IAOeIIIAEUeIA AEAAeAI(ss IAOE OE?A(IE

O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A.?. A??e?ia

IAEUe-AAEUe Iaaei Iaaeiae/

OAeE 539.67; 548.4

IECUeEIOAIIA?AOO?II IAOAIICIE AeENEIEAOeIEII( AEONOE*II( ?AEAENAOeI( A
E?ENOAEAO

01.04.07 — oiceea oaa?aeiai oiea

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoei( ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?eia — 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe((th ( ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a O(ceei-oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo( iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i.
A.?. A??e?ia

IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? o(c.-iao. iaoe, i?ioani?

IAOeEE Aaneeue Aeieo?iae/,

OO(IO IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa(aeoth/ee a(aeae(eii o(ceee ?aaeueieo e?enoae(a.

Io?oe?ei( iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o(c.-iao. iaoe, i?ioani?

OIEUe Ay/aneaa Aeieo?iae/,

OO(IO IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa(aeoth/ee a(aeae(eii aeonoe/ieo aeanoeainoae oaa?aeeo o(e;

aeieoi? o(c.-iao. iaoe, i?ioani?

EAAAAe(A A(eoi? I?ioi?iae/,

Oa?eianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o(ceee iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?,

aeaeai o?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoo;

aeieoi? o(c.-iao. iaoe, no. iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee

NIEOA? sse(a Ieoaeeiae/,

Iinoeooo oiceee oaa?aeiai oiea ?AI,

i?ia(aeiee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee OO( IAI Oe?a?ie, a(aeae(e
oeueo?acaoeiaeo aeine(aeaeaiue oaa?aeeo o(e.

Caoeno a(aeaoaeaoueny “_12_”__aeiaoiy___1999 ?. i _15_ aiaeei( ia
can(aeaii( niaoe(ae(ciaaii( a/aii( ?aaee Ae 64.175.02 i?e
O?ceei-oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo( iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A.?. A??e?ia IAI
Oe?a?ie (310164, i. Oa?e?a, i?ini. Eai?ia, 47; o. (0572) 32-12-23 ).

C aeena?oaoe((th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a(ae(ioaoe( OO(IO IAI Oe?a?ie
(310164, i. Oa?e?a, i?ini. Eai?ia, 47).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic(neaiee “_2_”__aa?aniy__1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe(ae(ciaaii( a/aii( ?aaee

aeieoi? o(c.-iao. iaoe
Eiaaeueia I.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe(eii( ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia no/aniei noaiii (
oaiiaie ?icaeoeo iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo oaoiieia(e ( iaoa?(aeiciaanoaa,
aeey yeeo iio?(aiee iiaee ?(aaiue ?icoi(iiy aeaiaioa?ieo i?ioean(a a
oaa?aeeo o(eao i?e iecueeeo oa iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao. Aea/aiiy
aeeiai(/ieo aeanoeainoae aeeneieaoe(e iaoiaeii aeonoe/ii( niaeo?ineii((
( aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaea?aeaiiy iiaeo a(aeiiinoae i?i
iiaaae(ieo ?aaeueieo e?enoae(a a oiiaao noi(nii( ae(( iaoai(/iiai
iai?oaeaiiy, ciai(oi(o iie(a, iecueeeo ( iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo? oa
(ioeo aeno?aiaeueieo /eiiee(a. Anoaiiaeaiiy i(e?ineii(/ieo iaoai(ci(a
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii( aeeneieaoe(eii( aeeiai(/ii( ?aeaenaoe(( ia(
aaciina?aaei( a(aeiioaiiy aei ae?(oaiiy i?iaeaie ea?oaaiiy iaoai(/ieie
aeanoeainoyie oaa?aeeo o(e. I(ae oei, iayai( ia oeae /an
aenia?eiaioaeuei( aeai( a(aeiinii aeeiai(/ii( iiaaae(iee aeeneieaoe(e a
e?enoaeao i?e iecueeeo oa iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao ( iiiaeeiieeie (
iaiiaieie ( ia caaeiaieueiythoue ai( iaoeiaoe(a, ye( ia iiaeooue
noai?eoe iine(aeiaia oa cae(i/aia oai?aoe/ia oyaeaiiy i?i aeaiaioa?i(
iaoai(cie iai?oaeii( aeaoi?iaoe(( a oiiaao iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, ai(
iaoa?(aeiciaaoe(a, yeei iio?(aia e(euee(nia (ioi?iaoe(y uiaei o(ce/ieo
(cie?aia, iaoai(/ieo) aeanoeainoae iaoa?(ae(a i?e ?ic?iaoe( i?aoeec(eieo
i?eeaae(a aeey iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aei(?thaaiue aai (ioiai
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai onoaoeoaaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o iaaeao oaiaoe/ieo ieai(a aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aaeenue oa aaaeooueny o
aiaeaeiei oiceee ?aaeueieo e?enoaeia OOIIO IAI Oe?a?ie o aiaeiiaiaeiinoi
c iinoaiiaaie I?aceaei? IAI Oe?a?ie ca oaiaie:

— aenia?eiaioaeueia i oai?aoe/ia aea/aiiy ieanoe/iinoi oa iioeiinoi
oaa?aeeo oie (? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 75 027 515),

— aeineiaeaeaiiy iaoaii/ieo aeanoeainoae oaa?aeeo oie oa ?o ca’yceo c
?aaeueiith no?oeoo?ith i c caoaeaeaiiyie aeaeo?iiii? nenoaie e?enoaeia
(? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 0286. 0080588),

— aeineiaeaeaiiy oiceei-iaoaii/ieo aeanoeainoae oaa?aeeo oie a iaeanoi
iecueeeo oa iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo? (? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 01. 86.
0031284),

- aea/aiiy oiceei-iaoaii/ieo aeanoeainoae e?enoaei/ieo i aii?oieo
iaoa?iaeia i?e iecueeeo oa iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao oa ?o ca’yceo c
aoiiiith i aeaoaeoiith no?oeoo?ith (? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei? 0195U009864),

— iaoaiicie iai?oaeii? aeaoi?iaoei? oa ?oeioaaiiy oaa?aeeo oie i?e
iecueeeo oa iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao (? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoei?
0196U002951).

