OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAIIss AA?A?IEO IAOE

IINOEOOO ?EAIIAI AINIIAeA?NOAA

AAO Aioaeie Aaea?ieiae/

OAeE 639.3.032

IOeIIEA IIIINIEO EI?IIIA A?Ae NO?AUOAAIIss

OE?A?INUeEI? ?AI*ANOI? OA ?AI*ANOI? ?OIOINUeEI? II?IAeE

O?ANEIAO ? IA?NIAEOEAE ?O AEEI?ENOAIIss

06.02.03 — ?eaieoeoai

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien “Ioe?iea iii?nieo ei?ii?a a?ae no?auoaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee o?aneiao ?
ia?niaeoeae ?o aeei?enoaiiy”

?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? aaiaoeee oa naeaeoe?? ?ea ?inoeoooo
?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ieo iaoe

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee, Aaneeue Aaa?eeoae/ OII?EAIEI, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi??? naeaeoe?? ?ea ?inoeoooo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio OAAI Ieoaeei sseiae/ ?OEIAIEI, aee?aeoi?
?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI

— eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Aaaeei ?iiaiiae/ AEAEN??IEI,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e ciieia?? a?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

eaoaae?a aaiaoeee ? ?icaaaeaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee E. 26.364.01. c
caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo? ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa
OAAI /252164, Ee?a, aoe.Iaoo?anueea, 135/

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 28” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
N.A. E?aaeai

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ei?ii?aieoeoai ? o?aaeeoe?eiei ? iaea?eueo
?icaeiooei iai?yieii noaaiaiai ?eaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?. Ia no/aniiio aoai?
ia?aae ?eaiaiaeiith iaoeith iinoa? caaaeaiiy c noai?aiiy iiaiai
aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai ei?iia, yeee ae aoa ci???ioiaaiee ia caaacia/aiiy
iio?aa ye aioo??oiueiai, oae ? ciai?oiueiai ?eieo a iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo
oiiaao.

Na?aae ei?ii?a aeae?eythoue /ioe?e aaiaoe/i? a?oie, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith ca aaeeeith e?euee?noth iciae (eoneao?,
e?i?ei?, ?iceeaeai?, aie?). I?e ni?eyoeeaeo oiiaao ae?iuoaaiiy
?iceeaeai? ei?iie i?aeoe/ii ia iinooiathoueny eoneaoei ca oaiiii ?inoo
oa aeeoo?caeaoi?noth (Schaperclaus, 1961; Ee?ie/ieeia 1987). A?aoiaoth/e
oa, ui na?oia? oe?ie ia iaeieoneaoeo ei?ii?a ia 20-25 % aeu?, i?ae ia
eoneaoeo, oi oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui ae?iuoaaiith ?ai/anoeo ei?ii?a a
Oe?a?i? i?eae?ey?oueny iaaeinoaoiy oaaaa ? naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iia ?iaioa c
ieie ia? cia/io ia?niaeoeao a iaeaooiueiio.

Na?aae iaeieoneaoeo ei?ii?a a Oe?a?i? ia?aoiao?oueny iaeia ii?iaea ?
iaeei aioo??oiueiii?iaeiee oei oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia, a
oaeiae iana?oeueeee ianea iaeieoneaoiai ei?iia. E??i oiai, aei ian
?iii?oiaai? ?ai/ano? ei?iie ?oioinueeiai oa i?iaoeueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy.
An? oe? ??ci? ca aaiacenii a?oie iathoue iaai? iaaeie?ee. Oae
?iii?oiaai? ei?iie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieinieiiith o?eiaoaeiaith,
/enoei niaaeeoaaiiyi eoneiaiai iie?eao o aeaeyae? “?aiee”, aea aiie
iaaeinoaoiuei i?enoiniaai? aei iaoeo aeieiai-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia
ae?iuoaaiiy. Oe?a?inueeei ei?iiai, iaaiaee, aeanoea? aenie?
?eaiaiaeii-a?ieia?/i? yeino?, i?e iina?aaei?o iieacieeao aenoa?’??o.

Cai?iiiiiaaia ?iaioa ni?yiiaaia ia neioac iciae, ye? aeanoea?
oe?a?inuee?e ?ai/ano?e ? ?oioinuee?e ?ai/ano?e ii?iae? o?aneiao, ui
aea? ciiao noai?eoe iia? i?iieneia? iii?n? iaeieoneaoiai ei?iia,
i?eoaiaiieie iciaeaie yeeo ?: i?eaaaeeaee oiaa?iee aeaeyae, aenie?
?eaiaiaeii-a?ieia?/i? yeino?, i?enoiniaai?noue aei i?noeaaeo oiia
ae?iuoaaiiy. E??i oiai, noai?aiiy iiai? aaiaoe/ii? a?oie ?ai/anoiai
ei?iia aeicaiey? iiiiaieoe aaiaoe/iee oiiae noaaiaiai ?eaieoeoaa Oe?a?ie
? a?aeooeaoe oeyoe iiaeieaiiy ?ia?aaeii? aeai?an?? a no?oeoo??
oe?a?inueeeo ?ai/anoeo oa eoneaoeo ei?ii?a (Oiieeaiei e ae?., 1990).

A no/aniiio ?eaieoeoa? i?aeoeeo?oueny aeaioe?i?eia nenoaia ?icaaaeaiiy,
yea aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ianii??aeiaiiiai no?auoaaiiy oa
ae?iuoaaiiy oiaa?ieo a?a?eae?a. Oiio, iaeiei c aieiaieo iai?yie?a
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiaoe/ieo a?oi ei?iia ca
eiia?iaoe?eiith ni?iiiaei?noth ia aaoa?icen.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith aeiaaino?ieiaiai caaaeaiiy “Aeaanoe iiaee oei iaeieoneaoiai
ei?iia aeey noaaiaeo ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie”, ui aoiaeeoue aei
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie “?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeea oaa?ei”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe ? eiiieaenia ioe?iea iii?nieo ei?ii?a a?ae ?aoeei?ieieo
no?auoaaiue oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? ? ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee
o?aneiao, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oniaaeeoaaiiy
aenoa?’??ieo oa ?ioa?’??ieo iciae.

Iniiaieie caaea/aie aeine?aeaeaiue ?:

— ioe?ieoe aenoa?’??i? oa ?ai?iaeoeoeai? iciaee aeo?aeieo ii??ae;

— aeaoe eiiieaenio ?eaiaiaeii-a?ieia?/io ioe?ieo iii?nieo ei?ii?a ia
ia?oiio oa ae?oaiio ?ioe? aeeooy;

— anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? niaaeeoaaiiy aenoa?’??ieo oa ?ioa?’??ieo
iieaciee?a o iii?nieo ei?ii?a;

— i?iaanoe eiiieaen o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aeyaeaiiy
aoaeoo aaoa?iceno a iii?nieo ei?ii?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa io?eiai? ? eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeai? a oiiaao
noaaiaeo ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie ?aoeei?iei? iii?ni? ei?iie a?ae
no?auoaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee
o?aneiao, anoaiiaeaiee oa?aeoa? oniaaeeoaaiiy iciae, aecia/ai?
iiaeeeaino? ?eaiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
ae?iaieoeoao cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa iii?nia oi?ia ?ai/anoiai ei?iia c
iie?auaieie oiaa?ieie yeinoyie, aeei?enoaiiy yei? aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe
?eaii?iaeoeoeai?noue noaa?a ia 10 -15 %. A aeine?aeiiio ainiiaea?noa?
“Ieaea” ??A OAAI noi?iiaaii noaaei iii?nieo ei?ii?a ia?oiai iieie?iiy
naeaeoe??, iaea?aeaieo a?ae ?aoeei?ieiiai no?auoaaiiy ei?ii?a
oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee o?aneiao, ye?
aoaeooue aeei?enoai? a aeiaaino?ieia?e i?ia?ai? aeaaaeaiiy iiaiai oeio
oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia.

Ia iniia? iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaoe?? iaienaia ?ino?oeoe?y c i?iieneiaiai
no?auoaaiiy ei?ii?a oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi?
ii?iaee o?aneiao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaioii i?iaaaeai? iaoeiai-aeine?aei?
oa ?eaiaiaei? ?iaioe a ainiiaea?noa? “Ieaea” ??A OAAI, a naia:
aii?ooaaiiy ie?aeiee?a aeo?aeieo noaae, io?eiaiiy iii?nieo iauaaee?a,
ii??aiyeueia ae?iuoaaiiy oeueiaie?oie oa oiaa?ii? ?eae. Iniaenoi
aeena?oaioii i?iaaaeai? o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia, c
aaiaoieia??, a?eeiaiai iie?ii?o?cio, aieeao aeno?aiaeueieo oaiia?aoo? ia
?icaeoie iii?nieo aia??ii?a oa aeaeeaaiiy iauaaee?a ia ?aii?o noaae?yo
?icaeoeo. E??i oeueiai, aeine?aeaeaia ?ioaineai?noue aeeaeaiiy iii?nieo
oeueiaie?oie a ??ci? ia??iaee aaaaoaoe?eiiai naciio, i?iaaaeaiee
o?ce/iee aiae?c oa anoaiiaeaiee aeo?ae ?no?aieo /anoei o?ea a oiaa?ieo
aeai??/ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo A/aii? ?aaee ??A OAAI, I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I??niiaiaeia aeaaeoeueoo?a a oiiaao
aio?iiiaaiiiai i?ano” (Ee?a, 1994), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“I?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ?eaii? i?iaeoeoe?? aioo??oi?o aiaeiei” (Ee?a, 1996),
I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “?ano?nicaiuaaeaeoth/? oaoiieia?? a
aeaaeoeueoo??” (Aaeea?, 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 8 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, a o./. 5 noaoae a oeaio?aeueieo niaoe?ae?ciaaieo aeaeaiiyo
Oe?a?ie.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 126
noi??ieao, neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, aeaio
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa i?i?ethno?iaaia 27 ?enoieaie oa 21 oaaeeoeath.
Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 199 ?ia?o, o oiio /ene? 42 ia
?iicaiieo iiaao.

AeINE?AeIA AACA. IAOA??AE ? IAOIAeE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?iaiaeeeenue a 1993-96
??. ia aac? aeine?aeiiai ainiiaea?noaa “Ieaea” ?inoeoooo ?eaiiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI. Iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ie?aeieee ei?iia
oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee ? ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee o?aneiao,
a oaeiae ?o /enoiii?iaei? oa iii?ni? iauaaeee ia ia?oiio-ae?oaiio ?ioe?
aeeooy.

