OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO CAIEA?IANOAA

E???ssE

Ieaia THoei?aia

OAeE 633.1:631.531.1

IAA?OIOOAAIIss IAOIAe?A IOe?IEE E

I?IAIICOAAIIss ssEINO? IAN?IIss A NENOAI?

AeA?AEAAIIAI OA AIOO??OIUeIAINIIAeA?NUeEIAI IAN?II?AIAI EIIO?IETH

06.01.05 – naeaeoe?y ? ian?iieoeoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

*aaaie – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? naeaeoe??, aaiaoeee oa caoenoo ?ineei
Iaeanueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

E?IAe?OE Ieeiea Iieneiiae/,

Naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iee ?inoeooo OAAI,

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? ian?ii?ciaanoaa ?

noaiaea?oecaoe??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

*O*I?E ?aai Iao?iae/,

Oiainueea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aaiaoeee, naeaeoe?? ?

ian?iieoeoaa

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

EI?*EINUeEEE Aioii Aioiiiae/,

a/aiee nae?aoa? a?aeae?eaiiy ?ineeiieoeoaa ?

ia?a?iaee i?iaeoeoe?? Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??

aa?a?ieo iaoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ie?ii?anueeee ?inoeooo ioaieoe?

?i. A. I. ?aianea OAAI

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 21 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 27.361.01 i?e ?inoeooo? caiea?ianoaa
OAAI, 255205, Ee?anueea iaeanoue, Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeee ?aeii, nio.
*aaaie

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 20 “ na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe E?aa/aiei E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. C ia?oeo ?ie?a iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie aaeoc?
ian?iieoeoaa i?eae?ey?oueny iaeaaeia oaaaa. O 1993 ?. Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith
i?eeiyoi aeaa aaaeeeaeo caeiie: “I?i ioi?iio i?aa ia ni?oe ?ineei” ?
“I?i ian?iiy”, ye? caoeuathoue i?aaa naeaeoe?iia??a, ?aaeaiaioothoue
ae?iaieoeoai, ?aae?caoe?th oa aeei?enoaiiy ian?iiy ? naaeeaiiai
iaoa??aeo. O 1994_?. aia?oa aaaaeaii iaoe?iiaeueiee noaiaea?o – AeNOO
2240-93 “Ian?iiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Ni?oia? oa iin?ai?
yeino?”, a a 1995 ?. noaea /eiiith iiaa ?ino?oeoe?y c ai?iaaoe??
ni?oiaeo iin?a?a, yea i?noeoue iniiai? iieiaeaiiy noaiaea?oo uiaei
ni?oiai? /enoioe.

Iaia? noii?ao a oiio, ui i?eeiyo? caeiiiaeaa/? e ii?iaoeai? aeoe
ni?eyoeiooue iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeia? naeaeoe?? oa ian?iieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. ?acii c oei iaoeiaa caaacia/ai?noue
aaeoc? ian?iieoeoaa caeeoa?oueny ua iecueeith. Ia iaa?oioiaaia, ye
ne?ae, nenoaia aaaeaiiy ian?iieoeoaa noiniaii aei ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiai
iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, iaaeinoaoiy aaca i?aaiai? oa
ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/ii? ?aaeaiaioaoe??. Aeineoue aeooaeueiith ? i?iaeaia
noaiaea?oecaoe?? e na?oeo?eaoe?? ian?iiy, aac ae??oaiiy yei? iaiiaeeeaee
ae?eiaee ? aoaeoeaiee aea?aeaaiee oa aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeee
ian?ii?aee eiio?ieue.

C ?icaeoeii ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? ae?ae
iaiao?aeiei ? a?aei?aoethaaiiy i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy
ian?iiy c o?aooaaiiyi ciiaeueieo, ee?iaoe/ieo oa aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo
oiia eiai oi?ioaaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oaiaoeee ?inoeoooo ii aeeiiaiith caaaeaiiy OAAI
04.03 “Aea/eoe iaoai?ci i?ieeaino? ni?oiaeo, iin?aieo oa a?iaeaeieo
yeinoae ian?iiy” (?aa. iiia? 0194 VO 35089 ? 04.04) “Ii?aoethaaoe
noaiaea?o ia ian?iiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?” (?aa. iiia?
0194 VO 35087), a oaeiae ainiaeiaia??ia oaia c I?iaa?ii?iiii Oe?a?ie
“?ic?iaeoe i?iaeo aea?aeaaiiai noaiaea?oo Oe?a?ie “Ian?iiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Iaoiaee aecia/aiiy yeino?” (?aa.
iiia? 0195 VO 14512) ia ia??iae c 1996 aei 2000 ??.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Aieiaia iaoa – i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ian?iieoeoaa, aea?aeaaiiai oa aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiai ian?ii?aiai
eiio?ieth oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy ian?ii?aeo noaiaea?o?a oa aeei?enoaiiy
iioeiaeueieo i?e?iaeieo oiia aeey oi?ioaaiiy aenieiye?niiai ian?iiy.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

ocaaaeueieoe a?o/eciyiee oa ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae noaiaea?oecaoe??
ian?iiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?;

i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueio ioe?ieo iaoiae?a aei?iaoaaiiy ian?iiy ca?iiaeo oa
ca?iiaiaiaeo eoeueoo? (iceia ioaieoey, y?ee y/i?iue, ai?io) ca AINOaie ?
i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ISTA;

ii?aoethaaoe iia? i?aeoiaee aei noaiaea?oecaoe?? iaoiae?a a?aeae?aiiy
na?aaei?o oa ?iai/eo i?ia ian?iiy ia aiae?c, a oaeiae aei aecia/aiiy
eiai /enoioe, a?aeoiaeo, iane 1000 ian?iei, noiaeino?, aeeoo?caeaoiino?
? aieiaino?;

aei?iaoaaoe iaoiae i?iaiicoaaiiy o?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae ian?iiy iceii?
ioaieoe? a oiiaao i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie (Iaeanueea iaeanoue);

