17

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AII*A?IA Aiaoie?e Aeieo?iae/

OAeE 622.831.322

IAA?OIOOAAIIss IA?AIAO??A CII CAOENOO I?ECAEssAAII? AAIIssEA A II?IAeAO
I?AEIEANOss E?OOEO AEEEAeIIAAACIA*IEO IEANO?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.26.01 Ioi?iia i?aoe?

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?eie?i A?eoi? Aiaoiae/, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith ioi?iie i?aoe? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ci??i Aiae??e
I?eeoiae/, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii oi?aae?iiy aeeiai?/ieie yaeuaie
a??nueeiai oeneo ?inoeoooo aaioaoi?/ii? iaoai?ee (EAOI) IAI Oe?a?ie;
eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Eoiueia Na?a?e Aai?a?eiae/, ia/aeueiee
Aeiiaoeueeiai oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie
ii iaaeyaeo ca ioi?iiith i?aoe?

Aaaeo/a i?aei?e?inoai:

Aea?aeaaiee Iae??anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ii aaciaoe? ?ia?o
a a??nuee?e i?iieneiaino?, a?aeae?e ii ai?iouea? c ?aioiaeie aeeeaeaie
aoa?eey, ii?iaee oa aaco I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 1 aeiaoiy 1999?. a 12 aiaeei, aoae. 1.201 ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae11.052.05 a Aeiiaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 340000. Oe?a?ia, i.
Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. A?oaia, 58.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? AeiiAeOO (340000, i.
Aeiiaoeuee aoe. A?oaia, 58, II o/. ei?i.)

Aaoi?ao?a?ao ?icineaiee 27 eeiiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I. ?. Oaaoeia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O oeae /an, ye ? i?ioyaii a?eueo i?ae i’yoeaeanyoe
iiia?aaei?o ?ie?a, an?ia oao?aoeyie-aeine?aeieeaie, ae?iaie/ieeaie
ia?oi/a?aiaa a?ae?iaeyiiy caoenieo ieano?a aaaaea?oueny iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiei niiniaii caiia?aaiiy ?aioiaeo aeeeae?a aoa?eey ? aaco.

I?e aeio?eiaii? ia?aiao??a niiniao i?ney 1958?. (ia oiiaii ae?oaiio
oei/aniaiio aoai?) a?aeaoaa?oueny aeae?eueea aeeeae?a. IaeIAe? (i?io.
Aia?ia ?.A. ? ?io?) aeneiaeth?oueny i?eiouaiiy, ui ?aioia? aeeeaee
aoa?eey ? aaco iiaeooue a ??aeeeo aeiaaeeao a?aeaoaaoeny i?e i?aeieano?
iaioiio ii?iaoeaiiai, yeui a iueiio ciaoiaeyoueny “u?euei? i?oei?
iao??ueioaao? caieiaeai? ii?iaee”. Cia/aiiy ? ci?no oe??? eaoaai???
ii??ae caeeoa?oueny ia?ice?eoei, a aaciaeeiai?/i? yaeua (AAess) i?e
aeio?eiaii? ii?iaoeaieo ia?aiao??a iiooaeiino? ii??ae i?aeieanoy
noathoue cian?i ia iaeeie/ieie.

I?oei? iao??ueioaao? caieiaeai? ii?iaee aei aeaa’yiinoeo ?ie?a a
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaioao o?ainoi?ioaaeeny a i?ioeaioiee ci?no i?neiaee?a,
iacaaaeath/e ia oa ui a ioae?eaoe?yo IaeIAe? aeiaiaeeeany a?aenooi?noue
?o aieeao ia aoaeo caoenoo. Aieea neeaaeo ii??ae i?aeieanoy, iniaeeai
ai?noo a iueiio oa??a aaiiyea, ia ?ici??e cii caoenoo aea/aeiny
aaniethoii iaaeinoaoiuei. Caaaeueia /enei ?aioiaeo aeeeae?a, iaaaeaiiy
(AAess), ui a?aeaoeeny i?e canoinoaaii? niiniao, neeaei aei 1995 ?. a?ey
50. Ioaea, oaia ?iaioe aeooaeueia.

?iaioa iia’ycaia c aaaaoi??/iith ae?iaie/ith ae?yeuei?noth aaoi?a i?e
?ic?iaoe? e?ooeo aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a, aiia ni?aiaaea? c?
ni?yiiaai?noth IAe? eaoaae?e ioi?iie i?aoe?, AeiiAeOO.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy aieeao ai?noo aaiiyea a neeaae? ii??ae
i?aeieanoy ia aoaeoeai?noue onoiaiiy aeeeaeiiaaacia/iino? i?e
ia?oi/a?aiaiio a?ae?iaeyii? e?ooiai ieanoo.

?aeay ?iaioe caniiaaia ia a?aeiiiio iieiaeaii? i?i oa, ui ?aaeueiee
inaaeiaee aoaeaiiniee ianea ? ia iiiie?oiei, a oa?oaaoei o?eii, ii?iaee
eiaeiiai c oa??a yeiai, ui /a?aothoueny aieiae?thoue ?noioii ??cieie
aeaoi?iaoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie i?e ?o ?icaaioaaeaii?. Aeneiaeth?oueny
a?iioaca, ui iayai?noue a i?aeieanoyo ia iiaooi?o oa??a i?oeieo
i?neiaee?a, a iaiaaeaii? iiooaeiino? oa??a aaiiye?a, ui yaeyee niaith
aeoaea ieanoe/i? a a??nueeiio ianea? ii?iaee, iiaea ia?aoeiaeaeaoe ye
i?ioeano ?icaaioaaeaiiy, oae ? aeaaacaoe??, aac yei? onoiaiiy
aeeeaeiiaaacia/iino? iaiiaeeeaa.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ae??oothoueny ianooii? iaoeia?
caaea/?:

— anoaiiaeaiiy iayaiino? a neeaae? ii??ae i?aeieanoy aaiiyea ca aeaieie
ioae?eaoe?e ? ea?oie ?icne?aeoaaiiy niaoe?aeueieie eii?n?yie
aaciaeeiai?/ieo yaeu, caoenieo ieano?a, ui a?aeaoeeny i?ney
ia?oi/a?aiaiai a?ae?iaeyiiy c ii?iaoeaieie ia?aiao?aie;

— aea/aiiy aieeao ii??ae i?aeieanoy oa??a aaiiyea, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a
neeaae? ia ciaioaiiy oeneo aac?a, aei??yiiai o aeeeaeiiaaacia/iiio
oaooiieano?, ui caoeua?oueny, ? caeaaei?noue inoaiiueiai a?ae
i?e?iaeii? aaciiiniino?;

— aenia?eiaioaeueia (o eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao) aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae
aeanoeainoae aaiiye?a, ui oi?iothoue ae?aioth/ee aoaeo ?o oa??a;

— aenia?eiaioaeueia (a oaooieo oiiaao) aea/aiiy i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny i?ney a?ae?iaeyiiy caoeniiai ieanoa a inaaeeiaiio
ianea?, ui i?noeoue oa? (oa?e) aaiiyea, c iaoith i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeey
oaeeo aeiaaee?a e?eoa??th aoaeoeaiino? caoenoo.