Caaiaenueeee oa i?e?iaeiee ia?ano, aii?ooaaiiy, ?iaaioa?ecaoe?th oa
i?/aiiy ie?aeiee?a i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii “?ino?oeoe?? c i?aai?caoe??
ieai?iii? ?iaioe a ei?ii?aieoeoa? Oe?a?ie” (Oii?eaiei, Ieaen??iei,
Eo/a?aiei, 1995).

Aea/aiiy ei?iiai? aace aeine?aeieo noaa?a oa a?aea?? i?ia eeoa/iee?a,
aeey anoaiiaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeeaeaiiy oeueiaie?oie, i?iaiaeeee
ca ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie N.A. E?aaeai oa E.?. Eoia/iai? (1991).

Oaiia?aoo?iee oa aaciaee ?aaeei aeine?aeieo noaa?a eiio?iethaaee
uiaeaiii, c canoinoaaiiyi eiia?iiaaieo i?eeaae?a “HORIBA U-7” oa
oa?iiieneiao?o I20-EIA.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy yeino? nia?ie naioe?a aeo?aeieo ii??ae i?iaiaeeee ca
iaoiaeeeaie cai?iiiiiaaieie A.A. Ionnae?on (1951), O Oecei Aoe (1959)
oa *aeai Aiue Oio (1965).

Aea/aiiy c??eino? ei?ii?a i?iaiaeeee ca I.O. Naeoi oa I.A. Aooeueeith
(1968).

A?aea?? oa ia?iaeo aaiaoieia?/ieo i?ia i?iaiaeeee ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie
iaoiaeeeaie (Eeiaineee e ae?, 1984). A?eie ne?iaaoee e?ia? aecia/aee
?ao?aeoiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ia i?eeaae? ??O-22.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?ii?oieo a?eeiaeo nenoai ne?iaaoee e?ia? (o?ainoa?ei)
oa ia/?ieiaiai oa?iaioo (eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiaca) i?iaiaeeee
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iei iaoiaeii c canoinoaaiiyi eaia?e O?oaaeea?a-Iaoaaeiaa.
Aeaeo?ioi?ac i?iaiaeeee c aeei?enoaiiyi 7.5 % iie?ae??eai?aeiiai aaeth
i?e iai?oc? 200-220 V oa nee? no?oio 120-140 iA. Oa?aoaaiiy oi?aa?ai oa
i?eaiooaaiiy ?ic/ei?a i?iaiaeeee ca noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie (Iao?a?,
1971; Ei?i/eei e ae?., 1977).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaciee?a ?ioa?’??o i?iaiaeeeinue ca?aeii “?ino?oeoe?? c
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo aiae?c?a ?ea” (Eeiaineee, 1984).

I?e i?iaaaeaii? o?ce/iiai aiae?co oa anoaiiaeaii? aeoiaeo ?no?aieo
/anoei o?ea, ?icoei ei?ii?a i?iaiaeeany ia ianooii? neeaaeia? /anoeie:
oooea c ieaaoeyie, aieiaa, aioo??oi? i?aaie, eonea. Iio?i oooea oa
aieiaa a?aeaa?thaaeenue ia i?ioyc? 15 oa. ? aecia/aany aeo?ae ?no?aii?
oa ia?no?aii? /anoeie. ?a/iaeie, ye? i?ae /an a?aeaa?thaaiiy ia?aoiaeeee
a ?ic/ei ia a?aoiaoaaeenue. Aiiaaee, i/? oa cya?a a?aeiineee aei
ia?no?aieo /anoei o?ea. Aieiaa a?aeie?aiethaaeanue a?ae oooee
a?aeeaioaaiiyi a i?noe? i?ee??ieaiiy iniiaii? iioeei/ii? e?noee c o?eii
ia?oiai o?aaoey. E?ia, ui aeae?eyeanue i?ae /an ?icoeio ?eae,
a?aeiineee aei iane aioo??oi?o i?aai?a.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy naiie oa naioe?a o an?o o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo oa
ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ui i?iaiaeeeenue ia oiaa?ieo aeai??/eao,
neeaaeaei 1:1.

Ioe?ieo aoaeoo aaoa?iceno o a?aeiinieo iieacieeao i?iaiaeeee ca
oi?ioeaie cai?iiiiiaaieie E.A. Na?/eiei (1967). Iiae?ai?noue iii?nieo
ei?ii?a a?aeiinii aeo?aeieo aaouee?anueeeo oi?i aecia/aee ca A.A.
Oiaeueieoeueeei (1962). A?aeiinio oaeaee?noue ?inoo aeine?aeaeoaaee ca
?.?. Oiaeueaaocaiii (1935). Iieaciee o?eiaoaeiae — eiao?oe??io
ie?oaeaiino?, ae?aoiaoaaee ca A.?. Oiaoii (1975).

I?e ae?iuoaaii? ei?ii?a ia ia?oiio ?ioe? aeeooy aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae
caaaeueiiai eiio?ieth a iiaeeo?eaoe?? A. Nagy (1980). Aeei?enoaiiy
oeueiai iaoiaeo aeicaiey? ii??aithaaoe ie?ai?, ??ci? ca aaiacenii
aaiaoe/i? a?oie, ui ae?iuothoueny a ia?aeaioe/ieo oiiaao (??cieo
noaaao). Nooue iaoiaeo iieyaa? a oiio, ui o eiaeiee noaaie, aea
ae?iuothoueny iaeieoneao? a?oie oeueiaie?oie, ui iio?aaothoue
ii??aiyiiy, i?aenaaeaeothoueny ei?iie ieae?anueei? eoneaoi? ii?iaee
iaeii??aeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio ?iaeoueny i?eiouaiiy, ui
iaeieoneaoei ei?iiai aeanoeaa iiae?aia ?aaeoe?y ?acii c eoneaoeie
ei?iiaie ia ??ciiiai?oi? oaeoi?e ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua (niaeo?
aeeaeaiiy, aieea caa?oaeiaiiy, aca?iia?aeiineie “oeaeae-caeiae/” oiui).
Oaeei /eiii, iiaeeeai i?iaanoe ii??aiyiiy aeine?aeieo a?oi ?ea,
aeeeth/eaoe oaiioeiiao i?ieea?noue, ui iaoiiaeaia iaiaeii??aeieie
oiiaaie ae?iuoaaiiy a ??cieo noaaao. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a ei?aeooaaee
ca oi?ioeith:

R = R1 x K2:K1

aea R — a?aeei?aeoiaaiee iieaciee ?ea aeine?aeii? a?oie o iaaiiio
noaaeo;

R1 — na?aaei?e oaeoe/iee iieaciee ?ea aeine?aeii? a?oie o iaaiiio
noaaeo;

E1 — na?aaei?e oaeoe/iee iieaciee ei?ii?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie o
oeueiio ae noaaeo;

E2 — na?aaei?e oaeoe/iee iieaciee ei?ii?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie aeey
an?o noaae?a.

Ca ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue ae?iuaii aeecueei 6 oen. aeaie?oie oa 100 oen.
oeueiaie?oie ei?iia ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy. I?iaaaeaii i?/aiiy 5 oen. ?ea
oeyoii i?ae??caiiy a?oaeieo oa oainoiaiai ieaaoe?a. Aeine?aeaeaii ai?no
320 eeoa/iee?a oeueiaie?oie. I?iaaaeaii o?ce/iee aiae?c 80 oiaa?ieo
aeai??/ie. A?ae?a?aii ? ia?iaeaii aeecueei 800 i?ia ciiaaioino ?
ciiieaieoiio. Aeeiiaii a?eueo ye 20 oen. ??ciiiai?oieo i?ii???a o?ea
aeine?aeieo ei?ii?a.

An? aeo?aei? aeai?, ui aoee io?eiai? a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?ioiaeeee noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo ia ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa?ao oeio IBM
ca noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie (Ieioea?, 1991).

OA?AEOA?ENOEEA IE?AeIEE?A AEO?AeIEO II??Ae

A iao?e ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ie?aeieee na?aaeiueiai a?eo (5-8
?ie?a) oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee o?aneiao,
ye? aoee ae?iuai? a aeine?aeiiio ainiiaea?noa? “Ieaea” ??A OAAI.

Ei?iie oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee o?aneiao
iathoue ??ciee oei eiinoeoooe?? ? nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith
(oaae.1). Oae, aeey ie?aeiee?a oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee
oa?aeoa?iei ? cieioenoi-aeiaoa caaa?aeaiiy oa aeaui aaeueeoaaoa o?ei
iii??ii? aenieinieiiino?. ?iaeaen l/H o naiie neeaaea? 2.46, o naioe?a
2.55, eiao?oe??io aaiaeiaaiino? noaiiaeoue 3.12 aeey naiie oa 2.95 aeey
naioe?a. Ei?iie oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee iathoue i?iaeiaaoaaoa
oainoiaa noaaei oa a?aeiinii a?eueoo aenioo aieiae. Eoneiaee iie?ea o
aeaeyae? “?aiee” o ieo ia ? oaeei /?oeei, ye o ii?iaee o?aneiao, /anoi
i?enooi? ie?ai? eoni/ee c aie?a o?ea iica “?aieith”.

Aeey ie?aeiee?a ii?iaee o?aneiao aeanoeaa iiiaeynoi-n??a caaa?aeaiiy oa
aenieinieiia o?eiaoaeiaa. ?iaeaen l/H o naiie oe??? ii?iaee noaiiaeoue
2.09, o naioe?a — 2.13, eiao?oe??io aaiaeiaaiino? noaiiaeoue 3.43 aeey
naiie oa 3.29 aeey naioe?a. E??i oiai, ei?iie o?aneiao iathoue ei?ioea
oa i’ynenoa oainoiaa noaaei ? a?aeiinii iaioo aenioo aieiae. Eoneiaee
iie?ea o ieo ooai?th? /?oeo “?aieo” a?aeiia?aeii? oi?ie ? noaiaea?oo.