Iaoa ( caaea/( aeine(aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe(eii( ?iaioe
aoei anoaiiaeaiiy aeaiaioa?ieo iaoai(ci(a ?ooeeaino( aeeneieaoe(e a cii(
iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ia i(aenoaa( aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo
aeniei/ooeeaeie oa naeaeoeaieie iaoiaeaie aeonoe/ii( niaeo?ineii(( a
oe?ieiio (ioa?aae( oaiia?aoo?, /anoio oa aiie(ooae oeueo?acaoeiaeo
eieeaaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao(a. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
aeyaeai( oa anaa(/ii aea/ai( ?(ci( aeaee iniaeeainoae (aiiiae(e)
e(i(eii( ( iae(i(eii( aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe(( a oe?ieiio eean(
e?enoae(/ieo iaoa?(ae(a. Iiaeeaeaiiio aiae(co ( o(ce/i(e (ioa?i?aoaoe((
i(aeeyaaee, a ia?oo /a?ao, aiiiae((, ye( aeanoea( aeey iaeano( iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo? ( iaoiiaeai( aeeiai(/ieie aeeneieaoe(eieie i?ioeanaie.
Iniiai( ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaii( ?iaioe aeioe(eueii iiaeaoe o aeaeyae(
ie?aieo a?oi iieiaeaiue, ui ocaaaeueiththoue, a(aeiia(aeii, ?acoeueoaoe
aeine(aeaeaiiy e(i(eieo ( iae(i(eieo aeonoe/ieo aoaeo(a.

?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy e(i(eii( aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe((:

1. A e?enoaeao c aenieeie aa?'(?aie Iae(?ena aeey aeeneieaoe(e ca iaaieo
oiia a iaeano( oaiia?aoo? ?(aeeiai aae(th c’yaeythoueny
iecueeiaia?aaoe/i( i(ee aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe((, iaoiiaeai( ?aciiainiith
aca(iiae((th caoeo c eaioethaeeaie aeeneieaoe(eieo e(ie(a. A
aeena?oaoe(( aia?oa aeyaeai( oa /(oei noi?ioeueiaai( ia?aaeoiiae
oi?ioaaiiy a e?enoaeao eaioethaee(a aeeneieaoe(eieo e(ie(a, ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea aiae(co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ( iaea?aeaia aaaeeeaa
(ioi?iaoe(y i?i iniiai( aeeiai(/i( ( e(iaoe/i( aeanoeaino(
aeeneieaoe(eieo e(ie(a i?e (o ?on( /a?ac aa?'(?e Iaea?ena ae?oaiai
?iaeo.

2. A aeena?oaoei? aeeiiaii ?aoaeueia ( anaa(/ia aea/aiiy aeanoeainoae
iecueeiaia?aaoe/iiai i(ea a ii?iaeueiiio oa iaaei?ia(aeiiio i(ia((, ui
aeaei ciiao aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i(aeoaa?aeeoe iao?ea(aeueiee
e(iaoe/iee

aoaeo, ia?aaeaa/aiee E?aia?nii (1940 a.) i?e oai?aoe/iiio aiae(c(
aeeooc(eiiai ?ooo /anoeiee o a’yceiio na?aaeiaeu( /a?ac iioaioe(aeueiee
aa?'(? — i(aeaeuaiiy aeeooc(eii( ?ooeeaino( /anoeiie a ?acoeueoao(
c?inoaiiy eiao(oe((ioa oa?oy.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i(ee aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe(( a cii( iii(?ii iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?, ye( niinoa?(aaeenue a aeai(e ?iaio(, a oaeiae (ioeie
aaoi?aie i?e aeine(aeaeaii( (-cae(ca, i(ia(th oa (-oee?eii(th,
iaoiiaeai( oa?iioeoeooaoe(eiei ca?iaeaeaiiyi ia? e(ie(a ia
aeeneieaoe(yo, oiaoi ?ooii aeeneieaoe(e /a?ac aa?'(?e Iae(?ena ia?oiai
?iaeo. Aeey an(o iacaaieo e?enoae(a iaea?aeai( iniiai( aeoeaaoe(ei(
ia?aiao?e a(aeiia(aeieo ?aeaenaoe(eieo i?ioean(a oa c?iaeaia ioe(iea
iai?oaeaiiy Iae(?ena.

4. Iieiaeaiiy ia oaiia?aoo?i(e in( ( oi?ia iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo i(e(a
aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe((, ui niinoa?(aaeenue i?e aea/aii( i.oe.e. iaoae(a
(i(ia(e, cae(ci), iii(oii /ooeea( aei no?oeoo?iiai noaio c?ace(a. A
?iaio( aia?oa iieacaii, ui ia?aiao?e i(e(a nenoaiaoe/ii ci(iththoueny
i?e oa?iioeeeethaaii(, ieanoe/i(e aeaoi?iaoe((, aeniei- (
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiio a(aeiae(. No?oeoo?ia /ooeea(noue ia?aiao?(a i(e(a
iaoiiaeaia ci(iaie ye ia'(iii( aonoeie ?aeaenaoi?(a, oae ( noaoenoe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aia?ai? aeoeaaoei? i?e ci(iao aeaoaeoii( no?oeoo?e
c?ace(a. Aeey aea/aieo a aeai(e ?iaio( i(e(a aecia/ai( ooieoe((
noaoenoe/iiai ?iciiae(eo cia/aiue aia?a(( aeoeaaoei? ?aeaenaoi?(a (
iaea?aeai( aii(?e/i( ioe(iee aeey /anoioiiai oaeoi?a, na?aaeiueiai
cia/aiiy ( aeenia?ni? aia?ai? aeoeaaoei?.