I?e ?o ??oaii? aeei?enoiao?oueny eiiieaeniee iaoiae, ui aeeth/a? aiae?c
aeina?aeo ?ic?iaee aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo e?ooeo ieano?a i?ae caoenoii ?
aea/aiiy ii iaoa??aeao ?icne?aeoaaiue niaoe?aeueieie eii?n?yie
iniaeeainoae aaciaeeiai?/ieo yaeu, ui a?aeaoeeny i?e oeueiio;
eaai?aoi?i? ? oaooi? aenia?eiaioe; ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue
iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ? ?o iiaecia
iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio:

— aeiaaaeaii, ui iayai?noue a i?aeieano? oa??a aaiiye?a iaa?oue
iaiaaeaii? iiooaeiino? (ia iaioa ca 0,3 i), ?icoaoiaaieo ia iaaieo
a?aenoaiyo a?ae caoenieo ieano?a, iiaea iaoiiaeoe ae?aioth/ee aoaeo, i?e
yeiio oa? aaiiyea caiia?aeeoue ?icaaioaaeaiith ? aeaaacaoe??
aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a, ?icoaoiaaieo iaae — aai i?ae caoenieie;

— iaa?oioiaaiee aeey aeiaaee?a iayaiino? a ii?iaeao i?aeieanoy oa??a
aaiiyea iieaciee aoaeoeaiino? caoenoo Ec, ui ? a?aeiioaiiyi a?aenoai?
a?ae oa?a aaiiyea aei caoeniiai ieanoa aei iiooaeiino? inoaiiueiai. Eiai
o?ce/ia cia/aiiy a?aeia?aaea? nooue i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
ianea? i?e ?icaaioaaeaii?, ? iieyaa? a oiio, ui /ei aeeae/a aaiiye aei
caoeniiai ieanoa ? /ei a?eueoa iiooaei?noue caoeniiai ieanoa, oei
a?eueoa eiia??i?noue onoiaiiy aeeeaeiiaaacia/iino?. E?eoa??aeueiei
cia/aiiyi iieacieea ? aaee/eia Ec F 9,0;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaia, ui i?ioyaii i?eaeecii ainueie i?nyoe?a
(233-282 ae?a) i?ney aeoyaaiiy i?ia aaiiyea c ianeao ia aeyaey?oueny
ci?ia eiai i?oei?nieo ? aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae: i?e?ioaa?aeino? ?
oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue. Aea iaeii/anii oia?oa
iaae?eii aei??yia c?inoaiiy a 2 ?ace oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy
oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue i?e ca?eueoaii? /anoioe ?o eieeaaiue c 25 aei 150
eAoe ? ciaioaiiy o /an? i?oei?nii? ? aeaoi?iaoe?eii? iaiaeii??aei?no?,
ui ae?aceeiny a ciaioaii? eiao?oe??io?a aa??aoe?? a na?aaeiueiio
i?eaeecii a 2 ?ace.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ca?aii i?noeue, aea noaeeny ?aioia?
aeeeaee aoa?eey ? aaco /a?ac iaaoaeoeai?noue caoenoo, oaeoe/i?e
iayaiino? a ii?iaeao i?aeieanoue aaiiye?a; i?aeoe/iith a?aenooi?noth
cieaeaiiy oeneo aac?a o aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieanoao i?ney a?ae?iaeyiiy
caoenieo ieano?a, yeui a i?aeieano? ? oa? aaiiyea. Canoinoaaiiyi
iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee i?e ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a
aenia?eiaio?a, ui aeiionea? a?aeiinio iia??oi?noue ia a?eueoa ca 10% i?e
caaacia/aii? iaae?eiino? ?acoeueoao?a a?eueoa ca 90%; cia/iei ia’?iii
(a?ey 2 oen.) ? o?eaae?noth (a?eueoa ca ??e) aeeiiaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei??thaaiue.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe: iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a
oiio, ui aia?oa aeiaaaeaia a?aenooi?noue aoaeoo ?icaaioaaeaiiy ?
aeaaacaoe?? aeeeaeiiaaacia/iiai ieanoo i?ney a?ae?iaeyiiy caoeniiai,
yeui a ii?iaeao i?aeieanoy ia iaai?e a?aenoai? a?ae caoeniiai ieanoa
caeyaa? oa? aaiiyea, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iniaeeaeie ieanoe/ieie
aeanoeainoyie;

— i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui eii?n??, ui aecia/athoue
ui??/ii o a?aeiia?aeiino? c i. 1.2.5 “?ino?oeoe?? ii aacia/iiio
aaaeaiith a??nueeeo ?ia?o ia ieanoao, iaaacia/ieo ii ?aioiaeo aeeeaeao
aoa?eey, ii?iaee ? aaco” ia?ae?e ? ii?yaeie a?ae?iaeyiiy caoenieo
oaooiieanoia, aeeeth/aoue c ?o /enea o? ieanoe, iaae aai i?ae yeeie
caeyaathoue aaiiyee ? Ec > 9,0. Oaeei /eiii aoaeooue caiia?aaoeny
aaa???, iiae?ai? oei, ye? iaee i?noea ?ai?oa “/a?ac iaaoaeoeai?noue
caoenoo”, oiaoi /a?ac iaciaiiy ae?aioth/iai aoaeoo i?enooiino? a
ii?iaeao i?aeieanoy oa??a aaiiyea.

?aae?caoe?y ?iaioe. Iieiaeaiiy i?i aeei?enoaiiy e?eoa??th caoeuaiino?
i?eeiyoa IaeIAe?. Oeaio?aeueia eii?n?y I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie ii
ai?iouea? c aaciaeeiai?/ieie yaeuaie ?icaeyioea oea iieiaeaiiy ye
iaa?oioiaaia oia?oa.

A?aeiia?aeii aei ni?eueiiai iaeaco Oi?aae?iiy Aea?aeiaaeyaeioi?iii?aoe?
ii Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? ? oaooe ?i. Aaaaiai ? 483 a?ae 23.12.98 i.
ieanoe Oiieee ? Oianoee ia ai?. 975i, aea a i?aeieano? caeyaa? oa?
aaiiyea ? Ec = 27,5, ?ic?iaeythoueny ye iaeeii/i?.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny a o/aiaiio i?ioean?: i?e /eoaii?
eaeoe?e ii aeenoeeie?i? “I?iaeaie aacia/ii? ?ic?iaee aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo
ieano?a”.

Aei?iaoaaiiy ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieeaaeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oeyoe ?icaeoeo a??ie/i?yooaaeueii? ni?aae” (aeiaoaiue
1997?., Aeiiaoeuee); ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ii?aaeao ae?iaie/iai
ia’?aeiaiiy A?oaiaoa?eey ? IaeIAe? (1998-99a.a.); ia can?aeaii?
Oeaio?aeueii? eii?n?? I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie ii ai?iouea? c
aaciaeeiai?/ieie yaeuaie (aa?acaiue 1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a /ioe?ueio
noaooyo.

Ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c aaaaeaiiy, o?ueio
?icae?e?a ? aeniiaeo. Aiia i?noeoue 103 noi??iee, a /ene? yeeo 89 noi?.
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 14 iaethie?a, 10 oaaeeoeue, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 67
iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia?aiao?e caoenoo a oeae /an ?ic?aoiaothoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei
“?ino?oeoe?? ii aacia/iiio aaaeaiith a??nueeeo ?ia?o ia ieanoao,
iaaacia/ieo ii ?aioiaei aeeeaeai aoa?eey, ii?iaee ? aaco” aeaeaiiy 1989
?., ui ? aeiaeaoeii aei ?icae?eo 5 ?icae?eo 2 IA. ?ici?? caoeuaii? ciie
a iie??aeth (a?oio) iaioa? i?yii i?iii?oe?iiaeueii i?ioeaioiiio ci?noo
() a i?aeieano? i?neiaee?a.

