I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

NO?AeIIOE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OAeE 657.26+656.13+338.242

Aiae???aa Ethaia Oaaei??aia

IAE?E AEO?AO ? EAEUeEOETHAAIIss NIA?AA?OINO?

AAIOAAEIEO AAOIIIA?EUeIEO IA?AAACAIUe

A OIIAAO ?EIEIAI? AEIIII?EE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.04 – Aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e, aiae?c ? aoaeeo

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/iee iaoe

Eoaainuee – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Aeiiaoeuee).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaoueiai A?eoi? A?eai?iae/,

Iineianueea o?iainiaa aeaaeai?y i?e O?yae? ?O, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

AEeoia ?iia Iaae?aia,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo ? aoaeeoo (i. Eoaainuee);

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*aoee?n THoei Aeaaeaeiae/,

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee eiia?oe?eiee ?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo (i. Aeiiaoeuee)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ?
aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo (i. Oa?e?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 12 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 29.051.01 o No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 348034, i. Eoaainuee, ea.
Iieiae?aeiee, 20-a.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 348034, i. Eoaainuee, ea.
Iieiae?aeiee, 20-a.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 21 aa?aniy 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eica/aiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. No/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie, yeee iia’ycaii ?c ia?aoiaeii ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie,
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiooeii iiaeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a ea?oaaiiy
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeei eiiieaenii ? eiai aaeocyie. Ia?aaeyaeathoueny
o?aaeeoe?ei?, ui aei?aaaeaee naaa a ieioeiio, aea iaeiaoaeoeai?
nueiaiaei? i?aeoiaee, oi?iothoueny ??ciiiai?oi? iia? iiceoe?? ?
i?eioeeie, ye ? ca aeiiiiiaith /iai ae??ooaaoe neeaaei? i?iaeaie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie. Aoiaeaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie o na?oiao ? ?a?iiaenueeo o?ainii?oi? nenoaie, ye noaa?aiii? ?
??aiii?aaii? aea?aeaae, i?aeaeuo? ?ieue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
iaiaaeaeiaioo. Oiio iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa? oaeineiiaeaiiy
iae?eo aeey iio?aa iaiaaeaeiaioo. O ca’yceo c oeei aeieeea i?iaeaia
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/i? nenoaie iae?eo aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao ia
aaoiiia?euei? ia?aaacaiiy, ui ia a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei aeiiii?/iei
aeiiaai.

E?eoe/ia aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae iieaco?, ui a ?iaioao
C.?.Aenueiiiai?, I.O.Aaeooe, I.ss.Eiaaeaiea, O.A.Io?naeeiiaa, A.O.Iae?y,
E.A.Iao?iaa, A.?.Oaiaoiaa, I.?.*aiaa?, A.A.Oooeeaeca oa ?ioeo
aeiiii?no?a ?ic?iaeaii ie?ai? i?iiiceoe?? ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c
oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaoiiia?euei? ia?aaacaiiy, i?ioa aiie ia
ae/a?iothoue onueiai ??ciiiai?ooy noi??i aeaii? i?iaeaie a oiiaao
?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i?, oiio ui aiie aoee iaienai? aei
ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie.

Iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iae?eiai-eaeueeoeyoe?eii? i?aeoeee no/aniei aeiiaai
iaiaaeaeiaioo, iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue iaoiaeieia?/ieo ieoaiue
ae?iaie/iai iae?eo, iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ciiao aeieeath/eo ?
iaae??oaieo o oe?e noa?? ieoaiue, iiooe oeyo?a ? cania?a ?oiueiai
ae??oaiiy, a?aenooi?noue aoaeue-yeeo iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie c
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a oiiaao ?eieo ? aecia/eee aea?? oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o?nii iia’ycaia c aea?aeathaeaeaoiith
oaiith “I?iaeaie iae?eo, aiae?co oa aoaeeoo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0194U012757) eaoaae?e
iae?eo, aoaeeoo oa aiae?co ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, Eiiieaeniith
i?ia?aiith aeoiaeo aaoio?ainii?oo Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio c aeiiii?/ii?
e?ece ? I?ia?aiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Aeiiaoeueei?
iaeano? ia 1998-2000 ??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ui??/ii
a?aeaeaathoueny a ca?o? c iaoee eaoaae?e iae?eo, aoaeeoo oa aiae?co
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a
oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? ? i?aeoe/i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c
oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo ? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaoiiia?eueieo
aaioaaeieo ia?aaacaiue aaoio?ainii?oii caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy a oiiaao
?eieo, i?aeaeuaiiy eiai iia?aoeaiino?, aiae?oe/iino?, i???ioaoe?? ia
i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

?aae?caoe?y iinoaaeaii? iaoe ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ae??oaii? oaeiai
eiiieaeno caaea/:

aecia/aii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aaoio?ainii?oo
Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio;

ooi/iaii oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ui noinothoueny aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo
nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue;

iaa?oioiaaii ? ?ic?iaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeo?ao aaoio?ainii?oieo
i?aei?e?inoa;

aea/aii i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i? iniaeeaino? o?ainii?oiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?o aieea ia i?aai?caoe?th iae?eo aeo?ao;

aeyaeaii oeae iae?eiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeo?aoe ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy a
oiiaao ae?? iiaiai iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa;

?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao ?
eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaioaaeieo aaoiia?aaacaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi
i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a iae?eo;

e?eoe/ii i?iaiae?ciaaii ?nioth/o iaoiaeeeo eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino?
aaoiia?aaacaiue ? aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yiee ?? oaeineiiaeaiiy.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/i?
? iaoiaee/i? ieoaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao aaoii?aei?e?inoa ia aaioaaei?
ia?aaacaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aaoio?ainii?oi? i?aei?e?inoaa
Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iineoaeeee caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe Oe?a?ie,
?ino?oeoeaiee iaoa??ae, ui noino?oueny ieoaiue iae?eo aeo?ao ia
aaoiia?aaacaiiy, aeai? noaoenoe/ieo ui??/iee?a I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee
Oe?a?ie, ii?iaoeaia aaca I?i?noa?noaa o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie. O i?ioean?
?iaioe aoee aea/ai? oa ocaaaeueiai? i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
aaoi??a, iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e ? nai?ia??a,
i?aeia?iaei? noaiaea?oe iae?eo ? ca?oiino?. A iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieeaaeaii ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae, aeei?enoaii oaeiae caaaeueiiiaoeia?
i?eeiie aeine?aeaeaiiy, oae? ye ?noi?e/iee ? nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, iaoiaee
niinoa?aaeaiiy, ianoaaeaiue ? ii??aiyiue, nenoaiiee aiae?c, iaoiaee
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa
noiniaii aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy i?iaaaeaii
eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao ? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino?
ia?aaacaiue a oiiaao ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i? ? noi?ioeueiaaii
iniiai? iai?yiee eiai oaeineiiaeaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi i?aeia?iaeieo
noaiaea?o?a iae?eo. Aei iaea?eueo nooo?aeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoeiao iiaecio aeeiiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
a?aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

ooi/iaii aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? i?e?iaee, neeaaeo ? iaae iieacieea
nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue ye iaeaaaeeea?oiai aeiiii?/iiai ?ino?oiaioa
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee;