Ie?aeieee oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee
o?aneiao a cia/i?e i??? a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith e ca
?ai?iaeoeoeaieie iciaeaie (Oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 1

Iieacieee o?eiaoaeiae ie?aeiee?a aeo?aeieo ii??ae (M(m)

Ii?iaea, noaoue

Iieacieee o?aneiao oe?a?inueea ?ai/anoa

naiee (n=30) naioe? (n=30) naiee (n=30) naioe? (n=30)

W, ea 6.56(0.53 6.10(0.44 6.12(0.60 5.56(0.50

l, ni 57.61(2.05 57.04(1.99 58.10(2.14 57.33(1.88

Ea 3.43(0.05 3.29(0.05 3.12(0.06 2.95(0.06

Ei, % 40.32(0.20 39.75(0.22 39.07(0.21 38.36(0.23

l/H 2.09(0.04 2.13(0.04 2.46(0.05 2.55(0.05

l/C 3.45(0.05 3.33(0.05 3.39(0.04 3.38(0.05

l/Br 4.99(0.06 5.05(0.05 5.04(0.05 5.20(0.05

lx/hx 1.08(0.02 1.12(0.01 1.24(0.02 1.29(0.01

hc/H, % 53.12(0.77 54.77(0.75 56.33(0.66 57.28(0.70

hx/H, % 35.19(0.56 34.53(0.49 30.08(0.47 29.64(0.50

Oaaeeoey 2

?ai?iaeoeoeai? iieacieee ie?aeiee?a aeo?aeieo ii??ae

Ii?iaea, noaoue

Iieacieee o?aneiao oe?a?inueea ?ai/anoa

naiee (n=22) naioe? (n=15) naiee (n=19) naioe? (n=15)

Iiceoeaia ?aaeoe?y ia ai?iiiaeueio noeioeyoe?th, % 36.4 100 78.9
100

Na?aaeiy iana ?e?eiee, ia

M(m 1.391(0.012 — 1.453(0.011 —

?iai/a ieiaeth/?noue,

oen. ?e?eiie M(m 520.3(51.2 — 750.1(66.1 —

A?aeiinia ieiaeth/?noue,

oen. ?e?eiie/ea M(m 80.0(10.4 — 120.9(9.3 —

Ia’?i ayeoeyoo, ni3

M(m — 16.5(2.1 — 14.0(1.9

Aeoeaiee ?oo

nia?iaoici?ae?a, n M(m — 55.6(7.4 — 50.8(6.9

Eiioeaio?aoe?y nia?iaoici?ae?a,

ie?ae./ni3 M(m

19.8(2.5

21.2(1.7

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui naieai ii?iaee o?aneiao aeanoeaee aoaeoiee
ciai?oi?e aeaeyae, ia’?eoeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i iecueeee
??aaiue ?o ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ni?iiiaeiino?, i?eiaeii?, a oiiaao Iie?nny oa
E?ninoaio, eiee oaiia?aoo?a aiaee i?ae /an ia?anoo ?ieiee cieaeo?oueny
aei 16-18 iN. I?e caaiaenueeiio a?aeoai?aii? o ieo /anoi
niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ii?oe?eiiai aeic??aaiiy ? ooai?aiiy
o?iia?a, aiane?aeie /iai aeniea ieiaeth/?noue ia ciaoiaeeoue naiai
a?aeaeca?eaeaiiy ia i?aeoeoe?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ii?iaee o?aneiao, naiee oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee
iathoue aenie? ?ai?iaeoeoeai? yeino?. Aiie aeia?a i?enoiniaai? ye aei
oiia caaiaenueeiai a?aeoai?aiiy, oae ? aei oiia i?e?iaeiiai ia?anoo a
noaaao. I?e aenie?e ieiaeth/ino?, ?e?a, ui io?eiaia a?ae naiie oe???
ii?iaee, ia? aenieee aaooiie.

?ai?iaeoeoeai? iciaee naioe?a oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei?
?ai/anoi? ii?iaee o?aneiao, ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiia?aeieo ?i naiie,
nooo?ai ia a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith. A oe?eiio, naioeyi aeo?aeieo
ii??ae aeanoea? aenie? ?ai?iaeoeoeai? yeino?.

IO?EIAIIss III?NIEO IAUAAeE?A OA ?O II??AIssEUeIA IOe?IEA

IA ?AII?O NOAAe?ssO ?ICAEOEO

C iaoith i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai oa aeinoia??iiai ii??aiyiiy,
iii?nio oa /enoiii?iaeio iieiaeue ei?iia io?eioaaee caaiaenueeei
iaoiaeii ca ianooiiith noaiith:

naiee oe?a?inuee? ?ai/ano? o naioe? o?aneiao (? o
O)

naiee o?aneiao o naioe? oe?a?inuee? ?ai/ano? (O o ?)

naiee o?aneiao o naioe? o?aneiao (O o O)

naiee oe?a?inuee? ?ai/ano? o naioe? oe?a?inuee? ?ai/ano? (? o
?)

Iniiaieie iieacieeaie, ca yeeie ii??aithaaee iieiaeue ei?ii?a ??ciiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, aoee: a?aenioee caie?aeiaiiy ?e?e oa ?? ?icaeoeo ia
noaae?? ii?oee ? ?ooeeaiai aia??iio, e?euee?noue a?aaeoni-aiaeei
iaiao?aeieo aeey aeeoieaiiy ia?aaeee/eiie, iana o?eaeiaiaeo ee/eiie.

Ca an?ia ia?a?aoiaaieie iieacieeaie niinoa??aa?oueny ia?aaaaa iii?nii?
iieiae? ia?aae /enoiii?iaeiith, iaee?au? iieacieee aeanoea? aa??aioo ? o
O (oaae.3). Aeey ?ioi? iii?n? O o ? oa?aeoa?ia iacia/ia ia?aaaaa ia?aae
oe?a?inueeei ?ai/anoei ei?iiii, ui iaoiiaeaii, ianaiia?aae,
iacaaeia?eueiith ye?noth ?e?e, yeo i?iaeoeothoue naiee ii?iaee o?aneiao.

Aaaeeeaei iieacieeii, yeee a cia/i?e i??? oa?aeoa?eco? oa?iio?euei?noue
ei?ii?a, ? e?euee?noue oaiea, ui iaiao?aeia aeey aeeoieaiiy
ia?aaeee/eiie. Ca oe??th iciaeith niinoa??aa?oueny /?oea
caeiiii??i?noue: /enoiii?iaeiee ei?ii o?aneiao, ye a?eueo oa?iio?eueiee,
iio?aao? ia na?e ?icaeoie ia 80.5 a?aaeoni-aiaeeie a?eueoa, /ei ei?ii
oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee. Iii?ni? oi?ie caeiathoue i?ii?aeia
noaiiaeua, i?e/iio aeyaey?oueny iaoa?einueeee aieea ia iieiaeue iaio
?aoeei?ieieo aa??aio?a, oae iiae?ai?noue c iaoa?einueeith oi?iith
ei?ii?a O o ? neeaaea? 68.9 %, o ei?ii?a ? o O aiia aeaui ieae/a — 66.5
%.

Oaaeeoey 3

Iieacieee ?icaeoeo iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a

ia ?aii?o noaae?yo iioiaaiaco

Iieacieee Iioiaeaeaiiy

? o ? O o O O o ? ? o O

Caie?aeiaiiy ?e?e, % 90.1 82.9 90.5 93.4

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 92.0 100.4 103.7

?icaeoie ?e?e ia noaae?? ii?oee, % 82.9 70.8 83.5 85.6

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 85.4 100.7 103.3

?icaeoie ?e?e ia noaae?? ?ooeeaiai aia??iio, %

76.4

62.6

76.9

80.8

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 81.9 100.6 105.8

E?euee?noue oaiea iaiao?aeiiai aeey aeeoieaiiy ia?aaeee/eiie,

a?aaeoni-aiaeeie

1560.0

1640.5

1615.5

1587.0

Iana o?eaeaiieo ee/eiie, ia

M(m 1.791(0.011 1.751(0.010 1.809(0.012
1.838(0.011

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 97.7 101.0 102.6

Ca iieacieeii iane o?eaeiaiaeo ee/eiie cao?eniaaia aeinoia??ia ??cieoey
ca ae?oaei nooiaiai aaciiieeeiaiai noaeaeaiiy (?(0.99) i?ae
/enoiii?iaeiei ei?iiii o?aneiao oa ei?iiaie an?o ?ioeo ii?aeiaiue (O
o O ( O o ? z=3.71; O o O ( ? o O z=5.85; O o O ( ? o ? z=2.69),
a oaeiae i?ae /enoiii?iaeiei oe?a?inueeei ?ai/anoei ei?iiii oa
iii?nnth ? o O (z=3.02). Ca oeei iieacieeii iii?ni? ei?iie ia?aaa?oeee
/enoiii?iaeieo ia 0.018-0.087 ia.

Ioe?iea aoaeoo a?a?eaeii? neee ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?icaeoeo ca
iieacieeaie ?noeiiiai aaoa?iceno (0.44-5.76 %) aeyaey? nooo?ao ia?aaaao
iii?nieo ei?ii?a ia?aae /enoiii?iaeieie.

II??AIssEUeIA AE?IUOAAIIss III?NIEO EI?II?A IA IA?OIIO ?IOe?
AEEOOss

Ii??aiyeueia ae?iuoaaiiy iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo oeueiaie?oie
i?iaiaeeeinue c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo caaaeueiiai eiio?ieth. Aeey
oeueiai, a noaae ?acii c ?ai/anoeie ei?iiaie i?aenaaeaeoaaeenue
ee/eiee ieae?anueeiai eoneaoiai ei?iia o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 4:1, i?e
caaaeuei?e aonoio? iinaaeee 40 (32+8) oen. oo./aa. Ii/eiath/e c eeiiy,
i?iaiaeeeanue i?aeaiae?aey oeueiaie?oie ooo/ieie eiia?ei?iaie (i?ioa?i
-15 %).

A ?acoeueoao? ii??aiyeueiiai ae?iuoaaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui ca
a?aeei?aeoiaaieie iieacieeaie na?aaeiuei? iane oa aeoiaeo c
ae?iuoaaeueieo noaa?a, iaee?aueo ?acoeueoao?a aeinyaee oeueiaie?oee
iii?n? ? o O — 20.5 a oa 51.1 % (oaae.4). Ca aeacaieie iieacieeaie
aiie ia?aaa?oeee e?auo aaouee?anueeo oi?io — oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai
ei?iia (?noeiiee aaoa?icen) ia 8.5 oa 9.4 % a?aeiia?aeii. ?ioa
?aoeei?ieia iii?nue — O o ?, oaeiae aeyaeea aenieo iioaioe?th ?inoo oa
aeeoo?no?ee?noue. Na?aaeiy iana ? a?aenioie aeoiaeo c ae?iuoaaeueieo
noaa?a o iii?nieo ei?ii?a oeueiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia 2.6 oa 6.9 % ia?aaeuo?
a?aeiia?aei? iieacieee a oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia ? neeaaea? 19.4
a oa 49.9 %. Iaeieae/eie aeacai? iieacieee cao?eniaai? a oeueiaie?oie
ii?iaee o?aneiao — 16 a oa 38.9 %. A i?aenoieo, ?noeiiee aaoa?icen ca
iieacieeii ?eaii?iaeoeoe?? neeaaea? 9.6 % aeey iii?n? O o ? oa 18.6
% aeey iii?n? ? o O.