iaa?oiooaaoe aeioe?euei?noue i?aai?caoe?? ian?iieoeoaa iceii? ioaieoe?
ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ca aeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i?
aenia?eiaioaeueii aei?iaoaai? iaoiaee ioe?iee iin?aieo yeinoae ian?iiy
ca?iiaeo ? ca?iiaiaiaeo eoeueoo? ca i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ISTA oa
a?aeiia?aeieie AINOaie. A ?acoeueoao? /anoeiai aai iiai?noth i?eaaaeaii
o a?aeiia?aei?noue c i?aeia?iaeiith iaoiaeeeith i?aaeea a?aeae?aiiy i?ia
ian?iiy ia aiae?c, iaoiaee aecia/aiiy eiai /enoioe ? a?aeoiaeo, iane
1000 ian?iei, noiaeino?, aeeoo?caeaoiino? oa aieiaino?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ian?iieoeoai iceii? ioaieoe?
aeioe?eueii aanoe ca aeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii, a iniiao yeiai iieeaaeaii
ioe?ieo aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy ian?iiy e i?iaiicoaaiiy eiai
o?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oaeineiiaeaii?
iaoiae?a ioe?iee yeino? ian?iiy, aa?iii?caoe?? ?o c i?aeia?iaeieie
i?aaeeaie ISTA, ui ni?eyoeia ae?eiaino? e aoaeoeaiino? aea?aeaaiiai oa
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiai ian?ii?aiai eiio?ieth, a oaeiae a
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo uiaei aaaeaiiy ian?iieoeoaa iceii? ioaieoe? ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie ca aeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? iniaenoi ?ic?iaea i?ia?aio ?
iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, aea/ea a?o/eciyiee oa ca?oa?aeiee
aeina?ae noaiaea?oecaoe?? ian?iiy, i?ia?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ocaaaeueiea
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue a?aoiaai?
i?e ii?aoethaaii? i?iaeoo aea?aeaaiiai noaiaea?oo «Ian?iiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Iaoiaee aecia/aiiy yeino?»,
aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? a Iaeanueeiio
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ?inoeooo?. Aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue
can?aeaii? Oaoi?/iiai eii?oaoo c noaiaea?oecaoe?? ?110 «Ian?iiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?» (1997?.), ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
a Oiainuee?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e aeaaeai?? (1998?.) ? Iaeanueeiio
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ?inoeooo? (1998; 1999??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? o 7 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 134 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 25 oaaeeoeue, 2 ?enoiee. Neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e
ae?iaieoeoao, ia?ae?eo iineeaiue oa 6 aeiaeaoe?a. A?ae?ia?ao?/iee nienie
aeeth/a? 172 aeaea?aea, a o./. 40 aeaea?ae ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

OIIAE ? IAOIAeEEA I?IAAAeAIIss AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeo?aeiee iaoa??ae. Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiue — ian?iiy ??cieo ni?o?a iceii?
ioaieoe? (Ia??e, Aeueaao?in iaeanueeee, Ie?ii?anueea 61, Iie?nueea 87,
Nia?oaiea oa ?i.), y?iai y/iaith (I?a??y, Iaeanueeee 100, Ae?oaeaa) ?
ai?ioo (Oiiac).

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Na?aaei? i?iae aeiae?aee a?ae ia?o?e ian?iiy,
ui oi?ioaaeeny ia ??cieo aa?ioaoi?/ieo oiiao (iiia?aaeieee: /i?iee ia?,
iaeii??/i? o?aae, eoeo?oaeca; aeia?eaa ? aac ieo; nooiae?e ? c?ioaiiy),
a oaeiae o ??ci? ?iee.

O ni?oic?aceao ian?iiy aea/aee /enoioo, iano 1000 ian?iei, eaai?aoi?io
noiae?noue, aia?a?th i?i?inoaiiy, aeeoo?caeaoi?noue ? aieia?noue. Oe?
iieacieee aecia/aee ca AINOaie ? i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie aiae?co
ian?iiy, i?eeiyoeie I?aeia?iaeiith anioe?aoe??th c ian?ii?aiai eiio?ieth
(ISOA). E??i oiai aea/aee ??ci? iaoiaee aeiai?o i?ia ian?iiy aeey
aiae?co.

Aeey ioe?iee iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy /enoioe ? iane 1000 ian?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaee ian?iiy c ??ciei nooiaiai i/euaiiy e ni?ooaaiiy.

I?iaiicoaaiiy a?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? i?iaiaeeee
ca iaoiaeeeith I.I.E?iae?oea, E.E.N?/iyea ? I.E.Nethna?aiea [50]. Aeey
oeueiai aoee aeei?enoai? aeai? aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue a
Iaeanuee?e iaeano?, a oaeiae iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo a
ae?oii-ian?iieoeueeeo ainiiaea?noaao Naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iiai ?inoeoooo
OAAI.

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iuoaaiiy ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? c ??cieie
iieacieeaie yeino? ? a ??cieo aeieia?/ieo oiiaao Iaeanueei? iaeano?
ia/enethaaeany ca niaoe?aeueiith iaoiaeeeith, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiith aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? [78].

Aeena?oaoe?y ioi?ieyeany ca?aeii c AeNOO 3008-95 [26].

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

1. Noaiaea?oecaoe?y iaoiae?a aei?iaoaaiiy ian?iiy

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aea?aeaaiiai ian?ii?aiai eiio?ieth aeoaea aaaeeeaei ?
canai?iiy oa aeei?enoaiiy noaiaea?oeciaaieo iaoiaeee ioe?iee iin?aiiai
iaoa??aeo. Ianaiia?aae oea noino?oueny iaoiae?a aeiai?o i?ia ian?iiy
aeey aiae?co. Aaeaea aeiiouai? iaoi/iino? aai iiieeee i?e ?o acyoo?
iicaaaeythoue aoaeue-yeiai naino iiaeaeueo? aiae?ce, iaa?oue yeui aiie
i?iaaaeai? c iaaecae/aeiith oi/i?noth [56].

O i?aaeeao aeiai?o i?ia ian?iiy aeey aiae?co ? aeineoue nooo?a?
a?aei?ie. sseui ca AINO 12036-85 aeey a?eueoino? ca?iiaeo i ca?iiaiaiaeo
eoeueoo? iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? ia?o?? ian?iiy neeaaea? 60 o, oi ca
i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ISTA — eeoa 25 o. I?eaa?oathoue oaaao oaeiae
??ci? ii?ie aeiai?o ?iai/eo i?ia ian?iiy. Ca i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie
aiie a?eueo, i?ae ca AINO 12037-81, a naia; o niiyoieeo oa ania?oeaoo —
aaea?/?, ca?iiaeo eieiniaeo eoeueoo? — o 2,4; aeee — o 2,8; eaanie? — o
3,5; ai?ioo, eoeo?oaece i ni?ai — o 4,5; ni? e aia?a — o 5 ?ac?a.

