OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OAeE 947.084.5/6(477)

I/a?aoyiei A?eoi? ?aaiiae/

IAIAAEAIIss ?IOAEAEOOAEUeII? NAIAIAeE ssE IAeEI

?C CANIA?A OI?IOAAIIss ? OOIEOe?IIOAAIIss OIOAE?OA?II? NENOAIE A OE?A?I?

(20-30-o? ??. OO no.)

07.00.01.-?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee AeAIEETHE TH??E C?IIA?EIAE*, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee
ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie IAI*AIEI IAO?I IAIOAEAEIIIIAE*,
caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii no/anii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?inoeoooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie;

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio IINIOIA NA?A?E ?AAIIAE*, aeaeai
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.10 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?? a
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (310077, i.Oa?e?a-77,
iaeae.Naiaiaee, 4, Aieiaiee ei?ion, aoae.).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (i.Oa?e?a, iaeaeai
Naiaiaee, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 23 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
?.I.Ioaa/

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oiiaao iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ?icaoaeiae ?? aea?aeaaiino? ana a?eueoiai
cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iniaeeai
oeo ?? noi??iie, ye? i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano iaaei?aaaeaii
caiia/oaaeenue.

Iaei??th c oaeeo ? ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, yea a 20-30-o ??.
iieieeanue i?ae oeneii aei?noei? ? iaieeina?aeii? oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie.
Iie?oe/ia oeaico?a, eaae?iaa iie?oeea, ooenee c aieo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?,
?ai?an?? noaee i?e/eiith caaino?aiiy eiioe?eoo i?ae iniaeno?noth oa
noni?euenoaii, iinoaaeee iacaeieaiiee aa?’?? ia?aae a?eueiith
?ioaeaeooaeueiith i?aoeath.

Aiaeii/an, iaiaaeaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee, ia?aoai?aiiy
iniaenoino? a “eie?uaoei” ? “aaeioee” ?aeeii? nenoaie noaei aaaeeeaei
/eiieeii oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai oioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa, ine?eueee
aeoiaaiiy eiioi?i?nonueee iano?i?ii? ?ioae?aaioe?? noaei iaiaei?iiith
oiiaith eiai iiaeaeueoiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Caoiaee aeuiai ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaiiai ea??aieoeoaa ii iaiaaeaiith
?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee a 20-30-o ??. iaee iaeiaaaoeai?o? iane?aeee
aeey ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, cao?eiaee ?icaeoie eiai iaoeiai?
aeoiee, iicaaaeee oe?eeo iaia?an?/ieo ieano?a eoeueoo?e.

A ca’yceo c oeei, c’ynoaaiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee
uiaei ?ioae?aaioe??, i?e/ei oa iane?aee?a eiie?aoieo caoiae?a ii
iaiaaeaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee, ?aaeoe?? ia ieo c aieo iaoeiaeo ?
oai?/eo e?e ia? aeiyoeiaa iaoeiaa cia/aiiy. A nai?io e?ioeaaiio
?acoeueoao? aiii ni?eyoeia iiaeieaiith aei??iaieo aeanyoe??//yie a
noni?euei?e na?aeiiino? ia?aaeeoe?a ieioeiai, a?aee?e? oeyo aeey
?icaeoeo a oe?a?inuee?e iacaeaaei?e aea?aeaa? a?eueii?, i?/ei ia
iaiaaeaii? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy o aeena?oaoe?? ? aea?aeaaia iie?oeea uiaei
iaoeiai? oa oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe??, oi?ie ? iaoiaee iaiaaeaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ?o i?e/eie ? iane?aeee.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? oa oai?/i?
?ioae?aaioe??, ?? ?ioaeaeooaeueia i?aoey a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae 20-30-o ??., eiee
aeoeaii i?ioiaeea i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie, noaa?aeaeaiiy
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaoiae?a a iaooe? ? eoeueoo??.

Iaoa ?iaioe — i?iaiae?coaaoe aea?aeaaio iie?oeeo uiaei iaoeiai?, oai?/i?
?ioae?aaioe??, ?? ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? oa ooieoe?iioaaii? oioae?oa?ii?
nenoaie, oi?ie ? iaoiaee anoaiiaeaiiy aei?noeiai eiio?ieth iaae
?ioaeaeooaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth.

?aae?caoe?y cacia/aii? iaoe iaoiiaeea iinoaiiaeo oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— aeyaeoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai? aeoe, iia’ycai? c
noaiiaeaiiyi iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e, cae?eniaiiyi eaae?iai? iie?oeee a
iaooe? ? ienoaoeoa?, iie?oe/ieie ?ai?an?yie na?aae ?ioae?aaioe??;

— ?ice?eoe iaoai?ci noaiiaeaiiy eiio?ieth iaae ?ioaeaeooaeueiith
i?aoeath;

— aeine?aeeoe ae?yeuei?noue iaoeiaeo onoaiia, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a, a?iiaaenueeeo, oai?/eo i?aai?caoe?e a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie;

— c’ynoaaoe iane?aeee aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee uiaei iaoeiai?, oai?/i?
?ioae?aaioe??;

— aeyaeoe niaoeeo?eo aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?ioean?a o e?a?i? a oe?eiio, ? a
Oe?a?i? cie?aia.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino?,
?noi?ecio. I?aeo?ae aei ?icaeyaeo noni?eueieo i?ioean?a cae?enithaaany c
iaoith ?ice?eooy caeiiii??iinoae ?o ?icaeoeo a oiio aeaeyae?, a yeiio
aiie a?aeaoaaeeny a ae?eniino?. Iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy —
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeueiee, aiae?oe/iee,
no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaoi? aia?oa a
oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? c?iaea ni?iao c’ynoaaoe i?noea ? ?ieue
iaiaaeaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee, anoaiiaeaiiy eiio?ieth iaae
?ioaeaeooaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth o oi?ioaaii? ? ooieoe?iioaaii?
oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie, aeaoe caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iie?oe/i?e
oeaico??, ?ice?eoe iniiai? aoaie ??? oi?ioaaiiy oa iai?yiee ?iaioe,
aena?oeeoe iaaaoeaiee aieea no?oeoo?ieo ?ai?aai?caoe?e
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a,
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, cae?eniaiiy oi?o?eaoe?? iaoeiaiai ? oai?/iai
i?ioeano.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?? iaoa??aee,
iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee iiaeooue aooue aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, ?noi???
Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio, i?ae?o/iee?a, iin?aiee?a, ?ic?iaee ii?iaoeaieo ?
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a o aeueo o/aiaeo caeeaaeao, oeieao, a oaeiae o oiae?
aeeiiaiiy Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie i?aeaioiaee iaoeiai-aeieoiaioaeueii?
na??? eiea “?aaa?e?oiaai? ?noi???th”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iia’ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie i?aeaioiaee
iaoeiai-aeieoiaioaeueii? na??? eiea “?aaa?e?oiaai? ?noi???th”,
iaoiiaeaii? iinoaiiaaie I?aceae?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee (?2256-O?? a?ae 6
ea?oiy 1992 ?.) oa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a (?513 a?ae 11 aa?aniy 1992 ??.), a
oaeiae iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaiaoeee a?aeae?eo ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai
?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, ui
cae?enithaaeanue o 1992-1997 ??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaoi?:

— c’ynoaaa i?noea ? ?ieue iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e a iaiaaeaii?
?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee, aecia/ea iniiai? aoaie ?? oi?ioaaiiy;

— ?ice?ea iniiai? iai?yiee iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e a Oe?a?i?;