?icaeyae i?aeieanoy ye ii??aeiiai ianeao, ui i?noeoue yeeenue i?ioeaio
i?neiaee?a, a?aeiineoueny aei iaiaa?oioiaaieo ni?iuaiue (?icae?e I), ui
ia a?aeia?aaeathoue noeeuei?noue aei aeaoi?iaoe?e cai?ioii? iiaco/ino?
an?o oeeo ??ciiaeae?a ii??ae i?e ?icaaioaaeaii?.

Aei e?ioey i’yoaeanyoeo — ii/aoee o?noaeanyoeo ?ie?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ia?oi/a?aiaiai a?ae?iaeyiiy caoenieo ieano?a aeey onoiaiiy
aeeeaeiiaaaciaee ui caoeuathoueny (aeae? nei?i/aii niiniao) aeeiioaaee,
aieiaiei /eiii, IaeIAe?, a iaio?e i??? ?AAe AI ONN? oa ?AAe ?i.
Nei/einueeiai. AeI?: ?.A. Aia?ia, ?.I. E??/aanueeee, I.A. Caeoeaa,
?.I. A?a?eei, E.I. Ea?aaiae?i, I.ss. ?aiiii?o, Ae.A. Aei?ioia, A.E.
Aiaeei ? ?io.

Iio?i aieiaiei a aaeoc? ca niiniaii noa? AIEIE: A.A. Oaoa?aaaieia, ?.I.
Iaoooia, ?.A.Iiae/eoei ? ?io. Iaaiee aianie o aea/aiiy iaoai?cio
caoenii? ae?? aianee oao?aoe?, ui aeei?enoiaothoue iaae?iaeo aeey
caa?aaeaiiy no?eeino? i?aeaioia/eo ae?iaeaiue: I.I. Cai?uee, A.A.
Iaceiei ? ?io.

Aiae?c iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o, c?iaeaiee a I.I, i?eaiaeeoue aei oe?eeii
i/aaeaeiiai aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui aieea neeaaeo ii??ae i?aeieanoy,
iniaeeai ci?noo aaiiyea, ia aoaeoeai?noue niiniao i?aeoe/ii ia
aea/aeiny.

O?eueee ?iiae? iaceaaeeny ie?ai? aeiaaeee aeeeae?a, ui a?aeaoaaeeny i?e
?ic?iaoe? caoeuaieo aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a i?e i?aeieano? iaioiio
aai ?noioii iaioiio ii?iaoeaiiai. Cia/ii a?eueoa ?o /enei
?icne?aeaeoaaoe niaoe?aeueieie eii?n?yie, a?aeiiino? i?i yeeo ia
ioae?eoaaeeny ? aeoe yeeo ciaoiaeyoueny a oiiaeao aoa?eueieo oaoo ?
IaeIAe?.

O i’yoaeanyo? — o?noaeanyo? ?iee a Oe?a?i? iaioaaei aeoiea i?i oa, ui
oene aac?a aoa?eueiiai ieanoa ? iaei??th c iniiaieo nee, ui i?eaiaeyoue
aei aeeeae?a. Oaeee iiaeyae iaoiiaea i?iaaaeaiiy IaeIAe? aenia?eiaio?a
ii aei??thaaiith oeneo aac?a ?a.aoi., o aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieanoao ?
ci?i? eiai i?e a?ae?iaeyii? caoenieo ieano?a. Aeoiea i?i oa, ui ?ic?iaea
caoenieo ieano?a noi?iaiaeeoueny cieaeaiiyi oeneo aac?a
aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeiny ia o an?o aeiaaeeao.
Caeeoaeiny iaaeine?aeaeaiei ? iaanoaiiaeaiei, yea cieaeaiiy oeneo aac?a
? iaiao?aeiei aeey onoiaiiy aeeeaeiiaaaciaee ? ye aiii aca?iiiia’ycaia c
i?e?iaeiith aaciiini?noth ieanoa, O, i3/o.n.a.i.

Iniaeea? aeanoeaino? oa??a aaiiye?a a inaaei/iiio ianea? aoa?eueieo
?iaeiaeu Aeiiaano aea/aeeny iaeaea aeeeth/ii c iiceoe?e oaoiieia?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o: aeai?o niiniao oi?aae?iiy iie??aeath aeey a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo
oiia, a yeeo ii?iaee aaciina?aaeiuei? iie??ae? i?aaenoaaeai? aaiiyeaie.

Iniaeeaino? aeanoeainoae aaiiyea, ui coiiaeththoue i?ney ?icaaioaaeaiiy
i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo /ano caiia?aaiiy ciaioaiith iai?oaeaiino?,
ia aea/aeiny.

Oaeei /eiii, a?aeiia?aeii aei aeeeaaeaiiai caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oi?ioeththoueny ye:

— anoaiiaeaiiy iayaiino? (aai a?aenooi?noue) a i?aeieano? oa??a aaiiyea,
eiee AAess noaeeny i?e aeio?eiaii? ia?aiao??a niiniao;

— aea/aiiy aieeao oa??a aaiiyea, ui caeyaathoue a ii?iaeao i?aeieanoy,
ia ciaioaiiy oeneo aac?a aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a i?e a?ae?iaeyii?
caoenieo ? ca’ycie oeneo aaco c i?e?iaeiith aaciiini?noth;

— aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy a) iniaeeainoae aeanoeainoae aaiiyea, ui
oi?iothoue ae?aioth/ee aoaeo ?o oa??a; a) i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny
a inaaei/iiio ianea? i?ney a?ae?iaeyiiy caoenieo ieano?a, yeui a
i?aeieano? caeyaathoue aaiiyee.

O ?icae?e? 2 aiae?co?oueny oi?eaeueiee c iiceoe?e ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
niiniao aeeeae, ui a?aeaoany i?e ae?ioe? aoa?eey a eaa? ieanoa k3a
Aea?aciaea-no?ae ai?.631i ia o. ?i. Aaaaiai (AI A?oaiaoa?eey) 07.08.68?.
(iae. 1, a), i?ae /an yeiai caaeioei 5 a??iee?a. Ieano ?ic?iaeyany i?ae
iiaea?eiei caoenoii: iaae?iaeyany eaaith ieanoa k4 ?oaeiee iiooaei?noth
0,75 i ? i?ae?iaeyany eaaith ieanoa k2 Oiainueeee iiooaei?noth 0,67 i.
Ii aeniiaeo eii?n??, ?icne?aeaeoaaoe aaa??th, “eooee” 4-ai ? 5-ai
onooi?a, a yeeo ia?aaeaa/aeiny aeieeiaiiy aeeeae?a, ciaoiaeeeeny a
caoeuai?e cii? (ae?eueieoey eaae O ia iae. 1, a). I?aeieanoy
Aea?aciaea-?oaeiee i?noeoue aaiiye K4 iiooaei?noth 1,6 i,
Aea?aciaea-Oiainueeee aaiiye K3 iiooaei?noth 0,3 i, a aaciina?aaei?e
iie??ae? ieanoa ?oaeiee caeyaa? aaiiye K5 iiooaei?noth 1i ( iae. 1, a).

I?ae /an ae?iee aoa?eey o a?aeeaoi/iiio oo?aeo ieanoa m3 Oianoee oaooe ?
3 (AI I?aeaeiieeeaecaoaieue), ui ?ic?iaeyany i?ae caoenoii ieanoa m40
I?n/aiea, 26.10.74?. noaany ?aioiaee aeeeae aoa?eey ? aaco (iae. 2, a),
i?ae /an yeiai caaeioei 14 o?oaeyueo. O i?aeieano? ciaoiaeeeiny aeaa
oa?e aaiiyea, aaciina?aaeiy iie??aey I?n/aiee i?aaenoaaeaia aaiiyeii
iiooaei?noth 0,9 i (iae. 2, a).

