16

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AEIIII?*IEE

OI?AA?NEOAO

AEEAe??AA ETHAeIEEA ?AAI?AIA

OAeE 657.1

IAE?E ? AOAeEO CIAI?OIUeIAEIIII?*II?

Ae?ssEUeIINO?

(ia i?eeeaae? i?aei?e?inoa Iieoaanueei? iaeano?)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.04 – “Aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e, aiae?c oa aoaeeo”

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oa aoaeeoo
Iieoaanueeiai eiiia?aoeaiiai ?inoeoooo, Oeiiini?eea

Iaoeiaee eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

ea??aiee ?O?IAIEI Aaneeue ?aaiiae,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iae?eo oa
aoaeeoo

a i?iieneiaino?

Io?oe?ei? aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

iiiiaioe: AOOEIAOeUe O?aioe O?aioeiae/,

AEeoiie?nueeee ?iaeaia?ii-oaoiieia?/iee

?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iae?eo oa aoaeeoo

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

EIOeOIAO?EE Ieoaeei Ieeieaeiae/

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a iae?eo oa aoaeeoo a

n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?

I?ia?aeia Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

onoaiiaa eaoaae?a iae?eo oa aoaeeoo, i. Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 12 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 14-00
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.006.02
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
252057, i.Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae,54/, aoaeeo. 214

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoa ca aae?anith: 252057, i.Ee?a,
i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 54/1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 11 ” aeiaoiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

Eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
A.I. Iiaeae??ueia?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie ye iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae c iaeii/aniei oi?ioaaiiyi ?eieiai? iiaeae? ainiiaea?thaaiiy
aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a ? i?aeoe/ieo iaoiae?a a
ioe?ioe? ?? neeaaeiaeo /anoei, iaei??th ?c yeeo ? iae?e ? aoaeeo
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe
iaiao?aei? ea?aeeiaeuei? ci?ie, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie
aca?iiaea?aeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?aei?e?inoa o ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiineiao .

No?aoaa?y ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa caeaaeeoue
a?ae nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, oe?eae aaei?i?no?aoe??, ??aiy i?ioan?iiae?cio
i?aoe?aiee?a, a oaeiae ?ioi?iaoe??, iaaeaii? o?iainiaeie,
aooaaeoa?nueeeie oa ieaiiaeie neoaeaaie. Aooaaeoa?nuee? neoaeae iiaeii?
ia o?eueee caaacia/oaaoe ?ioi?iaoe??th ? aecia/aoe o?iainia?
?acoeueoaoe, a e ni?eyoe aeoeaiiio oi?aae?iith ae?yeuei?noth
i?aei?e?inoaa, ia?aaeaa/aoe oa a?aoiaoaaoe an? iiaeeea? ?eceee i?e
cae?eniaii? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo iia?aoe?e.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiae?a iae?eo oa aoaeeoo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ia ae?iaie/eo ?
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao aeaei i?aenoaao aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy
iai?yie?a ?o oaeineiiaeaiiy. Cie?aia, oea noino?oueny
aenii?oii-?iii?oieo, ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aaethoieo iia?aoe?e, iniaeeainoae
oi?ioaaiiy aeo?ao a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a oa
iai?aoethaaiiy ci?i noiniaii ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace, ui ?aaoeth?
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie. Ieoaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ae?iaie/eo i?aei?e?inoa ?
i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae? iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeai? a aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo??.

O a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? aeaia i?iaeaia ia ciaeoea eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ie?aiei ieoaiiyi oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?ie (ii?yaeie a?aeia?aaeaiiy
iia?aoe?e a ?iicaii?e aaetho?, ie?aieo aeae?a ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?) i?eae?eyeanue oaaaa a ?iaioao a?o/eciyieo a/aieo N.Aieiaa,
A.Caaai?iaeiueiai, TH.Eocuei?inueeiai, ?.Iieoa, A.Iae?y, A.Ia?oiiaiea,
A.Naa/aiea, A.Niiea, I.*oia/aiea oa ?ioeo, a oaeiae ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo:
?.A?eai?’?aa, I.Ioo?ia, I.Ian?e/oea.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aioo??oiueiai oa ciai?oiueiai aoaeeoo, eiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo
A.Aaae/a, I.A?eooe, O.Aooeioey, N.Aieiaa, A.Caaai?iaeiueiai,
N.Coa?eaae/, I.Eoaeaeueiiai, I.Iao?ee, A.Niiea, A.Naa/aiea,
?.Na?aea?nueeiai (Oe?a?ia), A.Nieieiaa, A.Noeoea, (?in?y) oa ?ioeo.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/eoue, ui a iioae?eiaaieo
i?aoeyo a iniiaiiio ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie iae?eo ie?aieo aeae?a
iia?aoe?e ? caaaeuei? i?iaeaie aoaeeoo. Iaeiae, niaoe?aeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aoaeeoo a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? i?iaiaeeeenue iaaeinoaoiuei.

Iiooe oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoa oa i?iaeaie iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo iaoiiaeththoue
iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeoeo aoaeeoi?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Noa?a
aoaeeoi?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aeoeoe? ?icoe?eeanue ca ?aooiie
?icaeoeo aoaeeoi?nueeeo iineoa, iniaeeai a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeeeaaeaieo aniaeo?a aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oa aoaeeoo,
i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo ? aoaeeoo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo iia?aoe?e
iaoiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Iieoaanueeiai eiiia?aoeaiiai ?inoeoooo ? ? neeaaeiaith eaoaae?aeueii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie “Oaeineiiaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a
aaeocyo ainiiaea?noaa niiaeea/i? eiiia?aoe??”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue a iaa?oiooaaii? oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue ? i?aeoe/ieo aniaeo?a ae?th/i? nenoaie iae?eo oa aoaeeoo
iia?aoe?e ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee oa i?aai?caoe?? iae?eo o oe?e noa??,
i?iiiceoe?e c a?aeia?aaeaiiy aenii?oii-?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e, oi?ioaaiiy
nia?aa?oino?, aecia/aiiy iaoiaee/ieo i?eeii?a oa oaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiaeeee aoaeeoo. Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iio?aaoaaei ae??oaiiy
ianooiieo caaea/:

· c’ynoaaoe nooue, iaoo aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oa aoaeeoo
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;

· ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo aenii?oii-?iii?oieo
oa aaethoieo iia?aoe?e a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;

· aecia/eoe iaoiaeieia?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? iniiae aca?iica’yceo iae?eo
oa aoaeeoo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;

· ooi/ieoe ia’?eoe, iaoiaee oa iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie iae?eo oa aoaeeoo
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;

· aecia/eoe ?ieue iae?eiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeo?aoe o noa??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa ?? aieea ia i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue;

· ae?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo ?ic?aooie?a c
iinoa/aeueieeaie oa iieoioeyie ca aeaeaie ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?;

· oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo aioo??oiueiai oa ciai?oiueiai aoaeeoo
iia?aoe?e ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;