— i?iaiae?coaaa eaae?iao iie?oeeo uiaei iaoeiai? oa oai?/i?
?ioae?aaioe??;

— iieacaa iaoai?ci /enoie a iaoeiaeo onoaiiaao, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o
caeeaaeao, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?yo;

— ?icaeyioa i?e/eie, o?ae ? iane?aeee iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e uiaei
oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? oa oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe??.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??:

— a 20-30-o ??. c aieo ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaiiai ea??aieoeoaa N?N? oa
Oe?a?ie iiaoaiii cae?enithaaeanue iie?oeea, ni?yiiaaia ia iaiaaeaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe?, anoaiiaeaiiy aei?noeiai eiio?ieth iaae
ae?yeuei?noth iaoeiaeo onoaiia, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a, oai?/eo
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e;

— iaiaaeaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee cae?enithaaeinue a naieo
??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao, oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e,
i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? eaae?iai? iie?oeee, ianiaeo ?ai?an?e na?aae
?ioae?aaioe??;

— aeey i?ioeano iaiaaeaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee a Oe?a?i?
oa?aeoa?i? ye caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe??, oae ? naiy niaoeeo?ea;

— caoiaee ii iaiaaeaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee aeeeeeaee ??oo/ee
i?ioano na?aae oe?ieeo e?e iaoeiai?, oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe??, yeee
i?iyaeyany ye a ianeaieo, oae ? aeoeaieo oi?iao;

— aea?aeaaia iie?oeea uiaei iaoeiai? oa oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe?? iaianea
iaiii?aaieo ao?ao oe?a?inuee?e iaooe?, eoeueoo??, iaeiaaaoeai?oei /eiii

a?aeaeaaeany ia noni?euei?e na?aeiiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?aia ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia ia
can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie. Iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a
aeiiia?aeyo ia VIII Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? c
?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa (Oa?e?a, 1997), eiioa?aioe?yo Aieiaii?
?aaeaeoe?eii? eieaa?? oa Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanii? ?aaeeieaa??
iaoeiai-aeieoiaioaeueii? na??? eiea “?aaa?e?oiaai? ?noi???th” (Ee?a-
Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1998), iioae?eiaai? o ainueie ioae?eaoe?yo, a o./.
o?noue a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao, aeaa o ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aeieeaa? c iaoe oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeena?oaoe?y iiaoaeiaaia ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei i?eioeeiii ?
neea-aea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e. ?icae?ee a?aeiia?aeii aei
i?iaeai, ui ?icaey-aeathoueny ae?eyoueny ia ia?aa?aoe. Ianya oaenoo —
164 noi??iee. Nienie aeei-?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e neeaaea?oueny
c 330 iaca ia 15 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ?? iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, aecia/ai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, i?aaeiao ? ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneai? o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca” aiae?co?oueny
e?oa?aoo?a c aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai oa aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee
aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? i?aoe?.

sse ia?aeiio?iiny, inoaii?i /anii oe?a?inueea ? ca?oa?aeia ?noi??ia?ao?y
iiiiaieeanue oe?eei ?yaeii i?aoeue, ui oi?eathoueny naieo ??ciiiai?oieo
aniaeo?a i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie. ?o
aaoi?e — I.Aeuea?aoo, ?.A?ean, A.Ai?aethaia, A.Aaneeue?a, I.Aaeea?,
A.Eiceia, I.Aa?o, A.Caaaeaa, N.Eoeue/eoeueeee, A.Aeaieeaiei,
A.Eanueyiia, C.Eeoieiaiaa, A.?iaiaei, I.Oeaaithe, C.Oaeiao?a, TH.Oaiiaae
— oe?eeii ni?aaaaeeeai aaaaeathoue, ui caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia oiiei?aiiy
?ioae?aaioe??, caeo/aiiy ?? on?ia iiaeeeaeie caniaaie ia a?e
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, oi?o?eaoe?th iaoeiaiai, oai?/iai i?ioeano noaee
eeth/iaeie o noaa?aeaeaii? oioae?oa?ii? na?aeiiino?, anoaiiaeaii?
iiiiiieueiiai i?aaa ia ?noeio).

Iaienai? ia oe?ie?e aeieoiaioaeuei?e aac? aiie iiai?noth ni?inoiaothoue
oaco i?i oa, ui ia?aaeiaa ?ioae?aaioe?y a a?eueoino? nai?e ni?eeiyea ?
i?aeo?eiaea AEiaoiaao ?aaiethoe?th, a?aeaeaaoe aeina?ae ? ciaiiy ni?aa?
iiaoaeiae nioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa.

Aeieeaaeia a?aoiaioaoe?y iiceoe?? ?ioae?aaioe?? a oe?eiio ? oe?a?inueei?
cie?aia, i?noeoueny o ooiaeaiaioaeuei?e o?eoiii?e iiiia?ao??, aeaeaii?
ca o/anoth N.?.A?eieiiy, A.I.Ao?aa/aieiaa, I.A.Eiaaey, TH.TH.Eiiaeooi?a,
Ae.A.Oaaa/ieea oa ?ioeo).

Oeaio?aeueiith oaiith aeaeaiiy, ui ?? aecia/eee aaoi?e o ia?aaeiia?,
noaei “…oi?ioaaiiy ?ioae?aaioe?? i?aaiaie o??? aeaaee, yea c’yaeeany a
Oe?a?i?, caeo/aiiy iiia?aaei?o ? oiai/anieo iieie?iue ?ioae?aaioe?? aei
ae?yeueiino? a aeiiii?/i?e oa aeooiai?e noa?ao, iaoa??aeueii-iiaooia?
oiiae ?o ?nioaaiiy ? aeaoeea?noue iaaa/aieo ?ai?an?e, ui i?ae ei??iue
neineee ?ioaeaeooaeuei? neee iaoe??).

Aiaeia?/ia eiei ieoaiue ?icaeyaea?oueny a iioae?eiaaieo iaoa??aeao
i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? “?ioae?aaioe?y: nooue, ?noi?e/i? aeie?,
ia?niaeoeae”, i?iaaaeaii? o Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo a /a?ai? 1996 ?ieo).

?ic?a?aoeny a noaaeaii? i?aaenoaaiee?a aeui? iie?oe/ii? ae?oe
?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae aei ?ioae?aaioe?? c?iaeee ni?iao
A.Aioiiia-Ian??iei, E.Aaeaae? ? O.E?aon, ?.?an??a, N.Eiai, O.I’Eiiii?,
A.Iaoeaae/, ?.Oaea?, A.O?eueyin).

Ia ?o oe? iii?oii aeae?eythoueny, iaienai? ia iaoa??aeao a?o?ao
I?aceaeaioa ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? i?aoe? Ae.A.Aieeiaiiiaa).
Ii?aoethaaaoe aeiyoeiaee ca nai?th oe?ii?noth iaoa??ae, a?aeiiee
?in?enueeee ?noi?ee ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui caii/aoeiaai? “aiaeaeyie
?aaiethoe??” “i?in?thaaiiy” ?ioae?aaioe??, canoinoaaiiy aei ia? caoiae?a
/enoi iie?oeaenueeiai oa?aeoa?o aoee caeiiii??ieie ? “ciaiaioaaee niaith
iiaeaeueoa iineeaiiy oioae?oa?ieo oaiaeaioe?e a noni?euenoa?. Aaeaea
naia a oaeeo nenoaiao ?aea ianooi, ia?o ca ana, ia oai?oe?a “aeooiaii?
i?iaeoeoe??”, ?ioaeaeooaeueio ae?oo e?a?ie).

