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Новий метод лікування амбліопії за допомогою динамічних поліхроматичних ‘зернистих фігур’: Автореф. дис… канд. мед. наук / О.С. Нікітіна, Ін-т очних

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?INOEOOO I*IEO OAI?IA ? OEAIEIII? OA?AI??

?i. A.I.O?EAOIAA

I?E?O?IA IEAIA NAIAI?AIA

OAeE 617.751.6 – 053.2 – 085.841

IIAEE IAOIAe E?EOAAIIss AIAE?II?? CA AeIIIIIAITH AeEIAI?*IEO
IIE?O?IIAOE*IEO «CA?IENOEO O?AO?»

14.01.18 – I/i? oai?iae

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Iaeana-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio ?inoeooo? oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a IIC
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*a?aaeie/aiei Aieiaeeie? Iienaeiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiiae?aoaiei TH??e Ieeieaeiae/,

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y

i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e i/ieo oai?ia;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee,

Na?aeth/aiei A??a ?aai?aia,

?inoeooo i/ieo oai?ia ? oeaieiii?

oa?ai?? ?i. A.I.O?eaoiaa,

caa. eaai?aoi???th ?iceaae?a a?iieoey?iiai

ci?o ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y,

eaoaae?a i/ieo oai?ia, IIC Oe?a?ie, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny SYMBOL 147 \f “Times New Roman” \s 14 “ 19
SYMBOL 148 \f “Times New Roman” \s 14 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.556.01 a
?inoeooo? i/ieo oai?ia ? oeaieiii? oa?ai?? ?i.A.I.O?eaoiaa AII Oe?a?ie
ca aae?anith: 270061, Oe?a?ia, i.Iaeana, O?aioeocueeee aoeueaa?, 49/51.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo i/ieo
oai?ia ? oeaieiii? oa?ai?? ?i. A.I. O?eaoiaa AII Oe?a?ie (270061,
Oe?a?ia, i.Iaeana, O?aioeocueeee aoeueaa?, 49/51).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee SYMBOL 147 \f “Times New Roman” \s 14 “ 6
SYMBOL 148 \f “Times New Roman” \s 14 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiiiia?/oe A.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Aiae?ii?y – iaeia c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo i?iaeai aeeoy/i? iooaeueiieia??.
Oa?i?i «aiae?ii?y» (a?ae a?aoeueeiai «amblys» – ooiee ? «opsis» – c??)
cae/aeii aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey iicia/aiiy iiieaeaiiy ci?o a ioe? ca
a?aenooiino? yeeo-iaaoaeue aiiiae?e n?oe?aee, ui aeyaeythoueny
iooaeueiineii?/ii, aai yeeo-iaaoaeue ii?ooaiue a aoa?aioieo ci?iaeo
oeyoao, ye? iiaee aooe i?e/eiith iiieaeaiiy aino?ioe ci?o [Aaao?nia
A.N., 1968; Naiye?ia A.N., 1979, 1982; Eauaiei O.I,1984; Duke-Elder S.,
Wybar K.,1973; Helveston E.M. 1984; Von Noorden G.K., 1985; Harley
R.D.,1983].

Aeniea /anoioa aiae?ii?? na?aae ianaeaiiy (a?ae 2 aei 6% ca aeaieie
Aaao?niaa A.N., 1977; Aa?aee?ai? A.N.,1970; Aeia?iieneiaa A.I.,
Iaeioeiaa A.A., 1982; Hess R.F.,1982; Greenwald M.J., Parks M.M., 1986;
Guerra Gomez L., Martin Penego M.,Rios M.T.,1988) ?iaeyoue i?iaeaio ??
ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy iniaeeai aeooaeueiith aeey iooaeueiieia?a
acaaae?.

Ca?ac oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiaeeea eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy
aiae?ii??, yea aeeth/a? ??ci? niiniae aieeao ia ooieoe?th aiae?ii?/iiai
iea.