· cai?iiiioaaoe a?eueo aeineiiaeo iaoiaeeeo aiae?co
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoiaeieia?y oa i?aai?caoe?y iae?eo, aoaeeoo
oa aiae?co iia?aoe?e a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aia ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
ae?iaie/eo ? oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa, aoaeeoi?nueeeo o??i
Iieoaanueei? iaeano?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaei iiaeeeaei ae??oeoe caaea/? c oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo
oa aoaeeoo a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? iaea?aeaoe oae?
iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe:

· aecia/aii oiiae ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ia iniia? aiae?co no?oeoo?e aeae?a ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?;

· aeiaaaeaii iaiao?aei?noue oa aecia/aii iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeieoiaio?a, ui ?aaoeththoue
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue, ye iniiao i?aai?caoe?? iae?eo ?
aoaeeoo o a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?aeia?iaeieie noaiaea?oaie;

· iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iiiyooy “aaciaa aa?o?noue”
cai?noue “aaeainiaa aa?o?noue” ?iicaiii? aaethoe;

· ooi/iaii iaoiaeeeo neioaoe/iiai oa aiae?oe/iiai iae?eo ?c
canoinoaaiiyi noa?aooie?a aeey a?aeia?aaeaiiy ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?;

· iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue a?aeia?aaeaiiy iia?aoe?e a ia?aeiieo
aeieoiaioao ? ?aa?no?ao aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo iaeii/anii ye a
?iicaii?e aaetho?, oae ? a a?ioia?e iaeeieoe? Oe?a?ie;

· ooi/iaii eeaneo?eaoe?th aeo?ao ca noa’?eoaie oa ia’?eoaie iae?eo;

· oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeeoo oa aiae?co iia?aoe?e,
iia’ycaieo c ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iith ae?yeuei?noth.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoue ciiao i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa. Aei ?acoeueoao?a, ui iathoue i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ? iiaeooue aooe ai?iaaaeaeai? a ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue
i?aei?e?inoaa, a?aeiinyoueny: ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c iaoiaeeee
aaaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oa cae?eniaiiy aoaeeoo aenii?oieo,
?iii?oieo, aa?oa?ieo iia?aoe?e, iia?aoe?e c eoi?ae? oa i?iaeaaeo
?iicaiii? aaethoe, iae?eo e?aaeeo?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho?, iia?aoe?e c
aeaaaeueieoeueeith ne?iaeiith.

Aeai? ?acoeueoaoe ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoa: AO “Aeiaon”, AAO “Oieiae ”, OIA Aoaeeoi?nueea o??ia
“Aeaoae?” oa ?ioeo. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iathoue eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? ?
ioiieththoue an? noa?e ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? oa
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iaa/aeueieo i?ia?aiao, iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aeao,
oaenoao eaeoe?e, yeeie ei?enoothoueny nooaeaioe oaeoeueoaoo o?iain?a ?
iae?eo oa I?aeaaeocaaiai ?inoeoooo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
Iieoaanueeiai eiiia?aoeaiiai ?inoeoooo i?e aea/ai? eo?n?a “Iae?e ?
aiae?c ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?”, “Iniiae aoaeeoo”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?eethaeiaii ia i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a
no/anieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy” (i.Euea?a, 15-16 o?aaiy 1997?).;
“Iae?e, aiae?c oa eiio?ieue a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith
i?aei?e?inoaa”(i.Ee?a, 25-26 eenoiiaaea 1997?); “I?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy
aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee” (i.Iieoaaa, 22
n?/iy 1999?);“I?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo o?iain?a, iae?eo oa
eiio?ieth a Oe?a?i?”(i.Aeiiaoeuee, 3-4 /a?aiy 1999?).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iaaiai?thaaeenue ? io?eiaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo na?aae
niaoe?ae?no?a-i?aeoee?a i?e i?iaaaeaii? caiyoue c ia?ai?aeaioiaee
eaae??a nenoaie Oeiiini?eee.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 7 i?aoeyo ianyaii
1,5 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a, a oiio /ene? 3 ?iaioe ianyaii 0,8 ae?oeiaaieo
a?eoo?a o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.
Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 175 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, yeee aeeth/a?
4 oaaeeoe?, 18 ?enoie?a ? noai, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 148
iaeiaioaaiue, 12 aeiaeaoe?a — 15 noi??iie.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe??

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/aii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy, iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae i?aai?caoe?? iae?eo oa aoaeeoo
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie” ?icaeyiooi
nooi?noue, aeaee oa ia’?eoe ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ii?iaoeaii – i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy iae?eo a aeai?e
noa??.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ioe?iee
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae ia?oia?a oa ?? aieea ia
e?ioeaaee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae i?iaaaeaieo ciai?oiueioi?aiaeo
iia?aoe?e An? ii?iaoeaii – caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ui ?aaoeththoue
aca?iia?aeiineie a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
cai?iiiiiaaii a?oioaaoe ca iai?yieaie: ye? ?aaoeththoue
ciai?oiuei-aeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue a oe?eiio; ?aaoeththoue ieoia
ioi?ieaiiy aenii?oii-?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e; ?aaoeththoue ioi?ieaiiy ?
i?iaaaeaiiy aaethoieo oa ?ic?aooieiaeo iia?aoe?e; ?aaoeththoue
aooaaeoa?nueea ioi?ieaiiy iia?aoe?e.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iai?aaeeueia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo iia?aoe?e ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? o
aeaio aaethoao i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo aee?eaeaiue aaee/aie aeo?ao,
nia?aa?oino? oa oe?ie ?aae?caoe?? aenii?oiiai aai ?iii?oiiai oiaa?o, a a
iiaeaeueoiio – aei iaaeinoia??ii? noie aaeiaeo aeioiae?a ? aaeiaeo
aeo?ao, aee?eaeaiiy o?iainiaiai noaio i?aei?e?inoaa.