Iaaeaoe aeinoia??iino? iaoeiaei ? iaoeiai-iiioey?iei i?aoeyi i?i aeieth
oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, c’ynoaaoe iaeia?aeii? noi??iee aeeooy oa
ae?yeueiino? a?aeiieo a/aieo, iaeno??a eoeueoo?e, ?ice?eoe oi?ie ?o
iii?o oioae?oa?iiio ?aaeeio aeicaieeei aeei?enoaiiy aeieoiaioaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a eieeoi?o niaoeneoaea.

Inoaii? cana?ae/eei aeaeaiiy oi?eaeueieo ca nai?i ci?noii i?aoeue
“?ai?aniaaia e?a?ciaanoai” oa “?aaa?e?oiaai? ?noi???th”). Ia ?o
noi??ieao ia iniia? oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace i?aaenoaaeaii aeecueei 50
ia?en?a i?i ae?y/?a eoeueoo?e, ?iaia yeeo i?ioyaii aeanyoe??/
iaaei?aaaeaii caiia/oaaeeny.

Ia aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??aeao a?o?a?a AOIE-AeIO-IEAN iaienai? oaeiae
?iaioe TH.Aeaieethea, I.TH?aiea, ?.Iaiueeianueei?, E.Iaoa??ai?, A.Aeeae,
I.Iiiianueeiai, ?.Ie?iaa, I.Oaae?y i?i aeaaeai?e?a I.A?ooaanueeiai,
A.E?einueeiai, I.Aaaeeiaa, N.?oaeieoeueeiai, ?noi?ee?a ?.Noaoaanueeiai,
O.Eicoa?anueeiai).

Iiaei aoaiii o ?ic?iaoe? oa aena?oeaii? i?iaeai oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe?? 20-30-o ?ie?a, i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiaiai ? oai?/iai i?ioeano
a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae noaea ioae?eaoe?y aeieoiaioaeueieo ca??iee?a
?, a ia?oo /a?ao, oeo, ui i?noyoue iaoa??aee ?ai?oa cae?eo? ye aeey
aeine?aeiee?a, oae ? aeey oe?ieiai caaaeo. Na?aae ieo ca nai?i ci?noii ?
neeaaeii aeieoiaio?a iii?oii ae??ciythoueny ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a,
i?aeaioiaeai? A.I?enoaeeii ? TH.Oaiiaaeii).

Oa?aeoa?ii, ui a ieo, /e ia aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??,
ioae?eothoueny iia?aoeai? iaoa??aee eieeoi?o ?aaeyinueeeo niaoeneoaea
(aeiianaiiy aaaioo?e, iaii?aiaeoie, ia?ethno?aoe?y ei?aniiiaeaioe??
oiui), ye? aeicaieythoue c’ynoaaoe aein? iaa?aeii? noi??iee iaoeiaiai ?
eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie a 20-30-o ?ieao.

A i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe ? caaaeaiue, a ?iaio? aoei
aeei?enoaii aeieoiaioe 28 oiiae?a 13 oeaio?aeueieo, i?noeaaeo
aea?aeaaieo oa a?aeii/eo a?o?a?a, iaoa??aee ?inoeoooo ?oeiien?a
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i.A.Aa?iaaenueeiai.

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeey c’ynoaaiiy i?iaeaie i?aaenoaaey? oiiae
Oeaio?aeueiiai Eii?oaoo Eiiia?o?? Oe?a?ie (O. 1). I?ioieiee iie?oath?i
OeE EI(a)O iine?aeiaii ?ice?eaathoue noaaeaiiy aeuiai iie?oe/iiai
ea??aieoeoaa ?anioae?ee aei ?ioae?aaioe??, aena?oeththoue oeyo i?eeiyooy
? canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? oe?eiai ?yaeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, iia’ycaieo
c anoaiiaeaiiyi oa iineeaiiyi iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e, ?ai?aai?caoe??th
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiia, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a, iie?oe/ieie
?ai?an?yie.

C’ynoaaoe oiiae, a yeeo aeiaiaeeeinue i?aoethaaoe iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei
onoaiiaai, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?i caeeaaeai, a?iiaaenueeei i?aai?caoe?yi
iiaeia ia iniia? ii?aoethaaiiy oiiaeo Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo ina?oe (O.
166) Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee ?
oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie.

O aena?oeaii? i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a na?aaeiaeu? oe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai? ? oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe??, aeiyoeiao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue
iaoa??aee Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??. Cie?aia, a oiiae?
“?in?enueeee ca?oa?aeiee a?o?a”, aeaacaiiai c I?aae a i?neyai?iiee
ia??iae, iniaeeaee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue eenooaaiiy ee?anueeeo
ei?aniiiaeao?a ai?a?aionueei? i?aai?caoe?? “Oeaio? ae?e” c nai?i
ea??aieoeoaii o Ia?eae?.

Cia/iith i??ith aeiiiaiththoue iaoa??aee oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo
a?o?a?a aeieoiaioe aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a Oa?e?anueei?, Iaeanueei?,
Caii??cueei? iaeanoae.

Ona?aeiieoe nooi?noue eiioe?eoo iniaenoino? ? nenoaie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo aeathoue iiaeeea?noue oiiaee aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a oe?a?inueei?
iaoee ? eoeueoo?e Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao-iocath e?oa?aoo?e ?
ienoaoeoaa.

Na?aae ieo oiiaee I.I.Iiaeoeueei? (O. 1164), I.Ae.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei
(O. 542), Ni?eee ienueiaiiee?a (O. 590), N.A.Oa?aiooaiei (O. 50),
Ae.I.Ai?ae??aa (O. 208), A.?.Aaeeoeueeiai (O. 19), A.E.Iie?uoea (O. 72),
O.N.E?aneoeueeiai (O. 96), I.I.Aeiaaeaiea (O. 680), eieaeoe?y
aeieoiaio?a “Iae?iiie? Ee?aa” (O. 13) oa ?io?.

Ie?aio a?oio iaoa??ae?a, aaaaeaieo aeena?oaoe??th a iaoeiaee ia?a,
noaiiaeyoue aeieoiaioe Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie oa
a?o?a?a ?? oi?aae?iue o Oa?e?anuee?e, Caii??cuee?e, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e,
*a?i?a?anuee?e iaeanoyo. A ia?oo /a?ao eaeaoueny i?i a?o?aii-ne?ae/?
ni?aae ?ai?aniaaieo ae?y/?a iaoee oa eoeueoo?e.

Iayaia aeaea?aeueia aaca a?aee?eea iiaeeea?noue aeey ?aae?caoe??
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, iaaeaea a?aeiia?aeio a?aoiaioaoe?th aeneiaeaieo a
aeena?oaoe?? iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iie?oe/ia oeaico?a a nenoai? eiio?ieth ca
iniaeno?noth oa noni?euenoaii” ?icaeyaea?oueny oai??y oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?aai?a iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e, ui ye a N?N? a oe?eiio, oae ? a Oe?a?i?
cie?aia, o?eaaeee /an caeeoaeenue iaei??th c cae?eoeo oai, i?aeoe/ii
iaaeinooiiith aeey aeine?aeiee?a. Iaa?oue naia iiiyooy “oeaico?a”
iaiiaae ia ?nioaaei. Oae, a a?eueoino? aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo oa
iiiia?ao?/ieo aeaeaiue aacaiaeyoe?eii noaa?aeaeoaaeinue, ui “Aaeeea
AEiaoiaaa nioe?ae?noe/ia ?aaiethoe?y cieueea oea?nueeo ? ao?aeoacio
oeaico?o, a aeey aeiaea?aeaiiy aea?aeaaii? ? a?enueeiai? oa?iieoe?
noai?eea iaai? nai? ii?ie iie?oe/ii? ? ?aaiethoe?eii? ieeueiino?”.