Nooo?a? ?icoiaeaeaiiy aeyaeai? a iaio iaoiaeeeao i uiaei e?eueeino?
a?ae?a?aieo i?ia, iniaeeai c ianeio (ao?oo) ian?iiy. Ca i?aeia?iaeieie
i?aaeeaie i?iae aeiae?athoue aeia?eueii, a ca AINO 12036-85 — o oaoiaiio
ii?yaeeo: a i’yoe oi/eao, eiee iana ia?o?? ia ia?aaeuo? 25 o, i a 11
oi/eao — iiiaae 25 o. Oiaoi i?e ian? ia?o?? ian?iiy aei 25 o ca AINOii
aa?ooue 15 oi/eiaeo i?ia, a ca i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie — 50 i?ia.

Iaaaaeai? ?ica?aeiino? o i?aaeeao aeiai?o i?ia ia iiaeooue ia aieeaaoe
ia ?ai?acaioaoeai?noue inoaii?o. Oe?eeii caeiiii??ii, ui
?ai?acaioaoeai?noue i?ia, a?ae?a?aieo a?ae ia?o?e ian?iiy ca AINOii,
ieae/a, ai?ae ca i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie, i oea ? iaei??th c i?e/ei
iaaeia??e caei?aeiiieo oao?aoe?a aei «nithcieo» noaiaea?o?a.

I?ioa iaea?eueoei iaaeie?eii AINO?a ? oa, ui o aeiai?? i?ia aa?ooue
o/anoue i?aaenoaaieee ainiiaea?noa, ye? cia/iith i??ith caoe?eaaeai? a
io?eiaii? iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, oei /anii ye ca i?aeia?iaeieie
i?aaeeaie oey ?iaioa iieeaaea?oueny aeeeth/ii ia iacaeaaeieo
?iniaeoi??a. Aeiaeaii, ui Caeiiii Oe?a?ie «I?i ian?iiy» [30] oaae
ia?aaeaa/aii ?inoeooo ?iniaeoi??a c ian?iieoeoaa, a iaia’ycee yeeo
aoiaeeoue aeia?? i?ia ian?iiy aeey aiae?co.

Na?eici? ?ica?aeiino? ?niothoue i a iaoiaeao aecia/aiiy /enoioe oa
a?aeoiaeo, ian?iiy. Aiie coiiaeai? iaiaeiaeiaei o?aeooaaiiyi naii? noo?
ian?iiy. Ca?aeii c i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ISTA aei ian?iiy a?aeiinyoue
yci eiai no?oeoo?e — iaa?oue iac??ea, iaaei?icaeiooa, ae??aia, cii?uaia,
oai?a e i?i?inea ca?ii ca oiiaith, ui ?o iiaeia /?oei ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe.
Ca AINOii aaaaoi c oeeo no?oeoo? a?aeiinyoue aei a?aeoiaeo, yeee
i?in?th?oueny e??cue ioai?e i?aen?aiiai (eiio?ieueiiai) ?aoaoa.

Iao? aeine?aee iieacaee, ui ia aeia?a i/euaiiio e a?aeni?oiaaiiio
ian?ii? iaeaea? iaoiaeeee iieacothoue iaeiaeiaee ?acoeueoao. Oae, c 14
i?iaiae?ciaaieo c?ace?a iceii? ioaieoe?, a?ae?a?aieo iacaeaaeii iaeei
a?ae iaeiiai a?ae iaei??? e o??? ae naii? ia?o?? ian?iiy, ??cieoey a
/enoio?, aecia/ai?e ca AINOoaie oa i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie, ia
ia?aaeuoaaea 0,4%, oiaoi ciaoiaeeeany o iaaeao aeiionoeieo
?icoiaeaeaiue.

Cian?i ?ioee ?acoeueoao io?eiaii a aeine?ae? c ian?iiyi y?iai y/iaith,
c?acee yeiai a?ae??ciyeeny ca nooiaiai i?aeaioiaeaiino? (oaae. 1). O
iiaaii i/euaiiai ian?iiy ??cieoey a /enoio?, aecia/ai?e ca iaiia
iaoiaeeeaie, eieeaaeany o iaaeao a?ae 3,3 (ni?o I?a??y) aei 15,4% (ni?o
Ae?oaeaa) ? cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaea aeiionoei? ?icoiaeaeaiiy. I, iaaiaee,
ii i??? i/euaiiy ian?iiy oey ??cieoey ciaiooaaeany, iaaeeaeath/enue aei
ianooo?aiai cia/aiiy. Aiaeia?/i? aeai? aoee io?eiai? e i?e aecia/aii?
/enoioe ian?iiy ai?ioo.

3 /enoioith ian?iiy o?nii iia’ycai? e ?io? aiae?ce, cie?aia aecia/aiiy
iane 1000 ian?iei, ine?eueee aiie i?iaiaeyoueny ia ian?ii? iniiaii?
eoeueoo?e, aeae?eaiiio i?e aiae?c? /enoioe.

O iaoeo aeine?aeao iana 1000 ian?iei oaeiae caeaaeaea a?ae nooiaiy
i?aeaioiaeaiino? ian?iiy: ia iiaaii i/euaiiio ??cieoey a iieacieeao,
aecia/aieo ca iaoiaeeeith AINO 12041-80 ? i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie,
aeineoue iii?oia (0,8-5,2 a a y?iio y/iai?; 6,1-9,5 a — o ai?ioo), a ia
aeia?a i/euaiiio aiia ianooo?aa (iaioa ca 0,6 a). sse ? i?e aiae?c?
/enoioe, oey ??cieoey coiiaeth?oueny iaiaeiaeiaei i?aeoiaeii iaoiaeee
aei iiiyooy noo? ian?iiy, a?aeianaiiyi aei iueiai ??cieo ca oa?aeoa?ii
oi?ioaaiiy neeaaeiaeo aioai?/ieo no?oeoo?.