5. A iiiie?enoaeao o?iio a(ey oaiia?aoo?e Ia(ey O( ( 309 E
ca?a(no?iaaia aiiiae(y iecueei/anoioii( aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe((: i(e
iiaeeiaiiy caoeo oa iii’yeoaiiy iiaeoey THiaa. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aia?oa
iieacaii, ui oey aiiiae(y /ooeeaa aei aeeneieaoe(eii( no?oeoo?e
iiiie?enoae(a: iaea ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe(y caeiii i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?icieooy aeacaii( aiiiae(( oa ?icuaieaiiy i(ea iiaeeiaiiy ( i?iaaeo ia
oaiia?aoo?i(e caeaaeiino( aeeiai(/iiai iiaeoey THiaa. Na?aaeiy
oaiia?aoo?a Ia(ey O( cnoaa(oueny i?e oeueiio a ciio a(eueo aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?, ( aaee/eia cnoao ocaiaeaeo(oueny c a(aeiieie oai?aoe/ieie
ioe(ieaie aieeao aeeneieaoe(e ia ia?aiao?e iaai(oieo oaciaeo ia?aoiae(a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine(aeaeaiiy iae(i(eii( aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe((:

1. Aiane(aeie nenoaiaoe/iiai aeine(aeaeaiiy aiie(ooaeieo caeaaeiinoae
aeae?aiaioa eieeaaiue oa aeaoaeoo iiaeoey a iaaeaoi?iiaaieo (
aeaoi?iiaaieo iiiie?enoaeao cae(ca, iie(aaeaio, no?ie ( a(niooo ?(cii(
/enoioe ( i?((ioaoei? a (ioa?aae( oaiia?aoo? 5.9 — 300 E aia?oa
anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiei iaoai(ciii iaeii(eieo aeonoe/ieo aoaeo(a a
e?enoaeao i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao ( oa?iiaeoeaiaaia a(aee?(ieaiiy
aeeneieaoeie a(ae eieaeueieo noiii?(a. Aeey an(o aeine(aeaeaieo
e?enoae(a (niothoue aeinoaoiuei oe?ie( iaeano( oaiia?aoo? ( aiie(ooae
caoeo, aea aenia?eiaioaeuei( aeai( iiaeooue aooe iienai( oai?i(th
oa?iiaeoeaiaaiiai aeeneieaoeieiiai ainoa?aceno Iiaeaiaiia-*a?iiaa.
Ocaiaeaeai(noue oai?i? c aenia?eiaioii aeicaieeea iaea?aeaoe iniiaii
e(euee(ni( oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano a(ae?eao aeeneieaoe(e a(ae
cae?(ieyth/eo oeaio?(a.

2. Oa?aeoa? i?((ioaoe(eii( caeaaeiino( iae(i(eieo aeonoe/ieo aoaeo(a
aecia/a(oueny oeiii e?enoae(/ii( no?oeoo?e iaoa?(aeo. A iiiie?enoaeao
no?ie aia?oa aeyaeaia neeueia aiicio?iiiy ii?iaiai( aiieiooaee
iaeii(eii( aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoei? i (noioia i?i(ioaoeieia caeaaei(noue
aeeneieaoe(eiiai ainoa?aceniiai iiaeeiaiiy. Oey iniaeea(noue (
iane(aeeii a(ae?eao a(ae oeaio?(a e?(ieaiiy ?(cei aeae(eaii( nenoaie
aacenieo aeeneieaoe(e. A i.oe.e. iaoaeao i?i(ioaoeieia caeaaei(noue
ainoa?acenieo ao?ao aecia/a(oueny noia?iith aaee/eiith ia?oeiaeueieo
aeeaae(a aeecueeeo ca nai(ie ia?aiao?aie nenoai eiacaiiy i ia (
iano(eueee ?(cei ae?aaeaiith, ye a iiiie?enoaeao no?ie.

3. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a ~ 30 E a aenieiaiie(ooaeieo aenia?eiaioao ia
iiiie?enoaeao no?ie ( e?aii(th aeyaeai( aneiao?(y ( a(noa?ac(n
?aciiainiiai i(eo neeaaeaiiai a(a?aoi?a oa no?eaeiiiae(aia ci(iaiiy
aiie(ooaee i?e iiiioiii(e ci(i( /anoioe eieeaaiue. Aeacai( yaeua aia?oa
iia’ycai( (c c?inoaiiyi aiaa?iii(cio a(a?aoi?a aiane(aeie cia/iiai
ca(eueoaiiy aeeneieaoe(eii( aeaoi?iaoe(( c?ace(a, iaoiiaeaiiai iaae(iiyi
oiiiiii( a’yceino( a cii( aae(eiaeo oaiia?aoo?.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i(ae aieeaii oeueo?acaoeiaeo eieeaaiue aeniei(
aiie(ooaee aeaoaeoii no?oeoo?e aeine(aeaeaieo e?enoae(a caciathoue
iaiai?ioieo ci(i. A caeaaeiino( a(ae oaiia?aoo?e oa iai?yieo
?iciianthaeaeaiiy aenieiaiieiooaeiiai oeueo?acaoeo, a e?enoaeao iiaeooue
niinoa?(aaoenue ?iciiiaeaiiy aeeneieaoe(e, c?inoaiiy na?aaeiuei(
aeiaaeeie aeeneieaoeieieo naaiaio(a, i?i?ea aeeneieaoeieieo neoi/aiue
aai iaoaii/ia aea(eieeoaaiiy. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui a oiiaao iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo? ia?iaea aenieiaiieiooaeiei caoeii c?ace(a c iaoanoaaieueieie
aeaoaeoieie no?oeoo?aie i?ecaiaeeoue aei iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai
“aeeiai(/iiai a(aeiaeo”. Oeae aoaeo aeicaiey( a(aeiiaeyoe no?oeoo?ii
/ooeea( oa?aeoa?enoeee e?enoae(a, ye( caciaee iiia?aaeiuei( ieanoe/ii(
aeaoi?iaoei( aai ae(( oa?i(/ieo iai?oaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe(y ?acoeueoao(a aeena?oaoe((. ?acoeueoaoe aeine(aeaeaiue, ye(
aa(eoee aei aeena?oaoe(eii( ?iaioe, aoee i?aaenoaaeai( ia 37
eiioa?aioe(yo, neiiic(oiao, ia?aaeao, nai(ia?ao e oeieao:

— 5th, 6th International Symp. High-Purity Materials in Science and
Technology (Dresden, GDR, 1980, 1985),

— 7th (Lausanne, Switzerland, 1981), 9th (Beijing, China, 1990), 10th
(Rome, Italy, 1993), 11th (Poitiers, France, 1996), 12th (Buenos Aires,
Argentina, 1999) International Conf. Internal Friction and Ultrasonic
Attenuation in Solids (ICIFUAS),

— International Symp. Structure and Properties of Crystal Defects
(Liblice, Czechoslovakia, 1983).

— 8th International Conf. Strength of Metals and Alloys (ICSMA)
(Oampere, Finland, 1988),

— 5th, 6th International Symp. Plasticity of Metals and Alloys (ISPMA)
(Prague, Chech Republic, 1990, 1994),

— International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC) (Columbus, USA,
1995),

— 7th International Symp. Nondestructive Characterization of Materials
(Prague, Chech Republic, 1995),

— 35th International Conf. Ultrasonic and Acoustic Emission (Trest,
Czech. Republic, 1998),

— 5th (Antwerpen, Belgium, 1987), 6th (Krakow, Poland, 1991) European
Conf. Internal Friction and Ultrasonic Attenuation in Solids (ECIFUAS),

— European Conf. Plasticity of Materials: Fundamental Aspects of
Dislocation Interactions (Ascona, Switzerland, 1992),

— Ananithciuo niaauaieyo ii iaoaieciai aioo?aiiaai o?aiey (Noooie, 1976
a.; Eooaene, 1979 a.; Oaeeene, 1982 a.; Aaooie, 1985 a.),

- 21-i (Oa?ueeia, 1980 a.), 26-i (Aeiiaoee, 1990 a.) Ananithciuo
niaauaieyo ii oeceea ieceeo oaiia?aoo?,

— 1-e, 3-e, 4-e e 5-e Ananithciuo oeieao ii oeceea ieanoe/iinoe e
i?i/iinoe (Oa?ueeia, 1981, 1984, 1987, 1990 aa.),

— Ananithciuo niaauaieyo ai acaeiiaeaenoaeth iaaeaeo aeeneieaoeeyie e
aoiiaie i?eiane e naienoaai nieaaia (Ooea, 1982, 1985, 1988, 1990 aa.),

— 1-e Ananithciie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee «No?oeoo?a e naienoaa a?aieoe
ca?ai» (Ooa, 1983 a.),

— XI Ananithciie e XIII Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiie eiioa?aioeeyo ii oeceea
ieanoe/iinoe e i?i/iinoe iaoaeeia e nieaaia» (Eoeauoaa, 1986, 1992 aa.),

— 2-e Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee «No?oeoo?a e yeaeo?iiiua naienoaa a?aieoe
ca?ai a iaoaeeao e iieoi?iaiaeieeao» (Ai?iiaae, 1987 a.),

— Ananithciie oeiea-naieia?a ii i?iaeaia «?aeaenaoeeiiiua yaeaiey a
iaoaeee/aneeo e iaiaoaeee/aneeo iaoa?eaeao» (A?aaai, 1987 a.),

— ?anioaeeeaineie eiioa?aioeee «Noano?oeoo?iia oi?i/iaiea iaoaeeia»
(Eeaa, 1984 a.),

— Iaaeaeoia?iaeiii naieia?a iaiyoe i?ioanni?a ss.A. Aaaoceia «I?ioeannu
ia?aiina iannu a ?aaeueiuo e?enoaeeao e ia eo iiaa?oiinoe; i?ioeannu
?inoa e?enoaeeia» (Oa?ueeia, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai( a aeena?oaoe??, iiai(noth oa
nai(/anii iioae?eiaai( ( i(noyoueny a 32 noaooyo o i?ia(aeieo iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao, 1 noaoo? a iaoa?(aeao i(aeia?iaeii( eiioa?aioe(( oa 1
iaoaio(, nienie yeeo iiaeaii a e(ioe( aaoi?aoa?aoo.

Ia?niiaeueiee aianie aeena?oaioa. Ca aeiyoeii aeaio ioae(eaoe(e (28,31(,
?io( ?iaioe aeena?oaioa aeeiiai( o ni?aaaoi?noa?. A on(o ioae(eaoe(yo
eiai ia?niiaeueiee aianie aoa ae?(oaeueiei:

— a on(o ?iaioao caeiaoaa/ i?eeiaa o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe( caaea/, a
oaeiae a ?ic?iaoe? i?aeoiae?a oa iaoiae?a (o ae??oaiiy. A ?iaioao
(2,3,6-8,10-12,16,17,19,20,25,26,28,31( (c nieneo iioae(eiaaieo i?aoeue
ca oaiith aeena?oaoe(( iinoaiiaea caaea/ aoea cae(eniaia iei iniaenoi;

— an( aenia?eiaioaeuei( ?acoeueoaoe aoee iaea?aeai( oa ia?iaeai(
ia?niiaeueii aeena?oaioii, aai i?e eiai aaciina?aaei(e o/ano(;