Ca?aaee ni?aaaaeeeaino? iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui nai ii nia? ?inoeooo
oeaico?e cian?i ia iiaee, i?aai?/ii noi?iiaaiee ua a aiioo
na?aaeiueia?//y. I?e/iio ia iiaeia ia iiaiaeeoeny c ?.I.*??nueeiaith,
yea oaa?aeeoue, ui a?i caaaeaee caeeoaany ae??aei caniaii aieeao ia
aeia??, caa??aaiiy, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oa niiaeeaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
?ioi?iaoe??. Oaeeie ae iaci?iieie caeeoaeenue ? ooieoe?? oeaico?e —
eiio?ieue, ioi?iia, naieoe?y, ?aaeaiaioaoe?y, ?ai?an?y, aea cia/aiiy ?o
ci?ithaaeinue a /an?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae iie?oe/ii? eii’thieoo?e. Oiio a
??ci? /ane oaaoethaaeeny o? /e ?io? i?iaeaie, oaeoe, iniaenoino?,
caiia/oaaeeny oe?e? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee.

Ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e a N?N? aieeioei ?yae oaeoi??a —
ianaaeaeoaaiiy oa iaioaaiiy io?oe?eii? ?aeaieia??, ??oo/a
iai?eie?ei?noue aei ?iaeiaeoinoaa, i?aaiaiiy aei iie?oe/ii? ?
?aeaieia?/ii? iaeiiiai?oiino?, eeaniaee i?aeo?ae a ioe?ioe? aoaeue-yei?
nioe?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??, i?iaeoeoo ??cii? ca nai?i ni?yioaaiiyi
?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe?.

A ca’yceo c oeei, i?ae aei?noeei eiio?ieai oeaico?e iino?eii ia?aao-aaee
caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaeaaie/eo oa iie?a?ao?/ieo
i?aai?caoe?e, a?ae?ioae, a?o?a?a, iaoeiaa oa oai?/a ae?yeuei?noue
?ioae?aaioe??.

Ia ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a a Oe?a?i? ia?aeaeueii ?nioaaee aeaa i?aaie
oeaico?e — a nenoai? Ia?eiiino oa Aea?aeiie?ooi?aae?iiy ON??. I?e/iio,
iiaiiaaaeaiiy ? caniae aieeao o inoaiiueiai aoee cia/ii oe?oeie.

Noai?aiiy ?anioae?eainueeeo i?aai?a oeaico?e aae i?ye ia icia/aei ?o
naiino?eiino? uiaei ioae?eaoe?? ie?aieo aeaeaiue, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy o???
/e ?ioi? ?ioi?iaoe??. C ooai?aiiyi N?N? an? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c
oeaico?ith, ae??ooaaeeny nithciei ea??aieoeoaii, aeiaiaey/e ia i?noey
eeoa io?oe?eio oi/eo ci?o. ssne?aaei i?eeeaaeii oeueiio iiaea neoaeeoe
oee?eoey? nithciiai Aieiae?oo an?i aoae?oai, iaee?oai oa aieiae?oai
?anioae?e i?i eii?aeeiaoe?th ?iaioe oeaio?aeueieo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a a
io?eiaii? aeicaieo ia aeaeaiiy a?ae 25 o?aaiy 1925 ?ieo. A iueiio
aeacoaaeiny ia iaiao?aei?noue ae?iaeaiiy caaaeueieo i?aaee aeey an?o
i?aai?a oeaico?e, neii?aeeiiaai?noue ?o ae?e. I/aaeaeii, ui aaeeo?
caoiaee ia a?aeiia?aeaee an?i aeiiaai, ye? aenoaaeeny aeuei iie?oe/iei
ea??aieoeoaii ia?aae i?aaiaie oeaico?e. A ca’yceo c oeei, a 1930 ?ioe?
aoea i?iaaaeaia ?ai?aai?caoe?y aieiae?o?a a on?o nithcieo ?anioae?eao. A
?acoeueoao? /iai ?i iaaeaaaeeny, e??i oaea aecia/aieo ooieoe?e, i?aai ia
a?aee?eooy aeaeaaieoeoa, aaciina?aaeiueiai eiio?ieth ca ?o ae?yeuei?noth
oiui. Iaeii/anii c oeei, noai?thaaany ?inoeooo oiiaiiaaaeaieo Aieiae?oo
i?e an?o aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo aeaeaaieoeoaao,
?aae?io?aineyoe?eieo ia?aaeao, oaeaa?aoieo aaainoaao, iiooaioao ?
ieoieoeyo.

Oaeei /eiii, i?ioyaii 20-30-o ?ie?a iinooiiai noi?ioaaeany no?oeoo?a
i?aai?a iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e, yea nie?aeany ia a?aeiia?aei? i?ae?icae?ee
Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo ina?oe oa niaoeneoaea. Aeoiaey/e c ??oaiue aeuiai
iie?oe/iiai ea??aieoeoaa e?a?ie ? ?anioae?ee aiie, iacaaaeath/e ia iaaio
?icii?ioai?noue, cae?enithaaee u?eueiee eiio?ieue ca naieie
??ciiiai?oieie noa?aie aeooiaiiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y a i?ioean?
“?aaeyi?caoe??” iaoeiaeo, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a, a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? iai?yiee eaae?iai? iie?oeee uiaei
iaoeiai?, oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe??.

A oiiaao “?aaeyi?caoe??” iaoeiaeo onoaiia, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaee
iino?ei? ? ??ciiiai?oi? ?ai?aai?caoe?? cacia/aieo no?oeoo?, ye? a nai?io
e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? neoaeeee anoaiiaeaiith a?eueo u?eueiiai eiio?ieth
iaae ieie c aieo aea?aeaae.

Oeei aea caaaeaiiyi, ye i?aaeei, neoaeeee ? /eneaii? ia?iaiaioi? /enoee,
i?iaaaeai? a 20-30-o ??. A oiae? inoaii?o aoee onoioo? a?ae iaoeiai? ?
oai?/i? i?aoe? iaea?eueo ciai? ? aeina?ae/ai? oe?a?inuee? a/ai?,
e?oa?aoi?e, ieooe?.

C?i?oe?eiaai? cai?e ?ai?aai?caoe?? ? /enoee ia?ane?aeoaaee ua iaeio iaoo
— aiineee ?iceie na?aae noa?i? ?ioae?aaioe??, i?ioenoaaeee ?? iia?e,
noi?iiaai?e a ?iee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, ii?iaeaeoaaee eiioe?eoe, ye?
iaeiaaaoeai?oei /eiii a?aeaeaaeeny o noni?euei?e na?aeiiino?.

Iaei??th c ia?oeo caciaea ?ai?aai?caoe?? Anaoe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y iaoe,
yea a neeo oiia nai?? i?aoe?, eiioeiaaioii a/aieo o?eaaeee /an caa??aaea
aeaiie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?, iie?aeany ia onoaeai? o a?o/eciyi?e iaooe?
o?aaeeoe??.

A oiae? caaaeueiiai i?ioeano aei?noeiai oeneo caciaee ia nia? oaeiae
oaoia? Aeaaeai??. Iai?eeeaae, iinoaiiaith OeE EI(a) a?ae 17 ethoiai 1935
?., aiane?aeie “cani?/aiino? eiio??aaiethoe?eieie aeaiaioaie”
a?ae??aaiino? aeine?aeaeaiue a?ae “i?aeoeee ?aaeueiiai aeeooy aoea
e?ea?aeiaaia Anaoe?a?inueea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeaaeai?y. Ia?aae
i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo ?e ?inoeooo?a ?aeiiaiaeoaaeiny ci?oeieoe oao?aoeyie c
/enea ?ia?oie/i? iieiae?.