*?oe? ?icoiaeaeaiiy cao?eniaaii i?ae AINOaie ? i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie
a iaoiaeao aecia/aiiy noiaeino? ? aia?a?? i?i?inoaiiy oa
aeeoo?caeaoiino? ian?iiy. Oea noino?oueny oaoi?/ieo oiia i?iaaaeaiiy
aiae?c?a (oa?aeoa?enoeea eiaea aeey i?i?iuoaaiiy ian?iiy, e?oii?noue ?
aieia?noue i?neo), e?eueeino? iiaoi?aiue a aiae?cao, oaoi?ee
i?aia?oaaiiy ca?iaee?a oiui. Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, ?acoeueoaoe
eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo iaie ia c?aceao ian?iiy iceii?
ioaieoe?, y?iai y/iaith ? ai?ioo, aeyaeeeny ?aeaioe/ieie. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ei?aeyoe?eiei aiae?cii (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 1. Ii??aiyeueia ioe?iea iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy /enoioe ian?iiy
y?iai y/iaith ca AINO 12037-85 ? i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ISTA (1992 ?.)

?

c?a-cea Nooi?iue

I?aeaioiaeaiino?

Ian?iiy

*enoioa ,% ??cieoey

a

/enoio?,

% Na?aaei?

cia/aiiy i?ae AINO

? II, % Aeiionoeia

?icoiaeaeaiiy, %

ca

AINO ca II

ca

AINO ca

II

Ni?o I?a??y

1 Aoiea?ia iana 94,98 98,22 3,33 96,55 1,0 1,54

2 -«- 95,37 98,69 3,32 97,03 0,8 1,46

3 Ia?oa i/euaiiy 96,92 97,97 1,05 97,45 0,8 1,39

4 -«- 96,57 98,27 1,70 97,42 0,8 1,39

5 -«- 96,80 98,10 1,30 97,45 0,8 1,39

6 Ae?oaa i/euaiiy 97,86 98,29 0,43 98,07 0,6 1,20

7 -«- 97,50 97,75 0,25 97,63 0,8 1,33

8 -«- 97,95 98,22 0,27 98,08 0,6 1,20

9 -«- 98,06 98,31 0,25 98,18 0,6 1,20

Ni?o Iaeanueeee 100

11 Aoiea?ia iana 94,93 98,72 3,79 96,83 1,0 1,54

12 -«- 90,51 98,94 8,43 94,73 1,4 1,95

13 Ia?oa i/euaiiy 90,76 97,98 7,22 94,37 1,4 1,95

14 -«- 95,96 97,93 1,97 96,95 1,0 1,54

15 -«- 96,90 98,60 1,70 97,75 0,8 1,26

16 Ae?oaa i/euaiiy 97,30 98,33 1,03 97,81 0,8 1,26

17 -«- 97,86 98,41 0,55 98,13 0,6 1,20

18 -«- 97,90 98,79 0,89 98,30 0,6 1,12

Ni?o Ae?oaeaa

21 Aoiea?ia iana 83,73 98,32 14,59 91,03 2,0 2,36

22 -«- 83,26 98,65 15,39 90,86 2,2 2,48

23 -«- 86,80 98,62 11,82 92,71 1,8 2,23

24 Ia?oa i/euaiiy 93,78 98,04 4,26 95,91 1,2 1,74

25 -«- 93,41 97,87 4,46 95,64 1,2 1,74

26 -«- 93,29 98,28 4,99 95,78 1,2 1,74

27 -«- 94,53 98,25 6,72 94,89 1,4 1,95

28 -«- 92,15 98,69 6,54 95,42 1,2 1,83

29 Ae?oaa i/euaiiy 96,80 98,09 1,29 97,45 0,8 1,39

30 -«- 96,93 98,13 1,20 97,53 0,8 1,33

t 05=2,04

Oaaeeoey 2. Ca’ycie i?ae iieacieeaie aeeoo?caeaoiino? oa noiaeino?
ian?iiy, aecia/aieie ca AINOaie oa i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ISTA
(1994-1995 ??.)

Eoeueoo?a

Ni?o Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? (r) i?ae

AEeoo?caeaoi?noth oa aia?a??th i?i?inoaiiy AEeoo?caeaoi?noth oa
noiae?noth

ca AINOii ca II ca AINOii ca II

Iceia ioaieoey Aeueaao?in iaeanueeee 0,92 0,91 0,82 0,94

Ie?ii?anueea 61 0,28 0,33 0,00 0,34

Iie?nueea 87 0,38 0,71 0,52 0,86

Nia?oaiea 0,99 0,99 0,68 0,98

ss?ee

ss/i?iue I?a??y 0,15 0,41 0,07 0,58

Iaeanueeee 100 0,13 0,18 0,83 0,83

Ae?oaeaa 0,78 0,90 0,53 0,99

Ai?io Oiiac 0,17 0,38 0,54 0,97

Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae aeeoo?caeaoi?noth oa aia?a??th i?i?inoaiiy
aa??thaaa o iaaeao a?ae 0,13 aei 0,99 i?e aecia/aii? iieaciee?a ca AINO
? a?ae 0,18 lj 0,99 — ca i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie. I?ae
aeeoo?caeaoi?noth ? noiae?noth ca’ycie iaa aeaui ?ioee oa?aeoa?: o
iieacieeao, aecia/aieo ca AINOaie, eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? ci?ithaaany o
iaaeao 0,00-0,83, a o aecia/aieo ca i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie — a?ae 0,34
aei 0,99.

Iaaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i aeayeo ia?aaaao i?aeia?iaeii? iaoiaeeee
aecia/aiiy noiaeino? ? aeeoo?caeaoiino? ian?iiy iaae a?aeiia?aeieie
AINOaie.

Aeinoia??ii ?icoiaeyoueny i?ae niaith e ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy
aieiaino?, iniaeeai i?e aiae?c? ian?iiy c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii aieiae.
??cieoey neeaaea? 0,2 — 0,3% ? a?eueoa, ui ia?aaeuo? aeiionoei?
?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae iiaoi?aiiyie. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith oeueiai ?
iaiaeiaeiaee ?aaeei aenoooaaiiy ?iciaeaiiai ca?ia. A?eueo aei?noeee ca
AINO 12041-81 i?e oaiia?aoo?? 150°N, eiee ii/eia?oueny i?aeai?aiiy
i?aai?/ii? iane, c iaeiiai aieo, oa ia??aiii??ia aenoooaaiiy iaaaaeee
i?ioyaii aeoaea ei?ioeiai /ano (20 oa.), c ?ioiai, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
niioai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co. ?aaeei aenoooaaiiy ian?ii?aeo i?ia ca
i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ISTA (oaiia?aoo?a 130-133°N, o?eaae?noue 1-4
aiaeeie) ni?ey? a?eueo iiaiiio aeeo/aiith c ian?iiy a?eueii? aieiae aac
iii?oieo ao?ao nooi? iane ?, oaeei /eiii, i?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue aiae?co.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeia?aaeai? o i?iaeo?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai noaiaea?oo «Ian?iiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?.
Iaoiaee aecia/aiiy yeino?».