Cie?aia, oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoiaee na?oeiaiai aieeao aeniei?
?ioaineaiino?, a iniia? yeeo eaaeeoue «ne?io/a» iiae?aciaiiy na?oeii
oeaio?aeueii? yiee n?oe?aee (cana?oe ii C SYMBOL 117 \f “Times New
Roman” \s 14 u ppers, Aii/a?ia?e, aeei?enoaiiy ?iioeueniiai na?oea,
canoinoaaiiy iiiio?iiaoe/iiai eaca?a). Oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a
na?oeiaiai aieeao aeniei? ?ioaineaiino? ia? iaaaoeai? iiiaioe. ?yae
aaoi??a aaaaea?, ui oae? iaoiaee aieeao ia iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?,
cie?aia, /a?ac iaaaoeaiee aieea ne?io/i? yne?aaino? na?oea ia n?oe?aeo
iea (aeuea?i?ci, na?oeiaiyceea?noue, noiooi? aeeno?io?? n?oe?aee,
niaaeeia? aa?io?io??). Cacia/aia ae?y na?oea iiaea i?iyaeoenue ? ca
o?eaaeeo oa /anoeo eo?nao na?oeiai? noeioeyoe?? aeniei? ?ioaineaiino?
[Aaao?nia A.N., Eauaiei O.I., Aaeo??ia A.?., 1996].

Ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y a e?eoaaii? aiae?ii?? io?eiaii iaaieo oni?o?a
caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith oae caaii? «eaca?ii? ieaiioeee» [Aaao?nia A.N.,
1977; Ieoaeeyioe I.N., 1979; Oaaei?ia N.I., Naiaiia A.Ae., ?iiaoaieia
O.A., 1979; Duane T.D., Jaeger E.A., 1986; Harley R.D,1983].

I?ioa, o e?eoaaii? aiae?ii?? aeei?enoiaothoueny iiiio?iiaoe/i? eaca?i?
i?eno?i?, ye? ae?thoue o?eueee o iaai?e /anoei? niaeo?o ? ia iathoue
iie?o?iiaoe/iiai aieeao ia iaeoey?io ciio n?oe?aee. Eeoa iiiaeeiie?
?iaioe na?ae/aoue i?i canoinoaaiiy o?iiaoe/ieo iiae?aciee?a o e?eoaaii?
aiae?ii??.

Ie??i oiai, ca aeaieie ??cieo aaoi??a eiiieaenia iaoiaeeea e?eoaaiiy
caaania/o? caaaeii i?aeaeuaiiy aino?ioe ci?o aei 0,4 ? aeua o?eueee o
63,9% – 73,3% oai?eo. Iaeiae, iaa?oue ca ??ciiiai?oiino? ?nioth/eo
iaoiae?a, oni?oo a ?yae? aeiaaee?a aeinyaoe ia aaea?oueny. Oea iniaeeai
noino?oueny aeiaaee?a aiae?ii?? aenieiai ? aeoaea aenieiai nooiaith
[Aaao?nia A.N., Eauaiei O.I., Aaeo??ia A.?., 1996].

Aaaaoi c iiaeo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy iaeiaeinooii? i?aeoe/iei
iooaeueiieiaai /a?ac aenieo aa?o?noue aia?aoo?e, cie?aia, eaca?ieo
i?eno?i?a. A iniiaiiio oe? iaoiaee aeei?enoiaothoueny o aaeeeeo
iooaeueiieia?/ieo onoaiiaao [?aaoeia A.?., Ieeaoiiaa ?.E., Eoiai
?.A.,1995; Oaaei?ia N.I., Naiaiia A.Ae., ?iiaoaieia O.A., 1979; Duane
T.D., Jaeger E.A., 1986; Harley R.D.,1983] aai, a e?auiio aeiaaeeo, a
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo oeaio?ao [Aeaianueeee E.E., Iineia/aiei E.I., Iniaiiaa
E.O., 1995].

Oea ?iaeoue aeooaeueiei iiooe iiaeo, aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a na?oeiaiai
aieeao, ye? ia aeeeeeathoue iiae?aciaiiy «ne?io/i?» yne?aaino? ia
n?oe?aeo, aea /eiyoue iie?o?iiaoe/iee aieea, ui iiceoeaii ae?? ia
ooieoe?th aiae?ii?/iiai iea. E??i oiai, no/ani? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy
aiae?ii?? o ae?oae iiaeii? aooe i?inoeie, aeaoaaeie ? oe?ieiaeinooiieie
aeey i?aeoe/ieo iooaeueiieia?a ia o?eueee a noaoe?iia?ao, aea ? a
iie?ee?i?eao, a, iiaeeeai, ? a aeiiaoi?o oiiaao.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aea?aiee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue o?nii iia’ycaiee c ieaiaie eaoaae?e
iooaeueiieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a ? I
(aeeoy/iai) a?aeae?eaiiy, ia aac? yeeo i?iaaaeaia iaoeiaa ?iaioa. Aeaia
?iaioa i?iaeiaaeeea iiooe iiaeo o?c?ieia?/ii iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a
e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? o aeeoy/iio a?oe?, ii/aoee a 1991 ?. (iaoiaee
EAI-noeioeyoe?? ? «?aae?aeueieo i??») ia eaoaae?? iooaeueiieia??
Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a (0198U002283).

Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, ocaiaeaeothoueny c
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeie ?iaioaie eaai?aoi??? iaaeeei-oaoi?/ieo
?ic?iaie ?inoeoooo IO ? OO ?i. A.I.O?eaoiaa: «?ic?iaeoe iia? niin?a oa
i?eno??e aeey e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? o ae?oae ? i?aee?oe?a ia iniia?
iaeneiaeueiiai i?eaeeaeaiiy noeioethth/iai ia’?eoo aei ooieoe?iiaeueieo
? no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae ci?iai-ia?aiaiai eaiaeo» (0195U0110621).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii??
oeyoii noai?aiiy iiaiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy, caniiaaiiai ia aieea?
aeeiai?/ieo iie?o?iiaoe/ieo «ca?ienoeo o?ao?» ia n?oe?aeo aiae?ii?/iiai
iea.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue ianooii? caaea/?:

1. ?ic?iaeoe iiaee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? o ae?oae, caniiaaiee ia
aieea? ia ci?iaee aiae?caoi? aeeiai?/ieo iie?o?iiaoe/ieo «ca?ienoeo
o?ao?».

2. Aea/eoe aoaeoeai?noue iiaiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?? nooiaiy oa aecia/eoe aoaeoeaio o?eaae?noue eo?no
e?eoaaiiy.

3. Ia eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? oai?eo, ye? e?eoaaeenue iaoiaeii
aeniei/anoioii? eaca?noeioeyoe??, aea/eoe aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaaiiy
aiae?ii?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?? nooiaiy oa aecia/eoe aoaeoeaio
o?eaae?noue eo?no e?eoaaiiy.

4. Aacoth/enue ia io?eiaieo aeaieo i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? aeeiai?/ieie iie?o?iiaoe/ieie
«ca?ienoeie o?ao?aie» ? iaoiaeii aeniei/anoioii? eaca?ii? noeioeyoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii o?c?ieia?/io aaeaeaaoi?noue aieeao iaoiaeo
aeeiai?/ieo iie?o?iiaoe/ieo «ca?ienoeo o?ao?» o oai?eo c aiae?ii??th.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

?ic?iaeaii i?inoee, aenieiaoaeoeaiee, oe?ieiaeinooiiee aeey i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy a i/ieo noaoe?iia?ao, iie?ee?i?eao, niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
aeeoy/eo naaeeao aeey ae?oae c einiie?noth oa aiae?ii??th i?eno??e aeey
noeioethaaiiy aiae?ii?/ii? ci?iai? nenoaie o?iiaoe/ieie ca?ienoeie
iieyie – « ca?ienoeie o?ao?aie» (Iaoaio ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? ?
20227420 a?ae 27.01.1995 ?.). Ia aac? iiaiai i?eno?ith i?aeoe/i?e
iooaeueiieia?? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii??.

?ic?iaeaiee iiaee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? caaacia/o? a?eueo aenieo
aoaeoeai?noue i?aeaeuaiiy aino?ioe ci?o (72%) a ii??aiyii? c
?acoeueoaoaie e?eoaaiiy iaoiaeii aeniei/anoioii? eaca?ii? noeioeyoe??
(66%).

Iiaee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? ca aeiiiiiaith aeeiai?/ieo
iie?o?iiaoe/ieo «ca?ienoeo o?ao?» aeyaeany iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei aeey
e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? aeoaea aenieiai oa aenieiai nooiaiy o ii??aiyii? c
iaoiaeii eaca?noeioeyoe??.

Aoaeoeaia o?eaae?noue eo?no e?eoaaiiy aoea aeinoia??ii iaioith

i?e e?eoaaii? iiaei iaoiaeii, i?ae i?e e?eoaaii? iaoiaeii
aeniei/anoioii? eaca?noeioeyoe??, ui ni?ey? cia/iiio nei?i/aiith no?ie?a
e?eoaaiiy.