?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue eeaneo?eaoe?? aeo?ao aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa c
oe?eueiaiai iai?yieo, ui aea? ciiao oi/ii ? nai?/anii ciaoe no?oeoo?o
aeo?ao ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy, oaiaeaioe?? ?o ci?i, a?aeiia?aei?noue aeo?ao
oa?eoai ia ia?aaacaiiy, ui aeeoo?ai aaaeeeai aeey aaoii?aei?e?inoa a
oiiaao ?eieo;

aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaeineiiaeaiiy ia?aeiiiai iae?eo ?iaioe
aaioaaeiiai aaoio?ainii?oo;

iaea?aeaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoiaeeea iae?eo aeo?ao ia eai?oaeueiee
?aiiio ? ia?aooaaiiy aii?oecaoe?? ia a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ooiiiai neeaaeo ia
aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoaao a oiiaao ae?? iiaiai iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa;

?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th iiaeaoeiaiai iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy,
ca?aeii c yeith ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui ? iaiao?aeiith iiaeaoeiaei i?aaiai,
iiaeiia ooai?thaaoeny oeyoii ei?aaoaaiiy aeaieo aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo,
aeoiaey/e c iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaee ia iniia? aea??ee oa ocaaaeueiaiiy
iaiao?aeieo aeaieo c aiae?oe/iiai iae?eo;

aia?oa ia iniia? aea/aiiy i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a iae?eo noaaeoueny
ieoaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy nenoaie iae?eo aeo?ao
ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy “aee?aeo-einoeia” o ?iaio? aaoii?aei?e?inoa;

aianaii ooi/iaiiy o aecia/aiiy eaeueeoeyoe?eii? iaeeieoe? ia
aaoio?ainii?o?, i?iiiio?oueny o?e iieacieee: oiiii-e?eiiao?,
iaoeii-aiaeeia ? aeo?aoe ia 1 a?eaith aaeiaiai aeioiaeo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o oiio, ui aia?oa i?iaaaeaii
eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao ? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino?
aaioaaeieo aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.
Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii iiaeaeue eeaneo?eaoe?? aeo?ao aaoio?ainii?oieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ui aea? ciiao oi/ii ? nai?/anii ciaoe no?oeoo?o aeo?ao ia
aaoiia?aaacaiiy, oaiaeaioe?? ?oi?o ci?i, a?aeiia?aei?noue aeo?ao oa?eoai
ia ia?aaacaiiy. Caeiaoaa/ai oaeineiiaeaii iae?e aeo?ao ia i?aei?e?inoaao
aaioaaeiiai aaoio?ainii?oo a oiiaao ae?? iiaiai iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. A?aeiia?aeii aei i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a
aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy nenoaie iae?eo aeo?ao “aee?aeo-einoeia” o ?iaio?
aaoii?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue i?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa? ? ni?yiiaaii ia
oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao ? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaioaaeieo
aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
aeathoue ciiao iaea?aeoaaoe iiaio ? aeinoia??io iia?aoeaio oa aiae?oe/io
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aeo?aoe aaoii?aei?e?inoaa ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy, yeo
i???ioiaaii ia i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue iei? oa o iaeaooiueiio,
ui iniaeeai aeooaeueii a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??, aea?
ciiao:

oi/ii ? nai?/anii ciaoe no?oeoo?o aeo?ao ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy, oaiaeaioe??
?o ci?i, a?aeiia?aei?noue aeo?ao oa?eoai ia ia?aaacaiiy ia iniia?
io?eiaii? iiaeae? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeo?ao aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa.
Oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y a?aeia?aaea? oe?eueiaee iai?yiie aeei?enoaiiy
?ioi?iaoe??: aecia/aiiy nia?aa?oino?, i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue,
eiio?ieue ? ?aaoethaaiiy aeo?ao;

aeeth/aoe ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue aei nenoaie
aeaeo?iiiiai aeieoiaioiia?ao, noai?eoe aaoiiaoeciaai? ?iai/? i?noey
aooaaeoa?a, a?aoiaoaaoe i?aeia?iaei? noaiaea?oe, iaeiie/oaaoe ?
iioe?thaaoe noa?o ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aca?iiae?? c ee??ioaie ? ia?oia?aie
uiaei ia?aaacaiue oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaeineiiaeaii? oi?ie ia?aeiiiai
iae?eo ?iaioe aaoio?ainii?oo – oeyoiaiai eenoa;

iie?ioeoe iae?e ? iineeeoe eiio?ieue ca aeei?enoaiiyi eioo?a ia
cae?eniaiiy ?aiiioo ?ooiiiai neeaaeo, aecia/eoe eiai aoaeoeai?noue;

caaacia/eoe iioeiaeueio cai?io canoa??eiai oa ciioaiiai ?ooiiiai neeaaeo
aaoii?aei?e?inoa, ciaioeoe aii?oecaoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aaoiiia?eue o
i??o ia’?eoeaiiai cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai aenieoaoaoe?? a
?acoeueoao? aeei?enoaiiy aeaa?aneaiiai iaoiaeo aii?oecaoe??;

ciaioeoe aeo?aoe ia aaaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a oiiaao ae??
iiaiai iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Iiaeaoeiaee iae?e ooai?th?oueny aac
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ?aa?no??a ia iniia? ?aeeii? ia?aeiii?
aeieoiaioaoe?? aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo, aeoiaey/e c iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaee,
oeyoii aea??ee oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaiao?aeieo aeaieo c aiae?oe/iiai
iae?eo;

a?aooaaoe i?eeiyo? a i?aeia?iaei?e i?aeoeoe? nenoaie iae?eo aeo?ao,
iaei??th c yeeo ? nenoaia “aee?aeo-einoeia”;

caaacia/oaaoe iaiaaeaeiaio iaiao?aeiith ?ioi?iaoe??th aeey oaeaeeiai
?aaaoaaiiy ia ci?ii? oiiae ?eieo, ciaoiaeeoe iaea?eueo aea?aei?
eiia?iaoe?? oa?eo?a oa ianyao aaioaaeiia?ao;

aeeiioaaoe i?iaiici? ?ic?aooiee nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue,
oii?yaeeoaaiiy iaa?oioiaaieo ii?iaoeaieo eaeueeoeyoe?e, i?aai?caoe?th
eiio?ieth ca ?oi?i aeio?eiaiiyi o i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy aaoiia?aaacaiue.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? i?iiiceoe?? c oaeineiiaeaiiy
iae?eo aeo?ao ? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? ia aaoii?aei?e?inoaao aaioaaeiiai oa ianaaee?nueeiai
aaoio?ainii?oo aoaeue-yei? oi?ie aeaniino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaea?aeaee noaaeaiiy ia Ananithci?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iniiaiua yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu
o?ainii?oa” (i. Iineaa, 1985 ?.), Ananithci?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu aiaae?aiey ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo e
aaciooiaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa e eniieueciaaiea aoi?e/iuo ?ano?nia” (i.
Aeiiaoeuee, 1987 ?.), ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“I?aaiecaoeey oa??eoi?eaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey e naiioeiaine?iaaiey:
iiuo e i?iaeaiu” (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1990 ?.), Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oai?ey e i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey yeiiiie/aneeo iaoiaeia oicyenoaiaaiey a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ia aaoiiiaeeueiii o?ainii?oa” (i. Nocaeaeue, 1990 ?.),
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aiaeec e i?iaeaiu
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oic?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee a iiauo oneiaeyo
oicyenoaiaaiey” (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1991 ?.), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? AeiiAeO “Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu noaiiaeaiey ?eiea: oai?ey e
i?aeoeea. Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee” (i. Aeiiaoeuee,
1993 ?.), aoc?anuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo AeiiAeO (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1997 ?.),
I?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? “I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae e i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a
yeiiiieeo Oe?aeiu: ?aaeiiaeueiue aniaeo” (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1998 ?.).