2. I?iaiicoaaiiy a?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe?

Ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aiae?c iaoai?ieia?/ieo aeaieo, io?eiaieo i?ioyaii 1967
— 1996 ??. ia iaoai?ieia?/ieo noaioe?yo Ethaao?aea, Caoeooy,
?icae?eueia, Na?aea, Iaeana, Na?aoa, Aiea?aae oa ?cia?e, na?ae/aoue i?i
oa, ui oiiae oi?ioaaiiy o?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe?
neeaaeathoueny ii-??ciiio ye o i?inoi?? (o iaaeao cii ? i?e?icii), oae ?
a /an? (o ??ci? ?iee).

Ca?aeii c iaoiaeii i?iaiicoaaiiy oeeo aeanoeainoae [46; 50], i?iaaaeaiei
ca iaoaiaeaieie, o 20% aeiaaee?a oi?io?oueny ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? c
i?aeaeuaieie a?iaeaeieie aeanoeainoyie, o 52% aeiaaee?a — c na?aaei?ie ?
o 28% aeiaaee?a — c? cieaeaieie (oaae. 3).

Oaeei /eiii, i?eaeecii ?ac o /ioe?e ?iee a Iaeanuee?e iaeano? aeieea?
?ecee io?eiaiiy iaaeia?iye?niiai ian?iiy. Ua a?eueoee ?ecee ae?iuoaaiiy
oaeiai ian?iiy ia i?aaei?: a ciiao ae?yeueiino? iaoainoaioe?e Aiea?aae,
Na?aea oa ?cia?e — 32% aeiaaee?a, iaoainoaioe?? Na?aoa — 40%. O oie aea
/an a ie?aieo ?aeiiao i?ai?/ii? ? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoei iaeano?
eiia??i?noue io?eiaiiy iecueeia?iaeaeiiai ian?iiy ciaioo?oueny: a ciiao
ae?yeueiino? iaoainoaioe?e Ethaao?aea ? ?icae?eueia — aei 28%, o Caoeoo?
— aei 16%.

Oaaeeoey 3. Eiia??i?noue oi?ioaaiiy ??ciiai ??aiy o?iaeaeieo

Aeanoeainoae ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? a Iaeanueeee iaeano? (1967-1996
??.)

Iaoainoaioe?y ??aaiue o?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae ian?iiy

I?aeaeuaiee,

P+Sp, % Na?aaei?e,

Q+Sq, % Cieaeaiee,

Z+Sz, %

Ethaao?aea 24+8,5 48+10,0 28+9,0

Caoeooy 24+8,5 60+9,8 16+7,3

?icae?eueia 24+8,5 48+10,0 28+9,0

Iaeana 28+9,0 56+9,9 16+7,3

Na?aea 20+8,0 48+10,0 32+9,3

Na?aoa 12+6,5 48+10,0 40+9,8

Aie?aae 12+6,5 56+9,9 32+9,3

?cia?e 16+7,3 52+10,0 32+9,3

Ii iaeano? 20+8,0 52+10,0 28+9,0

Ii??aiyii iecueeee oeae iieaciee o cii? ae?yeueiino? iaoainoaioe??
Iaeana — 16%. ?acii c oei, eiia??i?noue io?eiaiiy ian?iiy c
i?aeaeuaieie a?iaeaeieie aeanoeainoyie o iacaaiiio ?aa?ii? c?inoa?: a
ciiao ae?yeueiino? iaoainoaioe?e Ethaao?aea, Caoeooy ? ?icae?eueia — aei
24%, iaoainoaioe?? Iaeana — aei 28%.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeieia?? ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? aeacothoue
ia iaae?ei?noue iaoiaeo i?iaiicoaaiiy eiai a?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae ca
aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieie iieacieeaie. Aeey i?eeeaaeo iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
aei?iaoaaiiy iaoiaeo o 1989 ?ioe? a ae?oii-ian?iieoeueeeo ainiiaea?noaao
Iaeanueei? iaeano? (?en. 1).

O aeine?ae? aea/aeiny ian?iiy ni?oo Ia??e, ae?iuaia o 1988 ?. a
ae?oian?iainiao ?i. Eooociaa A?oeecnueeiai e «Iiainae?anueeee»
Eioianueeiai ?aeii?a. Oaeoe/ia o?iaeaei?noue ii??aithaaeanue c
i?iaiiciaaiith ca aeaieie iaoai?ieia?/ieo noaioe?e Na?aoa e Ethaao?aea,
?icoaoiaaieo iiaeeco oeeo ainiiaea?noa.

Oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ian?iiy a ae?oii-ian?iieoeueeiio ainiiaea?noa? ?i.
Eooociaa aoee a?eueo ni?eyoeeaeie, ai?ae a ae?oii-ian?iieoeueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? “Iiainae?anueeee”. Ca oaiia?aoo?iei ?aaeeiii oa oiiaaie
caieiaeaiiy o ia??iae a?ae eiein?iiy aei iiaii? noeaeino? ioaieoe? aiie
ioe?iai? iaie 112,1 ? 96,7 aaeaie a?aeiia?aeii. Oiaoi, ian?iiy, yea aoei
ae?iuaii a ia?oiio ainiiaea?noa?, a?aeiia?aeaei i?aeaeuaiiio ??aith
iioaioe?eii? a?iaeaeiino?, a a ae?oaiio — na?aaeiueiio. Oaeoe/ia
o?iaeaei?noue, io?eiaia a?ae n?aae ian?iiyi c iaio ainiiaea?noa, aoea
aaeaeaaoiith ioe?ioe? oiia eiai oi?ioaaiiy (a aaeao) ? neeaea 80,9 ?
77,2 oe/aa a?aeiia?aeii.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeacothoue ia aeioe?euei?noue
i?aai?caoe?? ian?iieoeoaa iceii? ioaieoe? a Iaeanuee?e iaeano? ca
aeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii. A iniiao i?eioeeio ne?ae iieeanoe ioe?ieo
aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia ae?iuoaaiiy e i?iaiicoaaiiy a?iaeaeieo
aeanoeainoae ian?iiy.