O ?iaio? ca?oiiaaii ia’?eoe iae?eo a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ca iaaieie iciaeaie. ?o aeae iaoiiaeth? iaoiaeeeo aaaeaiiy
ye iae?eo, oae ? aoaeeoo. Aeey i?aai?caoe?? aoaeoeaiiai iae?eo oa
i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeeoo i?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaei ? iiae?e ia’?eo?a ia:
aaethoi? eiooe (?iicaiia aaethoa, oe?ii? iaia?e, aei?iaioe?ii? iaoaee),
aaethoi? iia?aoe?? (iia’ycai? oa ia iia’ycai? c ia?aoiaeii i?aaa
aeaniino?; c aeei?enoaiiyi aaethoieo eioo?a, ye caniao ieaoaaeo; c ?ooii
aaethoieo oe?iiinoae), oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino?, iniiai? caniae,
iaiaoa??aeuei? aeoeae oa ?o ?oo ca aenii?oii-?iii?oieie iia?aoe?yie;
?ic?aooieia? oa e?aaeeoi? iia?aoe??, aeo?aoe oa e?ioeaa? o?iainia?
?acoeueoaoe a?ae iia?aoe?e o noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?;
e?ceiaia? iia?aoe??; aaaeaiiy ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?, iaaeaiiy iineoa.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeoeaioiaaii oaaao ia iaiao?aeiino? oaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?th/iai ieaio ?aooie?a aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo aeey oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo
aiae?oe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? noiniaii ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa aeey iio?aa eiio?ieth oa oi?aae?iiy. Aeey aooaaeoa?nueeiai
iae?eo iia?aoe?e ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? cai?iiiiiaaii
a?aee?eoe aeiaeaoeia? ?aooiee oa noa?aooiee, ui aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
aeaoae?coaaoe oe? iia?aoe??, aecia/aoe ?acoeueoaoe ca ieie oa
aaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo neeaaeaiiy ca?oiino?. O ca’yceo c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi
nenoaie aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a Oe?a?i? oa i?eaaaeaiiy eiai o
a?aeiia?aei?noue aei i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a iae?eo oa ca?oiino?,
i?iaeoii ieaio ?aooie?a ia?aaeaa/aii aaanoe noa?aooiee ia?oiai ??aiy
aeey iae?eo iia?aoe?e o noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.
I?iiiio?ii ia?aaeaa/eoe noa?aooiee aei ?ic?aooieiaeo ?aooie?a ca aeaeaie
iia?aoe?e o noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, e??i oiai,
aeioe?eueii aaanoe aei eeano 3 “Eiooe, ?ic?aooiee oa ?io? aeoeae”
?aooiie “?aooiee a aaieao” noa?aooiie ia?oiai ii?yaeeo aeey iae?eo
oei/aniaeo aaethoieo eioo?a, ui iaaeoiaeyoue ia i?aei?e?inoai aeey ?o
ianooiii? ?aae?caoe?? aai ia?a?aooaaiiy – 320“?iciiae?eue/ee aaethoiee
?aooiie”.

I?iaaaeaiee a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo? aiae?c iaoiaeeee a?aeia?aaeaiiy
eo?niai? ??cieoe? a Oe?a?i? oa ?? a?aeiia?aeiino? i?aeia?iaeiei
noaiaea?oai iieacaa, ui canoinoaaiiy a aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo eo?no
?iicaiii? aaethoe ca ?? aaeainiaith aa?o?noth (aa?o?noth aaethoe ca
ia?oith iia?aoe??th) ? iaaeioe?eueiei. I?aeia?iaeieie noaiaea?oaie
iae?eo ia?aaeaa/aii, ui iia?aoe?? ca ?ic?aooieaie a ?iicaii?e aaetho?
a?aeia?aaeathoueny a aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo ca aaethoiei eo?nii ia
aeaoo ?o cae?eniaiiy. C iiiaioo aeieeiaiiy ainiiaea?nueei? iia?aoe?? aei
aeaoe ?ic?aooieo ca iath iiaea ci?ieoeny eo?n, a ?acoeueoao? /iai
aeieea? eo?niaa ??cieoey. Aaaaea?ii, ui ia?a?aooiee ?iicaiii? aaethoe
ca ainiiaea?nueeeie iia?aoe?yie a aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo i?iaiaeeoe
iio??aii ia aeaiue cae?eniaiiy iia?aoe?e oa ia aeaiue ?ic?aooieo ca
ieie, a?aeia?aaeath/e eo?niao ??cieoeth ye o?iainiaee ?acoeueoao
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Iae?e iia?aoe?e ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?”.

?icaeoie ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei iaoiiaea iaiao?aei?noue
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo iia?aoe?e,
iia’ycaieo c ?ooii ?iicaiii? aaethoe, aenii?oieo, ?iii?oieo, e?aaeeoieo
oa ?ioeo iia?aoe?e, aeine?aeaeaiue ii oi?ioaaiith aeo?ao a noa??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Ia?aeii? aeieoiaioe aeey ioi?ieaiiy
iia?aoe?e ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? cai?iiiiiaaii a?oioaaoe
a?aeiia?aeii aei noaie, iiaeaii? ia ?enoieo1.

?en.1. Eeaneo?eaoe?y ia?aeiieo aeieoiaio?a o noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Neeaaeiith caeeoa?oueny i?iaeaia iae?eo aeo?ao a?aeiia?aeii aei oiia
iinoa/aiiy iio?aaothoue aeeaieiai aea/aiiy. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieacaee, ui oiiae iinoaaie ia o?eueee aecia/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
noi??i ca aeeiiaiiy eiio?aeoo oa ca aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c ?ooii oiaa?o
a?ae i?iaeaaoey aei iieoioey, a oaeiae iathoue cia/iee aieea ia ?ici??
aeo?ao, ye? aeeth/athoueny aei aa?oino? oiaa?o, a?aeiinyoueny ca ?aooiie
aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa (ia?ao) /e ca ?aooiie /enoiai i?eaooeo. Aaaeeeai a
ia??iae oeeaaeaiiy oaiae caa?iooe oaaao ia oiiae eiio?aeo?a oa eiio?ieue
ca ?o aeeiiaiiyi. Aiae?oe/iee iae?e aenii?oieo ? ?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e
aeioe?eueii aanoe ia o?eueee ca eiaeiei eiio?aeoii, aea e ca eiaeiei
a?aeaaioaaeaiiyi i?e oeueiio, ui cia/ii iie?aueoue aiae?oe/io ?iaioo ia
i?aei?e?inoaao. O?eueee ca oiiae canoinoaaiiy oaei? iaoiaeeee noaia
iiaeeeaei aecia/aoe, aiae?coaaoe oa eiio?iethaaoe aeo?aoe ca eiaeiith
oaiaeith.

Aeeneon?eiei ? aei e?ioey ia ae??oaiei caeeoa?oueny ieoaiiy iaoiaeeee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iae?eo iia?aoe?e ye? o?enothoueny ? ioe?iththoueny a
ia?aeiieo aeieoiaioao o aeaio aaethoao. ?yae aeiiii?no?a i?iiiiothoue
a?aeia?aaeaoe iia?aoe?? a a?eaiaaiio aea?aaeaio? a iaeieo ?aa?no?ao ?
ia?aeaeueii aanoe ?aa?no?e a ?iicaii?e aaetho?. Aiae?c ae?yeueiino?
?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa aeaa iiaeeea?noue iaa?oiooaaoe iieiaeaiiy, ui iae?e
?ic?aooie?a c ?iii?oa?aie oa aenii?oa?aie iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe ye o
a?ioia?e iaeeieoe? Oe?a?ie-a?eai?, oae ? a ?iicaii?e aaetho? iaeii/anii
a on?o a?aeiia?aeieo ?aa?no?ao aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo. Oea ni?eyoeia
iineeaiith eiio?ieth ca ?ooii aaethoieo eioo?a. I?e oeueiio a?aeiaaea?
iio?aaa o aeoaethaaii? iia?aoe?e oeyoii caieno ?o a iniiai?(aeey iae?eo
a a?eaiyo) oa aeiaeaoeia? (a ?iaaethoao) ?aa?no?e. I?aenoieia? caiene o
?aa?no?ao aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oaeiae ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe ye o a?eaiyo,
oae ? a ?iicaii?e aaetho?. Caiene aei aieiaii? eieae, ocaaaeueithth/eo
?aa?no??a oa ca?oiino? i?iaiaeeoe a?aeiia?aeii c ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie, o
a?ioia?e iaeeieoe? Oe?a?ie — a?eai?.