Iaiaeii?aciaeo ?ai?aai?caoe?e caciaea nenoaia aeui? ina?oe. E?ea?aeiaai?
o 1920 ?. eeane/i? oi?aa?neoaoe aoee a?aeiiaeai? o Ee?a?, Oa?eia?,
Iaean?, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo o 1934 ?., i?e/iio ia io?eiaee
oi?aa?neoaonueeiai noaoono aeu? o/aia? caeeaaee o
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiio oa Iieoaa?. Ia iiaeia ia iiaiaeeoeny c
I.Ae.Iieiinueeith-Aaneeaiei, yea aaaaeaea, ui iiae?ai? aenia?eiaioe
i?iaiaeeeenue eeoa aeey oiai, uia ii?ooeoe onoaeai? o aocao i?ia?aie
ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a, aeo?nieoe c ieo noa?o oe?a?inueeo i?ioano?o.

Aeoiaeeee ca ?aiee oiai/anii? noni?eueii? i?aai?caoe?? ? /eneaii?
a?iiaaenuee? ia’?aeiaiiy, oiaa?enoaa, iaoeiaiai, eoeueoo?iiai,
i?ina?oieoeueeiai iai?yie?a. A ne?ooiiio noaiiaeu? iieieeeny iaa?oue o?
i?aai?caoe??, noai?aiiy yeeo ?i?oe?thaaeiny aeuei iie?oe/iei
ea??aieoeoaii. Ca iaoeie i?ae?aooieaie eeoa a ia?o?e iieiaei? 30-o ?ie?a
aoei e?ea?aeiaaii aeecueei 200 a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Ia a e?auiio noaiiaeu? a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae iieieeeny oai?/?
i?aai?caoe??, ye?, a ?acoeueoao? aaiethoe??, iinooiiai ia?aoiaeeee i?ae
aaciina?aaei?e eiio?ieue ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaiiai ea??aieoeoaa,
ia?aoai?thaaeenue, ca aeneiaii A.?.Eai?ia, a “eie?uaoei” ? “aaeioee”
?aeeiiai ?aeaieia?/iiai i?ioeano.

Ciai? aeaeea?oth/e iiaeeea?noue a?aee?eoeo oai?/eo aeeneon?e, aeua
iie?oe/ia ea??aieoeoai ?anioae?ee ? e?a?ie iino?eii o?eiaee ?o a iie?
ci?o, ni?yiiaoaaee o iaiao?aeia ?onei. ssne?aaei i?eeeaaeii oeueiai
iiaea neoaeeoe iinoaiiaa iie?oath?i OeE EI(a)O a?ae 10 ea?oiy 1925 ?.
“I?i oe?a?inuee? ooaeiaei? oa?oioaaiiy”, a ye?e aeaaaeeny iaiaeiicia/i?
ioe?iee ae?yeueiino? ? caeiaooeai e?oa?aoo?iei ia’?aeiaiiyi “Aa?o”,
“Ieoa” oa ?ioei, aeneiaethaaeenue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? “i?aai?coaaoe na?eicio
ia?enenonueeo e?eoeeo ? a?ae?ia?ao?th, yea a aee?eea aeaoaeoe ?
cai/aiiy, ui ? ye na?aae ienueiaiiee?a “Aa?oo”, oae ? na?aae ?ioeo
e?oa?aoo?ieo oa?oioaaiue”.

Iaaaaeai? o aeena?oaoe?? oaeoe ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui,
iacaaaeath/e ia ?icia?ooy eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy, iayai?noue /eneaiieo
oai?/eo ia’?aeiaiue, a ?anioae?oe?, ii/eiath/e c na?aaeeie 20-o ??.
iinooiiai iaae?aa iaa?o?a i?ioean caaaeueii? oi?o?eaoe?? oai?/eo nee,
cao?ooaaiiy ?o i?ae aeaoii niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e,
iiai?noth i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaiiio ea??aieoeoao. Eia?/iei
caaa?oaiiyi oeueiai i?ioeano noaei noaaeaiiy iinoaiiae iie?oath?i OeE
AEI(a) a?ae 23 ea?oiy 1932 ?. “I?i ia?aaoaeiao e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaei?o
i?aai?caoe?e”.

Iaeii/anii c /eneaiieie ?ai?aai?caoe?yie cae?enithaaeinue
ia?ane?aeoaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, yea iaae?aei naieo
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i — a?ae iicaaaeaiiy ?iaioe, iaoa??aeueieo cania?a aei
?nioaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee aei aaeeooy aei
ia? ??ciiai ?iaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo caoiae?a.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “?ai?aneaia iie?oeea uiaei ?ioae?aaioe?? oa ??
iane?aeee aeey oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa” aiae?cothoueny aeoiee,
i?e/eie, ni?yioaaiiy iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e na?aae iaoeiai? oa oai?/i?
?ioae?aaioe??.

Ia?aiiaa AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? oa ?ica’ycaia iath a?aoiaaea/a
a?iiaaeyinueea a?eia aaea ia ia?oeo nai?o ii?ao aeiaaee ianoi?ni?noue
?aea? iiaoaeiae “iaeaoiaii?oiai noni?euenoaa” c ?aaeueiith i?aeoeeith
aeooiaiiai ? o?ce/iiai ianeeey, yea iaioaaei a on?o noa?ao aeeooy ia?oi?
a na?o? nioe?ae?noe/ii? aea?aeaae ai?iaeiaae a?eueo ye naie aeanyoe??/.
Cae/aeii, ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao ianeeuenoai iaaoaaei i?eoaiaiieo
aeey oiai /e ?ioiai /ano oi?i. Iiaeaeoaee aiii aenooiaei o aeaeyae?
?ic/ioeaiiai aaaiaoa, a ?ieiee ni?ii’yceeai i?ee?eaaeiny ?aeayie
e?aa?ae?caoe??. Iaeiae a?ae oeueiai ia ci?ithaaeanue eiai nooue,
ni?yiiaaia ia i?eaeooaiiy iniaenoino?, ia?aoai?aiiy ?? ia “eie?uaoei” ?
“aaeioee” oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie.

Aeeeoaoo?a i?ieaoa??aoo, iinooiiai o?ainoi?iiaaia a aeeeoaoo?o ?aeeii?
ia?o??, aaea a nai?io aaiaoe/iiio eiae? ia?a?nii ia?aaeaa/aea ianeeey ye
can?a aeinyaiaiiy iie?oe/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo oe?eae. Inoaiiueiai cian?i ia
i?eoiaoaaa A.?.Eai?i, yeee aac o?i? noii?ao noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui:
“…iaoeiaa iiiyooy aeeeoaoo?e icia/a? ia ui ?ioa, ye i?/ei ia iaiaaeaio
i?yeeie caeiiaie, i?yeeie aaniethoii i?aaeeaie ia ca’ycaio aeaaeo, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei ia ianeeuenoai nie?a?oueny”).