?aae?caoe?y aeieia?/iiai i?eioeeio a ian?iieoeuee?e i?aeoeoe? iaaeanoue
iiaeeea?noue ae?iaieeai cia/ii iie?ioeoe ye?noue ian?iiy, ia
aeiioneath/e ia iin?a iaaeia?iye?niee iin?aiee iaoa??ae.

Eiein?iiy-iiei/ia Iiei/ia-aineiaa Aineiaa-iiaia Caaaeueia noia
aae?a O?iaeaei?noue o

noeae?noue noeae?noue noeae?noue i?neyae??(oe/aa)

OACE ?ICAEOEO ?INEEI

?en. 1 Aoaeoeai?noue aa?iiaoai?ieia?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy a?iaeaeieo

aeanoeainoae ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? (ni?o Ia??e) a ae?oii-

ian?iieoeueeeo ainiiaea?noaao Iaeanueei? iaeano?

A oea, c?aooith, ni?eyoeia noaa?eueiino? oa iaioee caeaaeiino? aaeoc?
ian?iieoeoaa a?ae iani?eyoeeaeo oiia.

I?i aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy e aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaeo i?iaiicoaaiiy
a?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? eaaei ia?aeiiaoeny ia
i?eeeaae? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ae?oii-ian?iieoeueeeo ainiiaea?noa
Naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iiai ?inoeoooo OAAI.

?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui i?eaooie a?ae ?aae?caoe?? aeiaeaoeiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, io?eiaii? a?ae n?aae ian?iiyi c na?aaei?ie a?iaeaeieie
aeanoeainoyie o ii??aiyii? c? cieaeaieie, iiaea neeanoe 134,6-144,8 a?i.
c 1 aa, a i?e aeei?enoaii? ian?iiy c i?aeaeuaiei iioaioe?aeii
o?iaeaeiino? — 224,4-241,4 a?i. c 1 aa c ??aiai ?aioaaaeueiino? a?ae 456
aei 750%.

aeniiaee

1. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui
?ai?acaioaoeai?noue (i?aaenoaaieoeoai) i?ia ian?iiy, a?ae?a?aieo ia
aiae?c ca i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ISTA, aeua, i?ae a?ae?a?aieo ca
iaoiaeaie AINO?a. Oea iiynith?oueny iaiaeiaeiaeie ?ici??aie ia?o?e
ian?iiy (ca AINO 12036-85 aiie aeey aaaaoueio eoeueoo? o 2-2,4 ?ace
a?eueo?, i?ae ca i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie), ii?iaie a?aeae?aiiy ?iai/eo
i?ia (ca AINO 12037-81 aiie o 2-5 ?ac?a iaio? o ii??aiyii? c i?aaeeaie
ISTA), a oaeiae i?aai?caoe??th a?aeae?aiiy na?aaei?o i?ia ian?iiy ( ca
AINO 12036-85 ?o a?aeae?athoue ca o/anoth i?aaenoaaiee?a ainiiaea?noa,
a ca i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie — eeoa iacaeaaei? ?iniaeoi?e c
ian?iieoeoaa).

2. I?ae AINOaie ? i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ?niothoue na?eici?
?ica?aeiino?

o iaoiaeao aecia/aiiy /enoioe oa a?aeoiaeo ian?iiy. Aiie coiiaeai?
iaiaeiaeiaei o?aeooaaiiyi naii? noo? ian?iiy: ca?aeii c i?aeia?iaeieie
i?aaeeaie oaeei ? on? eiai aioai?/i? no?oeoo?e — iaa?oue iac??ea,
iaaei?icaeiooa, ae??aia, cii?uaia, oai?a e i?i?inea ian?iiy, yeui eiai
iiaeia oi/ii ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe, oiae? ye ca AINO 12037-81 aaaaoi c oeeo
no?oeoo? a?aeiinyoue aei a?aeoiaeo, ui aeeo/a?oueny c i?iae ian?iiy ca
aeiiiiiaith i?aen?aiiai (eiio?ieueiiai) ?aoaoa. Iaeiae oe? ?ica?aeiino?
caiaeyoueny aei i?i?ioio i?e aiae?c? aeia?a i/euaiiai e a?aeni?oiaaiiai
ian?iiy.

3. A?ae nooiaith i?aeaioiaeaiino? ian?iiy aei n?aae caeaaeeoue e iana
1000 ian?iei, ui aecia/a?oueny ca iaoiaeeeith AINO 12041-80 ?
i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie: ia iiaaii i/euaiiio ian?ii? ??cieoey a
iieacieeao aeineoue iii?oia (0,8-5,2 a — a y?iio y/iai?, 6,1-9,5 a — o
ai?ioo), a ia aeia?a i/euaiiio aiia ianooo?aa (iaioa ca 0,6 a).

4. Iacaaaeath/e ia a?aei?iiino? a oiiaao ? iaoiaeao aiae?co eaai?aoi?ii?
noiaeino? ? aeeoo?caeaoiino? ian?iiy ca AINOaie ? i?aeia?iaeieie
i?aaeeaie, io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaei /ei a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith.
I?ioa eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae oeeie iieacieeaie, aecia/aieie ca
AINOaie, ieae/ee (r=0,00-0,83), ai?ae aecia/aieie ca i?aeia?iaeieie
i?aaeeaie (a=0,34-0,99), ui na?ae/eoue i?i aeayeo ia?aaaao inoaii?o iaae
a?aeiia?aeieie AINOaie.

5. Aeinoia??ii ?icoiaeyoueny i?ae niaith (ia 0,2-0,3 % ? a?eueoa)
?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy aieiaino? ian?iiy ca ??cieie iaoiaeaie. Iniiaiith
i?e/eiith oeueiai ? iaiaeiaeiaee ?aaeei aenoooaaiiy ?iciaeaiiai ca?ia.
A?eueo aei?noeee ca AINO 12041-81 i?e oaiia?aoo?? 150°N, ca yei?
ii/eia?oueny i?aeai?aiiy i?aai?/ii? iane, c iaeiiai aieo, oa
ia??aiii??ia aenoooaaiiy iaaaaeee (?iai/i? i?iae) i?ioyaii aeoaea
ei?ioeiai /ano (20 oa.), c ?ioiai, i?ecaiaeeoue aei niioai?aiiy
?acoeueoao?a aiae?co. ?aaeei aenoooaaiiy ian?iiy ca i?aeia?iaeieie
i?aaeeaie ISTA (oaiia?aoo?a 130-133°N, aeniiceoe?y 1-4 aiaeeie) ni?ey?
iiaiiio aeeo/aiith c ian?iiy a?eueii? aieiae aac iii?oieo ao?ao nooi?
iane ?, oaeei /eiii, i?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue aiae?co.

6. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeieia?? ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe?
aeacothoue iaae?ei?noue iaoiaeo i?iaiicoaaiiy eiai a?iaeaeieo
aeanoeainoae ca aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieie iieacieeaie [46; 50]. 3
aeei?enoaiiyi oeueiai iaoiaeo i?e aiae?c? aaaaoi??/ieo (1967-1996)
aeaieo, io?eiaieo ia aa?iiaoainoaioe?yo Ethaao?aea, Caoeooy,
?icae?eueia, Na?aea, Iaeana, Na?aoa, Aiea?aae oa ?cia?e, aeyaeaii, ui a
Iaeanuee?e iaeano? o 20% aeiaaee?a oi?io?oueny ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? c
i?aeaeuaieie a?iaeaeieie aeanoeainoyie, o 52% aeiaaee?a — c na?aaei?ie ?
o 28% aeiaaee?a — c? cieaeaieie.

7. O i?ai?/ieo ?aeiiao (E?ninoai, i?ai?/iee Noai), a oaeiae a ie?aieo
i?eaa?aaeieo i?e?iciiao Iaeanueei? iaeano? eiia??i?noue io?eiaiiy
aenieia?iaeaeiiai ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? c?inoa? (aei 24-28%), a a
i?aaeaiieo ?aeiiao, iaaiaee, cieaeo?oueny (aei 12-20%).

8. Ian?iieoeoai iceii? ioaieoe? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie aeioe?eueii aanoe ca
aeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii, a iniiao yeiai ne?ae iieeanoe ioe?ieo
aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia ae?iuoaaiiy e i?iaiicoaaiiy o?iaeaeieo
aeanoeainoae ian?iiy. Oea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue aeiaeaoeiai io?eioaaoe
3-5 oe/aa ca?ia ? cia/ii i?aeaeuoaaoe ?aioaaaeuei?noue (aei 450-750%)
ae?iaieoeoaa ian?ii?ai? i?iaeoeoe??.

I?iiiceoe?? ae?iaieoeoao

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaeoc? ian?iieoeoaa, aea?aeaaiiai oa
aioo??oiuei-ainiiaea?nueeiai ian?ii?aiai eiio?ieth iaiao?aei? oae?
caoiaee:

1) i?e ii?aoethaaii? i?iaeoo aea?aeaaiiai noaiaea?oo ia iaoiaee
aecia/aiiy yeino? ian?iiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? i?iaanoe
aa?iii?caoe?th ?o c i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ISTA, aeei?enoaaoe aeey
oeueiai ?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyeueiiai aea/aiiy iaoiae?a a?aeae?aiiy
na?aaei?o oa ?iai/eo i?ia ian?iiy ia aiae?c, aecia/aiiy eiai /enoioe,
a?aeoiaeo, iane 1000 ian?iei, noiaeino?, aeeoo?caeaoiino? ? aieiaino?, a
oaeiae aianoe a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie e aeiiiaiaiiy aei iaoiaeeee
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiai ian?ii?aiai eiio?ieth [56];

2) ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ian?iieoeoai iceii? ioaieoe? aeioe?eueii aanoe ca
aeieia?/iei i?eioeeiii, iieeaaoe a eiai iniiao ioe?ieo
aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy e i?iaiicoaaiiy a?iaeaeieo
aeanoeainoae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ?iaioao:

I. E?iae?oe I.I., Nethna?aiei I.E., Aa/o A.E, Nae?aaiia A.E., E???ye
I.TH. No/ania eiioeaioe?y noaiaea?oecaoe?? yeino? ian?iiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ineei // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
«?aae?caoe?y iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ni?o?a oa a?a?eae?a
Naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/iiai ?inoeoooo a oiiaao Oe?a?ie». — Iaeana, 1996. —
N. 90-92.

2. E?iae?oe I.I., Nethna?aiei I.E., Aa/o A.E., E???ye I.TH.
Noaiaea?oecaoe?y ian?iiy a Oe?a?i? // Noaiaea?oecaoe?y, na?oeo?eaoe?y,
ye?noue. — Oa?e?a, 1998. — ?1. -N. 33-36.

3. E?iae?oe I.I., Nethna?aiei I.E., E???ye I.TH. Ian?ii?a? noaiaea?oe ?
eoeueoo?a ian?iieoeoaa // Aa?a?iee a?niee I?e/i?iiii?’y. A?ieia?/i? oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? iaoee. — Iaeana, 1998. — ?2. — N. 131-137.

4. E???ye I.TH. I?iaiicoaaiiy o?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae ian?iiy iceii?
ioaieoe? a Iaeanuee?e iaeano? // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oiainueei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai?? «No/ani? i?iaeaie ?ineeiieoeoaa ?
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa» (/anoeia 1). — Oiaiue, 1998. — 4.1 — N. 23-27.

5. E?iae?oe I.I., Aaa?eethe I.I., E???ye I.TH. Noaiaea?oecaoe?y iaoiae?a
aei?iaoaaiiy ian?iiy a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai ian?ii?aiai eiio?ieth //
A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. Aa?a?ia iaoea. — Ee?a, 1998. — ?10. — N. 27-30.

6. E?iae?oe I.I., Aaa?eethe I.I., E???ye I.TH. Ae?aaiinoeea a?iaeaeieo
aeanoeainoae ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue OAAI
«?ieue aaiaoe/ieo, naeaeoe?eieo ? ian?iieoeueeeo ?ic?iaie o ?aae?caoe??
o?iaeaeiiai iioaioe?aeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?.» — Ee?a:
Aa?a?ia iaoea, 1999.-N. 87-92.

7. E?iae?oe I.I., Nethna?aiei I.E., Aaa?eethe I.I., Iaeanae A.I., E???ye
I.TH. Noaiaea?oecaoe?y ian?iiy oa ?? ?ieue o aea?aeaaiiio ian?ii?aiio
eiio?ie? // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue OAAI «?ieue aaiaoe/ieo,
naeaeoe?eieo ? ian?iieoeueeeo ?ic?iaie o ?aae?caoe?? o?iaeaeiiai
iioaioe?aeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?.» -Ee?a: Aa?a?ia iaoea,
1999.- N.80-87.