O oiiaeao IaeIAe? ciaoiaeeoueny 10 aeo?a ?icne?aeoaaiiy AAess, ui
a?aeaoeeny ia o.ei. Aaaaiai i?ioyaii 1959-62a. a. i?e ?ic?iaoe? ieanoa
l4i Aeaa’yoea i?ae caoenoii ieanoa Nieiiee, o?e c yeeo eaae?o?eiaai? ye
iaaaeaiiy.

I?e aiaeia?/iiio ii?yaeeo ?ic?iaee oe??? ia?e ieano?a ia o.ei. E.Ia?ena
a eenoiiaae? 1971 ?. noaeiny 3 aeeeaee, ia o. “Ieueoiaaonueea” — aeaa
aeeeaee: 28.10.86?. ? 02.04.88?. (caaeioei 4 o?oaeyueo) ? o.ae. Aiae?c
neeaaeo ii??ae i?aeieanoy iacaaieo ? ?ioeo AAess i?ea?a aei aeniiaeo, ui
an? aiie noaeeny i?e i?aeieano? iaioiio ii?iaoeaiiai, aea iaia’yceiai
i?e iayaiino?a iueiio oa??a aaiiyea. Aeayeeie a/aieie (aeieoi?aie A.A.
Caa?aaeei, A.A. I?eie?iei ? ?i.) caoaa?aeaeoaaeiny, ui a i?e?iae? oeneo
aac?a o aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieanoao iaia? ? ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui aaee/eie
oeneo aac?a o aoa?eueiiio ieano? ? i?e?iaei?e aaciiiniino? ?
aca?iiiia’ycaieie ? ui /ei aeua ca X, oei a?eueoa aei??th?oueny ?a,
oiaoi ?a=f(O). Ca aeaieie ?ai?oa aeeiiaieo IaeI?? aei??thaaiue oeeo
aaee/ei ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee io?eiaee aeey
ieo noaoenoe/io caeaaei?noue. Aiia c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii? noo?,
?icoi?iiy oiai, ui caeeoeiaa aaciiini?noue ia aa?a o/anoue a noai?aii?
oeneo aac?a ? i?e xy= 2,86, iiaea aooe ioe?iaia ye aeineoue iaae?eia:

?a= 12,3 + 0,8O.
(I)

Caeaaei?noue (I) aeicaieeea ?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye iieaciee, ui
a?aeia?aaea? iaeei c o?ueio /eiiee?a, ui oi?iothoue a noeoiiino? ii
aeaae. A.A. Nei/einueeiio iioaioe?eio aeeeaeiiaaaciaeo.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a an?o ?ai?oa aeeiiaieo IaeIAe? a i’yoiaaeoeyoe
aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo oaooiieanoao aei??thaaiue ?a ? ?o ci?i i?e
a?ae?iaeyii? caoenieo ieano?a aeicaieea eiinoaooaaoe, ui 6 c ieo
a?aeiinyoueny aei aeiaaee?a, eiee iiooaei?noue i?aeieanoy ia
ia?aaeuoaaea 20 i. Cieaeaiiy oeneo aac?a noaiiaeei 100%; 96%; 99%; 93%;
100% ? 91%.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue caoaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?e i?aeieanoyo,
ui ia ia?aaeuothoue 15 i, caoeno aoaeoeaiee iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, yeeie
?aaeueii aeey Aeiiaano ii?iaeaie, a oiio /ene? oa?aie aaiiyea aiii
neeaaeaia. Ia iniia? oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aoaeo onoiaiiy aeeeaeiiaaaciaee
coiiaeth?oueny caeaoi?noth ii??ae i?aeieanoy i?e ?icaaioaaeaii? aei
aeaoi?iaoe?e cai?ioii? iiaco/ino? aeey aeiaaee?a iayaiino? a i?aeieano?
oa??a aaiiye?a cai?iiiiiaaia iiiyooy iieacieea aoaeoeaiino? caoenoo:

I?c

Ec =
, (2)

mc

aea I?c — a?aenoaiue a?ae oa?a aaiiyea aei caoeniiai ieanoa, i,

a mc — iiooaei?noue inoaiiueiai, i.

Eiai o?ce/ia nooue iieyaa? a oiio, ui /ei aeeae/a aaiiye aei caoeniiai
ieanoa ? /ei a?eueoa iiooaei?noue caoeniiai ieanoa, oei iaioa Ec ? oei
a?eueoa ?iia??i?noue onoiaiiy aeeeaeiiaaaciaee.

An? aeiaaeee ?ai?oa aeeiiaieo aei??thaaiue ?a, eiee i?aeieanoy aoei ia
iaioa ca 25 i, i?aaenoaaeai? a oaaeeoe?. O i?e i?noyoueny ia o?eueee
ooi/iai? a?aeiiino? i?i a?aenoaiue aei caoeniiai ieanoa a?ae oa?a
aaiiyea, aea ? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a e?eoa??th caoeuaiino? ii (2).

Oaaeeoey

Aei iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoa??th caoeuaiino? Ec

Oaooa, aeeeaeiiaaacia/iee ieanoCaoeniee ieanoI?ae-ieanoyA?aenoaiue a?ae
oa?a aaiiyea aei caoeniiai ieanoa, iE?eoa??e yooae-oeaiino?
caoenooCie-aeaiiy oeneo aac?a, ?a, %I?ae?ia?oie1.“Ei/aaa?ea”,
m3m23019,636,362.?I. Aaaaiai, m5m4i256,38,6983.?I. Aaaaiai,
m3m228-3116,725,2784.“*a?aiiee i?ioeioa?i”,
k3k24524,641,075Iaae?aaioea5.“Ei/aaa?ea”, l3l4i30—876.?I. Aaaaiai,
m1m24222,637,7577.“Ei/aaa?ea”, l4il56030,561,068.?I. Aeca?aeeineiai,
l6l77268,085,0839.?I. A?oaia, m1m45248,283,877O oaaeeoe? aeey aeiaaeeo 1
Ec = 36,3. Iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui ?ieue ae?aia oa?a aaiiyea i?eaaea aei
oiai, ui oene aac?a i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ieany: ciaioaiiy anueiai ia 6%. Oaea
ae iacia/ia ciaioaiiy oeneo aac?a aoei aei??yia ? o aeiaaeeo 7.

C aeaieo oaaeeoe? ne?aeo?, ui o?eueee o aeiaaeeo ? 2 iaei i?noea iaeaea
noii?ioeaioiia cieaeaiiy oeneo aac?a, a Ec = 8,6. I?eioeeiiai oe?eeii
iiaeeeai ye ie?oaeaiiy eiai aei 9,0, oae ? aeniiaie i?i oa, ui onoiaiiy
aeeeaeiiaaaciaee i?e a?ae?iaeyii? caoenieo ieano?a, yeui a i?aeieano? ?
oa? aaiiye?a, ?aaeueia i?e Ec F 9,0. sse nai???aeia “i?iieneiaa
ia?aa??ea” iaae?eiino? e?eoa??th Ec F 9,0 iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaiee
?acoeueoao eiai ?ic?aooieo ii (2) aeey aeeeae?a, ui a?aeaoeeny ia oaooao
?i. Aaaaiai (iae. 1) ? ? 3 (iae. 2).

Aeey ia?oiai aeeeaeo i?e iaae?ia?oeo Ec = 19,7, i?e i?ae?ia?oeo Ec =
22,9. Aeey ae?oaiai aeeeaeo ii iaeaeeae/iio ? a?eueo aeaeaeaiiio a?ae
caoeniiai ieanoa oa?ai aaiiyea io?eiaee Ec = 15 ? Ec = 35.