Aiae?oe/iee iae?e ?ic?aooie?a ?c iieoioeyie oa caiiaieeaie ca
aenii?oieie a?aeaaioaaeaiiyie cai?iiiiiaaii aanoe: ca aeaeaie aaetho a
?ic??c? iieoioe?a; ca eiaeiei eiio?aeoii; ca aeieoiaioaie ii
a?aeaaioaaeai?e i?iaeoeoe?? /e aeeiiaiei iineoaai.

A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii iiae?eyoe iia?aoe?? c ?iicaiiith aaethoith
oa oe?iieie iaia?aie ia iioi/i? aaethoi? iia?aoe?? oa aaethoi?
iia?aoe??, iia’ycai? c ?ooii eai?oaeo. Aei iioi/ieo aaethoieo iia?aoe?e
?aeiiaiaeo?ii a?aeiineoe: cae?eniaiiy ia?aeac?a c Oe?a?ie oa
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?io eioo?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho? aeey ?ic?aooie?a ca
aenii?oii-?iii?oieie iia?aoe?yie; i?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooie?a ca iineoae oa
oiaa?e c aeiiiiiaith ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie ca ieaoaaeaie o?ce/ieo in?a ye
?aceaeaio?a, oae ? ia?aceaeaio?a Oe?a?ie; iaea?aeaiiy oa iaaeaiiy
o?iainiaeo ei?ioeioa?i?iiaeo e?aaeeo?a; ia?aeace c Oe?a?ie oa a Oe?a?io
aeea?aeaiae?a, i?ioeaio?a, ?iaanoeoe?e, e?aaeeo?a oa ?ioeo iia?aoe?e;
?io? ia?aaaaeaiiy iaoi?aiaiai oa?aeoa?o. Aei aaethoieo iia?aoe?e,
iia’ycaieo c ?ooii eai?oaeo, iiaeia a?aeianoe: i?yi? ?iaanoeoe??, oiaoi
aianee aei noaoooieo oiiae?a i?aei?e?inoa; ii?ooaeuei? ?iaanoeoe??,
oiaoi eoi?aey oe?iieo iaia??a; iaaeaiiy oa iaea?aeaiiy aeiaaioa?i?iiaeo
e?aaeeo?a.

Iaeiei ?c aeae?a aacaio?aeiaeo ?ic?aooie?a a ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e
ae?yeueiino? ? ?ic?aooiee ca aeiiiiiaith aaie?anueei? ieao?aeii? ea?oee
ca i?aeia?iaeiith ieao?aeiith nenoaiith. Aeey ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aaaeaiiy
aiae?oe/iiai iae?eo cai?iiiiiaaii aaie?anuee? ieao?aei? ea?oee
a?oioaaoe: ca i?eiaeaaei?noth; o caeaaeiino? a?ae o?iainoaaiiy
?ic?aooie?a; ca aeei?enoaiiyi ieao?aeieo nenoai; ca aeaeaie aaetho. O
aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aaaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo
?ic?aooie?a aaie?anueeeie ieao?aeieie ea?oeaie.

O nenoai? iae?eo ?iii?oieo oiaa??a oa iaoa??ae?a nooo?aa cia/aiiy ia?
i?aaeeueia oi?ioaaiiy nia?aa?oino? ?iii?oieo iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a,
oiaoi aa?oino? ca yeith aiie a?aeia?aaeathoueny a iae?eo. Aeey
aecia/aiiy aa?oino? i?eaeaaieo ?iii?oieo oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo
oe?iiinoae cai?iiiiiaaii a?aee?eaaoe noa?aooiie “Oi?ioaaiiy aa?oino?
?iii?oieo oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae” aei ?aooieo 16
“O?ainii?oii-caaio?aaeuei? aeo?aoe”. Oeae ?aooiie aeei?enoiaothoue aeey
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oi?ioaaiiy ?o nia?aa?oino?. Oiio eiai
i?ecia/aiiy a?aeiia?aea? iinoaaeai?e iao? — aecia/aiiy aa?oino?
?iii?oieo iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae. Ia aeaaao oeueiai ?aooieo
aeioe?eueii cae?aoe aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c oi?ioaaiiyi nia?aa?oino?
i?eaeaaieo ?iii?oieo oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae; oaeoe/io ?o
aa?o?noue nienoaaoe o aeaaao ?aooie?a iae?eo iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae.

A noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? iathoue i?noea aeo?aoe, ye? a
cia/i?e i??? aieeaathoue ia aa?o?noue oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae.
A ca’yceo c oeei cai?iiiiiaaii ooi/iaio eeaneo?eaoe?th aeo?ao o
noa’?eo?a ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ca aenii?oii-?iii?oieie
iia?aoe?yie (?en.2), ui ? iniiaith aeey i?aai?caoe?? ?o iae?eo oa
eiio?ieth.

Aeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/aoe no?oeoo?o aeo?ao ?
ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe?? (?ia?o, iineoa), ui
aieeaaoeia ia i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

Aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iith ae?yeuei?noth,
iiae?eythoueny ia aeo?aoe iinoa/aeueieea, aeo?aoe iina?aaeieea, aeo?aoe
iieoioey. Cae/aeii, nai? aeo?aoe iina?aaeiee a?aeiineoue ca ?aooiie
iinoa/aeueieea aai iieoioey, aeeth/ath/e noio nai?? aeiaai?iaee. Oiio,
eeaneo?eaoe?th aeo?ao aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe a aeaio aniaeoao — o
iinoa/aeueieea oa iieoioey.

Aeey aaaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo, aiae?co ? eiio?ieth aeo?ao
aaaeeeai a?aeia?aaeaoe ?o ca ia’?eoaie oa aeaeaie. O ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii
eeaneo?eaoe?th aeo?ao ca ia’?eoaie iae?eo, yea ni?eyoeia i?aaeeueiiio
?iciiae?eo aeo?ao ca noa’?eoaie oa ia’?eoaie, oi?ioaaoe nia?aa?o?noue oa
oe?io eiaeiiai aeaeo oiaa?o, i?iaiicoaaoe i?iaeaaeio oe?io c a?aooaaiiyi
??cieo aeo?ao.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aeo?aoe iinoa/aeueieea, iia’ycai? c aenii?oii i?iaeoeoe??,
?iciiae?eyoe ia aeo?aoe, ui aeeth/athoueny: aei ae?iaie/i? nia?aa?oino?;
aei iicaae?iaie/eo aeo?ao. Ca i?noeai aeieeiaiiy aeo?aoe iiaeia
iiae?eyoe ia: aeo?aoe, iia’ycai? c i?eaeaaiiyi ?iicaiii? aaethoe aai i?e
io?eiaii? e?aaeeoo a ?iicaii?e aaetho?; aeo?aoe c o?ainii?ooaaiiy
oiaa??a; ieoi? aeo?aoe; aeo?aoe c ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a.