- ia an?o aoaiao iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao(a aeine(aeaeaiiy oa iaienaiiy
iaoeiaeo noaoae, i?aeaioiaee aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo iniaenoee
aianie aeena?oaioa oaeiae aoa ae?(oaeueiei.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe((. Aeena?oaoe(y neeaaea(oueny (c anooio, ainueie
?icae(e(a, caaaeueieo aeniiae(a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee
ianya aeena?oaoe(( neeaaeathoue 214 noi?(iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, 137
iaethie(a oa 17 oaaeeoeue. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i(noeoue a nia(
358 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI(NO AeENA?OAOe((

O ia?oiio ?icae(e( aeena?oaoe(( iiaeai( iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o ( iniiai(
oa?aeoa?enoeee ia'(eo(a aeine(aeaeaiiy oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae(a,
aeei?enoaieo a ?iaio(.

Ia'(eoaie aeine(aeaeaeaiue aoee ia?ai( iiiie?enoaee iai(aiaoae(a no?ie (
a(niooo c ?iiaiaae?(/iith aai inaaaeiaaenaaiiaeueiith no?oeoo?ith, oa
iiii- ( iie(e?enoaee oe(ei( iecee i.oe.e. iaoae(a (o?iio, cae(ca,
i(ia(th oa iie(aaeaio) ?(cii( i?((ioaoe((, /enoioe oa ?(aiy no?oeoo?ii(
aeineiiaeino(. Aeey ii?(aiyiiy aoee aeine(aeaeai( oaeiae
eoaeii-aaeiaaii( i.oe.e. iiiie?enoaee N((, eoa(/i( iiiie?enoaee e?aii(th
( iie(e?enoaee oee?eii(th c a.u.i. a?aoeith. Aea(? ia'(eo(a
aeine(aeaeaiiy aoa iaoiiaeaiee oaeeie /eiieeaie.

1. Iaea aea/ai(noue aeeiai(/ieo aeanoeainoae aeeneieaoe(e a oeeo
e?enoaeao. A(aeiia(aei( aenia?eiaioaeuei( aeai( aoee aai iiai(noth
a(aenooi( a e(oa?aoo?(, aai iaea?aeai( iaoiaeaie aeonoe/ii(
niaeo?ineii(( a (ioeo (ioa?aaeao oaiia?aoo?, /anoio ( aiie(ooae
eieeaaiue, /e (c canoinoaaiiyi (ioeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae(a.

2. Nooo(aa ?(ciiiai(o(noue ooiaeaiaioaeueieo o(ce/ieo aeanoeainoae
aea?aieo ia'(eo(a aeine(aeaeaiiy. Aoee aeine(aeaeai( iaoaee (Cr, Fe, Nb,
((, ((), iai(aiaoaee (((, (() ( iaiaoae(/i( e?enoaee (CsI). C?acee
a(ae?(ciyeenue oeiii e?enoae(/ii( a?aoee, aonoeiith aeaeo?ii(a
i?ia(aeiino(, oaiia?aoo?ith Aeaaay, oaiia?aoo?ith ieaaeaiiy, oeiii
iaai(oii( no?oeoo?e oa (i. Na?aae ia'(eo(a aeine(aeaeaiiy aoee e?enoaee
c oa?iiaai(oiei (Fe) oa aioeoa?iiaai(oiei (Cr) oii?yaeeoaaiiyi, a oaeiae
oeiiaee iecueeioaiia?aoo?iee iaaei?ia(aeiee (Nb). Oea aeaaaei ciiao
aea/aoe aeeiai(/i( aeanoeaino( aeeneieaoe(e ia oii( aa?(aoe(e a oe?ieeo
iaaeao (ioeo o(ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?enoae(a. ?acii c oei, i?e an(e
?(ciiiai(oiino( o(ce/ieo ia?aiao?(a aea/aieo c?ace(a, aiie iaeaaeaee aei
aeaio eiiiaeoieo a?oi ia'(eo(a aeine(aeaeaiiy, ia'(aeiaieo a a?oie
nii?(aeiaiith e?enoae(/iith aoaeiaith (ia'(iii-oeaio?iaaia eoa(/ia oa
aaenaaiiaeueia aai inaaaeiaaenaaiiaeueia a?aoee) ( iniaeeainoyie
?icaeoeo ieanoe/ii( aeaoi?iaoe(( (nenoaie eiacaiiy, ?aeue'(o Iae(?ena oa
(i.). Oe( ianoaaeie aeicaieeee i?iaanoe ei?aeoia ni(anoaaeaiiy ( aiae(c
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao(a.

3. Oi(eaeuei(noue (a iaaiiio ?icoi(ii() aea/aieo ia'(eo(a
aeine(aeaeaiiy: aeniea /enoioa, iecueea aonoeia aeeneieaoe(e, caaeaia
e?enoaeia?ao(/ia i?((ioaoe(y iiiie?enoae(a, oiui. A(eueo(noue e?enoae(a
aoei iaea?aeaii ca iaeiia(oi(oeie ia /an (o i?eaiooaaiiy oaoiieia(yie( o
Oeaio?aeueiiio (inoeooo( o(ceee oaa?aeiai o(ea ( iaoa?(aeiciaanoaa (i.
Ae?acaeai, Aa?iai(y), (inoeooo( o(ceee (i. I?aaa, *ao(y), (inoeooo(
o(ce/iiai iaoaeiciaanoaa (i. A?ii, *ao(y), (inoeooo( o(ceee oaa?aeiai
o(ea ?AI (i. *a?iiaieiaea, ?in(y), (inoeooo( iaoaeio(ceee IAI Oe?a(ie
(i. Ee(a), OO(IO IAI Oe?a(ie (i. Oa?e(a).

Aieiaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e?enoae(a aeey oe(eae, iinoaaeaieo o
aeine(aeaeaii(, aoee (o /enoioa, i?((ioaoe(y (aeey iiiie?enoae(a),
aonoeia aeeneieaoe(e, ?ici(? ca?ia (aeey iie(e?enoae(a). Aeey aecia/aiiy
/enoioe aoee aeei?enoai( niaeo?aeueiee oa o(i(/iee iaoiaee aiae(co
aeii(oeiaiai neeaaeo c?ace(a. I?e ii?(aiyeueieo aei(?ao c?ace(a iaeiiai
e oiai ae iaoaeo c ?(ciith eiioeaio?aoe((th aeii(oie ye (ioaa?aeueia
i(?a /enoioe aaeeaaeinue caeeoeiaa a(aeiioaiiy aeaeo?iiii?(a ((( = (300
E /(0 E c aeno?aiieyoe((th ia 0 E oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae
aeaeo?iiii?o, iaea?aeaieo a (ioa?aae( 300 — 4.2 E. I?((ioaoe(y c?ace(a
eiio?iethaaeanue c iioeaeith ( 1( ca aeiiiiiaith eaoaa?ai. Aonoeia
aeeneieaoe(e, nenoaie eiacaiiy oa ?ici(? ca?ai aecia/aeenue ca
aeiiiiiaith iioe/iiai oa aeaeo?iiiiai i(e?ineii(a. Aeei?enoaiiy a
aenia?eiaio( aenieiaeineiiaeeo oa iaeaaeiei /eiii na?oeo(eiaaieo
e?enoae(a cia/ii i(aeaeueei iaeiicia/i(noue oa a(aeoai?thaai(noue
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao(a ( caaacia/eei iaae(eio aaco aeey (o ei?aeoiiai
aiae(co.

Oeueo?acaoeia( aeine(aeaeaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai( i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 1.4 —
340 E a oe?ieiio (ioa?aae( /anoio ( aiie(ooae eieeaaiue. Aaeeea oaaaa
i?eae(eaia aiae(co iiaeeeaeo aeeaae(a aei aei(?aieo aaee/ei ( ei?aeoiiio
aeae(eaiith c ieo naia aeeneieaoe(eii( eiiiiiaioe. Cia/i( coneeey aoee
ni?yiiaai( ia aaoiiaoecaoe(th aei(?(a oa eiii’thoa?(caoe(th
aenia?eiaioo, ui oaeiae iaei ca iaoo i(aeaeuaiiy iaae(eiino( oa
a(aeoai?thaaiino( iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao(a.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie a aeena?oaoe(( iaea?aeaea oai?(y aeiooaieo
eieeaaiue neeaaeaiiai a(a?aoi?a. Aeaoaeueii i?iaiae(ciaai( ?aciiaini(
aeanoeaino( a(a?aoi?a oa iaea?aeaiee ca’ycie ieae/eo ?aciiainieo /anoio
( cia/aiue aeoeaiiai aeaeo?iiii?o i?e ?aciiainao c i?oaeieie (
aeeneiaoeaieie ia?aiao?aie aeaiaio(a a(a?aoi?a. I?e oeueiio aoee
aeei?enoai( caaaeuei( ni(aa(aeiioaiiy oai?(( e(i(eiiai niaaeeiaiai
i?oaeiiai na?aaeiaeua aac (noioieo iaiaaeaiue aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?(a (
aeaeo /anoioii( aeenia?n(( eiiieaenieo i?oaeieo iiaeoe(a, ae(aeaeo?e/ii(
i?iieeiino( ( i'(ciaeaeo?e/ieo eiao(oe((io(a.

A ae?oaiio ?icae(e( aeeeaaeai( ?acoeueoaoe aeine(aeaeaiiy
aoi-(iioeueniei iaoiaeii caaeaiioiaaiiai aeeneieaoe(eiiai ?aciiaino c
iaoith io?eiaiiy e(euee(nii( (ioi?iaoe(( i?i oa?aeoa?enoeee
eaac(a’yceiai ?ooo aeeneieaoe(e a e?enoaeao no?ie oa a(niooo.

Aaaeeeaith aeeiai(/iith oa?aeoa?enoeeith eaac(a’yceiai ?ooo aeeneieaoe(e
( eiao(oe((io aaeueioaaiiy (. A(i aecia/a( aenieioaeaee(niee
iaaeaa?'(?iee ?oo aeeneieaoe(e, eieeaaeueiee ?oo aeeneieaoe(eieo
naaiaio(a i(ae oeaio?aie e?(ieaiiy ( aieeaa( ia i?ioean iiaeieaiiy
aeeneieaoe(yie eieaeue-ieo aa?'(?(a ?(cii( i?e?iaee. Aaeueioaaiiy
aeeneieaoe(e iaoiiaeaii eiiieaenii ?(ciiiai(oieo eaiae(a aeeneiaoe((,
iaea(eueo aaaeeea( c yeeo ( ?acoeueoaoii aeeiai(/ii( aca(iiae(( c
oiiiiiith ( REF alshits \n 1 (, oa aeaeo?iiiith ( REF kaganov655 \n
2 ( i(aenenoaiaie aeaiaioa?ieo caoaeaeaiue e?enoaea.