Iiaee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? aeeiai?/ieie iie?o?iiaoe/ieie
«ca?ienoeie o?ao?aie» ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo aeeoy/iai a?aeae?eaiiy
Oa?e?anueei? i?nueei? iooaeueiieia?/ii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 14 ?i. i?io.
E.E.A??oiaia, a oaeiae a i?aeoeeo eaoaae?e iooaeueiieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai
?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

?aeay iiaiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? ca aeiiiiiaith aeeiai?/ieo
iie?o?iiaoe/ieo «ca?ienoeo o?ao?» iaeaaeeoue iaoeiaiio ea??aieeo ?iaioe,
i?ioani?o A.I.*a?aaeie/aiei.

Aeena?oaio i?eeiaea o/anoue a ?ic?iaoe? i?eno?ith aeey ?aae?caoe??
cai?iiiiiaaiiai iiaiai niiniao e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? aeeiai?/ieie
iie?o?iiaoe/ieie «ca?ienoeie o?ao?aie» ?acii c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii oa
eieaeoeaii ?iaeaia??a Oa?e?anueeiai caaiaeo «Oi/iaaei?eeaae» ia /ie? c
Aa?oo?iei I.A. ? Aaeaethe E.?. Ee?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aecia/aiith
aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaeaieo niiniao ? i?eno?ith, a oaeiae e?eoaaiiy oai?eo
ia aiae?ii?th aeeiiaea naiino?eii.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a caeeth/a?oueny o ai?iaaaeaeaii? iiaiai iaoiaeo a
i?aeoe/io iooaeueiieia?th, oiaoi a ?ic?iaoe? oa?i?i?a e?eoaaiiy,
iioeiaeueii? o?eaaeino? iaeiiai naaino, a ianoaaeaii? ae?oae aei ? i?ney
e?eoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaiei iaoiaeii ? a iiaeaeueoiio niinoa?aaeaii? ca
ieie i?ioyaii iaeiiai ?ieo. Aaoi? aaea iaaee/io aeieoiaioaoe?th, i?iaaea
noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo io?eiaieo aeaieo, ocaaaeueieea ?o, aea/eea
o?eaae?noue e?eoaaiiy a a?oiao ae?oae ?c ??ciei nooiaiai ? aeaeyaeii
aiae?ii??, i?iaaea ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?c o?aaeeoe?eiei iaoiaeii
eaca?noeioeyoe??.

Nooi?iue iniaenoiai aianeo a?aeiia?aea? 40%.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe??
c aeooaeueieo ieoaiue aeeoy/i? iooaeueiieia?? a i. Iaean? (1992 ?.), ia
?an-ioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? aeeoy/eo iooaeueiieia?a a i.Oa?iiiie?
(1993 ?.), ia can?aeaiiyo Oa?e?anueeiai iaoeiaiai iooaeueiieia?/iiai
oiaa?enoaa (1995, 1996 ??.), ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
iooaeueiieia?a «Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu aiao?iiee o aeaoae» a i. Iinea?,
i?enay/ai?e 90-??//th a?ae aeiy canioaaiiy ?in?enueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1996 ?.), ia IX c’?cae? iooaeueiieia?a Oe?a?ie
o i.Iaean? (1996 ?.), ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeueiua
aii?inu iooaeueiieiaee», i?enay/ai?e 90-??//th e?ea?i? ?i. i?io.
E.E.A??oiaia o i. Oa?eia? (1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??

Iniiai? aniaeoe aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o 7 ioae?eaoe?yo. C ieo – o?e
aeo?iaeueieo noaoo?: iaeia – a «Iooaeueiieia?/iiio aeo?iae?» ? aea? – o
«A?nieeo i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie». O?e ioae?eaoe?? o ca??ieeao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iaoa??aeao ? oacao i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?e,
c’?cae?a, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e.

? aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai ? iaoaio ia aeiao?ae.

Ia’?i oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ?in?enueeith iiaith, aiia neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, 4 ?icae?e?a, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (243 iaeiaioaaiiy).

?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 26 oaaeeoeyie, 9 oioia?ao?yie, 10 iaethieaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia 146 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno, ?c ieo oaaeeoe?
caeiathoue – 7, oioia?ao?? – 1, nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae – 23 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee i?iaaaeai? iaie ca ia??iae c 1993 aei

1996 ??. niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ?acoeueoaoaie e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? o 360
ae?oae (448 aiae?ii?/ieo i/ae). ?c caaaeueiiai /enea (360 ae?oae)
oeii/ee?a aoei 172 (47,78%), ae?a/aoie – 188 (52,22%). A?e ae?oae aoa o
iaaeao a?ae 3,5 aei 14 ?ie?a, iaea?eueoa /enei oai?eo aoei o a?oe? a?ae
5 aei 9 ?ie?a (195 ae?oae aai 52,5%).