?en.2. Eeaneo?eaoe?y aeo?ao ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ca
noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

I?iiiio?oueny aeo?aoe iieoioey, caeaaeii a?ae ii?yaeeo aeeth/aiiy ?o aei
nia?aa?oino?, iiae?eyoe ia aeo?aoe, ui aeeth/athoueny o aa?o?noue
?iii?oiiai oiaa?o oa ia aeeth/athoueny o aa?o?noue ?iii?oiiai oiaa?o, a
a?aeiinyoueny aaciina?aaeiuei ca ?aooiie iieoioey aai iie?eaathoueny ca
?aooiie /enoiai i?eaooeo.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii, ui i?aei?e?inoaai oi?a?ae? oa
iina?aaeieoeueeei o??iai iae?e aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo ?c
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iith ae?yeuei?noth, aeioe?eueii aanoe a?aeie?aieaii —
ia ie?aieo noa?aooieao ?aooie?a iae?eo aeo?ao. Oea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
eiio?iethaaoe aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ca aenii?oii-?iii?oieie
iia?aoe?yie, aoaeoeai?noth eiaeii? c ieo oa aecia/aoe nia?aa?o?noue
eiaeiiai aeaeo ?iii?oiiai oiaa?o. Iae?eia? aeai? aoaeooue i?aenoaaith
aeey aecia/aiiy oe?ie ?aae?caoe?? eiaeiiai aeaeo ?iii?oiiai oiaa?o.

Oaeei /eiii, a?oioaaiiy aeo?ao o ?ic??c? noa?aooie?a ? aiae?oe/ieo
?aooie?a aeicaieeoue aecia/aoe nia?aa?o?noue ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a, ?ia?o
oa iineoa ia aenii?o, a oaeiae caaacia/eoe eiio?ieue ca aeei?enoaiiyi
eioo?a aenii?oieo iia?aoe?e, ni?eyoeia i?aeaeuaiith eiio?ieth ca
aoaeoeai?noth eiaeii? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? iia?aoe??.

Cia/io oaaao a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?eae?eaii aeine?aeaeaiith iae?eo
iia?aoe?e c ia?a?iaee aeaaaeueieoeueei? ne?iaeie. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
eiio?ieue ca ?ooii aeaaaeueieoeueei? ne?iaeie iaiao?aeii aanoe ye o
oeaoao ia?a?iaee, oae i a caiiaieea c iaoith eiio?ieth ca neeaaeii
aeo?ao, aecia/aiiyi e?eueeino? aeei?enoaii? ne?iaeie oa iae?eii
io?eiaieo a?aeoiae?a. C oe??th iaoith, aeey iae?eo iia?aoe?e ca eiaeiei
aeaeii i?iaeoeoe??, cai?iiiiiaaii a?aee?eaaoe aei ?aooieo ”Iniiaia
ae?iaieoeoai” ie?aiee noa?aooiie “Ia?a?iaea aeaaaeueieoeueei? ne?iaeie”.
Canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iieiaeaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
aecia/aoe aeo?aoe eiaeiiai aeaeo i?iaeoeoe??, aeaioiaeaii? c
aeaaaeueieoeueei? ne?iaeie, ii??aithaaoe ?o c noiith iaea?aeaieo
aeioiae?a /e caeoe?a a?ae ?aae?caoe??. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co
aeaieo — i?eeiaoe a?aeiia?aei? oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? iia?aoe?e c ia?a?iaee aeaaaeueieoeueei? ne?iaeie. Aa?o?noue
aeaaaeueieoeueei? ne?iaeie, i?e aecia/ai? oaeoe/ieo aeo?ao c ??
ia?a?iaee, ia iiaeiia aeeth/aoenue aei ?o neeaaeo, a aeei?enoiaoaaoeny
o?eueee aeey eiio?ieth oa aecia/aiiy oe?ie i?iaeoeoe?? (yeui /anoeia ??
aoaea aeei?enoaia ye can?a ieaoaaeo ca iineoae ii ia?a?iaoe?). Noia
aeaaaeueieoeueei? ne?iaeie iiaea noaoe i???ioe?ii i?e aecia/aii? oe?ie
ia iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe??, a oaeiae oaeoe/ii? nia?aa?oino? aeaioiaeaii?
i?iaeoeoe??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaeeea aoaeeoo iae?eiai? iie?oeee oa iia?aoe?e
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa” aena?oeaii nooi?noue
aoaeeoo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, eiai iaoo, caaaeaiiy ia
iae?i- ? i?e?i??aiyo, iaoiaeeeo oa iine?aeiai?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeeoo
eiie?aoieo aeae?a ? ia’?eo?a ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii, ui iae?eiaa iie?oeea i?aaenoaaey? niaith
aecia/aiiy i?aei?e?inoaii a?aeiia?aeii aei aea?aii? oi?ie iae?eo
eiie?aoii? iaoiaeeee, oaoi?ee oa i?aai?caoe?? aaaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai
iae?eo, aeoiaey/e c iniaeeainoae ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. O noa??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei iae?eiaa iie?oeea i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeiia
aecia/aoe eiie?aoio iaoiaeeeo, oaoi?eo oa i?aai?caoe?th aaaeaiiy
aooaaeoa?nueeiai oa iiaeaoeiaiai iae?eo, aeoiaey/e c iniaeeainoae
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, a?aeiia?aeii aei aea?aii? oi?ie iae?eo ?
i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui i?aei?e?inoaa
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? iiaeii? aecia/aoe:

· ?aooiee ? noa?aooiee iae?eo ?ic?aooie?a c iinoa/aeueieeaie oa
iieoioeyie, iae?eo aaethoieo oa ?ioeo iia?aoe?e;

· iaoiaeeeo iae?eo iia?aoe?e;

· a?ao?e aeieoiaioiiai?ioo;

· ianya ca?oiino?, yeo iaiao?aeii neeaaeaoe aeey aioo??oiueiai oa
ciai?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Iaa?oioiaaii, ui i?e aoaeeo? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aoaeeoi?
iiaeiai aeoiaeeoe ?c ianooiieo aeiia:

· aeio?eiaiiy i?ioyaii ?ieo i?eeiyoi? iae?eiai? iie?oeee a?aeia?aaeaiiy
aenii?oii-?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e a ?iicaii?e aaetho?;

· iiaiioe oa nai?/aniino? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iae?eo ainiiaea?nueeeo
iia?aoe?e;

· nai?/aniino? oa aeinoia??iino? a?aeianaiiy aeioiae?a oa aeo?ao ca
i?noeyie aeieeiaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei ca?oiiai ia??iaeo;

· ?iciaaeoaaiiy a iae?eo iioi/ieo aeo?ao, ye? a?aeiinyoueny ia cao?aoe
ae?iaieoeoaa (ia?ao) oa ca ?aooiie i?eaooeo;

· oioiaeiino? aeaieo aiae?oe/iiai oa neioaoe/iiai iae?eo.