Ioaea, aeey iaio aeeeae?a i?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy e?eoa??th caoenoo
ia?aaa?ooaaee e?eoe/ia a 2,2 ? I, 7 ?ace.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy noo? ae?aioaaiiy oa?ii aaiiyea i?ioeano
onoiaiiy aeeeaeiiaaaciaee i?e a?ae?iaeyii? caoenieo ieano?a (?icae?e 3)
aeaioiaeyeiny a eaai?aoi?ieo ? oaooieo oiiaao.

O eaai?aoi??? aei??thaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ? i?oei?nieo aeanoeainoae
aaiiyea aeeiioaaeeny ii i?iaao ii?iaee, io?eiaieo i?e ao??ii? ea?iiaie
naa?aeeiaeie c iieueiaiai oo?aeo ieanoa Oiieee ai?.975 i oaooe ?i.
Aa?aiai ia ieano Oianoee, a i?aeieano? yeeo caeyaa? oa? aaiiyea.

Iaoiaee/ia nai???aei?noue aei?iaoaaiue iieyaaea a oiio, ui i?eioeeiiaa
cia/aiiy iaaeaaaeiny ia aaniethoiei cia/aiiyi aeanoeainoae ii?iaee, a
ci?iai ?o o /an? i?ney aeoyaaiiy i?iae c ianeao.

Aei??thaaeany oaeaee?noue i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue ?
i?e?ii?oei?noue aaiiyea. Aei??thaaiiy aeeiioaaeeny a?ae?aco ae i?ney
aeaioiaeaiiy c?ace?a, a iio?i iine?aeiaii /a?ac iaai? i?ii?aeee /ano,
iai?eeeaae, 5, 10, 15, 30 ? o.ae. ae?a.

Aei??thaaiiy oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue
i?iaiaeeeeny ii aeaio iaoiaeeeao, aeaiia ??cieie i?eeaaeaie (OEA-1i ?
AeiiAeOO).

I?e aeai?? /enea aei?iaoaaiue (c?ace?a) — ieaioaaii? aenia?eiaioa
aeei?enoaee i?aeo?ae, ui i?noeoueny a Aea?aeaaieo noaiaea?oao N?N? ia
iaoiaee aecia/aiiy aeanoeainoae a??nueeeo ii??ae. O /anoei? c ieo
i?noyoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aecia/aiith iaae?eiino? ? iia??oiino?
?acoeueoao?a aei?iaoaaiue, ooi/iaiith iaiao?aeiiai /enea n c?ace?a.

AINO 21153.8-88 ia iaoiae aecia/aiiy iaae? i?oeiino? i?e ia’?iiiio
noeniaii? i?noeoue aeiiae ia o?eueee aei ianiaeo, aea ? aei
ii??aiyeueieo aei?iaoaaiue. Aeey ieo a?i aeiionea? aei?iaoaaiiy ia iaio
/ioe?ueio c?ace?a i?e oiia? caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino? ?acoeueoao?a 90%
? a?aeiinii? iaeneiaeueii? iia??oiino? 10%, yea ? aoei i?eeiyoi.

O eiaeiiio oeeee? aenia?eiaio?a ae?iaeyeeny aei?iaoaaiiy ia o?eaeoeyoe
c?aceao, ui ?c caianii caaacia/o? aenieo iaae?ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a.
Oaeaee?noue i?ioiaeaeaiiy iiaeiaaei?o ? iiia?a/ieo oeueo?acaoeiauo
oaeeue aei??thaaeany i?ioyaii 233 ae?a. Aeeiiaia 16 oeeee?a
aei?iaoaaiue, ca ?acoeueoaoaie yeeo aecia/aia oaeaee?noue i?ioiaeaeaiiy
iiaeiaaeiuei? ( Vi?, i/n) ? iiia?a/ii? ( Viii, i/n) oaeeue. ?ic?aooaaee
ye na?aaei? cia/aiiy iacaaieo aaee/ei, oae ? eiao?oe??ioe aa??aoe?? Ea,
%, ui cae/aeii aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaoaiaoe/i?e noaoenoeoe? ye
a?aeiini? iieacieee aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eieeaa?iino? iciaee.

I?e aeeiiaii? aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyaeo eiao?oe??io?a aa??aoe??
aeiaea?oueny aeaiyea cia/aiiy. Ii-ia?oa, a?i oa?aeoa?eco? oi/i?noue
aei??thaaiue. Ii-ae?oaa, a?i caeaaeeoue a?ae i??e iaiaeii??aeiino?
aaiiyea, ui aeyaey?oueny a oiio, ui a?ae c?acea aei c?acea aoaeue-yea
aeanoea?noue a??nueei? ii?iaee ia iaci?iia, oi/ iaoiaeeea aei??thaaiue
caeeoa?oueny o??th ae. Ioaea, i?e caa?aaeaii? ?aeaioe/iino? iaoiaeeee
aei??thaaiue ca?eueoaiiy aai ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioa aa??aoe?? aoaea
na?ae/eoe i?i c?inoaiiy aai cieaeaiiy iaiaeii??aei?noue ii?iaee.

Aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeicaiey?, ii-ia?oa, caoaa?aeaeoaaoe ?o
oe?eeii aeinoaoith iaae?ei?noue.

Ii-ae?oaa, oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiaeo oaeeue a c?aceao
aaiiyea ia ci?iththoueny i?ioyaii iaeaea ainueie i?nyoe?a: a?aei?ii?noue
aaee/ei a ie?aieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo oeeeeao aeyaey?oueny a iaaeao
oi/iino? aei??thaaiue.

Ca?eueoaiiy /anoioe eieeaaiue oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue c 25 aei 150 eAoe
noi?iaiaeeoueny ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?o a c?aceao
aaiiyea iaeaea a 2 ?ace. Oaeee ?acoeueoao ? iiaei, ai aeaae. ?aeaanueeee
A.A. caoaa?aeaeoaaa: “Oaeaee?noue iioe?aiiy i?oaeieo oaeeue a a??nueeeo
ii?iaeao… i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae /anoioe, a oea aeicaiey?
aeei?enoaoe aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoaeue-ye? /anoioe eieeaaiue”.

A?eueo oiai, i?e /anoio? eieeaaiue 150 eAoe a 3,1 ?ace iiiaioaa
eiao?oe??io aa??aoe??. Caaaeii oeae oaeo, a?aoiaoth/e aeoaea ??cea
ciaioaiiy Ea, iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui ca?eueoaiiy /anoioe eieeaaiue
i?eaaei ia o?eueee aei ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy
oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue o aaiiyeo, aea ? “c?iaeei” eiai ye ae iaio
iaiaeii??aeiei aeey i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeeo oaeeue. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo
iaiaeii??aei?noue iiaea o?aeooaaoeny ye onoiaiiy iaiao?aeiino? “ia?eoe”
i?e?io/anoee iaea?eueo neeaaei? aeey i?oaeieo oaeeue iaaeniei? /anoioe,
ui noaiiaeoue 25 eAoe, i?e aeinyaiaii? /anoioe eieeaaiue i?eaeecii 100
eAoe ? a?eueo.

Caaaeueia e?euee?noue aei??thaaiue (1104) cia/ia, a ae?aiacii?a ci?ie
/anoio eieeaaiue anueiai o?e, ui, cae/aeii, iaaeinoaoiuei aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiino? V=f((). Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ia o?eueee
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeoieo i?i iayai?noue oaei? caeaaeiino?, aea ?
aeicaieythoue ia?aaeaa/aoe ?? aeaeyae: aei i?eaeecii 100 eAoe oea i?yia
i?iii?oe?iiaeuei?noue, yea iaaeae? ii i??? ca?eueoaiiy /anoioe eieeaaiue
i?eaiaeeoue aei iaio ?ioaineaiiai c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy
oeueo?acaoea.