Noaa?aeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ia eeoa ia
ciaioeei ianooaae ?ai?an?e, a, iaaiaee, aeoea?coaaei ae?yeuei?noue
iaaecae/aeieo eii?n?e ii aeei??iaiith eeaniai-ai?iaeeo aeaiaio?a.
A?eueoa oiai, a i?aeoeeo i?aai?a iie?oe/iiai ea??aieoeoaa ? niaoeneoaea
iinooiiai aoiaeeea oaea oi?ia caeyeoaaiiy “iai?ieaoa?nueeeo” aa?noa
ianaeaiiy ye i?iaaaeaiiy a?aee?eoeo iieaciaeo i?ioean?a i?ioe “eeaniaeo
noi?ioeaiee?a”. sse i?aaeei, ?o ia’?eoii noaaaea ?ioae?aaioe?y, yea ia
iiaea cie?eoeny c ianeeueieoeueeei ianaaeaeaiiyi iiaeo, aeaeaeeo a?ae
ii?aeueiino? i?eioeei?a. Iaeiei c ia?oeo oaeeo i?ioean?a noaa i?ioean
i?ioe /eai?a o.c. i?iiiia?o?/iiai “Iaoe?iiaeueiiai Oeaio?o”.

Cia/ii? /anoeie ?ioae?aaioe?? oi?eioeeny oaeiae ?ai?aneai? caoiaee
aeuiai iie?oe/iiai ea??aieoeoaa ? iaaecae/aeieo eii?n?e, ni?yiiaai?
i?ioe ae??aiiao?aeoacieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ui ae?yee a Oe?a?i? a ia?o?
?iee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Cie?aia, i?ae aei?noeei ?ai?aneaiei i?aneiaii
iieieeeny /eaie ?NAe?I, /ee aieea, ca ni?aaaaeeeaei oaa?aeaeaiiyi
N.A.Eie?ia oa I.I.Iia/ai aoa iniaeeai neeueiei o e?oa?aoo?ieo oa
aeaeaaie/eo eieao, a?iiaaenueeeo oa eiiia?aoeaieo i?aai?caoe?yo.

A ae?oa?e iieiaei?, iniaeeai a e?ioe? 20-o ??. oene ia ?ioae?aaioe?th c
aieo aeaaeieo no?oeoo? cia/ii iineeth?oueny. I?e/eio oeueiai aaeaei
iiyniea iaeei ?c e?aea??a ?in?enueeiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?ooo O.Aeai,
yeee, ia?aaoaath/e ca ei?aeiiii, a?aene?aeeiaoaaa ? aiae?coaaa i?ioeane,
ui a?aeaoaaeeny a N?N?. “Eiee ia ii?ic? 1923 ?., — ienaa a?i, —
aeyaeeenue ia?o? i?ia?nieee iiaiai iiai?ioo — a?ae IAIo aei
“aaia?aeueii? e?i??”, aei iie?oeee i?iaaaeaiiy oaeaiei oaiiii
caa?o?iaeono??ae?caoe??, a iaaeae? e eieaeoea?caoe??, oi oey “e?i?y”
iaaeoi ??cei noia?a/eea iaoeiaei ia?aeiiaiiyi ? caaaeuei?e
iie?oe/ii-ineoieia?/i?e onoaiiaoe? ?ioae?aaioe??, uia aiia iiaea
aeia?ia?eueii ?? i?iaiaeeoe”.

Naia “i?aeoeueinooaaiith” ?ioae?aaioe??, iiaeieaiith ?? iii?o
ea?eieiiiei i?ia?aiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa ? iaee neoaeeoe
/eneaii? a?aee?eo?, cae?eo? noaeia? i?ioeane, aacaeae?ni? ea?aeuei?
aeoe?? c aieo aeaaeieo no?oeoo? o iicanoaeiaiio ii?yaeeo.

O aeniiaeao c?iaeai? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? i?aeaeo? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— iaeiei c ia?oi?yaeieo cania?a anoaiiaeaiiy eiio?ieth ca iniaeno?noth a
?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie noaea iie?oe/ia oeaico?a, yea ??e o ??e
iaaoaaea nai?o iaea?eueo iioai?ieo oi?i. I?ae iiaea?eiei eiio?ieai — c
aieo Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo ina?oe oa niaoeneoaea iieieeeny caniae
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, aeaeaaie/a ni?aaa, aeaeiaeua oiui. A iie? ?o ci?o
iieieeeny oaeiae i?eaaoia aeeooy a?iiaaeyi, aiane?aeie /iai
i?iaiaeeeenue ia?ethno?aoe?y ei?aniiiaeaioe??, i?ineooiaoaaiiy
oaeaoiiieo i?aei?nueeeo ? i?aeia?iaeieo ?iciia oa ioi?ieaiiy ??ciiai
?iaeo aeieoiaioaoe??;

— a eiioaeno? iaiaaeaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee, aaaeeeaa i?noea
iin?aeaa i?ioean “?aaeyi?caoe??” iaoeiaeo onoaiia, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, oai?/eo ia’?aeiaiue, ui iaee
neeuei? ? onoaeai? o?aaeeoe??, nie?aeeny ia ciaiiy ? aeina?ae noa?i?
?ioae?aaioe??;

— iaiaaeaiiy ?i?oe?aoea iaoeiai? oa oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe??
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo aeyaeeinue oaeiae o cai?oaii? ae?yeueiino?
/eneaiieo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ye? ae?yee ia oa?aiao iaoee,
ina?oe, eoeueoo?e;

— i?ioeano “?aaeyi?caoe??” iaoeiaeo onoaiia, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aoea i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ?
a?aeiia?aeia eaae?iaa iie?oeea. Aaea ii/eiath/e c ia?oi? iieiaeie 20-o
??., a caaaeaieo onoaiiaao ? i?aai?caoe?yo ia?iaiaioii i?ioiaeeee
“/enoee”, ye? iicaaaeyee iiaeeeaino? i?aoethaaoe iaea?eueo ciaieo ?
aeina?ae/aieo oao?aoe?a. Eeania? ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii ? ni?yioaaiiyi,
aiie aaniethoii ia a?aoiaoaaee eaae?o?eaoe?th iniaenoino? ? eiie?aoiee
aianie a ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? ina?oe, iaoee, eoeueoo?e;

— caoiaee ii iaiaaeaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee aeeeeeaee ii?? c aieo
oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??, yeee aeyaeyany ye o ianeaieo, oae ? aeoeaieo
oi?iao — a?ae ?aae?caoe?? ia i?aeoeoe? ianaieoe?iiiaaieo ?i?oe?aoea, aei
a?aee?eoiai canoaeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee;

nai???aeiith a?aeiia?aeaeth ia cacia/ai? e?iee oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe?? noaee iie?oe/i? ?ai?an??, ye? ia?iaiaioii a?aeaoaaeeny a
Oe?a?i?, ii/eiath/e c ia?oi? iieiaeie 20-o ??. C iaoith oiiei?aiiy
iacaiaeieo, aeaiiino?aoe?? aeanii? neee ? iaiioeoiino? aeaaei? no?oeoo?e
aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaee ioae?/i? noaeia? i?ioeane;

— aaeeeiai ?iciaoo a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae iaa?aee iicanoaeia?
?ai?an??, ye? aeicaieyee eeiooe o a’ycieoe? ? oaai?e, iicaaaeoe aeeooy,
ia iniia? i?/ei ia i?aee??ieaieo caeioaa/aiue;

— iie?oeea ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaiiai ea??aieoeoaa ii iaiaaeaiith
?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee caaaeaea iaiii?aaieo ao?ao oe?a?inuee?e
ina?o?, iaooe? ? eoeueoo??, iicaaaeea iiaeeeaino? ?aae?coaaoe ia
i?aeoeoe? nai? ciaiiy, oaeaio ? aeina?ae aaaaoueio aeaeaoieo a/aieo,
e?oa?aoi??a, ieooe?a. Aiaeii/an aiia iaoiiaeea oi?ioaaiiy
eiioi?i?nonueeeo iano?i?a o ?ioae?aaioe??, aioiai?, ca?aaee
aeaaiiieo//y, c?aeoeny aeanieo i?eioeei?a, iiaeyae?a ? ia?aeiiaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe??