Ii??aiyiiy ceiino?eeino? iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a i?iaiaeeee
ca iieacieeaie aeoiaeo c ceioaaeueieo noaa?a, ao?aoith iane, a
oaeiae ca cieaeaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa aaiaeiaaiino? i?ioyaii ia??iaeo
cei?ae?. A ca’yceo c iaiaaeaiith e?euee?noth ceioaaeueieo noaa?a
iieiaeue iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a aenaaeaeoaaee a
cei?aeth ?acii c ei?iiaie noa?oeo a?eiaeo a?oi c ?ic?aooieo 10 o/aa.

A ?acoeueoao? ii??aiyeueiiai ceiiaiai oo?eiaiiy ei?ii?a anoaiiaeaii, ui
iieaciee a?aeei?aeoiaaiiai aeoiaeo c ceioaaeueieo noaa?a iaeieae/ee o
ei?iia ii?iaee o?aneiao — 31.8 %. Iii?ni? oi?ie ? o O oa O o ? aeyaeee
i?aeaeuaiee aeo?ae c noaa?a 62.4 oa 59.8 % a?aeiia?aeii ? ia?aaa?oeee ca
aeacaiei iieacieeii e?auo aaouee?anueeo oi?io -oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai
ei?iia ia 5.4 oa 1.0 %. Eiao?oe??io aaiaeiaaiino? ca ia??iae cei?ae?
iaioa anueiai cieceany a iii?nii? oi?ie ? o O oa a oe?a?inueeiai
?ai/anoiai ei?iia — ia 0.059, oiae? ye a /enoiii?iaeiiai ei?iia o?aneiao
eiai cieaeaiiy neeaei 0.124. Ao?aoa iane ca ceiiaee ia??iae o aeaio
iii?nieo oi?i oa a oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia ? i?eaeecii
iaeiaeiaith — 10.3 -10.5. A iaeii??/ie ii?iaee o?aneiao oeae iieaciee
? aeuei ? neeaaea? 13.7 %.

Oaaeeoey 4

?eaiaiaeii-a?ieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a

ia ia?oiio ?ioe? aeeooy

Noaaie, iioiaeaeaiiy

Iieacieee 1 2 3 4

? o ? IEE O o O IEE O o ? IEE ? o O IEE

Iana oeueiaie?oie, a

oaeoe/ia 19.5 22.9 17.2 23.6 17.9 20.5 20.2 21.9

a?aeei?aeoiaaia 18.9 — 16.2 — 19.4 — 20.5 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 — 85.7 — 102.6 — 108.5 —

Aeo?ae oeueiaie?oie c ae?iuoaaeueieo noaa?a, %

oaeoe/iee 43.3 48.4 41.9 56.3 49.7 52.0 51.2 52.3

a?aeei?aeoiaaiee 46.7 — 38.9 — 49.9 — 51.1 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 — 83.3 — 106.9 — 109.4 —

?eaii?iaeoeoe?y, ea/aa

oaeoe/ia 270.2 88.7 230.6 106.3 284.7 85.3 331.0 91.6

a?aeei?aeoiaaia 283.2 — 201.7 — 310.3 — 336.0 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 — 71.2 — 109.6 — 118.6 —

Aeo?ae iaeii??/ie c cei?ae?, %

oaeoe/iee 58.1 65.3 28.6 59.9 54.0 60.1 75.8 80.9

a?aeei?aeoiaaiee 59.2 — 31.8 — 59.8 — 62.4 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 — 53.7 — 101.0 — 105.4 —

Ao?aoa iane ca ia??iae cei?ae?, %

oaeoe/ia 10.6 10.2 13.8 10.1 10.6 10.1 10.0 9.8

a?aeei?aeoiaaia 10.4 — 13.7 — 10.6 — 10.3 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 — 131.7 — 101.0 — 99.0 —

Cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa aaiaeiaaiino? ca ceio,

oaeoe/ia 0.061 0.052 0.123 0.050 0.072 0.054 0.053 0.045

a?aeei?aeoiaaia 0.059 — 0.124 — 0.067 — 0.059 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 — 210.2 — 113.6 — 100.0 —

Ii??aiyeueia ae?iuoaaiiy /enoiii?iaeieo oa iii?nieo ei?ii?a ia ia?oiio
?ioe? aeeooy aeyaeei o inoaii?o cia/iee aaoa?iceniee aoaeo ca an?ia
iniiaieie ?eaiaiaeii-a?ieia?/ieie iieacieeaie. Na?aae iii?nieo oi?i
e?aueie ca i?iaeoeoeaieie yeinoyie ? ei?iie ? o O.

II??AIssEUeIA AE?IUOAAIIss EI?II?A IA Ae?OAIIO ?IOe? AEEOOss

Aeine?aei? a?oie aeaie?oie ??ciiai aaiaceno ae?iuoaaeenue a oiiaao
iaeiiai noaaea. Aeey oeueiai, ia?aae iinaaeeith ei?ii?a o noaaie,
i?iaiaeeeinue iiia?aaei? i?/aiiy ?eae oeyoii i?ae??caiiy a?oaeieo oa
oainoiaiai ieaaoe?a. Caaaeueia aonoioa iinaaeee iaeii??/ie ia
ae?iuoaaiiy neeaaeaea 1200 oo/aa (ii 300 oo/aa eiaeii? aeine?aeii?
a?oie).A ?acoeueoao? ii??aiyeueiiai ae?iuoaaiiy aeaie?oie ??ciiai
aaiaceno anoaiiaeai? oae? iniaeeaino? (oaae.5 ): iii?ni? ei?iie ? o O
aeinyaee iaeaeui? na?aaeiuei? iane — 1010 a, iana ?ioiai aa??aioo O o
? neeaea 935 a . Ca oeei iieacieeii iii?ni? ei?iie ia?aaa?oeee e?auo
aaouee?anueeo oi?io — oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia ia 18.8 oa 10.0 %
a?aeiia?aeii.

Oaaeeoey 5

?eaiaiaeii-a?ieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a

ia ae?oaiio ?ioe? aeeooy

Iioiaeaeaiiy

Iieacieee ? o ? O o O O o ? ? o O Anueiai

Na?aaeiy iana iinaaeaeaieo ia ae?iuoaaiiy iaeii??/ie, a 20.0 24.9 19.7
20.1 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 124.5 98.5 100.5 —

Na?aaeiy iana oiaa?ieo aeaie?oie, a 850 710 935 1010 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 83.5 110.0 118.8 —

Aeo?ae aeaie?oie c iaaoeueieo noaa?a, % 80.0 72.0 80.0 82.0 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 90.0 100.0 102.5 —

Aeo?aoe eiia?ei?io, ea — — — — 1600

?eaii?iaeoeoe?y, ea/aa 204.0 153.4 224.4 248.5 830.3

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 75.2 110.0 121.8 —

Aeo?ae aeai??/ie c cei?ae?, % 85.1 75.5 85.0 90.5 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 88.7 100.0 106.3 —

Ao?aoa iane ca ia??iae cei?ae?, % 8.5 10.1 10.0 8.7 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 116.1 101.1 97.7 —

Cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa aaiaeiaaiino? ca ceio 0.08 0.15 0.09 0.08 —

o % aei ? o ? 100.0 187.5 112.5 100.0 —

Aeaie?oee ei?iia o?aneiao aeyaeee iaaenieee oaii ?inoo, aiie aeinyaee
eeoa 710 a, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?o ii/aoeiaa iana nooo?ai
ia?aaa?ooaaea iano ?ioeo aeine?aeieo a?oi iaeii??/ie.

Ca iieacieeii ieoiii? oaeaeeino? ?inoo (Nw), a ia??iaee c iaaenieith
oaiia?aoo?ith aiaee — 4-15 iN (ea?oaiue-o?aaaiue oa
aa?anaiue-aeiaoaiue), niinoa??aa?oueny ia?aaaaa iii?nii? oi?ie ? o O oa
/enoiii?iaeiiai oe?a?inueeiai ei?iia. I?e ni?eyoeeaeo oaiia?aoo?ieo
oiiaao, eiee na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa oaiia?aoo?a aiaee ia?aaeuo? 20 iN, aenieo
a?aeiinio oaeaee?noue ?inoo aeyaeythoue iii?ni? oi?ie O o ? oa
/enoiii?iaeiee ei?ii o?aneiao. Inoaii?e, a ie?ai? aeaeaaee
aaaaoaoe?eiiai naciio ia?aaa?oea on? ?io? aeine?aei? oi?ie, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i oa?iio?euei?noue oa aenieo
i?iaeoeoeai?noue oe??? ii?iaee a ni?eyoeeaeo oiiaao (Pojoga, 1972;
Oiieeaiei, Eia/aiei, 1981; Na?aeaio e ae?., 1995). A oe?eiio, iaeaeua
oaeaee?noue ?inoo niinoa??aa?oueny a o?aai?, a oeae /an ei?iie iathoue
ua iacia/io iano, aiaea a noaaao aeinoaoiuei i?ia??aa?oueny ? ei?iiaa
aaca aiaeieie ia i?aeiaaea? i?ae cia/iee i?aneia ?eae.

Iieaciee aeoiaeo ei?ii?a c iaaoeo ? i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaei aeey
oe?a?inueeeo ?ai/anoeo oa iii?nieo ei?ii?a (aeecueei 80 %). O ii?iaee
o?aneiao a?i ieae/ee ? neeaaea? eeoa 72 %. A i?aenoieo, ca iieacieeii
?eaii?iaeoeoe?? iii?ni? ei?iie ia?aaa?oeee e?auo aaouee?anueeo oi?io —
oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia ia 21.8 oa 10.0 % a?aeiia?aeii.

Aeine?aei? a?oie aeaie?oie ia ceiiaa ii??aiyeueia oo?eiaiiy
aenaaeaeoaaeenue a iaeei noaaie c ?ic?aooieo 10 o/aa. Ioe?ieo
ceiino?eeino? iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo aeai??/ie i?iaiaeeee ca
iieacieeaie aeoiaeo c ceioaaeueieo noaa?a, ao?aoith iane, a oaeiae ca
cieaeaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa aaiaeiaaiino? i?ioyaii ia??iaeo cei?ae?.

Iaee?auee aeo?ae c ceioaaeueieo noaa?a cao?eniaaiee o iii?n? ? o O —
90.5 %, iaeieae/ee o ei?iia o?aneiao — 75.5 %. Ao?aoa iane oa cieaeaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa aaiaeiaaiino? ca ia??iae cei?ae? ? i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaeie
aeey aeaio iii?nieo oi?i ? /enoiii?iaeiiai oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai
ei?iia. Aeai??/ee ii?iaee o?aneiao cia/ii iinooiathoueny ?i ca aeacaieie
iieacieeaie.