Naia ii nia? ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oaeeue ? ciaioaiiy
iaiaeii??aei?no? ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiauo
oaeeue /anoioith a?eueoa ca 25 eAoe iaie aeyaeaii aeey aaiiyea oia?oa ?
iiaea caneoaiaoaaoe niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. C iiceoe?e caaea/, ui
ae??oothoueny aiii iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny, ia iao?e aeoieo, ye nai???aeia
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iniaeeaeo aeanoeainoae aaiiyea, ui coiiaeththoue i?e
?icaaioaaeaii? “no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao”, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy
iaiaeii??aei?noue i?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae ? u?euei?noue
ie?aieo i?e?io/anoe?a aaiiyea ? ni?eyth/eo aoaeoo ae?aioaaiiy.

Iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeeoe ci?io a /an? i?oeiino? aaiiyea i?eaaea aei
aei??thaaiiy i?e?ioaa?aeino? ii iaoiaeeoe? AeiiAeOO, caniiaai?e ia
iaoiae? a?aeiiaeaiiai a?aeaeoea, ui oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny a
iaoaeo?a?ei?e i?iieneiaino? ca?aeii AINO-9450-76.

I?e?ioaa?ae?noue aecia/aeany i?eeaaeii IIO-3. O eiaei?e na???
aei?iaoaaiue i?iaiaeeeiny 10 aei??thaaiue, anueiai a i’yoiaaeoeyoe
oeeeeao 147 aei??thaaiue i?ioyaii iaeaea aeanyoe i?nyoe?a (282 noo).
Aei?iaoaaiiyi ia?aaeoaaei ooi/iaiiy /enea aei??thaaiue i?e?ii?oeiino?,
ye? a caaeiaieueiyee ?ai?oa noi?ioeueiaaiiio iieiaeaiith i?i oa, ui
iiaeiia caaacia/oaaoeny iaae?ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a 90% ? a?aeiinia
iaeneiaeueia iia??oi?noue 10%.

Aeey aei??thaaiue i?e?ii?oeiino? ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii? iaoa?oaaiith i?e
na?aaeiueiio Ea = 7,0% oe?eeii aeinoaoi?i aeyaeeiny 7 aei??thaaiue. Naia
ca oeeie ?acoeueoaoaie iaaeae? ioe?ithaaee ci?io iee?ioaa?aeinoe o
/an?. I?iaiaeeeiny aiii iine?aeiaii ii ie?aieo oeeeeao aei?iaoaaiue,
??cieoey o /an? i?ae yeeie noaiiaeoue 7-11-16-8 ae?a. C?iaeaiee aeniiaie
i?i a?aenooi?noue ci?i.

Caaaeii ?acoeueoaoe eaai?aoi?ieo aei?iaoaaiue aeicaieythoue oeeanoe, ui
i?oei?ni? ? aeaoi?iaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? aaiiyea o /an? i?ney
?icaaioaaeaiiy ia ci?iththoueny.

Iaoo?iee aenia?eiaio aeeiiaiee ia ai?.975i o.?i. Aa?aiai. Nai???aei?noue
oiia, a yeeo i?iaiaeeany aeine?ae, iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaae ieanoii
Oiieee aei aaiiyea caeyaa? ia?aoa?oe aoa?eey iiooaei?noth a?ey 0,3 i,
i?ney iueiai aaiiye, ua iaeei ia?aoa?oe aoa?eey i?eaeecii oaei? ae
iiooaeiino? ? ieano Oianoee iiooaei?noth 0,7 i. Iiaeia aoei
ia?aaeaa/aoe, ui ?ic?iaea ieanoa Oiieee iiaeiia i?eaanoe aei
?icaaioaaeaiiy ia?oiai aoa?eueiiai i?ineiy, a icia/a?, ? aei ca?eueoaiiy
oaeaeeino? aaciaeae?eaiiy. Aea i?e oeueiio ia iiaeiia noaoeny
?icaaioaaeaiiy ? ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? aaciaeae?eaiiy c ae?oaiai
i?ineiy ? ieanoa Oianoee, ?icoaoiaaiiai iaae oa?ii aaiiyea.

C iieueiaiai oo?aeo ieanoa Oiieee ia ieano Oianoee aoea i?iao?aia
aei??thaaeueia naa?aeeiaeia, a ye?e caaa?iaoeciaaia i?uaii-aeeienoith
noi?ooth o?oaea. Eoo iaoeeo naa?aeeiaeie ?ic?aoiaoaaany c o?aooaaiiyi
oiai, ui a ieaei?e /anoei? ieanoa m3 ai?.975 i caeeoaeany eiai
ae?eueieoey aeiaaeeiith 24 i, ia yeiio ciaoiaeeeany iacaoeuaia ciia.

Oaeaee?noue aaciaeae?eaiiy, aei??yia i?eeaaeii IA-2IA /a?ac 6 aiaeei
i?ney cae?i/aiiy ao??iiy naa?aeeiaeie, noaiiaeea 0,2 e/oa. Caa?oa?ii
oaaao ia o?eueee ia iaaeniea cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? aaciaeae?eaiiy, aea ?
ia oa, ui aiii aoei noia?iei aeey aeaio aoa?eueieo i?ioa?e?a ? ieanoa
Oianoee, ia?aao?aieo naa?aeeiaeiith. Ua /a?ac 2-3 aeiae aiia cieceeany
aei ioeueiai? ? ia c?inoaea, iiee a?aenoaiue a?ae naa?aeeiaeie aei eaae
ieanoa Oiieee ia aeinyaei 12,7 i. Iio?i aiia iia?eueii i?ioyaii 73 ae?a
c?inoaea aei aaee/eie 1,7 e/oa, i?ney /iai ii/aeiny cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino?
aaciaeae?eaiiy. Aiia noaea ioeueiaith i?eaeecii /a?ac 67ae?a.

Iacia/ia ? “?aciaa” ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? aaciaeae?eaiiy aeicaiey?
caoaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ieano Oianoee i?e i?ae?ia?oeo eiai eaaith ieanoa
Oiieee ia aoa ?icaaioaaeaiee /a?ac i?enooi?noue a i?aeieano? oa?a
aaiiyea.

AENIIAIE

I?e ??oaii? caaea/ ?iaioe aea/aii: — ii aeoao ?icne?aeoaaiue AAess
iayai?noue oa??a aaiiyea a ii?iaeao i?aeieanoy, eiee i?e aeio?eiaii?
ii?iaoeaieo ia?aiao??a niiniao a?aeaoaaeeny ?aioia? aeeeaee aoa?eey ?
aaco; — caeaaei?noue cieaeaiiy oeneo aac?a aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a
a?ae neeaaeo ii??ae i?aeieanoy i?e i?ae — ? iaae?iaoe? ?o caoenieie
ieanoaie; — ci?ia oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue /a?ac
c?acee aaiiyea i?ioyaii i?eaeecii ainueie i?nyoe?a, a oiio /ene? i?e
ca?eueoaii? /anoioe eieeaaiue a?ae 25 aei 150 eAoe; — ci?ia
i?e?ii?oeiino? aaiiyea i?ioyaii iaeaea 10 i?n.; — aieea i?ae?ia?oeo
ieanoa Oianoee ieanoii Oiieee ia ai?.975 i oaooe ?i. Aaaaiai ia onoiaiiy
aeeeaeiiaaaciaee (a?eueoa ca ??e).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee oia?oa c?iaeoe ianooii? iniiai?
aeniiaee.