?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue eeaneo?eaoe?? aeo?ao aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa;
nenoaia iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy “aee?aeo-einoeia”, ui
a?aeiia?aea? i?aeia?iaeiei noaiaea?oai iae?eo, oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea
iae?eo iaeeaii-ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? aoi?eiieo ?ano?n?a
aeei?enoiaothoueny o AAO “Aeiiaoeueeaaoio?ain”, yea i?noeoue 19
aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?. Aeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ia o?eueee aaoii?aei?e?inoaaie Aeiiaoeueeiai
?aa?iio, a e Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e c
niaoeeo?no “Aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e o aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a 14 ?iaioao,
caaaeueiei ianyaii 4,6 ae.a., ui iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi aaoi?o: o iaoeiaeo
oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao – 2 noaoo?, ianyaii 0,3 ae.a.; o a?ioo?ao – 2 a?ioo?e,
ianyaii 2,0 ae.a.; aeaiiiiaaiee ?oeiien Oe?IAe?IO? – 1 noaooy, ianyaii
0,5 ae.a.; ca??ieee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue – 3 noaoo?, ianyaii 1,2 ae.a.;
iaoa??aee ? oacene iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e – 6 oacen?a, ianyaii
0,6 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 196 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, o oiio /ene?: 9 oaaeeoeue, 14 ?enoie?a ia 24 noi??ieao ? 17
aeiaeaoe?a ia 22 noi??ieao. Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ia
18 noi??ieao iae?/o? 228 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiue c
iae?eo i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a ?icaeyaeathoueny iia? oai?aoe/i? oa
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee c iae?eo aeo?ao ? eaeueeoethaaiiy
nia?aa?oino? aaioaaeieo aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue, ye? aeathoue ciiao
i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue aeinoia??iino? oa aiae?oe/iino? iae?eo aeo?ao
aaoii?aei?e?inoa, aoaeoeaiino? ??oaiue, ui i?eeiathoueny.

?icae?e 1. Iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo oa iniiae
iiaoaeiae iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaioaaei? aaoiiia?euei? ia?aaacaiiy.

Noai aeiiii?ee e?a?ie ? nooi?iue ?icaeoeo o?ainii?oo aca?iicaeaaei? –
/ei aeua ?icaeoie o?ainii?oii? nenoaie, iniaeeai ?? aaoio?ainii?oii?
neeaaeiai?, oei aeua ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee e?a?ie.

Aieiaia ?ieue aaioaaeiiai aaoio?ainii?oo ia ci?ieeany ? a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie, eiee ci?ith?oueny no?oeoo?a
ia?aaacaieo aaioaae?a, iania? ia?aaacaiiy aeey aaaeei? i?iieneiaino?
iinooiiai aeo?niythoueny ianiaeie ia?aaacaiiyie aeey ianaeaiiy a
a?eueo?e iiiaieeaoo??, iaioi? ia?o?iiiino? ? ia iaio? a?aenoai?.
Aaoiiia?eueiee o?ainii?o a?eueoa a?ae ?ioeo aeae?a o?ainii?oo
i?enoiniaaiee aei eii’thieoo?e o?ainii?oieo iineoa, ui ci?ith?oueny.

Caaaeath/e, ui aaoio?ainii?oii caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy Aeiiaoeueei?
iaeano? uiaeiae ia?aaiceoueny a na?aaeiueiio 100 oeny/ oiii ia?iaeii
ainiiaea?nueeeo aaioaae?a, aeeiio?oueny 20% aaioaaeieo ia?aaacaiue
I?i?noa?noaa o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie, iiooe ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ?ic?iaea aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a ea?oaaiiy
aaoio?ainii?oii iaeano? iathoue aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie. A i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy Aeiiaoeueeiai
oa?eoi??aeueii-ae?iaie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy aaioaaeiiai aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo noai?aia o?iainiai-o?ainii?oia aeoe?iia?ia eiiiai?y.
Ai?iaaaeaeothoueny aioo??no?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy aaoii?aei?e?inoa, ?i
iaaeathoueny i?aaa naiino?eiiai i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, aiie ianooue iiaio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao ?iaioe.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue I?i?noa?noai o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie ?ic?iaey?
eiioeaioe?th ?aoi?ioaaiiy aaeoc? aaoio?ainii?oo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo
aeiiii?ee aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ?aae?caoe?y yeeo aeicaieeoue ?ic?iaeoe
/?oeee ieai uiaei i?aeoiaeo aei i?eaaoecaoe?? aaoio?ainii?oieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

Nia?aa?o?noue aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue ? iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo
neeaaeiaeo eiiieaenii? i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ooiiiai
neeaaeo, ine?eueee a?aoiao? a a?ioiaiio ae?aaeaii? iaoa??aeuei? ?
o?oaeia? aeo?aoe aaoio?ainii?oiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ia cae?eniaiiy ?
?aae?caoe?th ia?aa?ciiai i?ioeano. Aeey oiai, uia iieaciee nia?aa?oino?
aaoiia?aaacaiue iiai?oa ? e?aua aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye aeiiii?/iee
?ino?oiaio ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aaoi?ii ooi/iaii aeiiii?/io i?e?iaeo,
neeaae ? iaae? oe??? aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???.

No?oeoo?a ? neeaae nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue ia iiaeooue caeeoaoeny
iino?eieie, ?ac ? iacaaaeaee anoaiiaeaieie. Aiie aoaeooue ci?ithaaoeny a
i??o ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. I?e oeueiio iaei? aeo?aoe aoaeooue
cieeaoe, ?io? c’yaeyoeny, ??aaiue iaeieo noaoae aeo?ao aoaea
cieaeoaaoeny, ?ioeo i?aeaeuoaaoeny. I?ioa oaea noaiiaeua aeiaeiith
i??ith ia iiaeiii neoaeeoe i?aenoaaith aeey aeia?eueiiai oeoia/aiiy
neeaaeo nia?aa?oino? ia?aaacaiue ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai??? a eiaeiee
aeaiee ?noi?e/iee iiiaio. Nia?aa?o?noue aaoiia?aaacaiue yaey? niaith
ia’?eoeaiee iieaciee ? nooi?noue eiai aecia/a?oueny aeiiii?/ieie
i?eioeeiaie, ui ? iniiaiei i?e ae??oaii? ieoaiiy i?i aieeaiiy a
nia?aa?o?noue oeo aai ?ioeo aeo?ao. sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, iei? o
i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe aaoii?aei?e?inoa iineeth?oueny i?ioe??//y i?ae
iaiao?aei?noth a /eneaii? aeinoia??iiai iieacieea nia?aa?oino?
aaoiia?aaacaiue ?c iiaeyaeo naia eiai aeiiii?/ii? nooiino? ? i?e?iaee,
ui aeeeeeaii iio?aaaie ea?oaaiiy aaoii?aei?e?inoaaie a ?eieiaiio
na?aaeiaeu?, yea oneeaaeith?oueny, ? iiaeaoeiaei ?aaeaiaioii o
oi?ioaaii? aeaiiai iieacieea. ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea iaiiaieea iiaei ci?noii
o?aaeeoe?ei? aeaee ae?yeueiino? ? i?ecaaea aei iiyae oe?eeii iiaeo:
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia, ieoii-a?iea?nueea, iina?aaeieoeueea. Niaoeeo?ea
oaeeo aeae?a ae?yeueiino? a?aeeeaaea? na?e a?aeaeoie ia ia?ae?e aeo?ao,
ui aeeth/athoueny o aeo?aoe aaoiia?aaacaiue. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeieeiaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? ianoaiaea?oieo neooaoe?e, ui aaaeei
?ica’ycaoe a ?aieao /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

?ic?aooiie nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue yaey? niaith neeaaeiee i?ioean,
iia’ycaiee c iae?eii ia’?iii? ? ??ciiiai?oii? iiiaieeaoo?e aeo?ao. O
aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?eia iiaeaeue aeo?ao, ui ? aaaeeeaei
iai?yieii oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?iaie/iai iae?eo ia aaoii?aei?e?inoaao ye
?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie (?en. 1).