Iia?aoe?? a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? iia’ycai? c aenieei
nooiaiai ?eceeo, a oiio iiaeii? aooe ia?aa??ai? ii noo?, a oe?eiio, ca
eiaeiith ainiiaea?nueeith iia?aoe??th.

Eiaeai aoaeeoi?, aeoiaey/e c? naiai aeina?aeo, naiino?eii aeae?a?
iine?aeiai?noue aoaeeoi?nueei? ?iaioe. Canoinoaaiiy oaeineiiaeaieo
iaoiaeee aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee ye a oe?eiio ia i?aei?e?inoa?, oae ? a
noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aeicaieeoue i?i?i?coaaoe
aoaeeoi?nueeee ?ecee oa i?iaiaeeoe aoaeeoi?nueeo ia?aa??eo a a?eueo
noeneee oa?i?i.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeeoo ?ic?aooieiaeo iia?aoe?e a ?iicaii?e aaetho? c
iinoa/aeueieeaie ? iieoioeyie iaiao?aeii iaoe /?oeo i?ia?aio, ci?no yei?
caeaaeeoue a?ae iinoaaeaii? iaoe ? eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue. I?e i?iaaaeaii?
aoaeeoo aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c ?aae?caoe??th i?iaeoeoe??, aeioe?eueii
anoaiiaeoe:

· iaa?oioiaai?noue aeeth/aiiy aeo?ao aei neeaaeo iicaae?iaie/eo;

· i?aaeeuei?noue ?iciiae?eo iicaae?iaie/eo aeo?ao oa a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?o a
aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo;

· oioiaei?noue aiae?oe/iiai oa neioaoe/iiai iae?eo.

Cai?iiiiiaaia aaoi?ii iaoiaeeea aoaeeoo iia?aoe?e ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ai?iaiaaia ia i?aei?e?inoaao Iieoaanueei? iaeano? ?
aeiaaaeaia aei ??aiy i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy aioo??oi?i ? ciai?oi?i
aoaeeoii i?aei?e?inoaaie Oe?a?ie.

I?e aoaeeo? iae?eiai? iie?oeee i?aei?e?inoaa a noa??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ia?aae aoaeeoi?aie iinoaaeai?
caaaeaiiy i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa a oe?eiio oa
eiai no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a.

Aeiiii?/iee aiae?c ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aea? iiaeeea?noue
aeine?aeeoe aeiiii?eo iae?i??ai?a, a oaeiae ie?aieo aeaiaio?a oa
ia’?eo?a iae?eo. C aeiiiiiaith aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co iiaeeeai aea/eoe 3
a?oie i?iaeai o noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?:

· noai ? ?icaeoie na?oiai? aeiiii?ee oa aeiiii?ee ?aa?iio, ie?aii?
e?a?ie, iaeano?, ?aeiio, aaeoc?;

· ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa, i?aai?caoe?e, ae?iaie/eo oa
eiia?oe?eieo no?oeoo?;

· noai ?ic?aooie?a, iae?e iiia’?eoieo cao?ao, ?ic?iaea i?iaiic?a.

O aeena?oaoe??, ia i?aeoe/ieo iaoa??aeao i?aei?e?inoa, i?aaenoaaeaia
iaoiaeeea aiae?co ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ia ??cieo ??aiyo
oi?aae?iiy.

I?e i?iaaaeai? aiae?co ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa
cai?iiiiiaaia ianooiia iine?aeiai?noue: aiae?c aeeiiaiiy aeiaiai??a,
ciaia’ycaiue a ?ic??c? iinoaaie oa aeae?a oiaa??a ca
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieie ciaia’ycaiiyie; aiae?c ?ic?aooie?a a noa??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?; aiae?c iai?ioieo eioo?a; aiae?c
iaeeaaeieo aeo?ao; aiae?c oi?ioaaiiy aa?oino? oiaa??a ca
aenii?oii-?iii?oieie iia?aoe?yie; aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ?iii?oieo
iia?aoe?e; aiae?c aeo?ao ia eoi?aeth aaethoe; aiae?c o?iainiaeo
?acoeueoao?a o??ie; aiae?c o?iainiaiai noaio i?aei?e?inoaa;
ia?eaoeiaiaee aiae?c; o?iainiaee aiae?c noaio ia?oia??a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe eo?n ?iicaiii? aaethoe i?e aiae?c? aeeiiaiiy
oaiae ? aecia/aii? ?o aoaeoeaiino?. I?e aiae?c? iaeeaaeieo aeo?ao
aeioe?eueii ii??aithaaoe noio iaeeaaeieo aeo?ao a?aeiinii noi oaiae ye a
oe?eiio ca ca?oiee ia??iae, oae ? ca eiaeiei iieoioeai, eiio?aeoii,
ia?a?aoiaaii? ca eo?nii IAO a aaethoo Oe?a?ie. ??aaiue iaeeaaeieo aeo?ao
(?IA) ca aenii?oieie iia?aoe?yie iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe ca oi?ioeith ?IA A
= IA A / A A,

aea IA A — iaeeaaei? aeo?aoe c aenii?oo;

A A — noia ?aae?ciaaieo oiaa??a c aenii?oo.

AENIIAEE

1. Ooi/iaii nooi?noue iiiyooy “ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue”;
aecia/aii iaoiaee oa?eoiiai oa iaoa?eoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy CAAe;
noi?ioeueiaaii caaaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo iaoiaeieia?/iiai,
iaoiaee/iiai, oaoi?/iiai, i?aai?caoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o; iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?eo oa aoaeeoo aenii?oii-?iii?oieo,
aaethoieo iia?aoe?e; aeaii a?eueo iiaio eeaneo?eaoe?th aeae?a
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui cia/ii iie?auo? ia?aeiiee iae?e
oa a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?ioean?a ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a nenoai?
?aooie?a aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo.

2. Aeine?aeaeaii, ui ye?noue aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo oa aoaeeoo o?nii
iia’ycai? c iayai?noth, iino?ei?noth oa ci?noii ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeieoiaio?a, ye? ?o ?aaoeththoue.

3.Cai?iiiiiaaii ? iaa?oioiaaii, ui iiiyooy “aaeainiaa aa?o?noue” aaethoe
canoiniaoaaoe iaaeioe?eueii, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe “aaciaa
aa?o?noue” aaethoe, oiaoi ca ia?oith (aaciaith) iia?aoe??th.