AEEEAAeAII O OAEEO IOAE?EAOe?ssO AAOI?A:

1. Ia?ane?aeoaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? a ia?o?e iieiaei? 20-o
?ie?a (ca iaoa??aeaie oiiae?a “?in?enueeiai ca?oa?aeiiai a?o?ao”
Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??//C a?o?a?a
AO*E-AIO-IEAAe-EAA.-1997.-?1, 2.-N. 240-252.

2. Nenoai? ia nei?eany (I.?.Ei?ieeiae/)//?noi??y Oe?a?ie: Iaeia?aeii?
?iaia, iiae??, oaeoe. Ca. noaoae.-Aei. 2.-E.: ??aeiee e?ae,
1997.-N.292-300.

3. A?oaeiaa? 1923 ?. iiae?? ia Nieiaeao//?noi??y Oe?a?ie: Iaeia?aeii?
?iaia, iiae??, oaeoe. Ca. noaoae.-Aei. 3.-E.: ??aeiee e?ae, 1998.-N.
105-111.

4. Iie?oe/ia oeaico?a a nenoai? eiio?ieth ca iniaeno?noth oa
noni?euenoaii. Aei 80-??//y noai?aiiy ?aaeyinueei? oeaico?e//C a?o?a?a
AO*E-AIO-IEAAe-EAA.-1998.-?1/2.-N. 70-79.

5. “Ni?aaa iao??a?oa Oeoiia” a eiioaeno? caoiae?a aeuiai iie?oe/iiai ?
aea?aeaaiiai ea??aieoeoaa N?N? ii iaiaaeaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee
a?iiaaeyi a ia?o?e iieiaei? 20-o ??.//O?enoeyinoai ? eoeueoo?a: ?noi??y,
o?aaeeoe?y, no/ani?noue.-Iieoaaa.-1998.-N. 89-94.

6. ?.I.Caai?ianueeee: o?aa?/ia aeiey aeine?aeieea//I?iaeaie ?noi??? oa
iaoiaeieia?? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee. Oa?e?anueeee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee
ca??iee.-Aei. 3.-Oa?e?a.-1998.-N. 152-156.

7. Caeiaooee oa ao?aoe oe?a?inueeiai e?a?ciaanoaa a 20-30-o ??.
OO no.//Oo?enoe/ii-e?a?ciaa/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.-Aei. 1.-*.
2.-Ee?a.-1998.-N. 179-184.

8. ?noi?e/i? aeaeaiiy Anaoe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? iaoe a eauaoao oeaico?e
(e?iaoeue 20-o — ii/aoie 30-o ??.)//VIII Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y “?noi?e/ia e?a?ciaanoai ? eoeueoo?a” (Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? oa
iia?aeiieaiiy).- *. 2.-Oa?e?a.-1997.-N. 200-201.

AIIOAOe?ss

I/a?aoyiei A.?. Iaiaaeaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueii? naiaiaee ye iaeei ?c cania?a
oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i? (20-30-o?
??. OO no.).-?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01.-?noi??y
Oe?a?ie: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie.-Oa?e?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aea?aeaaia iie?oeea uiaei oe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai? ? oai?/i? ?ioae?aaioe?? a 20-30-o ?ieao, oi?ie ? iaoiaee
iaiaaeaiiy ?? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe?. Iniiaia oaaaa, a ca’yceo c oeei,
i?eae?eaia c’ynoaaiith iniiaieo aoai?a oi?ioaaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy
iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e, ?? iniiaieo iai?yie?a. Noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui
?inoeooo iie?oe/ii? oeaico?e caaaeaee caeeoaany ae??aei caniaii aieeao
ia aeia??, caa??aaiiy, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oa niiaeeaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
?ioi?iaoe??.

Oaeei aea iaci?iiei caeeoaeenue ? ooieoe?? oeaico?e — eiio?ieue,
ioi?iia, naieoe?y, ?aaeaiaioaoe?y, ?ai?an?y, aea cia/aiiy ?o
ci?ithaaeiny a /an?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae iie?oe/ii? eii’thieoo?e. Oiio, a
??ci? /ane oaaoethaaeeny o? /e ?io? i?iaeaie, oaeoe, iniaenoino?,
caiia/oaaeeny oe?e? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee. A ?iaio? iaeaaeia oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny aena?oeaiith no?oeoo?ieo ?ai?aai?caoe?e a
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo onoaiiaao, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaaeao, oai?/eo
i?aai?caoe?yo, a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiiyo, oiaeo ? iane?aee?a eaae?iaeo
/enoie, canoinoaaiith uiaei ?ioae?aaioe?? aei?noeeo ?ai?aneaieo
caoiae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ioaeaeooaeueia naiaiaea, ?ioaeaeooaeueia i?aoey,
oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y, iie?oe/ia oeaico?a, iie?oe/i? ?ai?an??.

ANNOTATION

Ocheretyanko V. I. Restriction of intellectual freedom as one of
the means of formation and functioning of the totalitarian system of
Ukraine ( 20-30th. XX century ). — Manuscript. The Thesis submitted for
competing for a scientific degree of a Candidate of Historical Sciences
on a specialty 07.00.01. — History of Ukraine: Kharkiv State University
of the Ministry of Education of Ukraine. Kharkiv, 1999.

The Thesis research is devoted to not widely known sides of state
policy concerning scientific and creative intelligentsia in 20-30th of
our century; restriction of its intellectual work; encroachment upon its
civil rights and freedom. In the Thesis the place and the role of
political censorship in restriction of intellectual freedom are being
analyzed; the basic stages of its formation, direction, form and methods
of appropriate state organs’ activities are being exposed.

The thesis that general tendencies were characteristic to political
censorship as well as specific peculiarities which were expressed by
establishing more rigid control over Ukrainian national creative thought
is proved in the Dissertation. The Thesis affirms that numerous
reorganizations which were the result of «sovetization» of scientific —
research, educational, art, public establishments and organizations
promoted restriction of intellectual freedom. In 20-30th All-Ukrainian
Academy of Sciences, branch academies, numerous higher education
establishments, organizations of writers, artists and composers
underwent such reorganizations.

Personnel «cleanings» were used to «sift» intelligentsia and
determine its loyalty to soviet authority. Such actions deprived many
outstanding scientists and artists of normal work.

Key words: intellectual freedom, intellectual work, ukrainian
intelligentsia, political censorship, political repressions.

AIIIOAOeEss

I/a?aoyiei A.E. Ia?aie/aiea eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu eae iaeii ec
n?aaenoa oi?ie?iaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu a Oe?aeia
(20-30-a aa. OO a.).-?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie
noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
07.00.01.-Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu: Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao
Ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu.-Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony auyniaieth ianoa e ?iee
ia?aie/aiey eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu a oi?ie?iaaiee e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu a Oe?aeia a 20-30-o a.a. I?e
yoii, ecia/aeueii aeaeaaony auaiae i oii, /oi ianiio?y ia iaee/ea
cia/eoaeueiiai /enea eeoa?aoo?u, aeaiiay i?iaeaia ia iaoea naiaai
iaaeeaaeauaai inaauaiey eae a oe?aeineie, oae e ca?oaaaeiie
enoi?eia?aoee.

Iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo a eiiieaena enneaaeiaaiuo i?iaeai noaei eco/aiea
enoi?ee oi?ie?iaaiey iieeoe/aneie oeaico?u, iniiaiuo yoaiia aa
noaiiaeaiey, a oaeaea iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeieoiaioaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, einoeooo iieeoe/aneie
oeaico?u anaaaea inoaaaeny aeaenoaaiiui n?aaenoaii aeeyiey ia iiaeai?,
nio?aiaiea, ?ani?ino?aiaiea e iio?aaeaiea nioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee.
Oaeeie aea iaeciaiiuie inoaaaeenue e ooieoeee oeaico?u — eiio?ieue,
io?aia, naieoeey, ?aaeaiaioaoeey, ?ai?anney, ii cia/aiea eo eciaiyeinue
ai a?aiaie, a caaeneiinoe io iieeoe/aneie eiiuthieoo?u. Iiyoiio, a
?aciia a?aiy oaaoee?iaaeenue oa eee eiua i?iaeaiu, oaeou, ee/iinoe,
oiae/eaaeenue oeaeua enoi?e/aneea ia?eiaeu.

Ia oi?ie?iaaiea iieeoe/aneie oeaico?u a NNN? a oeaeii, e a Oe?aeia a
/anoiinoe, ieacae aeeyiea ?yae oaeoi?ia — ianaaeaeaiea e ainiiaenoai
ioeoeeaeueiie eaeaieiaee, ?aoeoaeueiay iai?eie?eiinoue e eiaeiiuneeth,
no?aieaiea e iieeoe/aneiio e eaeaieiae/aneiio iaeiiia?aceth, eeanniaue
iiaeoiae a ioeaiea ethaie nioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, i?iaeoeoa ?acee/iiai
ii naiae iai?aaeaiiinoe eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea.

A eiioaenoa ia?aie/aiey eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu a aeenna?oaoeee
enneaaeothony ?acee/iua ia?ii?eyoey aunoaai ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?oeiaiaenoaa NNN? e ONN? ii ?ai?aaiecaoeee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo,
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee, aocia, iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee. Iie noaaeee ia?aae niaie oeaeue ia oieueei ono?aieoue io
aeoeaiie iao/iie e oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe cia/eoaeueioth /anoue
ia?aaeiaie oe?aeineie eioaeeeaaioeee, ii e inouanoaeoue naiaia?acioth
oieoeeaoeeth eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea, anaoeaei iiae/eiea aai
eaeaieiae/aneei onoaiiaeai oiai ia?eiaea.

Oaeei ia?acii i?iaiaeeeanue ?ai?aaiecaoeey Anaoe?aeineie aeaaeaiee iaoe,
io?aneaauo aeaaeaiee iaoe, oai?/aneeo nithcia ienaoaeae, ooaeiaeieeia,
eiiiiceoi?ia, iiiai/eneaiiuo iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

?ai?aaiecaoeee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo, eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneeo
o/?aaeaeaiee, aocia nii?iaiaeaeaeenue ianniauie eaae?iauie /enoeaie,
eioi?ua ia?iaiaioii i?iaiaeeeenue a 20-30-o aa. Eo neaaenoaeai noaei
eeoaiea aiciiaeiinoe o?oaeeoueny ia iii?eua iaoee e eoeueoo?u iaeaieaa
iiuoiie e aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie /anoe oe?aeineie eioaeeeaaioeee.

A iineaaeothuee ia?eiae ia?u aunoaai ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?oei-aiaenoaa NNN? e ONN? ii ia?aie/aieth eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu
iaoaeeeaaeenue ia ?aoeoaeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea ni noi?iiu eioaeeeaaioeee
Yoi i?iyaeyeinue eae a ioe?uoii naaioe?iaaiee ia?ii?eyoee aeanoiuo
no?oeoo?, oae e a iienea aieaa ?aoeoaeueiuo oi?i aunooieaiey i?ioea
niaaoneie aeanoe.

A nicaeaaoeony oneiaeyo aunoaa iieeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai ia iaoei eiiai
auoiaea, e?iia eae oaeanoi/eoue ?ai?annee. N oeaeueth onie?aiey
iaiiei?iuo, aeaiiino?aoeee nianoaaiiie neeu e iaiieieaaeiinoe, aeanoiua
no?oeoo?u aeoeaii eniieueciaaee ioaee/iua noaeaaiua i?ioeannu. Oae,
oe?ieee ?aciiain a iauanoaa i?eia?aee noaeaaiua i?ioeannu ii aeaeai
“Eeaaneiai oeaio?a aeaenoaee”, “Nithca inaiaiaeaeaiey Oe?aeiu”, e ae?.

Cia/eoaeueiiai ?aciaoa a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae aeinoeaee aianoaeaaiua
?ai?annee, eioi?ua iicaieyee a?ineoue a oth?ueiu e eaaa?y, eeoeoue
aeecie ia iniiaaiee ie/ai ia iiaee?aieaiiuo iaaeiaiee. Oaeei ia?acii
auee inoaeaeaiu eo/oea i?aaenoaaeoaee oe?aeineie eioaeeeaaioeee,
aaeeinoaaiiie aeiie eioi?uo noaea ethaiaue e Oe?aeia, aa?iinoue
ia?iaeiui o?aaeeoeeyi eniieiaiea naiaai aunieiai a?aaeaeaineiai aeieaa.

Iieeoeea ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa ii ia?aie/aieth
eioaeeaeooaeueiie naiaiaeu iaianea iaiii?aaeiue oua?a oe?aeineie iaoea,
i?inaauaieth, eoeueoo?a, eeoeea aiciiaeiinoe ?aaeeciaaoue naie ciaiey,
oaeaio e iiuo iiiaeo auaeathueony o/aiuo e aeayoaeae eoeueoo?u.
Iaeiia?aiaiii iia iaoneiaeea oi?ie?iaaiea eiioi?ienoneeo iano?iaiee o
eioaeeeaaioeee, aioiaie io?a/ueny io nianoaaiiuo i?eioeeiia, acaeyaeia e
oaaaeaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eioaeeaeooaeueiay naiaiaea, eioaeeaeooaeueiue o?oae,
oe?aeineay eioaeeeaaioeey, iieeoe/aneay oeaico?a, iieeoe/aneea
?ai?annee.

) Aeuea?aoo E. A iiaeaaeao AIO.-A.I. A.A.-52 n.; eiai ae. Aeanoue
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) Ia?ene ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??. A 3-o ei./I?ae ?aae.
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) Ia?ene ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??. A 3-o ei./I?ae ?aae.
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) ?ioae?aaioe?y: nooue, ?noi?e/i? aeie?, ia?niaeoeae//I?aeia?. iaoe.
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) Aioiiia-Ianaaiei A. Oaao? Eineoa Noaeeia.-I.: A?yai?e-Iyeaeae,
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) Aieeiaiiia Ae.A. O?eoio e o?aaaaeey. Iieeoe/aneee ii?o?ao
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) Aieeiaiiia Ae.A. Eaiei. Iieeoe/aneee ii?o?ao.-I.: Iiainoe, 1994.-N.
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) ?ai?aniaaia e?a?ciaanoai.-E.: ??aeiee e?ae, 1991.-478 n.;
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) Aeaieethe TH.C., TH?aiei I.I. Iaeei c i?aai?caoi??a oe?a?inueeiai
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) I?enoaeei A., Oaiiaae TH. Ni?aaa “Ni?eee aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie”.-E.:
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) Eai?i A.?. Aei ?noi??? ieoaiiy i?i aeeeoaoo?o (Cai?oea)//Iiai. c?a?.
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