Ii??aiyeueia ae?iuoaaiiy /enoiii?iaeieo oa iii?nieo ei?ii?a ia ae?oaiio
?ioe? aeeooy aeyaeei o inoaii?o cia/iee aaoa?iceniee aoaeo ca an?ia
iniiaieie ?eaiaiaeii-a?ieia?/ieie iieacieeaie. Na?aae iii?nieo oi?i
e?aueie ca i?iaeoeoeaieie yeinoyie ? ei?iie ? o O.

II?OIEIA?*IA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA III?NIEO EI?II?A

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aenoa?’??o oa ?ioa?’??o iii?nieo oa
/enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a anoaiiaeaia iaoaiaoe/ii aeinoia??ia ??ciieoey ca
ia?oei oa ae?oaei nooiaiai aaciiieeeiaiai noaeaeaiiy (?(0.95, ?(0.99) ca
ianooiieie iieacieeaie (oaae. 6-7):

— ? o ? ( O o O: W, l, Ka, Ei, l/H, l/C, l/Br, l/O, hc/H, hx/H, lx/hx,
a?aeiinia iana ia/?iee, a?aeiinia aeiaaeeia ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei?
eaia?e ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei?
eaia?e ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a ca aeiaaeeiith oa ia’?iii;

— ? o ? ( O o ?: W, Ka, Ei, l/H, l/C, l/Br, l/O, hc/H, hx/H, lx/hx,
a?aeiinia iana ia/?iee, a?aeiinia aeiaaeeia caaeiuei? eaia?e
ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei? eaia?e
ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a ca aeiaaeeiith oa ia’?iii;

— ? o ? ( ? o O: W, Ka, Ei, l/H, l/C, l/Br, l/O, hc/H, hx/H, lx/hx,
a?aeiinia aeiaaeeia ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei? eaia?e ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei? eaia?e ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a ca
aeiaaeeiith oa ia’?iii;

— O o O ( O o ?: W, l, Ka, l/H, l/C, l/O, hc/H, hx/H, lx/hx, a?aeiinia
iana ia/?iee, a?aeiinia aeiaaeeia ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei? eaia?e
ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei? eaia?e
ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a ca ia’?iii;

— O o O ( ? o O: W, l, Ka, Ei, l/H, l/C, l/O, hc/H, hx/H, lx/hx,
a?aeiinia iana ia/?iee, a?aeiinia aeiaaeeia caaeiuei? eaia?e
ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei? eaia?e
ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a ca aeiaaeeiith oa ia’?iii;

— O o ? ( ? o O: W, a?aeiinia iana ia/?iee oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei? eaia?e ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a ca aeiaaeeiith.

Oaaeeoey 6

Iieacieee o?eiaoaeiae iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo aeaie?oie (M(m)

n=50

Iioiaeaeaiiy

Iieacieee ? o ? O o O O o ? ? o O

W, a 841.0(13.1 702.5(17.3 927.4(13.2 995.6(17.3

l, ni 30.4(0.42 26.7(0.45 29.8(0.44 30.6(0.49

Ea 3.00(0.04 3.69(0.04 3.50(0.04 3.48(0.04

Ei, % 38.52(0.30 41.31(0.29 40.60(0.25 40.49(0.21

l/H 2.70(0.03 2.20(0.02 2.29(0.03 2.35(0.03

l/O 1.21(0.01 0.99(0.02 1.07(0.02 1.09(0.02

l/C 3.41(0.02 3.66(0.02 3.55(0.03 3.52(0.02

l/Br 5.09(0.03 4.96(0.02 5.00(0.02 5.01(0.02

lx/hx 1.250(0.008 1.051(0.004 1.101(0.004 1.111(0.004

hc/H, % 60.01(0.36 51.70(0.26 57.09(0.28 56.90(0.35

hx/H, % 28.89(0.15 30.30(0.13 32.01(0.14 31.90(0.18

Oaaeeoey 7

Iieacieee ?ioa?’??o iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo aeai??/ie (M(m)

n=20

Iioiaeaeaiiy

Iieacieee ? o ? O o O O o ? ? o O

A?aeiinia iana (% aei W):

ia/?iee 2.36(0.11 2.80(0.12 2.71(0.10 2.43(0.08

ie?ie 0.65(0.03 0.60(0.04
0.63(0.03 0.66(0.04

naeac?iee 0.42(0.01 0.44(0.01
0.43(0.01 0.43(0.01

na?oey 0.38(0.01 0.40(0.01
0.39(0.01 0.39(0.01

eeoa/ieea 2.70(0.04 2.81(0.05
2.79(0.06 2.75(0.06

Eiao?oe??io c??eino?, %

naiee 0.78(0.06 0.42(0.04
0.64(0.03 0.54(0.03

naioe? 1.77(0.22 4.20(0.32
3.88(0.27 2.75(0.33

Noaae?y c??eino? naiee e?iaoeue II ii/aoie II
II II

naioe? ii/aoie III III —
ii/aoie IV III III

A?aeiinia aeiaaeeia (aei l):

eeoa/ieea 2.45(0.06 2.59(0.05
2.58(0.05 2.49(0.05

caaeiuei? eaia?e ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a 0.14(0.01 0.07(0.01 0.09(0.01
0.10(0.01

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aaeiuei? ? caaeiuei? eaia?e ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a:

ca aeiaaeeiith 1.42(0.06 2.14(0.05
2.00(0.06 1.70(0.04

ca ia’?iii 3.24(0.29 6.49(0.25
5.12(0.30 4.96(0.28

E?euee?noue i?aei’ycaaeo e?noi/ie, oo 98.11(1.87
95.52(1.64 94.30(1.79 95.51(2.24

sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe ia/eneaiue, iii?ni? ei?iie nooo?ai
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aeo?aeieo aaouee?anueeeo oi?i ? ca ia?aaaaeiith
a?eueo?noth iieaciee?a o?eiaoaeiae a?aeoeeythoueny a noi?iio ii?iaee
o?aneiao. Ca ie?aieie ia?enoe/ieie iciaeaie, oaeeie ye: e?euee?noue
oe/eiie oa e?euee?noue iaethnoie ia ia?o?e cya?ia?e aeoc?,
niinoa??aa?oueny iaoa?einueeee aoaeo. Iii?ni? oi?ie a cia/i?e i???
oniaaeeiaothoue oa?aeoa? ?icoaooaaiiy eoneiaiai iie?eao a?ae ii?iaee
o?aneiao ? ca oi?iith oa ye?noth eoneiai? ?aiee cia/ii iaaeeaeathoueny
aei ia?. Oe?eaaa neooaoe?y niinoa??aa?oueny i?e niaaeeoaaii? iieacieea
a?aeiinii? aenioe oainoiaiai noaaea (lx/hx) — eiai cia/aiiy a iaio
iii?nieo aa??aio?a ia?aaa?oo? cia/aiiy o aeo?aeieo oi?i. Oaeee
oa?aeoa? niaaeeoaaiiy oe??? iciaee iia’ycaiee c oei, ui o
iii?nieo ei?ii?a ciaioo?oueny aenioa o?ea o ii??aiyii? c ii?iaeith
o?aneiao, aea aenioa oainoiaiai noaaea caeeoa?oueny ia oiio ae naiiio
??ai?, oiaoi oainoiaa noaaei ? oaeei ae aenieei ? ei?ioeei, ye o
/enoiii?iaeiiai ei?iia o?aneiao.

??cieoey aenieiai nooiaiy aeinoia??iino? niinoa??aa?oueny ca aeiaaeeiith
ia?aaeiuei? oa caaeiuei? eaia?e ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a, a oaeiae ca ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi i?ae niaith. O ei?iia o?aneiao caaeiy eaia?a
ieaaaeueiiai i?oo?a cia/ii iaioa i?ae a oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee,
a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao niinoa??aa?oueny iaeaea iiaia ?? ?aaeoeoe?y. Iii?ni?
ei?iie ca oeei iieacieeii caeiathoue i?ii?aeio iiceoe?th.

A oiiaao oeaio?aeueii? Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo nei?inoeaeeie na?aae naioe?a
aeai??/iiai a?eo aeyaeeenue naioe? ei?iia o?aneiao (e?iaoeue ??? —
ii/aoie IV noaae?? c??eino?, eiao?oe??io c??eino? — 4.20 %), iaeii/anii
eiee naiee oe??? ii?iaee ? iaea?eueo i?ciueinoeaeeie na?aae naiie
(ii/aoie II noaae?? c??eino?, eiao?oe??io c??eino? — 0.42 %). A
oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia niinoa??aa?oueny cai?ioiy neooaoe?y —
naiee oe??? ii?iaee ? iaea?eueo nei?inoeaeeie na?aae naiie, a naioe? —
i?ciueinoeaeeie na?aae naioe?a. Iii?ni? ei?iie caeiathoue i?ii?aeio
iiceoe?th.

O?ce/iee aiae?c oa anoaiiaeaiiy aeoiaeo ?no?aieo /anoei o?ea
i?iaiaeeeinue o aeaio iai?yieao: o ia?oiio — an? ??ci? ca iioiaeaeaiiyi
ei?iie i?aeae?aeenue a a?oie c i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaith ianith (750 a), o
ae?oaiio — iana eiaeii? ??cii? ca iioiaeaeaiiyi a?oie ei?ii?a
a?aeiia?aeaea na?aaeiueiio cia/aiith. A inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo, iii?ni?
ei?iie ia?aaa?ooaaee /enoiii?iaeieo ca na?aaeiueith ianith o?ea ia 195 —
262 a.

O ia?oiio aa??aio? aeine?aeo, ia?aaaaa iii?nieo ei?ii?a oa ei?iia
o?aneiao ia?aae /enoiii?iaeiei oe?a?inueeei ?ai/anoei ca aeoiaeii
?no?aii? /anoeie a ia?a?aooieo ia 1 ea oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? neeaaea?
2.26 — 2.57 %, ui iia’ycaia, ianaiia?aae, c aoaeiaith o?ea
(aenoa?’??ii). Ei?iie ii?iaee o?aneiao oa iaeaea? iii?ni? oi?ie
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieinieiiith o?eiaoaeiaith, a?eueoith ianith oooee,
iaioith ianith aieiae oa aioo??oi?o i?aai?a, ?i aeanoeaa ye?nia
niaaeeoaaiiy eoneiaiai iie?eao a aeaeyae? “?aiee”. Ine?eueee aieiaa
?eae ia 57 — 58 % neeaaea?oueny c ?no?aii? /anoeie, oi ca ?aooiie ??
?ici??o, oe?a?inueeee ?ai/anoee ei?ii iii?oii iacaeiaaiy? ?ioeo ei?ii?a
o e?ioeaaiio aeoiae? oa?/iai? i?iaeoeoe??. ??cieoey ca caaaeueiith
ianith ?no?aii? /anoeie o aa?ai?e ooooe? ? aieia? i?ae oe?a?inueeei
?ai/anoei ei?iiii oa ei?iiaie ?ioiai iioiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue 10.71 —
12.19 a (oaae. 8-9). Aeacaia ??cieoey ? aeinoia??iith ca ia?oei nooiaiai
aaciiieeeiaiai noaeaeaiiy (? ( 0.95).