I. O an?o ?icaeyiooeo aeiaaeeao io?oe?eii ?icne?aeaeoaaoe
aaciaeeiai?/ieo yaeu, ieano?a, ui a?aeaoeeny i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo i?ae caoenoii, a ii?iaeao i?aeieanoue caeyaaee oa?e
aaiiye?a iiooaei?noth ia iaioa ca 0,3 i, ui ciaoiaeeeeny ia ??cieo,
ia??aeei cia/ieo a?aenoaiyo a?ae caoeniiai ieanoo. Ae?aiacii ?o ci?ie
noaiiaea 16-38 i.

2. I?e i?aeieano? M 15 i aoaeo onoiaiiy aeeeaeiiaaaciaee i?ney
a?ae?iaeyiiy caoenieo ieano?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny, iaa?oue yeui a
i?aeieano? i?e ?aaeueiiio aeey oiia Oe?Ae /a?aoaaii? oa??a ii??ae
ciaoiaeeoueny aaiiye.

3. Aeey i?aeieanoue, ui ia?aaeuothoue 15 i, aecia/aia /enaeueia cia/aiiy
e?eoa??th caoeuaiino? aeeeaeiiaaacia/iiai ieanoo, ui neeaaea? Ec 9,0.
Eiai iaa?oioiaai?noue i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ia o?eueee aenia?eiaioaeueii, aea
? aeaieie i?i o?, ui a?aeaoeeny ?ai?oa aeeeaee i?e “iaaoaeoeaiiio
caoeno?”. O an?o oaeeo aeiaaeeao e?eoa??e caoeuaiino? aeyaeyany a?eueoei
aai ?noioii a?eueoa eiai a?aie/iiai (e?eoa?eaeueiiai) cia/aiiy.

4. Ia aeyaeaia ci?ia oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue a
c?aceao aaiiyea i?ioyaii iaeaea ainueie i?nyoe?a.

5. Aenia?eiaioaeueii a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao aeey c?ace?a aaiiyea oe?eeii
iaae?eii anoaiiaeaia c?inoaiiy a 2 ?ace oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy
oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue i?e ca?eueoaii? /anoioe ?o eieeaaiue c 25 aei
150eAoe ? ciaioaiiy i?ae /an? aeaoi?iaoe?eii? iaiaeii??aeiino?, ui ?
ne?aenoaii iai?oaeiiai, ia?ic?eaiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Iieeaaea?oueny ui
caneoaiao? oaaae iaaeae? a?eueo iiaeeaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo
i?ioean?a.

6. Aei??thaaiiy i?e?ii?oeiino? c?ace?a aaiiyea, ui aeeiioaaeeny a?ey
aeanyoe i?nyoe?a (282 ae?a), aeiaaee, ui i?e?ii?oei?noue ia ci?ieeany,
aea i?oei?nia iaiaeii??aei?noue aaiiyea, yeui ioe?ithaaoe ?? ii ci?i?
eiao?oe??ioa aa??aoe??, iiiaioaea a?eueo i?ae a 2 ?ace.

7. Iaoo?iee aenia?eiaio, aeeiiaiee a 1997-1999a. a. ia ai?.975i o.?i.
Aa?aiai, i?aeoaa?aeea, ui i?enooi?noue oa?a aaiiyea a ii?iaeao
i?aeieanoy i?e ia?oi/a?aiaiio a?ae?iaeyii? caoeniiai ieanoa, yeui Ec 9,
coiiaeth? ae?aioth/ee aoaeo — caiia?aa? ?icaaioaaeaiith ? aeaaacaoe??
ieanoa, ui caoeua?oueny ? ia onoaa? eiai aeeeaeiiaaacia/i?noue.

Iieiaeaiiy i?i aeei?enoaiiy e?eoa??th Ec aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
ia?oi/a?aiaiai a?ae?iaeyiiy caoenieo ieano?a, yeui a i?aeieano?
i?noeoueny oa? aaiiyea, i?eeiyoa IaeIAe?, ?icaeyiooi ye iaa?oioiaaia
oia?oa Oeaio?aeueiith eii?n??th I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie ii ai?iouea? c
aaciaeeiai?/ieie yaeuaie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei ni?eueiiai iaeaco Oi?aae?iiy Aea?aeiaaeyaeioi?iii?aoe?
ii Aeiiaoeuee?e iae. ? oaooe ?i. Aa?aiai ? 483 a?ae 23.12.98 i. ieanoe
Oiieee ? Oianoee ia ai?.975i, aea a i?aeieano? caeyaa? oa? aaiiyea ? Ec
= 27,5, ?ic?iaeythoueny ye iaeeii/i?.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny a o/aiaiio i?ioean?: i?e /eoaii?
eaeoe?e ii aeenoeeie?i? “I?iaeaie aacia/ii? ?ic?iaee aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo
ieano?a”, AeiiAeOO.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo ?iaioao

1. I?eie?i A.A., Aaaoiiia A.A., Aii/a?ia A.Ae. Aieea neeaaeo ii??ae
i?aeieanoy ia ia?aiao?e cii caoenoo ? eiai eeaneo?eaoe?y //Aoa?eey
Oe?a?ie.- 1998.- ? 1. — N.32-35.

2. I?eie?i A.A., Aaaoiiia A.A., Aii/a?ia A.Ae. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ioe?iea
aieeao aaiiye?a i?aeieanoy ia aoaeoeai?noue caoenoo i?e i?ae?ia?oeo ?
iaae?ia?oeo aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a //Aaciaea o?oaea a
i?iieneiaino?.- 1998.- ? 4. — N.21-23.

3. I?eie?i A.A., ?eaee?a A.A., Aii/a?ia A.Ae. Aenia?eiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ii? noo? ae?aioth/iai aoaeoo aaiiye?a i?aeieanoy i?e
?ic?iaoe? caoenieo ieano?a //A?no? Aeiiaoeueeiai a??nueeiai einoeoooa.-
1998.- ? 2(8).- N.42-48.

4. Caeaaei?noue aeieeiaiiy aeeeae?a aoa?eey ? aaco a?ae oaoiieia??
?ice?eoo?a ieano?a iieueiaeie ae?iaeaiiyie //Iiaeeiia?a N.A., Ai?ia’eia
A.A., Aii/a?ia A.Ae. ? ?io? //A?no? Aeiiaoeueeiai a??nueeiai einoeoooa.-
1997.-? I (5).- C.2I-25.

5. I?eie?i A.A., Aii/a?ia A.Ae. Ooi/iaiiy ia?aiao??a caoenoo aeey
caiia?aaiiy aaa??yi //O?. iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? ii
a??ie/i?yooaaeuei?e ni?aa?.- Aeiiaoeuee: ?ani??aoi?.- 1997.- N.19-20.

Iniaenoee aianie i?aoaiaeaioa a ioae?eaoe?yo

/I/ — anoaiiaeaia i?eo?i/ai?noue aeeeae?a, ui a?aeaoeeny /a?ac
«iaaoaeoeai?noue caoenoo», aei i?noeue caeyaaiiy a ii?iaeao i?aeieanoue
oa??a aaiiyea; iaa?oioiaaia aeinoia??i?noue e?eoa??th caoeuaiino?.

/2/ — iieacaia i?aeoe/ia a?aenooi?noue cieaeaiiy oeneo aac?a
aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a i?ney a?ae?iaeyiiy caoenieo, yeui a
i?aeieanoyo caeyaathoue oa?e aaiiye?a, ui coiiaeththoue ae?aioth/ee
aoaeo.