4. Aeine?aeaeaii, ui iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi aaaeaiiy iae?eo aenii?oieo oa
?iii?oieo oiaa??a ? eiio?ieue ca iayai?noth, ?ooii, caa?aaeaiiyi
oiaa??a, i?aaeeueiei ioi?ieaiiyi o?ainii?oii – noi?ia?aeieo aeieoiaio?a,
nai?/aniei ?o a?aeaaioaaeaiiyi oa ii?eaooeoaaiiyi, i?aae’yaeaiiyi
i?aoaic?e aei iinoa/aeueiee?a, iina?aaeiee?a, o?ainii?oieo i?aai?caoe?e
ca ianoa/o oiaa??a, iaaeoiaeaeaiiy c?iniaaieo oiaa??a, aeyaeaiee a?ae,
ii?ooaiiy oa?i?i?a iinoaaie.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii ooi/iaio eeaneo?eaoe?th aeo?ao ca aeaiia aniaeoaie: o
iinoa/aeueieea ? iieoioey oa ca ia’?eoaie iae?eo. Aeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y
aeanoue iiaeeea?noue i?aeoe/iei i?aoe?aieeai i?aaeeueii ?iciiae?eyoe
aeo?aoe, a oaeiae aecia/aoe oaeoe/io nia?aa?o?noue oa oe?io ii eiaeiiio
aeaeo oiaa?o, i?iaiicoaaoe i?iaeaaeio oe?io c a?aooaaiiyi ?ioeo aeo?ao,
iiieoo oa i?iiiceoe?e. Aeey aecia/aiiy aa?oino? eoieaieo ?iii?oieo
oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae cai?iiiiiaaii a?aee?eaaoe aei ?aooieo
16 “O?ainii?oii-caaio?aaeuei? aeo?aoe” noa?aooiie “Oi?ioaaiiy aa?oino?
?iii?oieo oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae”.

6. Iaa?oioiaaii, ui iae?e ?ic?aooie?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho? c
iinoa/aeueieeaie oa iieoioeyie iaiao?aeii aanoe ia ie?aiiio noa?aooieo
ca eiaeiith ?iicaiiith aaethoith (a?aee?eaath/e ie?aiee ?aa?no?), a
?ic??c? iinoa/aeueiee?a oa iieoioe?a, ca eiaeiei eiio?aeoii,
aeieoiaioii.

7. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea iae?eo iia?aoe?e c aaie?anueeeie ieao?aeieie
ea?oeaie ca i?aeia?iaeiith ieao?aeiith nenoaiith.

8. C iaoith eiio?ieth ca neeaaeii aeo?ao, aecia/aiiyi e?eueeino?
aeei?enoaii? ne?iaeie oa iae?eii io?eiaieo a?aeoiae?a a?ae ia?a?iaee
ne?iaeie ia aeaaaeueieoeueeeo oiiaao aeey iae?eo iia?aoe?e ca eiaeiei
aeaeii i?iaeoeoe??, cai?iiiiiaaii a?aee?eaaoe aei ?aooieo ”Iniiaia
ae?iaieoeoai” ie?aiee noa?aooiie “Ia?a?iaea aeaaaeueieoeueei? ne?iaeie”

9. Aecia/aii, ui iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie aoaeeoi?nueeeo neoaea a noa??
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? eiio?ieue ca aeio?eiaiiyi
caeiiiaeaanoaa, eiai iae?eiai? iie?oeee, neeaaeaiiyi ca?oiino?,
caaacia/aiiyi aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, caniiaiee?a, aeoe?iia??a oa ?ioeo
niiaeeaa/?a aeinoia??iith ?ioi?iaoe??th i?i o?iainiaee noai
i?aei?e?inoaa.

10. Ooi/iaii aecia/aiiy iae?eiai? iie?oeee. Ia iao iiaeyae, iae?eiaa
iie?oeea i?aaenoaaey? aecia/aiiy i?aei?e?inoaii a?aeiia?aeii aei
aea?aii? oi?ie iae?eo eiie?aoii? iaoiaeeee, oaoi?ee oa i?aai?caoe??
aaaeaiiy aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo, aeoiaey/e c iniaeeainoae
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

11. ?aoe?iiaeueii aeae?eeoe oae? noaae?? aoaeeoo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa: iiia?aaei? iciaeiieaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia’?eoa aoaeeoo; ieaioaaiiy aoaeeoo; ioe?iea iae?eiai? iie?oeee, noaio
aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth, o?iainiai? ca?oiino?; aoaeeoi?nueea aenia?oeca
i?aai?caoe?? iae?eo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?; aenia?oeca
o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueeeo iia?aoe?e a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?; i?aeaioiaea aoaeeoi?nueeiai ca?oo; eiinaeoeiaia? iineoae
oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii onoiaiith iaaeie?e?a.

12. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo oa iine?aeiai?noue aiae?co
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa. Iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy eo?no ?iicaiii? aaethoe i?e aiae?c? iia?aoe?e
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. AEeae??aa E.?. Aoaeeo aaeiaeo aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c i?iaaaeaiiyi
?ic?aooie?a a ?iicaii?e aaetho? c i?aeca?oieie iniaaie // Na?o
aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo. — 1997. ? 2, n. 28 – 30. – 0,3 ae.a.

2. AEeae??aa E.?.Iae?e iia?aoe?e, iia’ycaieo c aenii?oii oiaa??a. A?niee
AE?O? – AEeoiie?: AE?O?, ?8,1998, n.77-81 – 0,3 ae.a.

3. AEeae??aa E.?. Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai oa ciai?oiueiai
aoaeeoo. A?niee AE?O? – AEeoiie?: AE?O?,? 9, 1999, n. 73-76, — 0,2ae.a.

4. AEeae??aa E.?. Iniaeeaino? aiae?oe/iiai iae?eo ?ic?aooie?a ca
aenii?oii-?iii?oieie iia?aoe?yie. // Iae?e, aiae?c oa eiio?ieue a
nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith i?aei?e?inoaa: Oace aeiiia?aeae ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? 25-26 eenoiiaaea 1997 ?.
— E.: EAeOAO,1997.- 169 n., n.30-31.-0,1 ae.a

5. AEeae??aa E.?. I?iaeaie iae?eo aeo?ao ? oi?ioaaiiy oe?ie i?e
aenii?oii-?iii?oieo iia?aoe?yo (?iii?o). // I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a no/anieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy: Iaoa??aee
i?aeaoc?anueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? 15-16 o?aaiy 1997 ?.-
Euea?a: EEA,1997.- 301 n., n.175-178 n. – 0,2 ae.a.

6. AEeae??aa E.?. Iae?e aenii?oieo iia?aoe?e. // I?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy
aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee: Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? 22 n?/iy 1999?. –Iieoaaa,
1999. — 388 n., n. 62-67. – 0,2 ae.a.

7. ?o?iaiei A.?., AEeae??aa E.?. I?iaeaie iae?eo ?ic?aooie?a c
aeiiiiiaith ieanoeeiaeo ea?oie. // I?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy
aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee: Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? 22 n?/iy 1999?. -Iieoaaa,
1999. – 388 n., n. 164-168. – 0,2 ae.a.

Aiioaoe?y

AEeae??aa E.?. Iae?e ? aoaeeo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiino? 08.06.04 – Aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?e, aiae?c ? aoaeeo. –
Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,1999?.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny i?aai?caoe?eii – iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe
iae?eo oa aoaeeoo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa oa
iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy aeo?ao.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iae?eo ?ic?aooie?a c ?iicaiieie ia?oia?aie ca
aenii?oii-?iii?oieie iia?aoe?yie. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo iae?eo
iia?aoe?e c aaie?anueeeie ieao?aeieie ea?oeaie.