Iaeiaioee a?e (3,5 ?ieo) e?i?ooaaany caeaoi?noth aeeoeie c?icoi?oe
iinoaaeaio ia?aae iei caaea/o ? neiioeaio?oaaoe naith oaaao ia
i?aae’yaey?ieo ?i «ca?ienoeo o?ao?ao», ui iaa?oathoueny.

Ai?iaaoe?y iiaiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? i?iaiaeeeanue o eaa?iao?
ioi?iie ci?o ae?oae oa i?aee?oe?a eiinoeueoaoeaii? iie?ee?i?ee IEE ? 14
?iai? i?io. E.E.A??oiaia (162 niinoa?aaeaiiy). Iaaeae? i?ney iaeiie/aiiy
aeina?aeo ii iaoiaeeoe? e?eoaaiiy, ae?oe e?eoaaeenue a noaoe?iia??
aeeoy/iai a?aeae?eaiiy IEE ?14 (155 ae?oae) ? a niaoe?ae?ciaaiiio
aeeoy/iio naaeeo aeey ae?oae c einiie?noth ? aiae?ii??th (43 aeeoeie).

?c caaaeueiiai /enea ae?oae 142 (39,45%) ?ai?oa aaea e?eoaaeeny, aea
iaaeinoaoiuei ?acoeueoaoeaii, a ??cieo iaaee/ieo onoaiiaao
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie. 218 ae?oae (60,56%) aei ii/aoeo e?eoaaiiy
ca aeiiiiiaith aeeiai?/ieo iie?o?iiieo «ca?ienoeo o?ao?» ?ioiai
e?eoaaiiy ia iaea?aeoaaee.

Eiio?ieueio a?oio noaiiaeee 98 ae?oae (160 aiae?ii?/ieo i/ae) o a?oe?
a?ae 3 aei 14 ?ie?a, ui e?eoaaeeny c i?eaiaeo aiae?ii?? iaoiaeii
aeniei/anoioii? eaca?noeioeyoe???.

Ca?aeii c eeaneo?eaoe??th A.N.Aaao?niaa (1968) na?aae ae?oae, ui
e?eoaaeeny iiaei iaoiaeii, 185 (51,4%) iaee ?ao?aeoe?eio aiae?ii?th. C
aeena?iieoey?iith aiae?ii??th i?ieoee e?eoaaiiy 118 ae?oae, ui noaiia?ei
32,8%. Ianeo?aoe?eia aiae?ii?y niinoa??aaeany o 12 ae?oae (3,3%). An?
?io? aeaee aiae?ii?? (ai?ciiao?ii?/ia, ia?eae?iiaeueia, ci?oaia,
a?iaeaeaia) a noi? noaiiaeee 12,5% ? aeyaeai? o 45 ae?oae.

O 208 i/ao (46,5%) aiae?ii?y iaea neaaeee, a 191 ioe? (42,6%)
na?aaei?e, a 43 i/ao (9,6%) aenieee ? a 6 i/ao (1,3%) aeoaea aenieee
nooi?iue.

E?euee?noue ae?oae c einiie?noth noaiiaeea 139 /ieia?e (38,6%). C ieo
ca?aeio einiie?noue iaee 92 aeeoeie (25,6%), ?ica?aeio – 30 ae?oae
(8,3%), aa?oeeaeueio -17 ae?oae (4,7%).

Iiaeeaeaia iooaeueiieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo aei ? i?ney e?eoaaiiy
i?iaiaeeeinue ca o?aaeeoe?eiith noaiith (a?ciiao??y ? ?ao?aeoiiao??y,
a?ii?e?ineii?y, iooaeueiineii?y, oano c iaeo?aeueiei oaiiei o?eueo?ii,
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o a?iieoey?iiai ci?o, eie??iiai ci?o oa o?enaoe??
aiae?ii?/iiai iea).

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaeaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaii ca
noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith ?c aeei?enoaiiyi nenoaie iaoaiaoe/ieo
ia/enethaaiue Maple V.