/C/ — anoaiiaeai? ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei??thaaiue o?e iiaeo
iieiaeaiiy: iaci?ii?noue oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue
? i?e?ii?oeiino? aaiiye?a o /an?; c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino? i?ioiaeaeaiiy
oeueo?acaoeiauo oaeeue /a?ac aaiiyee i?e ca?eueoaii? /anoioe eieeaaiue
a?ae 25 aei 150 eAoe; ciaioaiiy i?i/iinoiie ? aeaoi?iaoe?eii?
iaiaeii??aei?noue aaiiye?a o /an?, ui neeaaea? a?ey aeanyoe i?nyoe?a.

/4/ — aeiaaaeaiee ca’ycie iaaaeaiiy iaaenath/iai ianeao e?ooeo
aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a n?iiaaeoeyoe oaoo Oe?Ae c neeaaeii ii??ae
i?aeieanoue.

/5/ — iiyniai? i?enooi?noth oa??a aaiiyea i?e/eie iaaoaeoeaiino? caoenoo
i?e aeio?eiaii? ii?iaoeaieo ia?aiao??a, oia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiee e?eoa??e
caoeuaiino?.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aii/a?ia A. Ae. Iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aiao??a cii caoenoo i?e caeyaaii?
aaiiye?a a ii?iaeao i?aeieanoy e?ooeo aeeeaeiiaaacia/ieo ieano?a.

Aeena?oaoe?y (?oeiien) ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 05.26.01 Ioi?iia i?aoe?, AeiiAOO,
Aeiiaoeuee, 1999. I?noeoue aiae?oe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aeicaieeee aia?oa aeiaanoe, ui iayai?noue a ii?iaeao
i?aeieanoy oa?a aaiiye?a ae?aio? onoiaiiy aeeeaeiiaaacia/iino?.
?ic?iaeaiee ? aei?iaoaaiee e?eoa??e caoeuaiino? Ec, ui yaey? niaith
a?aeiioaiiy a?aenoai? a?ae oa?a aaiiyea aei caoeniiai ieanoa aei
iiooaeiino? inoaiiueiai.

Iieiaeaiiy i?i aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai e?eoa??y i?eeiyoi IaeIAe?,
?icaeyiooa ye iaa?oioiaaii aia?oa Oeaio?aeueiith eii?n??th I?iaoaeai?iia
Oe?a?ie ii ai?iouea? c aaciaeeiai?/ieie yaeuaie. Aeei?enoiao?oueny a
o/aiaiio i?ioean?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeeaeiiaaaciaea, aaciaeeiai?/i? yaeua, aeeeae aoa?eey
oa aaco, caoeniee ieano, ia?aiao?e caoenoo, iaae?iaea, i?ae?iaea,
i?aeieanoy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aii/a?ia A. Ae. Iainiiaaiea ia?aiao?ia cii caueou i?e caeaaaiee
ecaanoiyeia a ii?iaeao iaaeaeoieanouey e?oouo aua?iniiianiuo ieanoia.

Aeenna?oaoeey (?oeiienue) ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.26.01 – Io?aia o?oaea, AeiiAOO,
Aeiiaoee, 1999. Niaea?aeeo aiaeeoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ua iicaieeee aia?aua aeieacaoue, /oi iaee/ea a
ii?iaeao iaaeaeoieanouey neiy ecaanoiyeia ye?aie?oao ono?aiaiea
aua?iniiianiinoe. ?ac?aaioai e ai?iae?iaai aeey oaeeo neo/aaa e?eoa?ee
caueuaiiinoe Ec 9, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie ioiioaiea ?annoiyiey io neiy
ecaanoiyea e iiuiinoe iineaaeiaai.

Yoaiiinoue enneaaeiaaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothuae
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth ?aoaiee:

— ioeaieie aeooaeueiinoe, iniiaaiiie ia aiaeeca ianoiyoaeuenoa, a
eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeee aaciaeeiaie/aneea yaeaiey i?e auaiea oaey a
caueuaiiuo ciiao, e oi?ioee?iaaieai aeiioacu ye?aie?iaaiey i?ioeanna
ono?aiaiey aua?iniiianiinoe i?e io?aaioea caueoiuo ieanoia, anee a
ii?iaeao iaaeaeoieanouey iaoiaeeony neie ecaanoiyea;

— niiinoaaeaieai oneiaee, a eioi?uo i?iecioee AAess, n iaee/eai a
iaaeaeoieanouee neiaa ecaanoiyea, i?eaaaeoai e auaiaeo aacia n
i?e?iaeiie aaciiiniinoueth e caaeneiinoe nieaeaiey aeaaeaiey aacia
aua?iniiianiuo oaooiieanoia i?e io?aaioea caueoiuo ieanoia io
i?enoonoaey a iaaeaeoieanouee neiy ecaanoiyeia;

— yenia?eiaioaeueiie ioeaieie a eaai?aoi?iuo oneiaeyo iniaaiiinoae
eciaiaiey ai a?aiaie i?i/iinoiuo e aeaoi?iaoeeiiiuo naienoa ecaanoiyea;

— eco/aieai a oaooiuo oneiaeyo i?e iaee/ee a ii?iaeao iaaeaeoieanouey
neiy ecaanoiyea i?ioeannia, niinianoaothueo ye?aie?iaaieth ?aca?ocee e
aeaaacaoeee aua?iniiianiuo ieanoia.

E /eneo iniiaiuo iiauo iao/iuo iieiaeaiee ioianaiu aeieacaoaeuenoaa
ye?aie?othuae ?iee neiy ecaanoiyea, iaoiaeyuaainy a ii?iaeao
iaaeaeoieanouey; iainiiaaiea e aeieacaoaeuenoaa aeinoiaa?iinoe e?eoa?ey
caueuaiiinoe ia i?eia?ao aua?inia, i?ienoaaeoeo i?e auaiea oaey iinea
ii?iaoeaiie io?aaioee caueoiuo ieanoia; ?ino a 2 ?aca nei?inoe
i?ioiaeaeaiey oeueo?acaoeiauo aiei i?e oaaee/aiee /anoiou eieaaaiee n 25
aei 150 eAoe e oiaiueoaiea ai a?aiaie i?eia?ii a 2 ?aca i?i/iinoiie e
aeaoi?iaoeeiiiie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe ecaanoiyea; iaeciaiiinoue nei?inoe
i?ioiaeaeaiey oeueo?acaoea e iee?ioaa?aeinoe ecaanoiyea ai a?aiaie,
ninoaaeythuai ieiei aeanyoe ianyoeaa.

ANNOTATION

Goncharov A. D. The basing of parameters of the protection zones with
the bedding of limestone in the rocks of inter-strata of the steep
waste-dangerous strata.

The candidate dissertation on technical science – the specialization
05.26.01 – Measures for protection of labour. – Donetsk, 1999.

It contains the theoretical and experimental surveys, which allow to
prove for the first time that the presence of the stratum of limestone
in the rocks of inter-strata screens the removal of waste-danger. The
criterion of protection (Cp) is worked ont and approved, it represents
the relation between the distance from the stratum of limestone and the
protective

stratum to the power of the uttermost. The statute of using this
criterion is accepted by MakNII (MakSRI), is regarded as having been
based firstly by the Central commission of Minugleprom (Mincoal
industry) of Ukrain on the fight against gasodinamic phenomena, is used
in the educational process.

The key words are waste-danger, gasodinamic phenomena, throwing ont of
coal and gas, protective stratum the parameters of protection,
mineworking, working up, inter-strata.

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