Aaoi? i?ae /an noaaeoaaiiy ii i?ia?ai? Tacis ?N aeine?aeaeoaaea
iiiaieeaoo?o noaoae aeo?ao o ?yae? o??i, eiiiai?e Aaeeeia?eoai??
(“Scottish Homes”, “Heriot Watt Uni”, “Weir Pumps”, “Torness Nuclear
Power Stn”, “Paterson Packaging”, “Scottish whisky”) ? I?ia//eie
(?ai?nie/a iaeaoa ? Oaoiieia?/iee oeaio? o i. Eiaeaioe, Oiaa?enoai
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa ii?eoinueea ?aaea Caie? Oannai i. A?naaaeai,
“Aonoaa Ooaaa?iae III” i. Aa?iaeuene??oai, “OBI” i.A?naaaeai).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui eiaeia eiiiai?y, o??ia ia? i?aai ?ic?iaeyoe ?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ea?oaaiiy aeo?aoaie naith iiiaieeaoo?o noaoae
aeo?ao. A?aei?oiith ?enith oaeeo iiiaieeaoo? noaoae aeo?ao ? ?oiy
ni?iuai?noue. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui ana ni?yiiaaii ia noai?aiiy oiia
aeey c?o/iino? i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy. Oiio i?iiiio?oueny, uia eiaeia
aaoio?ainii?oia i?aei?e?inoai naiino?eii ?ic?iaeyei noaoo? aeo?ao o o?e
e?eueeino? ? neeaae?, o yeeo a?ae/oaa? iaiao?aei?noue aeey cae?eniaiiy
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Eeaneoeeaoeey aeo?ao

aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa

Eiio?ieue

Oe?eueiaa

I?yi? oa

iai?yi?

Iino?i? oa

Ae?iaie/? aeo?aoe

oa aeo?aoe ia??iaeo

?aeaaaioi? oa

Iniiai? oa

Ii aeaiaioao oa

noaooyo aeo?ao

Ae?eni? oa

iiaeeea?

?en.1. Iiaeaeue eeaneo?eaoe?? aeo?ao aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue eeaneo?eaoe?? aeo?ao aaoio?ainii?oieo
i?aei?e?inoa a?aeia?aaea? oe?eueiaee iai?yiie aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??:
aecia/aiiy nia?aa?oino? ? o?iainiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue, eiio?ieue ? ?aaoethaaiiy aeo?ao. ?ic?iaeaia
iiaeaeue a?aeaeaa? aieea ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o aaeoc?, ni?yiiaaia ia
oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?inueeiai iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy, oiio ui
iei? /eiia eeaneo?eaoe?y aeo?ao ia caaacia/o? ?ioi?iaoe??th
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oi?aae?inueeee ia?niiae aeey i?eeiyooy a?aeiia?aeieo
??oaiue. Oi/ii ? nai?/anii ciaoe no?oeoo?o aeo?ao ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy,
oaiaeaioe?? ?oi?o ci?i, a?aeiia?aei?noue aeo?ao oa?eoai ia ia?aaacaiiy ?
aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaei aeey aaoii?aei?e?inoaa a oiiaao ?eieo.

Iaeaaaeeea?oeie oa?oiiaaiiyie aeo?ao, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?aeoeoe?
iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy a aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoaao, ?
eeaneo?eaoe?y aeo?ao ii aeiiii?/ieo aeaiaioao ? noaooyo aeo?ao.
Aeeiai?ea no?oeoo?e nia?aa?oino? ii aeiiii?/ieo aeaiaioao iiaeaia a
oaae. 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeeiai?ea no?oeoo?e nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue ii

aeiiii?/ieo aeaiaioao ia aaoii?aei?e?inoaao Aeiiaoeueeiai
oa?eoi??aeueii-ae?iaie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy aaioaaeiiai aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo (o %)

Aeaiaioe ?iee

aeo?ao 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Iaoa??aeuei?

aeo?aoe 34,7 30,6 31,0 29,4 28,5 65,1 56,8 46,8 41,7 37,7

Ca?ia?oia ieaoa 41,9 41,6 41,5 41,2 41,8 12,5 15,3 26,3 27,0
26,3

A?ae?aooaaiiy ia nioe?aeueia

no?aooaaiiy 1,9 2,2 2,3 2,2 2,3 5,9 8,5 9,4 10,3 9,9

Aii?oecaoe?y

iniiaieo oiiae?a 16,6 20,0 20,4 21,5 22,1 0,9 0,7 1,6 4,4 11,4

?io? aeo?aoe 4,9 5,6 4,8 5,7 5,3 15,6 18,7 15,9 16,6 14,7

Anueiai 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

A?aei?iia ?ena o?ainii?oo iia’ycaia c aecia/aiiyi iiiyooy o?ainii?oii?
i?iaeoeoe??. Aaoio?ainii?oi? i?aei?e?inoaa i?iiiiothoue ia ?eieo
niaoeeo?/iee oiaa? – ia?ai?uaiiy aaioaae?a, i?e oeueiio i?ioean
ae?iaieoeoaa ceeaa?oueny c i?ioeanii niiaeeaaiiy o?ainii?oii?
i?iaeoeoe??. Aa?o?noue aea ia?aaacaieo aaioaae?a ca?eueoo?oueny ia
?ici?? o?ainii?oieo aeo?ao.

Aeyaeaii oae? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy aeo?ao ia aaioaaeiiio
aaoiiia?eueiiio o?ainii?o?:

aaoio?ainii?o ia ia? a neeaae? aeo?ao nai?? “i?iaeoeoe??” ne?iaeie oa
iniiaieo iaoa??ae?a, ine?eueee naia “i?iaeoeoe?y” ia ia?
iaoa??aeueii-?a/iaeiii? oi?ie;

o i?ioean? aaoio?ainii?oiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia noai?th?oueny iiaeo
?a/iaeiieo aeaiaio?a, aiane?aeie /iai oiaa?enoai caoe?eaaeaia a oiio,
uia i?ioean noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy cae?enithaaany c i?i?iaeueieie
o?ainii?oieie aeo?aoaie;

aaaaoiiiaeaeuei?noue ?ooiiiai neeaaeo aecia/a? ye?nio iaiaeii??aei?noue
aaioaaeieo ia?aaacaiue;

?icoiaeaeaiiy a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aei?iaei?o ?
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia;

aaeeea e?euee?noue ??ciiiai?oieo aaioaae?a, nia?aa?o?noue ?
?aioaaaeuei?noue ia?aaacaiiy yeeo iiaeooue aooe ??ciiiai?oieie;

a?aenooi?noue iacaaa?oaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? oaeaee?noue o/eiaiiy anueiai
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano, iaeneiaeueia o?eaae?noue yeiai iaiaaeo?oueny
aeae?eueeiia ?iai/eie ci?iaie (ia i?aei?nueeeo ? i?aeia?iaeieo
ia?aaacaiiyo), a i?i?iaeueia – /anoeaie /ano.

