a ?aoaiee aeooaeueiuo i?iaeai
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeia eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee noaiaie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea. I?eiaiaiea ?acoeueoaoia aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai
enneaaeiaaiey niinianoaoao ?inoo yooaeoeaiinoe oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oe?iu e oi?i/aieth aa
iieiaeaiey ia ?uiea. Iie iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ethaie
io?anee e anao oi?i nianoaaiiinoe.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey auee iioaeeeiaaiu a 6 ?aaioao, iauei iauaiii
1,6 i.n. Inouanoaeaii aiaae?aiea i?aaeeaaaaiuo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee a ?aaioo
IAI “Oi/iao” a. Iaeannu e a o/aaiue i?ioeann IAYO.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay oe?ia, noaiaiue
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea, aeaeu aioo?aiieo ?eneia, nieaeaiea
(ieieiecaoeey ) ?enea, yenia?oiue ii?in, oaeoi?u ?enea.

Annotation

Radkevich N.V. The estimation of a level of risk in enterprise
aktivitj.-Manuscript.

Thesis for an economics degree by speciality 08.02.03.-Organization of
administration, planning and regulation of economy.-The Odessa State
Economic University, Odessa, 1999.

The thesis contains analytical investigations on the estimating of a
degree of enterprise risk of industrial and production firm in
conditions of indefiniteness and practical recommendations on its
decrease (minimization) by internal reserves.

Practical value of work consists in solution of actual problems of
modifying

The methods of quantitative estimation of a level of risk in enterprise
activity.

The Usage of results of this dissertational research contributes
growing of

Effectiveness of industrial production company business activity and
stabilization

Of it position on the market.They can be used in facilities of any
industry and any

Forms of ownership.

The research results were published in 6 articles, total amount 1,6
p.ps.

The implementation of the offered recommendation in activity of OAO
“Tochmash” of Odessa and in educational process of ODEU is carried out.

Keywords: enterprise risk degree, risk decrease (minimization),
industrial and production firm, internal risk kinds, risk factors.

Похожие записи