(aeaioeo(eaoe(y aeaiaioa?ieo iaoai(ci(a aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe(e
iiaeeeaa oeyoii aea/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae eiao(oe((ioo
aaeueioaaiiy ((() a oe?ieeo oaiia?aoo?ieo (ioa?aaeao. Iaea(eueo
aoaeoeaiei oa iaae(eiei iaoiaeii iaea?aeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii( caeaaeiino(
((() ( aeine(aeaeaiiy caaeaiioiaaiiai aeeneieaoe(eiiai ?aciiaino a
iaaaaa?oeiaiio aeeaiacii( /anoio c caeo/aiiyi oai?aoe/ii( iiaeae(
aeeneieaoe(eiiai iiaeeiaiiy caoeo Eaea?a-A?aiaoi-Etheea (aeea., iai?. (
REF granato4A \n 3 (). Caaeaiioiaaiee aeeneieaoe(eiee ?aciiain aoa
aeyaeaiee ( aeine(aeaeaiee a iiiie?enoaeao no?ie a (ioa?aae( oaiia?aoo?
6 — 300 E oa (ioa?aae( /anoio 80 eAoe — 172.5 IAoe ( REF pv_phstsol383
\n 4 (. Aeeneieaoe(eia eiiiiiaioa aeae(eyeanue o?ueiia iaoiaeaie, ye(
aeaee ni(aiaaeath/( ?acoeueoaoe. A (ioa?aae( oaiia?aoo? 100 — 300 E
cia/aiiy eiao(oe((ioa A iaea?aeai( i?e aeine(aeaeaii( aeniei/anoioii(
aneiioioeee caaeaiioiaaiiai ?aciiaino. Aeey oaiia?aoo? O( 100 E
eiao(oe((io A aoa aecia/aiee ca aeiiiiiaith ?acoeueoao(a aea/aiiy
iecueei/anoioii( aneiioioeee caaeaiioiaaiiai ?aciiaino (c caeo/aiiyi
a(aeiia(aeieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i aeaoaeo iiaeoey ( REF
kobelev1172 \n 5 (. A ?acoeueoao( aeey no?ie aoea iaea?aeaia
oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei(noue ((() a (ioa?aae( 6 — 300 E ( REF
pv_phstsol383 \n 4 (. Aiae(c oe((( caeaaeiino( iieacaa, ui iiaeeco
oaiia?aoo?e Aeaaay (( ( 200 E) ae?(oaeueio ?ieue a aaeueioaaii(
aeeneieaoe(e a(ae(a?athoue oiiiii( iaoai(cie: oiiiiiee a(oa? oa
?aeaenaoe(y «iia(eueieo» oiiii(a ( REF alshits \n 1 (. Aeyaeaii
oaeiae, ui i?e cieaeaii( oaiia?aoo?e aei 6 E eiao(oe((io ( iino(eii
ciaioo(oueny. Oea na(ae/eoue i?i oa, ui i?e aae(eiaeo oaiia?aoo?ao
aeaeo?iiia aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe(e o no?i(, ui ( iai(aiaoaeii,
a(aeiinii iaea o ii?(aiyii( c oiiiiieie aeeaaeaie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae(e( aeena?oaoe(( i(noyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine(aeaeaiiy
a(noa?acenieo aeonoe/ieo ao?ao aiane(aeie oa?iiaeoeaiaaiiai a(ae?eao
aeeneieaoe(eieo naaiaio(a a(ae oeaio?(a e?(ieaiiy. Ia ii/aoeo ?icae(eo
aea(oueny iaeyae (nioth/eo oai?aoe/ieo oyaeaiue i?i iae(i(eiee a(aeaoe
e?enoaea c aeeneieaoe(yie a iaeano( aenieeo aiie(ooae oeueo?acaoeo. C
oeueiai iaeyaeo aeieeaa(, ui c iii(ae aaaaoueio o(eueee oai?(y
(iaeaiaiia-*a?iiaa ( REF indenbom347 \n 6 ( i?eaeaoia aeey
iiaiioe(iiiai aiae(co ?acoeueoao(a, ye( noinothoueny aeineoue oe?ieeo
iaeanoae oaiia?aoo?, aiie(ooae eieeaaiue oa ia?aiao?(a e?enoae(a.

Aeae( iaaiaeyoueny aenia?eiaioaeuei( aeai(, iaea?aeai( a aiie(ooaeii
caeaaei(e iaeano( a iaaeaoi?iiaaieo oa aeaoi?iiaaieo iiiie?enoaeao
cae(ca, iie(aaeaio, no?ie oa a(niooo ?(cii( i?((ioaoe(( oa /enoioe.
Nii/aoeo i?eaiaeyoueny caaaeuei( caeiiii(?iino( aiie(ooaeii caeaaeiiai
aioo?(oiueiai oa?oy: aieea oaiia?aoo?e, /enoioe c?ace(a, i?((ioaoe((,
iiia?aaeiuei( ieanoe/ii( aeaoi?iaoe((, ciai(oiueiai iaai(oiiai iiey (a
cae(c(), a oaeiae aeyaey(oueny ooieoe(iiaeueiee aeae aiie(ooaeieo
caeaaeiinoae.

Aiae(c caaaeueieo caeiiii(?iinoae iaea?aeaieo aiie(ooaeieo caeaaeiinoae
aeaa ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeey an(o aeine(aeaeaieo iiiie?enoae(a
(niothoue aeinoaoiuei oe?ie( (ioa?aaee oaiia?aoo? ( aiie(ooae, aea
aenia?eiaioaeuei( aeai( iiaeooue aooe iienai( oai?((th oa?iiaeoeaiaaiiai
aeeneieaoe(eiiai a(noa?aceno ( REF indenbom347 \n 6 (. Ocaiaeaeai(noue
oai?i? c aenia?eiaioii aeicaieeea iaea?aeaoe iniiaii e(euee(ni(
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano a(ae?eao aeeneieaoe(e a(ae cae?(ieyth/eo
oeaio?(a. Aoee ciaeaeai( caeaaeiino( aia?a(( aeoeaaoe(( a(ae aiie(ooaee
aeaoi?iaoe((, iaea?aeai( ioe(iee aia?a(( ca’yceo aeeneieaoe(e c
oeaio?aie e?(ieaiiy, aecia/ai( aeoeaaoe(ei( ia'(ie oa (o caeaaeiino(
a(ae aiie(ooaee aeaoi?iaoe((, a oaeiae neeia( caeiie aca(iiae((
aeeneieaoe(e c oeaio?aie e?(ieaiiy.