Oaaeeoey 8

Ie?ai? iieacieee o?eiaoaeiae ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy /anoei o?ea iii?nieo oa

/enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a i?e iaeiaeia?e na?aaei?e ian?

n=10

Iioiaeaeaiiy

Iieacieee ? o ? O o O O o ? ? o O

W, a M(m 750.04(4.12 750.01(4.10 750.06(1.99
749.95(4.07

Ea M(m 2.98(0.04 3.57(0.03
3.41(0.03 3.35(0.03

l/H M(m 2.55(0.03 2.20(0.02 2.30(0.02
2.33(0.02

l/C M(m 3.40(0.01 3.69(0.01 3.62(0.01
3.50(0.01

Oooea c ieaaoeyie,

a M(m 434.62(2.48 453.07(2.46
447.82(2.35 444.75(2.36

% 57.95 60.42 59.71 59.30

Aieiaa,

a M(m 196.58(1.11 191.25(0.98
192.01(1.00 194.02(1.02

% 26.21 25.50 25.60 25.87

Aioo??oi? i?aaie,

a M(m 104.40(0.96 99.67(0.88
103.50(0.89 103.57(0.85

% 13.92 13.29 13.80 13.81

Eonea,

a M(m 14.40(2.23 6.00(1.27 6.67(1.30
7.65(1.10

% 1.92 0.80 0.89 1.02

Oaaeeoey 9

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?no?aii? oa ia?no?aii? /anoeie aa?aii? oooee ? aieiae

iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a i?e iaeiaeia?e na?aaei?e ian?

n=10

Iioiaeaeaiiy

Iieacieee ? o ? O o O O o ? ? o O

Oooea c ieaaoeyie, a I(m 415.10(2.51 432.19(2.48 429.11(2.40
428.71(2.41

i’yce,

a I(m 382.10(2.26
398.13(2.23 395.12(2.20 394.37(2.21

% 92.05 92.12 92.08 91.99

e?noee+ieaaoe?,

a M(m 33.00(0.10 34.06(0.09
33.99(0.13 34.34(0.13

% 7.95 7.88 7.92 8.01

Aieiaa, a M(m 160.25(1.00 153.26(0.99 153.98(0.92
155.31(0.92

?no?aia /anoeia,

a M(m 91.50(0.54
87.66(0.52 89.32(0.49 91.68(0.50

% 57.10 57.20 58.01 57.91

ia?no?aia /anoeia,

a M(m 68.75(0.36
65.60(0.35 64.66(0.30 65.37(0.34

% 42.90 42.80 41.99 42.09

Caaaeueia iana

?no?aii? /anoeie, a M(m

473.60(2.90

485.79(2.83

484.44(2.67

484.31(2.71

Caaaeueia iana ?no?aii? /anoeie o ia?a?aooieo ia 1 ea oiaa?ii?
i?iaeoeoe??, a

631.47

647.72

645.92

645.73

o % aei ? o ? 100.00 102.57 102.29 102.26

O ae?oaiio aa??aio? aeine?aeo, ca ?aooiie e?auiai ?inoo, a ioaea e
a?eueoi? iane, ia?aaaaa iii?nieo ei?ii?a ia?aae /enoiii?iaeiei
oe?a?inueeei ca aeoiaeii ?no?aii? /anoeie a ia?a?aooieo ia 1 ea oiaa?ii?
i?iaeoeoe?? aeinyaa? 10.81 -10.89 % oa 5.31 — 5.38 % ia?aae ei?iiii
ii?iaee o?aneiao. C ca?eueoaiiyi na?aaeiuei? iane ei?ii?a c?inoa?
a?aeiinia /anoea oooee oa i’yna a i?e, a oaeiae c?inoa? /anoea ?no?aii?
/anoeie o aieia?, ciaioo?oueny a?aenioie aioo??oi?o i?aai?a oa e?noie c
ieaaoeyie. A?aeiinia /anoea aieiae oa eoneiaiai iie?eao cia/ii a?eueoa
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaiaceno ei?ii?a, i?ae a?ae ?? iane.

O?C?IEIAI-A?IO?I?*I? AeINE?AeAEAIIss III?NIEO EI?II?A

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeno?aiaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e aiaee (4.2 oa 36.0 iN)
ia ?icaeoie iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo aia??ii?a oa aeaeeaaiiy iauaaee?a
ia ?aii?o noaae?yo iioiaaiaco aeyaeee cia/iee aaoa?iceniee aoaeo o
iii?nieo ei?ii?a, ui i?iyaey?oueny, ianaiia?aae, a i?aeaeuaiiio
a?aenioeo aeeoieaiiy ia?aaeee/eiie oa aeiaoiio ?o aeaeeaaii? i?e
a?aenooiino? ?ae?. Oae, iaea?eueo no?eeeie aei aieeao iiieaeaii?
oaiia?aoo?e aeyaeeenue ei?iie ? o O, a?aenioie aeeoieaiiy yeeo neeaa 44
%. Iaea?eueo no?eeeie aei i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e — iii?ni? aia??iie
?ioiai ?aoeei?ieiiai ii?aeiaiiy O o ?, o yeeo a?aenioie aeeoieaiiy
aei??aithaaa 42 %. I?e eiio?ieuei?e oaiia?aoo?? aiaee (19.0 iN) iii?ni?
aia??iie ia?aaa?oeee /enoiii?iaeieo ia 8 — 12 %.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeeaeaiiy iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo
oeueiaie?oie, ui i?iaiaeeeenue a ??ci? ia??iaee aaaaoaoe?eiiai naciio,
anoaiiaeee aeinoia??io ia?aaaao iii?nieo ei?ii?a ia?aae /enoiii?iaeieie
ca caaaeueiei ?iaeaenii iaiiaiaiiy eeoa/ieea. Iii?n? O o ? oa ? o O ca
?aooiie aaoa?icenii? neee ia?aaa?oothoue e?auo aaouee?anueeo oi?io —
oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia ia 11.0 ? 25.4 % a ia??iae aiae?ae?
ooo/iei eiia?ei?iii (II aeaeaaea eeiiy, oaiia?aoo?a aiaee 23-24 iN), oa
ia 27.6 ? 33.1 % a ia??iae aeeaeaiiy i?e?iaeiith ei?iiaith aacith (III
aeaeaaea aa?aniy, oaiia?aoo?a aiaee 9.5 — 11.5 iN). Aeacaio ia?aaaao
iiaeia a?aeianoe ca ?aooiie e?aui? iiooeiai? cae?aiino? oa i?aeaeuaii?
aeoeaiino? aeeaeaiiy iii?nieo ei?ii?a i?e iecuee?e oaiia?aoo?? aiaee.

Aeaeo?ioi?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca eieonii o?ainoa?eio, a?eeo, ui
aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo (-aeiaoe?i?a ne?iaaoee e?ia?, oa oa?iaioii
ia/?ieiai? eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace ca aaiaie Ldg-c1 ? Ldg-c2, aeyaeee
caaaeueii-iecueeee ??aaiue aaoa?iceaioiino? o an?o aeine?aeieo a?oiao
ei?iia. Oae, ca eieonii o?ainoa?eio aeyaeaii eeoa o?e aeaey (4 oaiioeie:
AA, AB, AC, CC), eieon Ldg-c1 o?eniaaiee ca noaiaea?oiei aeaeai, ca
eieonii Ldg-c2 niinoa??aa?oueny, oae caaiee, ioeueiaee aeaeue —
aeaeueiee aa??aio c a?aenooiueith aeoeai?noth oa?iaioa (3 oaiioeia:
C2/C2, C2/null, null/null). Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaenieee ??aaiue
aaoa?iceaioiino? ca eieonii o?ainoa?eio, a oe?eiio, niinoa??aa?oueny
iacia/ia ia?aaaaa ca ??aiai aaoa?iceaioiino? iii?nieo ei?ii?a. Oae,
e?euee?noue aaoa?iceaio a a?oiao /enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a neeaaea? 20-30
%, oiae? ye o iii?nieo oi?i 50-70 %. Eeoa o ei?iia iioiaeaeaiiy ? o O
cao?eniaai? an? /ioe?e aeyaeai? oaiioeie o?ainoa?eio. Ca eieonii
ia/?ieiai? eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace Ldg-c2 niinoa??aa?oueny aeaui cai?ioiy
ea?oeia, ine?eueee aeey iii?nieo ei?ii?a oa?aeoa?iei ? cieaeaiiy ??aiy
aaoa?iceaioiino? ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy /anoioe ioeueiaiai aeaey. Aei oiai
ae, iii?oia oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy /anoee ioeueiaeo aeaeae eieona
Ldg-c2 a /enoiii?iaeieo a?oiao ei?iia c i?i?iaeueiith aaoa?iceaioi?noth
eieona o?ainoa?eio. O iii?niiai ei?iia ? o O ioeueiaee aeaeue eieona
Ldg-c2 acaaae? a?aenooi?e.

Aaiaoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui i?iaiaeeeenue c iaoith ii??aiyiiy
o?c?ieia?/iiai noaio iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo ei?ii?a, ca iieacieeaie
e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a oa eaeeioeeo?a, eaeeioeeoa?ia oi?ioea, ai?no
aaiiaeia?io, ai?no caaaeueiiai a?eea, a oaeiae aeueaoi?i?a oa aeiaoe?i?a
o ne?iaaooe? e?ia?, A/A eiao?oe??io, aeyaeee aeinoia??io ??cieoeth ca
ia?oei oa ae?oaei nooiaiai aaciiieeeiaiai noaeaeaiiy (?(0.95, ?(0.99) a
ianooiieo aeiaaeeao (oaae. 10):

— ? o ? ( O o O: e?euee?noue eaeeioeeo?a;

— ? o ? ( O o ?: e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a, ai?no aaiiaeia?io, ai?no
caaaeueiiai a?eea, aeueaoi?i?a oa aeiaoe?i?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia?;

— ? o ? ( ? o O: e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a, ai?no aeiaoe?i?a o
ne?iaaooe? e?ia?;

— O o O ( O o ?: e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a, ai?no aaiiaeia?io, ai?no
caaaeueiiai a?eea, aeueaoi?i?a oa aeiaoe?i?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia?;

— O o O ( ? o O: e?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a, ai?no aaiiaeia?io, ai?no
aeiaoe?i?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia?;

— O o ? ( ? o O: ai?no aeueaoi?i?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia?.