Aiioaoe?y

E???ye I.TH. Iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiae?a ioe?iee e i?iaiicoaaiiy yeino?
ian?iiy a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai oa aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiai
ian?ii?aiai eiio?ieth.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.05 — naeaeoe?y
? ian?iieoeoai. ?oeiien. ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI, *aaaie, 1999.

I?iaaaeaii aei?iaoaaiiy iaoiae?a ioe?iee iin?aieo yeinoae ian?iiy oa ?o
aa?iii?caoe?th c i?aeia?iaeieie i?aaeeaie ?SOA. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia
i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ian?iieoeoai iceii? ioaieoe? aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe c
o?aooaaiiyi aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy
a?iaeaeieo aeanoeainoae ian?iiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?iaa ian?iiy, /enoioa ian?iiy, iana 1000 ca?ai,
noiae?noue, aeeoo?caeaoi?noue, aieia?noue ian?iiy, noaiaea?oe ia
ian?iiy, aeieia?y ian?iiy.

Aiiioaoeey

Ee?eye A.A. Iainiiaaiea iaoiaeia ioeaiee e i?iaiice?iaaiey ea/anoaa
naiyi a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai e aioo?eoicyenoaaiiiai naiaiiiai
eiio?iey.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.05 — naeaeoeey e
naiaiiaiaenoai. ?oeiienue. Einoeooo caieaaeaeey OAAI, *aaaiu, 1999.

I?iaaaeaii eniuoaiea iaoiaeia ioeaiee iinaaiuo ea/anoa naiyi AINOaie e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie i?aaeeaie ISTA.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?ai?acaioaoeaiinoue i?ia naiyi, ioia?aiiuo ia aiaeec ca
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie i?aaeeaie, auoa, /ai ioia?aiiuo ii iaoiaeeea AINOia.
Yoi iauyniyaony ?aciuie ?acia?aie ia?oee naiyi, ii?iaie e i?aaiecaoeeae
ioai?a i?ia.

?anoiaeaeaiey a iaoiaeao ii?aaeaeaiey /enoiou e iannu 1000 naiyi
iaoneiaeaiu ia iaeeiaeiaui o?aeoiaaieai iiiyoey nooe naiyi. Niaeanii n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie i?aaeeaie ISTA e naiaiai ioiinyo ana eo no?oeoo?u —
aeaaea iac?aeua, iaaei?acaeoua, iaeeea, ii?ueienoua, aieueiua e
i?i?inoea, i?e oneiaee, /oi eo iiaeii /aoei eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue. Ii
AINOo iiiaea ec ia?a/eneaiiuo no?oeoo? ioiinyo e iooiaeo, eioi?ue
i?inaeaaaony neaicue ioaa?noey iiaenaaiiai (eiio?ieueiiai) ?aoaoa.
Iaeiaei yoe ?anoiaeaeaiey naiaeyony e ieieioio i?e aiaeeca xopooi
i/euaiiuo e ioni?oe?iaaiiuo naiyi.

Aeinoiaa?ii ?anoiaeyony iaaeaeo niaie ?acoeueoaou ii?aaeaeaiey
aeaaeiinoe naiyi ?aciuie iaoiaeaie. Ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iaoiaeeea
oi/iinoue aiaeecia auoa, /ai ii niioaaonoaothuaio AINOo, iineieueeo
?aaeei aunooeaaiey ca?ia (ioee) ii yoie iaoiaeeea iya/a e niinianoaoao
aieaa iieiiio oaeaeaieth naiaiaeiie aeaae.

Ianiio?y ia ?acee/ey a iaoiaeao ii?aaeaeaiey eaai?aoi?iie anoiaeanoe
aeecianiiniaiinoe naiyi, iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iaei /ai ioee/athony
iaaeaeo niaie (a i?aaeaeao aeiionoeiuo ?acee/ee). Iaeiaei eiyooeoeeaio
ei??aeyoeee iaaeaeo yoeie iieacaoaeyie, ii?aaeaeaiiuie ii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui i?aaeeai, auoa, /ai ii?aaeaeaiiuie ii AINOai, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaeioi?ii i?aeiouanoaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iaoiaeeee.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee o/oaiu i?e ?ac?aaioea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
noaiaea?oa Oe?aeiu ia iaoiaeu eniuoaiey naiyi.

I?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey ii yeieiaee naiyi iceiie ioaieoeu oeacuaatho
ia iaaeaaeiinoue iaoiaea i?iaiice?iaaiey eo o?iaeaeiuo naienoa ii
iaoai?ieiae/aneei oaeoi?ai. N eniieueciaaieai yoiai iaoiaea i?e aiaeeca
iiiaieaoieo (1967-1996aa.) aa?iiaoai?ieiae/aneeo aeaiiuo onoaiiaeaii,
/oi a Iaeanneie iaeanoe a 20% neo/aaa oi?ie?othony naiaia iceiie
ioaieoeu n iiauoaiiuie o?iaeaeiuie naienoaaie, o 52% neo/aaa — ni
n?aaeieie e a 28% — n iiieaeaiiuie. Yoe ?acoeueoaou oeaeaniia?acii
eniieueciaaoue i?e i?aaiecaoeee naiaiiaiaenoaa iceiie ioaieoeu ia thaa
Oe?aeiu ii yeieiae/aneiio i?eioeeio n ioeaieie aa?iiaoai?ieiae/aneeo
oneiaee au?aueaaiey e i?iaiice?iaaieai o?iaeaeiuo naienoa naiyi.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?iaa naiyi, /enoioa naiyi, ianna 1000 ca?ai,
anoiaeanoue, aeecianiiniaiinoue, aeaaeiinoue naiyi, noaiaea?ou ia
naiaia, yeieiaey naiyi.

Summary Abstract

Kiriyak O.Y. The substantiation of methods of evaluation and forecasting
of seed quality in the state and intraeconomic seed control.

Thesis for the degree of Candidate of Agricultural Sciences in the
specialty 06.01.05 — plant breeding and seed production. Institute of
Agriculture of the Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chabany,
1999.

The test of methods of evaluation of sowing qualities of seeds and their
harmonization with the ISTA international rules are conducted. It is
established that seed production of winter wheat in the South of Ukraine
is useful with allowance of agrometeorological conditions of forming and
forecasting of yielding properties of seeds.

Key words: seed sample, seed purity, weight per 1000 kernels,
germination, viability (of seeds), humidity of seeds, standards for
seeds, ecology of seeds.

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