Niaoeeo?ea aaoio?ainii?oiiai ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano oa iniaeeaino?
i?iaeoeoe?? o?ainii?oo iaoiiaeee i?aai?caoe?th iae?eo aeo?ao ?
eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue.

?icae?e 2. Iaoiaeeea iae?eo aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao ia aaioaaei?
aaoiiia?euei? ia?aaacaiiy.

sse iniiaiee iai?yiie iie?ioaiiy ea?oaaiiy aeo?aoaie ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy
? oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo, ui iiaeiai iaaeaaaoe aeinoia??io ? nai?/anio
?ioi?iaoe?th aeey aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaoio?ainii?oieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo iieaoe i?aoe? oeyoii
?aoe?iiae?caoe?? oi?i aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? ?ic?iaee i?ia?aneaieo oi?i
iieaoe i?aoe?. Ca?ia?oio ieaoo aiae?yi ia?aoiaothoue ia i?aenoaa?
oeyoiaeo eeno?a, ui ? ?ino?oiaioaie ia?aeiiiai iae?eo ?iaioe aaioaaeiiai
aaoio?ainii?oo. O oeueiio ca’yceo ieoaiiy oaeineiiaeaiiy ia?aeiiiai
iae?eo ? iaea?eueo aeooaeueieie ? iiaeii? ae??ooaaoeny a ?aieao
aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaei? noaiaea?oe iae?eo
? ca?oiino?.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaee ciiao ?ic?iaeoe oaeineiiaeaio oi?io
iae?eo ?iaioe aiae?y aaioaaeiiai aaoiiia?ey – oeyoiaee eeno. O
?ic?iaeai?e oi?i? a ii??aiyii? c ?ai?oa ae?th/ith a?aenooi? ?aea?ceoe
aeia?aeeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o ? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieiaeo
iia?aoe?e. Ca ?aooiie oeueiai e?euee?noue ?aea?ceo?a nei?i/aii a
oeyoiaiio eeno? c 90 aei 46.

Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aneaieo oi?i iieaoe
i?aoe?, oaeeo ye: ia?aaea/a aaoio?ainii?oo aiae?yi ia oiiaao
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiai ?ic?aooieo, o?iainiaee e?ceia, i?aiaea,
i?ieao. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo i?aai?caoe?? aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo aeo?ao
ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy a oiiaao i?aiaee, cai?iiiiiaaii ei?aniiiaeaioe?th
?aooie?a aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo, ui i?aeaeuothoue ?aaeuei?noue ?
aeiiii?/io iaa?oioiaai?noue ?ioi?iaoe??.

I?iaaaeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui /anoea iaeeaii-ianoeeueieo
iaoa??ae?a o nia?aa?oino? ia?aaacaiue ca inoaii? i’youe ?ie?a c?inea ia
40-50% ? ii ie?aieo aeaeao ia?aaacaiue aaea ia?aaeuo? 40% ?oiuei?
nia?aa?oino?, oiio noai?aiiy A?I aaciina?aaeiuei ia iaoa??aeueiiio
neeaae? nei?i/o? aeieoiaioiia?a ? o?oaeia? aeo?aoe uiaei aaaeaiiy
ia?aeiii? aeieoiaioaoe??, onoaa? aaaaoinooiiaa?noue ii?aoethaaiiy
aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??, iineeth? eiio?ieue ca aeioe?eueiei aeei?enoaiiyi
iaeeaa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoeee i?aai?caoe?? nenoaiiiai iae?eo ca aeei?enoaiiyi
aoi?eiieo ?ano?n?a iieacaei, ui a iaeieo aaoii?aei?e?inoaao a?i
a?aenooi?e, a a ?ioeo – ia iecueeiio ??ai?. Oaea noaiiaeua iiynith?oueny
oei, ui a aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo ia aeae?eaia niaoe?aeueia iae?eiaa
iiceoe?y ii aeei?enoaiith aoi?eiieo ?ano?n?a. O ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny
a?aeaeaaoe iiaa?iaiiy a?aei?aoeueiaaieo ianae, /anoeiai ciioaieo
aeaoaeae ? aoce?a, aaoiiia?eueieo oei ia niaoe?aeueiiio neioaoe/iiio
?aooieo “Iiaoi?i? aeei?enoiaoaai? ?ano?ne” o ?icoei? noa?aooie?a:
“A?aei?aoeueiaaia ie?y”, “Aaoiiia?euei? oeie”, “Caiani? /anoeie oa ?io?
?aiiioi? iaoa??aee”. Aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith, iia’ycaiith c ae?yeuei?noth
aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo, ? eiai iaaaoeaiee aieea ia iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua. I?iiiio?oueny aeae?eeoe niaoe?aeueio noaooth
“I?e?iaeiioi?iii? aeo?aoe”, ui aeanoue ciiao iineeeoe eiio?ieue ca
aeaieie aeo?aoaie oa iaea?aeoaaoe iia?aoeaio ?ioi?iaoe?th aeey i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

C iaoith iia?aoeaii? ioe?iee oa iuaaeeeaiai aeo?a/aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?
iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao i?iiiio?oueny aeae?eeoe a iiiaieeaoo?? noaoae
aeo?ao ia oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy (OI) ? iioi/iee ?aiiio (I?) ie?aio
noaooth “Oo?eiaiiy oa aenieoaoaoe?y ae?iaie/iai onoaoeoaaiiy”, ?ic?iaeoe
eiie?aoi? iiiaieeaoo?e ia’?eo?a iae?eo aeo?ao ? eaeueeoethaaiiy
nia?aa?oino? iineoa, aeeiioaaieo ?aiiioiith ciiith aaoio?ainii?oiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa. C iaoith iaea?eueo oi/iiai iae?eo aeo?ao ia OI ? I? ne?ae
ca aeiiiiiaith IAII ?c ia?aeiiiai aeieoiaioa a?oioaaoe aeo?aoe
aaciina?aaeiuei ii aaoiiia?eyo, aaoieieiiao, aeaeao ia?aaacaiue ? aeaeao
oaoi?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ae?th/a iaoiaeeea ia?aooaaiiy
aii?oecaoe?? ia a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ooiiiai neeaaeo ? nenoaia ?? iae?eo ia
a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei aeiiaai ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Noeioethth/a ?ieue
aii?oecaoe?? ?noioii c?inoa? ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a i?enei?aii?
aii?oecaoe??, ui aeathoue ciiao aaoii?aei?e?inoaai nienoaaoe aaeeeo
/anoeo aa?oino? ?ooiiiai neeaaeo i?ioyaii ia?oeo ?ie?a aenieoaoaoe??.
I?iiiio?oueny i?eaanoe ae?th/o iaoiaeeeo o a?aeiia?aei?noue aei aeiia
i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a. Canoinoaaiiy aeaa?aneaii? aii?oecaoe??, ye
iieacaee a?aeiia?aei? ?ic?aooiee, iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??,
aeicaieythoue caaacia/eoe ?aaeueia a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ooiiiai neeaaeo ?
ciaioeoe aii?oecaoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aaoiiia?eue o i??o ia’?eoeaiiai
cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai aenieoaoaoe??. Iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe a
iae?eo oa?oiiaaiiy iniiaieo cania?a ii aii?oecaoe?eieo eaoaai??yo ?
aiaeii/an caa?aaoe iiia’?eoiee aiae?oe/iee iae?e ?ooiiiai neeaaeo.
Aeioe?eueii a aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo a?aeaeaaoe a?eueo? aai iaio? noie
aii?oecaoe?eieo a?ae?aooaaiue o ii??aiyii? c aacith, ui aeeth/a?oueny a
?ic?aooiie ? iiiaeaoeiao?oueny. Oea ia aieeia ia o?neaeuei? ciaia’ycaiiy
aaoii?aei?e?inoa, aea aoaea ni?eyoe ??oaiith iinoaaeaieo ?i o?iainiaeo
caaaeaiue: ca?eueoeoe aii?oecaoe?eiee oiiae aai cieceoe nia?aa?o?noue
aaoiia?aaacaiue, i?aeiyoe ?aioaaaeuei?noue aai cieceoe oa?eoe ne?aeii ca
eiieo?aioaie.