A?oiooth/enue ia aeine?aeaeaiiyo no/anii? o?c?ieia?? ci?o, aaoi?ii
ni?eueii c i?ioani?ii A.I.*a?aaeie/aiei oa ?iaeaia?aie I.A.Aa?oo?iei ?
E.?.Aaeaethe cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? ? i?eno??e
aeey eiai cae?eniaiiy (Iaoaio ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? ? 20227420 a?ae
27.01.95 ?.)

I?eno??e aeey e?eoaaiiy iiaei iaoiaeii neeaaea?oueny c iioe/ii? ianaaeee
aei iaeoeioanoa?o IOI-2, ui neeaaea?oueny c ieoey?a c oieonoth/ith
nenoaiith aeey /?oeiai cia?aaeaiiy «ca?ienoi? o?ao?e». Aeey
eiioeaio?oaaiiy cia?aaeaiiy ia oeaio?aeuei?e iaeano? n?oe?aee
ia?aaeaa/aiee aeene, ui iaa?oa?oueny, c /ioe?ia ae?ao?aaiaie ae?aiao?ii
a?ae 5 aei 20 ii. Ae?oaee aeene, ui iaa?oa?oueny, ia? /ioe?e ioai?e, c
yeeo iaeei a?eueiee, a a ?io? ano?i?i? /a?aiiee, caeaiee ? nei?e
na?oeio?eueo?e, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo «ca?ieno?e o?ao??» iiaeia iaaeaoe
??cii? eie??iino? ? oei naiei i?aeneethaaoe noeioethth/ee aieea ia
iaeoeo. A iaiei?, ui iaa?oa?oueny aeaeo?iaeaeaoiii iaeoeioanoa?a,
ai?uaia eaanaiiaa ie?aea c iaeea?ieie ia ia? neeyieie i?e?ieoeueeaie.
Ie?aea i?ina?/o?oueny eaiiith iiooaei?noth 30 Ao /a?ac eiiaeaini?.

Niinoa??aath/e a ieoey?, iaoe??io aa/eoue «ca?ienoo o?ao?o», ui
iaa?oa?oueny, yea neeaaea?oueny c aaaaoueio yne?aaeo na?oeiaeo ia’?eo?a
??cii? aaee/eie. Nii/aoeo eiio i?aae’yaeythoue ao?iiaoe/ia cia?aaeaiiy,
/a?ac 2-3 oaeeeie /a?aiia, a iio?i /a?ac oae? ae ?ioa?aaee nei? ?
caeaia. Caaaeueia o?eaae?noue naaino 8-10 oaeeei. A i??o i?aeaeuaiiy
aino?ioe ci?o aiae?ii?/iiai iea aeei?enoiaothoue ae?ao?aaie ana iaioiai
ae?aiao?a. Eo?n e?eoaaiiy 10-15 naain?a.

Iniiaith iiaiai niiniao e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? ? noeioeyoe?y aiae?ii?/iiai
iea oae caaiith «ca?ienoith o?ao?ith», ui aeieea? i?e iaa?oaii? ie?aieo
eiio?anoieo ca?iei – «niaee?a» (ii oeio «eaca?-niaee?a»), ye?
ooai?ththoueny a?ae o?c?ieia?/iiai aeaea?aea aei?ii?ithaaiiy (eaiia
?icaea?thaaiiy). Iie?o?iiaoe/i?noue ea?oeie, ui aeieea?, ? ua iaei??th
ia?aaaaith iiaiai niiniao – oea ni?iuaiiy caaea/? caeo/aiiy oaaae
aeeoeie aei ?ooiiiai noeioeo. Inoaii? ?iaeoue iiaeeeaei aeei?enoaiiy
iiaiai iaoiaeo iaa?oue o naieo iaeaiueeeo ae?oae, oiaoi a oiio a?oe?,
eiee e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? iaea?eueo aaaeeeaa.

Ine?eueee iiaee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? i?aeoe/ii ua i?aea ia
canoiniaoaaany, i?aaenoaaeyeiny oe?eaaei aea/eoe eiai aoaeoeai?noue.

Iaoiae «ca?ienoeo o?ao?» aoa aei?iaoaaiee o 162 ae?oae (204 aiae?ii?/ieo
iea), ye? e?eoaaeeny ia aac? aeaiiiai noaoe?iia?a, ?icoaoiaaiiai a
eaa?iao? ioi?iie ci?o ae?oae ? i?aee?oe?a eiinoeueoaoeaii? iie?ee?i?ee
iooaeueiieia?/ii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 14 ?iai? E.E. A??oiaia.