?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? aoaeeoo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa oa iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aa?ee
iia?aoe?e ii noo?, a oe?eiio, ca eiaeiith ainiiaea?nueeith iia?aoe??th.
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aiae?co iia?aoe?e a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, a?aoiaoth/e eo?n ?iicaiii? aaethoe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaie?anueea ieao?aeia ea?oea, aenii?o,
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue, ?iii?o, ?iicaiia aaethoa, eo?nia?
??cieoe?.

Aiiioaoeey

AEeaeaaaa E.E. O/ao e aoaeeo aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.04 — Aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, aiaeec e aoaeeo.
Eeaaneee iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao. – Eeaa, 1999a.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony i?aaiecaoeeiiii — iaoiaee/aneea aniaeou
o/aoa e aoaeeoa aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e
iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey cao?ao.

?ane?uoa nouiinoue aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eae iniiau
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee e neiaeiiai iauaeoa o/aoa e
aoaeeoa. A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee i?iaaaeaia a?oiie?iaea iauaeoia
o/aoa e aoaeeoa aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ii niaieoiiinoe
i?eciaeia. I?iaaaeai aiaeec aicaeaenoaey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee
ainoaea?noaa ia yeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee.
Inouanoaeaia a?oiie?iaea e nenoaiaoecaoeey caeiiiaeaoaeueii-ii?iaoeaiuo
aeoia ?aaoee?othueo aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

Enneaaeiaaia iaoiaeeea io?aaeaiey eo?niaie ?acieoeu a n?aaiaiee n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nenoaiie o/aoa. Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi a
?acoeueoaoa iai?aaeeueiiai io?aaeaiey a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa iia?aoeee
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?eaiaeeo e ene?eaeaieth ?anoiaeia,
naaanoieiinoe e oeaiu oiaa?a, a a aeaeueiaeoai – iaaeinoiaa?iie noiiu
aaeiauo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia. Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oieoeeaoeee
iaoiaeeee io?aaeaiey eo?niaie ?acieoeu a aooaaeoa?neii e iaeiaiaii
o/aoa, ooi/iaii aa niioaaonoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai.

Inaauaia i?aeoeea, enneaaeiaaiu i?iaeaiu e iieacaiu iai?aaeaiey
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey o/aoa e aoaeeoa aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee. I?aaeeiaeaii aaanoe a i?aeoeeo aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ?yae
noan/aoia, /oi aeano aiciiaeiinoue aeaoaeece?iaaoue eioi?iaoeeth a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe e oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai.

Iainiiaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaoiaeeee o/aoa ?an/aoia
n eiino?aiiuie ia?oia?aie e oi?ie?iaaieth cao?ao a noa?a
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeaiu eiie?aoiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
io?aaeaieth a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa iia?aoeee, naycaiiuo n yenii?oiuie e
eiii?oiuie iia?aoeeyie, oi?ie?iaaieai oeaiu e cao?ao, iieoieie e
i?iaeaaeae aaethou. Ooi/iaia eeanneoeeaoeey ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth ii noauaeoai e iauaeoai o/aoa.

Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaeiia?aiaiiiai io?aaeaiey a o/aoa ?an/aoia
ii yenii?oii-eiii?oiui e aaethoiui iia?aoeeyi a aeaoo aaethoao
(eiino?aiiie e a?eaiaaii yeaeaaeaioa ca eo?nii IAO ia aeaoo ioi?ieaiey)
a iaeiii aooaaeoa?neii ?aaeno?a n oeaeueth oeo/oaiey eiio?iey ii
iaee/eth e aeaeaeaieth eiino?aiiie aaethou. ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aiaeeoe/aneee
o/ao ?an/aoia yenii?oiuo e eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee aanoe: ii aeaeai aaetho a
?ac?aca iieoiaoaeae eee iinoaaueeia, ii eaaeaeiio aeiaiai?o, ii
aeieoiaioo ia ioa?oceo eee ieacaiea oneoa.

A ?aaioa ?aeiiaiaeiaaii iaoiaeeeo o/aoa iia?aoeee n nu?ueai ia
aeaaaeue/aneeo oneiaeyo. Aeieacaii, /oi eiio?ieue ii aeaeaeaieth
aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue eae a oeaoao ia?a?aaioee
aai, oae e o caeac/eea. Aeey o/aoa ia?a?aaioee aeaaaeue/aneiai nu?uey
?aeiiaiaeiaaii ioe?uaaoue ioaeaeueiue noan/ao.

I?iaaaeaia nenoaiaoecaoeey aaieianeeo ieaoaaeiuo ea?oi/ae a eiino?aiiie
aaethoa, i?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea eo neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai
o/aoa.

Aeieacaii, /oi ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo o/aoiay iieeoeea
i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeia ii?aaeaeyoue eiie?aoioth iaoiaeeeo, oaoieeo e
i?aaiecaoeeth aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, enoiaey ec iniaaiiinoae
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e eca?aiiie oi?iu o/aoa. ?ane?uou
iniaaiiinoe aoaeeoa aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e iainiiaaii, /oi
a nayce n aunieie noaiaiueth ?enea aeaiiua iia?aoeee aeieaeiu i?iaa?yony
nieioiui iaoiaeii. Oniaa?oainoaiaaii iaoiaeeeo aoaeeoa ?an/aoiuo,
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea aiaeeca aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e
yoii ?aeiiaiaeoaony o/eouaaoue eo?n eiino?aiiie aaethou.

Naeaeai auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaeaioaoeee a Oe?aeia nia?aiaiiuo
iaoiaeia e i?eaiia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e aoaeeoa a niioaaonoaee n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie noaiaea?oaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaieianeay ieaoaaeiay ea?oa, yenii?o,
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, eiii?o, eiino?aiiay aaethoa,
eo?niaay ?acieoea.

aNNOTATION

Jhydeeva L.I. Accounting and Audit of foreign economic activity.-
Manuscript.

Dissertation for a Candidate of Economic Sciences Degree in specialty
08.06.04 – Accounting, analysis and audit. — Kiev National Economic
University, Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation researches organization and methods of accounting and
auditing of foreign economic activity of firms, as well as he nature of
business expenditures.

Methods of accounting in import — export payment transactions have been
developed.

Methods of accounting in payment operations with bank cards is given.

Specific feature of auditing foreign economic activity of the firm is
laid out and it is proved that all accounting transactions must be
checked one by one.

Methodology of the analysis of foreign economic operations with taking
into consideration foreign exchange rates is offered.

Key words: bank card, export, foreign economic activity, import, rate
margins, auditing policy.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 08.10.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16

Oi.ae?oe.a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae. A?e. 1,0.

Iaeeaae 100. Cai. 428.

i.Ee?a-5, aoe. *a?aiiia?i?enueea, 57/3, e.201.

Oiaa?enoai “Ciaiiy” Oe?a?ie

Aeaeaaieoeoai oa iia?aoeaia iie?a?ao?y

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