?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th iiaeaoeiaiai iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy a
oiiaao ae?? iiaiai iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Iiaeaoeiaee iae?e
ooai?th?oueny aac ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo ?aa?no??a ia iniia? ?aeeii?
ia?aeiii? aeieoiaioaoe?? aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo. Aooaaeoa?nueeee ?
iiaeaoeiaee iae?e iiaeii? neeaaeaoe ?aeeio nenoaio oa i?aai?/ii
ia?aie?oaoenue i?ae niaith. ?ioi?iaoe?y, iaiao?aeia iiaeaoeiaei i?aaiai
(aeaeea?aoe??, ?ic?aooiee oa ?i.), ooai?th?oueny oeyoii ei?aaoaaiiy
aeaieo aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo, aeoiaey/e c iiaeaoeiaeo i?aaee, ? ia
iniia? aea??ee oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaiao?aeieo aeaieo c aiae?oe/iiai
iae?eo. Iniiaith nenoaie iiiaeaoeiaoaaiiy iiaeiia aooe nenoaia
aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo. I?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? aa?oi canoiniaoaaoe
nenoaio eiae?a, ocaiaeaeaieo ?c eiaeaie aeaeea?aoe?? i?i iiaeaoie ?c
i?eaooeo ? aeiaeaoe?a aei ia? (?en. 2).

Aeaiaioe aeo?ao

Noaoo? eaeueeoeyoe?? a aaoio?anii?o?

Iaoa??aeuei? aeo?aoe

Aeo?ao? ia iieaoo i?aoe?

A?ae?aooaaiiy ia nioe?aeuei? caoiaee

Aii?oecaoe?y iniiaieo oiiae?a ? iaiaoa??aeueieo aeoea?a

?io? aeo?aoe

Iniiaia ? aeiaeaoeiaa ca?ia?oia ieaoa aiae??a ?c a?ae?aooaaiiyi ia
nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy

Iaeueia

Ianoeeuei? oa ?io? aenieoaoaoe?ei? iaoa??aee

Ciin ? ?aiiio aaoiiia?eueii? aoie

Aenioaoaoe?ei? ?aiiioe ? oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy aaoiiia?e?a

Aii?oecaoe?y ?ooiiiai neeaaeo

Caaaeueiiainiiaea?nuee? aeo?aoe

?en. 2. Eiioeaioe?y iiaeaoeiaiai iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaoio?ainii?oieo
i?aei?e?inoaao a oiiaao ae?? iiaiai iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

A?aei?ii?noue iiai? eiioeaioe?? iiaeaoeiaiai iae?eo aeo?ao ia
aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoaao a?ae ?ai?oa ae?th/i? (aei 1 eeiiy 1997
?.) iieyaa? o oiio, ui aeo?aoe aaoii?aei?e?inoa ii/aee aeeth/aoeny
oaeiae aei neeaaeo aaeiaeo aeo?ao ? a aii?oecaoe?th aeo?ao iniiaieo
oiiae?a.

?icae?e 3. Iniiai? iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao ?
eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaioaaeieo aaoiia?aaacaiue ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacothoue, ui ia no/aniiio
aoai? oaeineiiaeaiiy caaaeaiiai iae?eo iac??ea aino?a iaiao?aei?noue o
?ic?iaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo ?aa?no??a aiae?oe/iiai iae?eo ii ?aooieo 20
“Iniiaia ae?iaieoeoai”, ui aeanoue ciiao cia/ii ni?inoeoe caaaeaiee
iae?e aeo?ao aac ineaaeaiiy eiai eiio?ieueieo ooieoe?e, caaacia/eoue
ia’?eoeai?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue iae?eiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia aeai?e
ae?eyioe? aooaaeoa?nueei? ?iaioe. Oaeei ?aa?no?ii a oiiaao
aeo?iaeueii-i?aea?ii? oi?ie iae?eo iiaeiia noaoe ea?oea iae?eo ?iaioe
aaoiiia?ey. Aeioe?eueii ia’?aeiaoe a?aeii?noue ? 12-ao ? aeo?iae-i?aea?
? 10-ao. Aeey oeueiai aeo?iae-i?aea? ? 10-ao iaiao?aeii aeiiiaieoe
?icae?eii aeey aiae?oe/iiai iae?eo i?eaooe?a ? aeo?ao ii aeaeao
aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue ? iineoa ? ii noaooyo eaeueeoeyoe??, ui
cai?ith? oo?eiaiiy a?aeiiino? ? 12-ao. Oea aeicaieeoue ii?aeiaoe a
iaeiiio ?aa?no?? caaaeaiee aiae?oe/iee ? neioaoe/iee iae?e i?eaooe?a ?
aeo?ao ia aaoiiia?euei? ia?aaacaiiy, onoiooe aeoaethaaiiy ie?aieo
caien?a ? i?aeaeueoe cia/aiiy aeo?iaeo-i?aea?a ? 10-ao, ye iniiaiiai
caaaeaiiai iae?eiaiai ?aa?no?a, ui ocaaaeueith? ?acoeueoaoe
o?ainii?oiiai i?ioeano ii aaoii?aei?e?inoao. C iiyaith ia?niiaeueieo
eiii’thoa??a i?aai?caoe?th ii?aoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c?
caaaeaiiai iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaoii?aei?e?inoaao aa?oi cae?enithaaoe ca
aeiiiiiaith noai?aiiy eieaeueii? eiii’thoa?ii? ia?aae? ia
aaoii?aei?e?inoaao, ?aeeiiai aaieo aeaieo, canoinoaaiiy iaea?eueo
i?ia?aneaii? ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue i?aai?caoe?eii? oi?ie ?o
aeei?enoaiiy – aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ?iai/iai i?noey aooaaeoa?a. Canoinoaaiiy
cania?a ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee i?e ii?aoethaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
aeo?aoe aeicaieeoue cia/ii nei?ioeoe aeo?aoe i?aoe? ia aaaeaiiy
iae?eiaiai i?ioeano, i?aeaeueoe aiae?oe/i?noue iae?eo ? eiai
iia?aoeai?noue, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue nai?/anii oa o iiaiiio ianyc?
iaea?aeoaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th aeey i?eeiyooy aoaeoeaieo oi?aae?inueeeo
??oaiue.

Aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o na?oiao ? ?a?iiaenueeo o?ainii?oi? nenoaie ye
noaa?aiii? ? ??aiii?aaii? aea?aeaae iiaeiii a?aoiaoaaoe i?eeiyo? a
i?aeia?iaei?e i?aeoeoe? noaiaea?oe iae?eo. sse na?ae/aoue i?iaaaeai? a
?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaeineiiae?noue nenoaie iae?eo aeo?ao
ia?aoeiaeaea? aeiiii?/iei o?ainoi?iaoe?yi ia aaoiiia?eueiiio o?ainii?o?.