O oe?e a?oi? ae?oae aoei oeii/ee?a 74 (45,68%) ? ae?a/aoie 88 (54,32%).
O a?oe? a?ae 3 aei 5 ?ie?a e?eoaaeiny 23 aeeoeie (14,2%), a?ae 10 aei 15
?ie?a – 52 aeeoeie (32,1%). Naia /eneaiia a?eiaa a?oia c 5 aei 9 ?ie?a
i?aaenoaaeaia 87 ae?oueie (53,7%). Ae?oyi iieiaeoa 3-e?oiueiai a?eo
e?eoaaiiy ia i?ecia/aeiny, ine?eueee ?i aoei aaaeei neiioeaio?oaaoe
oaaao ia iinoaaeai?e caaea/?. Ae?oe ae a?eueo noa?oiai a?eo ?c
caaeiaieaiiyi ?icaeyaeaee «ca?ieno? o?ao?e» ??cieo eieuei??a, ui
iaa?oathoueny.

Iaea?eueoa /enei ae?oae – 61 aeeoeia aai 37,65% iaee ?ao?aeoe?eio
aiae?ii?th. C aeena?iieoey?iith aiae?ii??th e?eoaaeiny 42 aeeoeie
(25,93%), c ai?ciiao?ii?/iith – 29 ae?oae (17,9%), c ianeo?aoe?eiith – 9
/ieia?e (5,56%), ?c ci?oaiith aiae?ii??th e?eoaaeanue 21 aeeoeia
(12,96%). Ca nooiaiai ia?aaaaeaea aiae?ii?y na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy (49%)
? neaaeiai nooiaiy (25,5%), a o 25,5% aeiaaee?a aiae?ii?y aoea aenieith
? aeoaea aenieith.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ao?aeoe?? iieacaei ia?aaaaeaiiy a?ia?iao?ii?? ?
a?ia?iao?ii?/iiai anoeaiaoecio, ui a?aeiia?aea? aeaiei ?ioeo aaoi??a
[Y.N.Aaao?nia, 1968; ?.A.A?aaianueea, A.A.Iicaa, 1981; I.?.Iayoneaia,
1983; Parks M.M., 1983].

?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? iaoiaeii aeeiai?/ieo iie?o?iiaoe/ieo
«ca?ienoeo o?ao?» ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie e?eoa??yie a?aeiia?aeathoue
aenie?e aoaeoeaiino?. Oae, /enei i/ae c aiae?ii??th aeoaea aenieiai
nooiaiy iiiaioaei c 18 (8,82%) aei 5 (2,45%), oiaoi i?aeoe/ii a 3,6
?ace, c aiae?ii??th aenieiai nooiaiy – c 34 (16,67%) aei 27 (13,24%),
oiaoi a 1,3 ?ace, c aiae?ii??th na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy – c 100 i/ae (49%)
aei 80 ( 39,22%). Cia/ii iiiaioaei oaeiae /enei i/ae ?c neaaeei nooiaiai
aiae?ii?? – c 52 (25,49%) aei 37 (18,14%). *enei aee?eoaaieo i/ae
noaiiaeei 75 aai 37% (iae. 1).

Iae. 1 ?iciiae?eaiiy ae?oae, ye? e?eoaaeenue iaoiaeii «ca?ienoeo o?ao?»
ca nooiaiai aiae?ii?? aei oa i?ney e?eoaaiiy

1 – aiae?ii?y aeoaea aenieiai nooiaiy; 2 – aiae?ii?y aenieiai nooiaiy;

3 – aiae?ii?y na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy; 4 – aiae?ii?y neaaeiai nooiaiy;

5 – /enei aee?eoaaieo i/ae.

Aei e?eoaaiiy /enei i/ae, ye? iaee iaoeaio?aeueio o?enaoe?th, noaiiaeei
7,8 %. I?ney e?eoaaiiy iaoiaeii «ca?ienoeo o?ao?» /enei i/ae c
iaoeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th ciaiueoeeinue aei 2,45%, oiaoi ia 5,39%.

sseui ioe?ithaaoe aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaaiiy ca iaea?aeaiith aino?ioith
ci?o, yea aea? iiaeeea?noue a?iieoey?iiai ci?o (ii A.N.Aaao?niao, 1968 –
0,4 ? aeua ), oi i?ney e?eoaaiiy /enei i/ae c oaeith aino?ioith ci?o
noaiiaeei 147 (72 %).