Oaaeeoey 10

Aaiaoieia?/i? iieacieee iii?nieo oa /enoiii?iaeieo aeai??/ie (M(m)

n=20

Iioiaeaeaiiy

Iieacieee ? o ? O o O O o ? ? o O

E?euee?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a, iei/ii3 1.58(0.06
1.48(0.07 1.75(0.06 1.80(0.06

E?euee?noue eaeeioeeo?a, oen/ii3 63.51(3.19 79.43(4.00 70.49(3.59
69.87(2.86

Aaiiaeia?i, a/e 82.0(4.4 80.0(4.8 106.1(4.5 98.3(4.0

Caaaeueiee a?eie ne?iaaoee e?ia?, a /e

31.0(1.3

30.0(1.8

36.3(1.2

33.9(1.0

a o. /. aeueaoi?ie 14.9(0.7 14.7(0.9 17.8(0.5 15.9(0.5

a o. /. aeiaoe?ie 16.1(0.8 15.3(0.9 18.5(0.6 18.0(0.5

A/A eiao?oe??io 0.93(0.04 0.96(0.05 0.96(0.04
0.88(0.03

A oe?eiio, o?c?ieia?/iee noai iii?nieo ei?ii?a ca iieacieeaie
aaiaoieia?? ciaoiaeeoueny ia aeinoaoiuei aenieiio ??ai?. An?
aaiaoieia?/i? iieacieee ia?aaoaathoue o iaaeao o?c?ieia?/ii? ii?ie. I?e
oeueiio, niinoa??aa?oueny aaoa?icenia neea, ui i?iyaey?oueny o
aeinoia??i?e ia?aaac? iii?nieo oi?i ia?aae /enoiii?iaeieie ca
e?euee?noth a?eo?ioeeo?a, ai?noii aaiiaeia?io, a oaeiae ca ai?noii
aeiaoe?i?a o ne?iaaooe? e?ia?.

AEIIII?*IA AOAEOEAI?NOUe I?IIENEIAIAI AE?IUOAAIIss III?NIEO EI?II?A

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?iieneiaiai ae?iuoaaiiy iii?nieo ei?ii?a
iaoiiaeaia ?o ia?aaaaith a e?ioeaaiio aeoiae? ?eaii?iaeoeoe?? a
ii??aiyii? c e?auith aeo?aeiith ii?iaeith i?e iaeiaeiaiio ??ai? aeo?ao.
sseui i?eeiyoe ?eaii?iaeoeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaeueieo oa iaaoeueieo noaa?a
ca oe?a?inueeei ?ai/anoei ei?iiii i?e iai?a?ioaineai?e oaoiieia?? a cii?
Iie?nny oa E?ninoaio ca 450 oa 800 ea/aa a?aeiia?aeii, oe?io
?eaiiinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo ca 4 a?i./ea, a oiaa?ii? ?eae — 3 a?i./ea,
oi aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue, yeo caaacia/o? e?auee iii?niee aa??aio ? o
O, neeaaeaoeia 334.8 a?i./aa i?e ae?iuoaaii? oeueiaie?oie oa 523.2
a?i./aa i?e ae?iuoaaii? oiaa?ii? ?eae.

AENIIAEE

Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? iaea?aeai? iii?n? F1 a?ae ?aoeei?ieiiai no?auoaaiiy
ei?ii?a oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi?
ii?iaee o?aneiao.

Ia iniia? aiae?co i?iaaaeaieo ?ia?o anoaiiaeaii, ui iii?ni? oi?ie ca
?aooiie aaoa?iceniiai aoaeoo nooo?ai ia?aaa?oothoue aeo?aei? ii?iaee ca
eiiieaenii ?eaiaiaeii-a?ieia?/ieo oa o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a,
caa??aath/e, i?e oeueiio, aoaeoio aeniei-nieiio o?eiaoaeiao.

1. ?noeiiee aaoa?icen ca a?aenioeii caie?aeiaiiy, ?icaeoeo ?e?e ia
noaae?? ii?oee oa ?ooeeaiai aia??iio neeaaea? a?ae 0.44 aei 0.72 % o
iii?n? O o ? oa a?ae 3.26 aei 5.76 % o iii?n? ? o O.

2. Ia?aaaaa iii?nieo oeueiaie?oie iaae e?auith aaouee?anueeith oi?iith —
oe?a?inueeei ?ai/anoei ei?iiii ca iieacieeii na?aaeiuei? iane oa
aeoiaeii c ae?iuoaaeueieo noaa?a neeaaea? 2.6 oa 6.9 % aeey iii?n? O o
? ? 8.5 oa 9.4 % aeey iii?n? ? o O a?aeiia?aeii. ?noeiiee aaoa?icen ca
iieacieeii ?eaii?iaeoeoe?? neeaaea? 9.6 % aeey iii?nieo oeueiaie?oie O
o ? oa 18.6 % aeey oeueiaie?oie ? o O.

3. Ca aeoiaeii ?c cei?ae? iii?ni? iaeii??/ee O o ? oa ? o O
ia?aaa?oothoue oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia ia 1.0 ? 5.4 %
a?aeiia?aeii. 4. Ia?aaaaa iii?nieo aeaie?oie iaae oe?a?inueeith
?ai/anoith ii?iaeith ca na?aaeiueith ianith neeaaea? 10.0 % aeey iii?n?
O o ? ? 18.8 % aeey iii?n? ? o O. Aeo?ae aeaie?oie c iaaoeueieo noaa?a ?
i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaei aeey an?o aeine?aeieo a?oi (80 %), e??i ei?iia
ii?iaee o?aneiao (72 %). ?noeiiee aaoa?icen ca iieacieeii
?eaii?iaeoeoe?? neeaaea? 10.0 % aeey iii?nieo aeaie?oie O o ? oa 21.8 %
aeey iii?nieo aeaie?oie ? o O.

5. Iieacieee aenoa?’??o oa ?ioa?’??o iii?nieo ei?ii?a niaaeeothoueny
i?ii?aeii a?aeiinii aeo?aeieo aaouee?anueeeo oi?i. Iii?niei ei?iiai
aeanoeaa aenieinieiia o?eiaoaeiaa (l/H — 2.29-2.35; Ea — 3.48-3.50) oa
iacia/ia e?euee?noue eonee iica ?aieith.

6. Ca aeoiaeii ?no?aii? /anoeie, o aeaeyae? aa?aiiai i’yna a ia?a?aooieo
ia 1 ea oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe??, iii?ni? ei?iie ia?aaa?oothoue
oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia ia 2.26 — 2.57 % i?e iaeiaeia?e
na?aaei?e ian?, ui iia’ycaii, ianaiia?aae, c iniaeeainoyie aenoa?’??o oa
ia 10.81 -10.89 % i?e ??ci?e na?aaei?e ian?, ui iia’ycaii ye c
iniaeeainoyie aenoa?’??o, oae ? c aeuith na?aaeiueith ianith iii?nieo
oi?i.

7. Eiiieaen o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ca iieacieeaie
aaiaoieia??, aieeao aeno?aiaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e aiaee ia ?icaeoie
aia??ii?a oa ?o aeaeeaaiiy i?e a?aenooiino? ?ae?, a oaeiae
?ioaineaiino? aeeaeaiiy oeueiaie?oie a ??ci? ia??iaee aaaaoaoe?eiiai
naciio, aeyaea cia/iee i?iya aaoa?iceniiai aoaeoo o iii?nieo ei?ii?a.

8. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaiiy oeueiaie?oie oa aeaie?oie
e?aui? iii?nii? oi?ie ? o O neeaaea? 334.8 oa 523.2 a?i./aa
a?aeiia?aeii.

Oaeei /eiii, a ?acoeueoao? no?auoaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa
?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee o?aneiao aaeaeinue io?eiaoe i?iieneia?
iii?n? ?ai/anoiai ei?iia c iie?auaieie iieacieeaie aenoa?’??o
oa aenieeie i?iaeoeoeaieie yeinoyie. Aeei?enoaiiy iii?nieo
ei?ii?a aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ?eaii?iaeoeoeai?noue noaa?a o Iie?nuee?e oa
E?ninoaiia?e cii? Oe?a?ie ia 10 — 15 %. E??i oiai, a aeine?aeiiio
ainiiaea?noa? “Ieaea” ??A OAAI noi?iiaaii noaaei iii?nieo ei?ii?a
ia?oiai iieie?iiy naeaeoe??, ye? aoaeooue aeei?enoai? a aeiaaino?ieia?e
i?ia?ai? noai?aiiy iiaiai oeio oe?a?inueeiai ?ai/anoiai ei?iia.

NIENIE Ae?OEIAAIEO ?IA?O C OAIE AeENA?OAOe??:

1. Aao A. A. Iiaee a?a?eae iaeieoneaoiai ei?iia //Oaa?eiieoeoai
Oe?a?ie. -1997. -? 3.-N.16.

2. Aao A. A. Aeo?ae ?no?aii? /anoeie o?ea iii?nieo oa /enoiii??aeieo
ei?ii?a i?e oiaa?iiio ae?iuoaaii? // A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. — 1998. — ?
1. — N.72-74.

3. Aao A.A. Ii??aiyeueia ae?iuoaaiiy iii?nieo oeueiaie?oie ?ai/anoiai
ei?iia c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo caaaeueiiai eiio?ieth // Oaa??enueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee. — Oa?nii. — 1998. — Aei. 7. — N.52-56.

4. Aao A.A. Ii??aiyeueia ae?iuoaaiiy oiaa?ieo iaeieoneaoeo ei?ii?a
??ciiai aaiaceno // ?eaia ainiiaea?noai.- E.-1999.-Aei. 49-50.-
N.120-124.

5. Aao A.A. Aieea aeno?aiaeueieo oaiia?aoo? ia ?icaeoie aia??ii?a oa
aeaeeaaiiy iauaaee?a ?ai/anoeo ei?ii?a ??ciiai aaiaceno // ?eaia
ainiiaea?noai.- E.-1999.-Aei. 52-53.- N.77-80.