O na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeae?eueea nenoai iae?eo aeo?ao
ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy. Iaei??th c ieo ? nenoaia “aee?aeo-einoeia”, ui
ciaeoea a?aeaeoie o i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?oao c aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo,
ui noinothoueny a?aeaeoeo aeo?ao ? oi?ioaaiiy o?iainiaeo ?acoeueoao?a.
Aaoi?ii aoea aea/aia nooi?noue aee?aeo-einoeiaa, aeanoeai? eiio
iniaeeaino?, iiceoeai? iiiaioe ? i?iaeaie i?ae /an noaaeoaaiiy ii
i?ia?ai? Tacis ?N o Aaeeeia?eoai?? ? I?ia//ei? c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy
aeaii? nenoaie iae?eo aeo?ao o ?iaio? aaoii?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaoeueeiai
?aa?iio. ?ic?iaeaii ? i?iiiio?oueny aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aa??aio iae?eo ii
nenoai? “aee?aeo-einoeia” ia aaoii?aei?e?inoaao, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? iniiaii? ?aea? aee?aeo-einoeiao – iiae?e
caaaeueieo aeo?ao ca iciaeith ?oiueiai aca?iica’yceo c
aaoiia?aaacaiiyie.

Eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi
nenoaie aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo aeo?ao ia aaoiia?aaacaiiy. C ?icaeoeii
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?icoe?th?oueny naiino?ei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa, o oiio
/ene? ? o ieoaiiyo anoaiiaeaiiy oa?eo?a ia aaoiiia?euei? ia?aaacaiiy c
o?aooaaiiyi iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe??, ui neeaaeathoueny ia ?eieo, o
?acoeueoao? /iai ci?iththoueny caaaeaiiy, ui noiyoue ia?aae
eaeueeoethaaiiyi nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue. O oeeo oiiaao caaaeaiiy
eaeueeoethaaiiy – ia i?inoi caaacia/eoe oaeoe/io nia?aa?o?noue
aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue, a ?ic?aooaaoe oaeo nia?aa?o?noue, ui o
nueiaiaei?oi?o oiiaao ?iaioe aaoii?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo iiaea a
caaacia/eoe eiio aecia/aiee i?eaooie. Oiio oeaio? aaae a
eaeueeoeyoe?ei?e ?iaio? iinooiiai iiaeiai ia?aiineoeny c o?oaeii?noeeo
?ic?aooie?a ii ?iciiae?eo iai?yieo aeo?ao ? aecia/aiith oi/ii? oaeoe/ii?
nia?aa?oino? ia i?iaiici? ?ic?aooiee nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue,
oii?yaeeoaaiiy iaa?oioiaaieo ii?iaoeaieo eaeueeoeyoe?e, i?aai?caoe?th
eiio?ieth ca ?oi?i aeio?eiaiiyi o i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy aaoiia?aaacaiue.
I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui canoiniaoaaiee ia aaoiiia?eueiiio
o?ainii?o? iaoiae eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue ia
i?enoiniaaiee aei aaeocaai? niaoeeo?ee ? ia a?aeaeaa? nooiino?
aaoio?ainii?oii? ?iaioe. Aeiei??iia iie?ioaiiy eaeueeoeyoe??
nia?aa?oino? aaoiia?aaacaiue iiaeeeai eeoa ia iniia? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee
nenoaie iaoo?aeueieo aei??thaa/?a, noai?aiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo
i?ia?aneaieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?? /eneaiiy. Iaeiei c iaa?aeeeaaeieo
caaaeaiue o ae??oaii? oe??? i?iaeaie ? iaoeiaa aecia/aiiy
eaeueeoeyoe?eieo iaeeieoeue. I?iiiio?oueny ye eaeueeoeyoe?eio iaeeieoeth
ia aaoiiia?eueiiio o?ainii?o? canoiniaoaaoe o?e iieacieee: oei,
iaoeii-aiaeeio ? aeo?aoe ia 1 a?eaith aaeiaiai aeioiaeo.

AENIIAEE

Cae?enithaaiee a Oe?a?i? ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, iiooe iaoiae?a
icaei?iaeaiiy aeiiii?ee aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo iio?aaothoue iiaeo
i?aeoiae?a aei eiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy. Neooaoe?y, yea neeaeany, iio?aao?
i?eeiyooy i?aaaioeaieo caoiae?a aeey noaa?e?caoe?? ?iaioe
aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao iiaeeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie,
c iae?eii ia?niaeoeaieo c?ooaiue ? ?icaeoeii ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Ia?oei
e?ieii ia oeyoo ae??oaiiy cacia/aieo caaaeaiue ? ?aaeueia ioe?iea
o?ainii?oieo aeo?ao. O oeeo oiiaao i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ieue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy ea?oaaiiy aaoii?aei?e?inoaaie. O ca’yceo c oeei iniaeeaee
?ioa?an ia? oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/i? nenoaie iae?eo aeo?ao ia
aaoiia?aaacaiiy ye ooieoe?? oa ?ino?oiaioa ea?oaaiiy o?ainii?oiei
ae?iaieoeoaii.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia i?eeeaae? aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo
Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio ?icaeyiooi oe?iea eiei ieoaiue iae?eo aeo?ao ?
eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaioaaeieo aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue a
oiiaao ae?? iiaiai iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? c aeei?enoaiiyi
i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a c aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo: ooi/iaii aecia/aiiy
aeiiii?/ii? i?e?iaee, neeaaeo ? iaae? nia?aa?oino? aaoiiia?eueieo
ia?aaacaiue; ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue eeaneo?eaoe?? aeo?ao aaoio?ainii?oieo
i?aei?e?inoa ? aaaeeeaei iai?yieii oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?iaie/iai iae?eo ye
?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie; aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaeineiiaeaiiy ia?aeiiiai
iae?eo ?iaioe aaioaaeiiai aaoio?ainii?oo – oi?ie oeyoiaiai eenoa;
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo i?aai?caoe?? aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo ia
aaoiia?aaacaiiy a oiiaao i?aiaee; oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo iae?eo
aoi?eiieo ?ano?n?a, yea caaacia/eoue iaiao?aeio ?ioi?iaoe?th aeey
eiio?ieth ca ?o aeei?enoaiiyi, ui ? ?aca?aaie cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino?
aaioaaeieo aaoio?ainii?oieo ia?aaacaiue; iioei?ciaaii iae?e ii noaooyo
aeo?ao ia oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ? iioi/iee ?aiiio ?ooiiiai neeaaeo;
a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaiai iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo
ia?aooaaiiy aii?oecaoe?? ia a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ooiiiai neeaaeo c iae?eii
i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a.

?aae?caoe?y iaa?oioiaaieo o aeena?oaoe?? iniiaieo iai?yie?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao ? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaioaaeieo
aaoiia?aaacaiue ?c aeei?enoaiiyi i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a i?aeaeueoue
?aaeuei?noue ? aeiiii?/io iaa?oioiaai?noue ?ioi?iaoe??, a oaeiae
aiae?oe/i?noue aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a ieai? ?icoe?aiiy iiaeeeainoae
iaea?aeaiiy iia?aoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeo?aoe, ui aoaea ni?eyoe
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio
a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii ?ioeie
aaoii?aei?e?inoaaie Oe?a?ie.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Aiae?aaaa E.O. ?aoi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu o/aoa cao?ao ia i?aaei?eyoeyo. –
Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. – 20 n.