Ei?enooth/enue e?eoa??yie A.A.A?iaooiaa (1984), ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy
aiae?ii?? o ae?oae, ye? e?eoaaeeny iaoiaeii aeeiai?/ieo iie?o?iiaoe/ieo
«ca?ienoeo o?ao?» iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe oaeei /eiii: aoaeoeaia o?eaae?noue
eo?no e?eoaaiiy aei??aith? a na?aaeiueiio 7,6 SYMBOL 177 \f “Times New
Roman” \s 14 ± 0,47 naain?a. Eiao?oe??io aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy
aiae?ii?? aei??aith? 1,084 SYMBOL 177 \f “Times New Roman” \s 14 ±
0,003.

O eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? ae?oae, ui e?eoaaeeny iaoiaeii aeniei/anoioii?
eaca?noeioeyoe??, aoei 98 ae?oae (160 aiae?ii?/ieo i/ae) a?ae 3 aei 15
?ie?a c aiae?ii??th ??cii? ao?ieia??: ?ao?aeoe?eii? (41,84% ae?oae),
aeena?iieoey?ii? (28,57% ae?oae) oa ?ioeie aeaeaie aiae?ii?? (29,59%).
Ca nooiaiai ia?aaaaeaea aiae?ii?y neaaeiai (34,4%) ? na?aaeiueiai
nooiaiy (24,4%), aiae?ii?y aenieiai nooiaiy noaiiaeea 25,6% ? aeoaea
aenieiai nooiaiy 15,6%.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie e?eoaaiiy: i?aeaeuaiiy aino?ioe ci?o aei 0,4 ? aeua
aeinyaiooi a 106 i/ao (66%), ui ieae/a, i?ae i?e noeioeyoe??
«ca?ienoeie o?ao?aie» ia 6%; iiaia aee?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? aeinyaiooi a 55
i/ao (34%), ui ieae/a, i?ae i?e noeioeyoe?? «ca?ienoeie o?ao?aie» ia
3%; aoaeoeaia o?eaae?noue eo?no e?eoaaiiy aei??aith? a na?aaeiueiio
11,2 SYMBOL 177 \f “Times New Roman” \s 14 ± 0,7 naain?a; eiao?oe??io
aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy aei??aith? 1,091 SYMBOL 177 \f “Times New Roman”
\s 14 ± 0,005.

Aei e?eoaaiiy /enei i/ae, ye? iaee iaoeaio?aeueio o?enaoe?th, noaiiaeei
3,75%. I?ney e?eoaaiiy iaoiaeii eaca?noeioeyoe?? /enei i/ae c
iaoeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th ciaiueoeeinue aei 0,63% , oiaoi ia 3,12%
(i?e canoinoaaii? iiaiai iaoiaeo ciaioaiiy noaiiaeoue 5,39%). Iieacieee
aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? iiaeai? o oaaeeoeyo 1 ? 2.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aoaeoeaia o?eaae?noue eo?no e?eoaaiiy «n» aeaiia iaoiaeaie

a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy aiae?ii?? (e?euee?noue naain?a)

Iaoiae

Nooi?iue aiae?ii??

Na?aaei?e

E?eoaaiiy

aeoaea aenieee Aenieee na?aaei?e neaaeee iieaciee

1. Iaoiae

«ca?ienoeo o?ao? »

M

m

9,166 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ±

1,778

12,062 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ±

0,727

5,833 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ±

0,173

4,125 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ±

0,125

7,6 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ±

0,48

2. Iaoiae eaca?-noeioeyoe??

M

m

12,90 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ± *

0,71

12,0 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ±

0,82

11,4 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ± *

0,64

8,51 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ± *

0,722

11,2 SYMBOL 177 \f “Symbol” \s 14 ± *

0,7

* – ??aaiue cia/ouino? P1-2 0,05).

O/eouaaeinue oaeaea ainnoaiiaeaiea oeaio?aeueiie oeenaoeee. Iinea
ea/aiey aeaoae I a?oiiu eiee/anoai aeac, eiathueo iaoeaio?aeueioth
oeenaoeeth, oiaiueoeeinue ia 5,39%, ai II a?oiia – oieueei ia 3,12%. Yoi
?acee/ea aeinoiaa?ii (?

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