6. Eo/a?aiei A.I., Oiieeaiei A.A., Ineiaiei I.E., Aao A.A. Auaaaeaiea
iiaiai oeia iaei/aooe/aoiai ea?ia aeey eiaeono?eaeueiuo e i?oaeiauo
?uaiuo oicyenoa Oe?aeiu // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/iie
eiioa?aioeee “I?aniiaiaeiay aeaaeoeueoo?a a oneiaeyo aio?iiiaaiiiai
i?anna”.- *anoue 1.- E. — 1994. — N.76.

7. Eo/a?aiei A.I., Oiieeaiei A.A., Ineiaiei I.E., Aao A.A. Iaiaauaiea
aaiioiiaea ea?ia a ?uaiaiaenoaa Oe?aeiu // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/iie eiioa?aioeee “Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa ?uaiie i?iaeoeoeee aioo?aiieo
aiaeiaiia”. — E. — 1996. — N.31-32.

8.Aao A.A. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaie iiiane iaei/aooe/aoiai ea?ia //
Iaoa?eaeu aeieeaaeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai neiiiceoia “?ano?ninaa?aaathuea
oaoiieiaee a aeaaeoeueoo?a”.- E?aniiaea?. — 1996. — N.73.

AIIOAOe??

Aao A.A. Ioe?iea iii?nieo ei?ii?a a?ae no?auoaaiiy oe?a?inueei?
?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi? ii?iaee o?aneiao ? ia?niaeoeae ?o
aeei?enoaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.02.03 —
?eaieoeoai. — ?inoeooo ?eaiiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI, Ee?a, 1999.

Aia?oa o i?aeoeoe? ?eaieoeoaa iaea?aeai? iii?ni? ei?iie a?ae
?aoeei?ieieo no?auoaaiue oe?a?inueei? ?ai/anoi? oa ?oioinueei? ?ai/anoi?
ii?iaee o?aneiao. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaen ?eaiaiaeii-a?ieia?/ieo oa
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeyaeee cia/iee aaoa?icen o
iii?nieo oi?i ca ia?aaaaeiith a?eueo?noth iieaciee?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa
o?c?ieia?/iiai noaio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aenoa?’??i? oa ?ioa?’??i? iciaee
iii?nieo ei?ii?a niaaeeothoueny i?ii?aeii a?aeiinii aeo?aeieo
aaouee?anueeeo oi?i. Ae?iaieoeoao cai?iiiiiaai? iia? iii?ni? oi?ie
iaeieoneaoiai ei?iia c iie?auaieie i?iaeoeoeaieie oa oiaa?ieie yeinoyie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aoeei?ieia no?auoaaiiy, aaoa?icen, i?iaeoeoeai?noue,
oe?a?inueea ?ai/acoa ii?iaea, ?oioinueea ?ai/acoa ii?iaea o?aneiao,
iii?nia oi?ia.

Aao A.A. Ioeaiea iiianiuo ea?iia io ne?aueaaiey oe?aeineie ?ai/aoie e
?oiuineie ?ai/aoie ii?iaeu o?aneiao e ia?niaeoeau eo eniieueciaaiey. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.02.03 — ?uaiaiaenoai.
— Einoeooo ?uaiiai oicyenoaa OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

Aia?aua a i?aeoeea ?uaiaiaenoaa iieo/aiu iiianiua ea?iu io ?aoeei?ieiuo
ne?aueaaiee oe?aeineie ?ai/aoie e ?oiuineie ?ai/aoie ii?iaeu o?aneiao.
Iniiaiie caaea/ae enneaaeiaaiee e i?aeoe/aneeo ?uaiaiaeiuo ?aaio yaeeny
neioac oicyenoaaiii oeaiieo i?eciaeia, i?enoueo iaaei enoiaeiui
ii?iaeai. Oae, ea?i ii?iaeu o?aneiao oa?aeoa?ecoaony oi?ioeie
iieacaoaeyie yenoa?uea?a (eiaeaen aunieinieiiinoe l/H = 2,09-2,13;
eiyooeoeeaio oieoaiiinoe Ko=3,29-3,43), /enoui ianeaaeiaaieai
/aooe/aoiai iie?iaa a aeaea «?aiee» e iaeiia?aiaiii
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuie ea/anoaaie naiie, iniaaiii a
oneiaeyo Iieanuey e Eaninoaie. Oe?aeineie ?ai/aoie ii?iaea, a naith
i/a?aaeue, i?enoue aunieea ?uaiaiaeii-aeieiae/aneea iieacaoaee, ii
iin?aaenoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee yenoa?uea?a (l/H = 2,46-2,55;
Ko=2,95-3,12).

Aeey iiianae oa?aeoa?iu oi?ioea ?uaiaiaeii-aeieiae/aneea ea/anoaa, iie
iaeaaeatho aunieie aeecianoieeinoueth (auoiae naaieaoeia ec au?inoiuo
i?oaeia io ee/eiee, iieo/aiiie iooai caaiaeneiai aini?iecaiaenoaa
49,9-51,1 %), cia/eoaeueiui oaiiii ?inoa, aeinoeaay a aeaooeaoiai
aic?anoa oiaa?iie ianu 935-1010 a, /oi ia 10,0-18,8 % i?aainoiaeeo
eo/ooth ?iaeeoaeueneoth oi?io (enoeiiue aaoa?icen) — oe?aeineoth
?ai/aooth ii?iaeo.

Iniaaiii oaea/iuie ieacaeenue iiiane, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa
ne?aueaaiey naiie oe?aeineie ?ai/aoie ii?iaeu n naioeaie ii?iaeu
o?aneiao. Iaeaaeay aunieie ceiinoieeinoueth e auno?ui ?inoii, iie
oianeaaeiaaee oaeaea e oi?ioea iieacaoaee yenoa?uea?a (l/H = 2,35(0,03;
Ko=3,48(0,04). Iaieioea ?acoeueoaou iieo/aiu e i?e au?aueaaiee ae?oaie
?aoeei?ieiie iiiane — io naiie ii?iaeu o?aneiao e naioeia oe?aeineeo
?ai/aouo. Yoa oi?ia oianeaaeiaaea ii iaoa?eineie eeiee aaeeeieaiiua
iieacaoaee yenoa?uea?a (l/H = 2,29(0,03; Ko=3,50(0,04), a oi aea a?aiy
i?aainoiaey /enoiii?iaeiuo ?ua ii?iaeu o?aneiao eae ia ia?aii, oae e ia
aoi?ii aiaeo aeecie.

Aeey ananoi?iiiaai eco/aiey e n?aaiaiey /enoiii?iaeiuo e iiianiuo ea?iia
ii oeaeiio ?yaeo i?eciaeia auee i?iaaeaiu na?ee oeceieiae/aneeo,
aeioeie/aneeo, aenoieiae/aneeo e ae?oaeo iiuoia. A ?acoeueoaoa
enneaaeiaaiee ii auoiaeo ieuaaie i?iaeoeoeee (a aa?aiii aeaea) ec 1 ea
oiaa?iiai ea?ia iieo/aiu aeaiiua, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i i?yiie
ei??aeyoeaiie nayce yoiai iieacaoaey n iannie oaea ?uau, a oaeaea n
iieacaoaeyie aenoa?uea?a, a /anoiinoe n eiaeaenii aunieinieiiinoe. Ii
auoiaeo nuaaeiaiie /anoe iiianiua ea?iu i?aainoiaeyo oe?aeineiai
?ai/aoiai ea?ia ia 2,26 — 2,57 % i?e iaeeiaeiaie n?aaeiae ianna e ia
10,81- 10,89 % i?e ?aciie, /oi naycaii eae n iniaaiiinoyie yenoa?ua?a,
oae e n aieaa aunieie n?aaeiae iannie iiianiuo oi?i.

Iiuou ii enneaaeiaaieth aeioeie/aneiai iieeii?oecia oa?iaioa —
ia/aii/iie eaeoaoaeaaeae?iaaiacu e aaeea nuai?ioee e?iae — o?ainoa??eia
iiaeoaa?aeeee i?aaeiieaaaaioth aieaa aunieoth aaoa?iceaioiinoue iiianiuo
iniaae.

A ?acoeueoaoa aenoieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, i?iaaaeaiiuo n
aeaooaiaeiaeeaie ea?ia ?aciiai aaiacena, onoaiiaeaia neaaeothuay
oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue: a oneiaeyo Oe?aeineiai Iieanuey naioeu iaaeo
enoiaeiuo ii?iae, a oaeaea aeaoo iiianiuo ?aoeei?ieiuo aa?eaioia
nic?aaatho i?aeoe/anee iaeiia?aiaiii, oiaaea eae naiee ii?iaeu o?aneiao
cia/eoaeueii onooiatho ii eiyooeoeeaioo c?aeinoe anai inoaeueiui
a?oiiai ?ua.

I?aeiouanoai iiianiuo ea?iia iaae /enoiii?iaeiuie ioia/aaony oaeaea ii
iaeioi?ui aaiaoieiae/aneei iieacaoaeyi, a /aniinoe ii eiee/anoao
y?eo?ioeeoia e aaiiaeiaeia a e?iae.

I?iecaiaenoao i?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua iiianiua oi?iu iaei/aooe/aoiai ea?ia n
oeo/oaiuie i?iaeoeoeaiuie e oiaa?iuie ea/anoaaie. Naeaeoeeiiii-ieaiaiiay
?aaioa n ieie ia caaa?oaaony nicaeaieai iiianae ia?aiai iieieaiey, a
aeaeueiaeoai iiianiua ea?iu aoaeoo eniieueciaaiu a aeieain?i/iie
i?ia?aiia auaaaeaiey oe?aeineiai ?ai/aoiai ea?ia iiaiai oeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aoeei?ieiia ne?aueaaiea, aaoa?icen, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue,
oe?aeineay ?ai/aoay ii?iaea, ?oiuineay ?ai/aoay ii?iaea o?aneiao,
iiianiay oi?ia.

Bekh V. The estimation of cross breeds of carp, which were received as
the result of crossing of Ukrainian scaleless breed and Romanian
scaleless breed Frasinet as well as the perspectives of the use them. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate“s Degree in Agricultural Sciences, Speciality
06.02.03 — Fish-Breeding.-The Institute of fishery, the Ukrainian
Academy of Agricultural Sciences (UAAS), Kyiv, 1999.

Cross breeds of carp were bred from the reciprocal crossing of the
Ukrainian scaleless breed and the Romanian scaleless breed Frasinet for
the first time in fishery. The various biological, physiological and
biochemical researches were realized. They demonstrated considerable
heterosis of cross breeds on the most productive index and physiological
condition. The intermediate heredity of exterior and interior of cross
breeds from initial breeds was detected. The new cross breeds of better
quality is offered to commercial production.

Keywords: reciprocal crossing, heterosis, productivity, Ukrainian
scaleless breed, Romanian scaleless breed Frasinet, cross breed.

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