Aiae?aaaa E.O. Oi?ie?iaaiea naaanoieiinoe a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee:
o/aoiue aniaeo. – Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. – 20 n.

Aiae???aa E. Iiaa iiaeaoeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai: ieoaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao ia
i?aei?e?inoaao // No?ae. – 1998. – ? 4. – N.22-23.

Aiae?aaaa E.O. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea o/aoa ?anoiaea oiieeaa ia
aaoio?ainii?oiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo // Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao. – 1985. – ? 3. –
N. 58.

Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey naaanoieiinoe ia a?ociaii aaoiiiaeeueiii
o?ainii?oa e eo aeeyiea ia i?aaiecaoeeth o/aoa cao?ao / Aiae?aaaa E.O. –
Eeaa, 1984. – 23 n. – ?on. – Aeai. a Oe?IEEIOE, ? 1233Oe–Ae84 // Aiio. a
Aeaeeia. oeacaoaea AEIEOE “Aeaiiie?iaaiiua iao/iua ?aaiou”, ? 11 (157),
1984.

Aiae?aaaa E.O. I?iaeaiu o/aoa cao?ao ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa ia
yenieoaoaoeeth a?ociaiai aaoio?ainii?oa // O/ao e aiaeec a nenoaia
oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii. – Aeia-Aoa. – 1980. – N. 221–229.

Aiae?aaaa E.O. I?iaeaiu o/aoa iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ia yenieoaoaoeeth
a?ociauo aaoiiiaeeae // Iaoiaee/aneea ?ac?aaioee iieiaeuo o/aiuo. –
Aeia-Aoa. – 1979. – N. 196–198.

Aiae?aaaa E.O. O/ao aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a
aaoio?ainii?oiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo Aeiiaoeeiai ?aaeiia // I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae e i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee:
?aaeiiaeueiue aniaeo. – Aeiiaoee: III “Eaaaaeue” EI “?aaeii”. – 1998. –
N. 139–142

Aiae?aaaa E.O. Aii?inu o/aoa aoi?e/iuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia
aaoio?ainii?oiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo Aeiiaoeeie iaeanoe // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
Ananithc. eiio. “Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu aiaae?aiey ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo e
aaciooiaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa e eniieueciaaiey aoi?e/iuo ?ano?nia. – Naeoeey
1. – Aeiiaoee EYI AI ONN?. – 1987. – N. 8–9.

Aiae?aaaa E.O. A?ociaie aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o a nenoaia
?aaeiiaeueiiai oic?an/aoa // Oacenu ?anioaeee. eiio. “I?aaiecaoeey
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey e naiioeiaine?iaaiey: iiuo e i?iaeaiu”.
– Naeoeey 3. – Aeiiaoee: EYI AI ONN?. – 1990. – N. 104–105.

Aiae?aaaa E.O. Ia?ano?ieea oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia ia aaoiiiaeeueiii
o?ainii?oa // Oacenu Ananithc.eiio. “Oai?ey e i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey
yeiiiie/aneeo iaoiaeia oicyenoaiaaiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e ia
aaoiiiaeeueiii o?ainii?oa”. – Nocaeaeue, – 1990. – N. 286–287.

Aiae?aaaa E.O. Aii?inu niaa?oainoaiaaiey aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
oic?an/aoa a oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu // Iaoa?. ?anioae. eiio.
“Aiaeec e i?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey oic?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee a iiauo
oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey”. – Aeiiaoee, 1991. – N. 99–100.

Aiae?aaaa E.O. O/ao ia aaoiiiaeeueiii o?ainii?oa a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee // Iaoa?eae. iao/i.-i?aeo. eiio. “Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu
noaiiaeaiey ?uiea: oai?ey e i?aeoeea”. – Aeiiaoee AeiiAO. – 1993. – N.
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Aiae?aaaa E.O. I?iaeaiu i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa cao?ao ia aaoiiiaeeueiua
ia?aaicee a oneiaeyo ianoaaeeueiie yeiiiieee // Iaoa??aee aoc?ane. eiio.
– Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeO. – 1997. – N. 23–25.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aiae???aa E.O. Iae?e aeo?ao ? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaioaaeieo
aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.04 – Aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e, aiae?c ? aoaeeo. –
No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Eoaainuee, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii oe?iea eiei ieoaiue iae?eo aeo?ao
? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? aaioaaeieo aaoiiia?eueieo ia?aaacaiue a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Aecia/aii niaoeeo?eo aaoio?ainii?oiiai
ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano oa iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy aeo?ao ia aaioaaeiiio
aaoiiia?eueiiio o?ainii?o?, ?oi?e aieea ia i?aai?caoe?th iae?eo aeo?ao.
Iaea?aeaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoiaeeea iae?eo aeo?ao a oiiaao ae??
iiaiai iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Cai?iiiiiaaii iniiai? iai?yiee
oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao ? eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino? c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a iae?eo. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy ia aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoaao
Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iae?e aeo?ao, eaeueeoethaaiiy nia?aa?oino?, i?aeia?iaei?
noaiaea?oe iae?eo, iiaeaoeiaa caeiiiaeaanoai.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aiae?aaaa E.O. O/ao cao?ao e eaeueeoee?iaaiea naaanoieiinoe a?ociauo
aaoiiiaeeueiuo ia?aaicie a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.04 – Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, aiaeec e aoaeeo.
– Ainoi/iioe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Eoaaine, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa enneaaeiaai oe?ieee e?oa aii?inia o/aoa
cao?ao e eaeueeoee?iaaiey naaanoieiinoe a?ociauo aaoiiiaeeueiuo
ia?aaicie a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Ii?aaeaeaiu niaoeeoeea
aaoio?ainii?oiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna e iniaaiiinoe
oi?ie?iaaiey cao?ao ia a?ociaii aaoiiiaeeueiii o?ainii?oa, eo aeeyiea ia
i?aaiecaoeeth o/aoa cao?ao. Iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iaoiaeeea
o/aoa cao?ao a oneiaeyo aeaenoaey iiaiai iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.
I?aaeeiaeaiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey niaa?oainoaiaaiey o/aoa cao?ao e
eaeueeoee?iaaiey naaanoieiinoe n eniieueciaaieai iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
noaiaea?oia o/aoa. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?eiaiaiea ia
aaoio?ainii?oiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo Aeiiaoeeiai ?aaeiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o/ao cao?ao, eaeueeoee?iaaiea naaanoieiinoe,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua noaiaea?ou o/aoa, iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

ANNOTATION

Andreeva L.F. The accounting of expenses and calculation of prime cost
of automobile cargo carriage in the conditions of the market economy –
Manuscript.

Thesis to complete for a scientific degree – Candidate of Sciences
(Economics) in the speciality 08.06.04 – Accountancy, analysis and
audit. – East Ukrainian State University, Lugansk, 1998.

A wide set of problems dealing with accounting of expenses and
calculation of prime cost of automobile cargo carriage in the conditions
of the market economy is studied in the dissertation. Specific nature of
motor transportation production and the peculiarities of expenses
formation in automobile cargo transport, their influence upon the
organization of accounting of expenses are determined. The methods of
accounting of expenses under the conditions of new tax legislation are
further developed. The main directions of improvement of accounting of
expenses and calculation of prime cost using International Accounting
Standards are suggested. The main results of the present research work
have are used Donetsk region transport enterprises.

Key–words: accounting of expenses, calculation of prime cost,
International Accounting Standards, tax legislation.

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