A iaaeaoi?iiaaieo oa a iaio /enoeo e?enoaeao aeoeaaoe(ei( ia'(ie i?e o(e
nai(e aiie(ooae( aeaoi?iaoe(( aoee iaioeie, i(ae a aeaoi?iiaaieo (
aeniei/enoeo c?aceao, aea iaa(oue a oeeo aeiaaeeao aiie iaee cia/aiiy a
iaaeao ( ( (17-103) (3 a caeaaeiino( a(ae iaoa?(aeo oa aiie(ooaee
aeaoi?iaoe((. Aaeee( cia/aiiy aeoeaaoe(eieo ia'(i(a na(ae/aoue i?i oa,
ui a aeine(aeaeaieo (ioa?aaeao aiie(ooae oeueo?acaoeo ( oaiia?aoo? ?oo
aeeneieaoe(e eiio?ieth(oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, aca(iiae((th aeeneieaoe(e
c eieaeueieie oeaio?aie e?(ieaiiy, a ia?oo /a?ao — aeii(oeaie.

A iiiie?enoaeao no?ie aeyaeaia neeueia aiicio?iiiy ii?iaiai( aiieiooaee
iaeii(eii( aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoei? i (noioia i?i(ioaoeieia caeaaei(noue
aeeneieaoe(eiiai ainoa?aceniiai iiaeeiaiiy. Iaaaaeaia a ?iaio( iiyniaiiy
oaei( caeaaeiino( aaco(oueny ia i?eiouaii(, ui iaeii(ei(noue iia’ycaia
c a(ae?eaii a(ae oeaio?(a e?(ieaiiy ?(cei aeae(eaii( nenoaie aacenieo
aeeneieaoe(e. A i.oe.e. iaoaeao aiieiooaeii caeaaeiino( iaoiiaeai(
oa?iiaeoeaiaaiei a(ae?eaii aeeneieaoe(e, ?icoaoiaaieo i(ae aeayeei eooii
aei aeieei ?aeue(oo Iae(?ena. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?iaioaoeieia
caeaaei(noue ainoa?acenieo ao?ao aecia/a(oueny noia?iith aaee/eiith
ia?oeiaeueieo aeeaae(a aeecueeeo ca nai(ie ia?aiao?aie nenoai eiacaiiy i
ia ( iano(eueee ?(cei ae?aaeaiith, ye a iiiie?enoaeao no?ie.

A aeaoi?iiaaieo c?aceao ia ii/aoeia(e noaae(( ieanoe/ii( aeaoi?iaoe((
(noioii ca(eueoo(oueny na?aaeiy aeiaaeeia aeeneieaoe(eieo naaiaio(a (n.
I?e/eiith oaeiai ca(eueoaiiy (n iiaea aooe iaiai?ioiee a(ae?ea
aeeneieaoe(e a(ae aeii(oie a «aoiinoa?ao» Eioo?aeea, a oaeiae, /anoeiai,
?iciiiaeaiiy aeeneieaoe(e. O aeniei/enoiio iie(aaeai( iaea ieanoe/ia
aeaoi?iaoe(y i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae aeae(eaii( i(aenenoaie na(aeeo
aeeneieaoe(e c na?aaeiueith aeiaaeeiith aeeneieaoe(eieo naaiaio(a cia/ii
a(eueoith ca (n aeo(aeii( aeeneieaoe(eii( no?oeoo?e. ?ooeea(noue na(aeeo
aeeneieaoe(e oaeiae iaoiiaeaia oa?iiaeoeaiaaiei a(aee?(ieaiiyi a(ae
eieaeueieo oeaio?(a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiie(ooaei( caeaaeiino( aeae?aiaioa ( aeaoaeoo iiaeoey (
noaiaiaaeie ooieoe(yie c oeiiaeie iieacieeaie noaiaiy 1.1 ( ( ( 2.5.
Iaio( cia/aiiy ( i?eoaiaii( aeaoi?iiaaiei oa a(eueo /enoei c?aceai.
Noaiaiaaee oa?aeoa? aiie(ooaeieo caeaaeiinoae na(ae/eoue i?i noaiaiaaee
aeae ?iciiae(eo aeeneieaoe(eieo naaiaio(a ii aeiaaeeiai ((()( ((.
Cia/aiiy ( caeaaeeoue a(ae iaoa?(aeo oa nooiaiy eiai no?oeoo?ii(
aeineiiaeino( ( eaaeeoue a iaaeao — 5.9 ( ( ( — 4.9.

A(aeiioaiiy aiie(ooaeii caeaaeii( /anoeie aeae?aiaioa aei a(aeiia(aeii(
aaee/eie aeaoaeoo iiaeoey ( = (( /((A/A)( iaioa aai ii?yaeeo iaeeieoe(,
neaai caeaaeeoue a(ae aiie(ooaee eieeaaiue ( nenoaiaoe/ii ciaioo(oueny
(c c?inoaiiyi ieanoe/ii( aeaoi?iaoe((.

A aeine(aeaeai(e iaeano( aiie(ooae eieeaaiue ( oaiia?aoo?
iaai(oiaeonoe/i( aoaeoe a cae(c( a iane/oth/iio iaai(oiiio iie( cia/i(
ca aaee/eiith, aea i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeaoue a(ae aiie(ooaee, oiio (o
iayai(noue ia ianeo( iae(i(ei( aeeneieaoe(ei( aoaeoe.

*aoaa?oee ?icae(e aeena?oaoe(( i?enay/aiee aeine(aeaeaiith aieeao
(ia?oe(eieo aeanoeainoae aeeneieaoe(e ia iecueeioaiia?aoo?i( aeonoe/i(
aoaeoe a iiiie?enoaeao no?ie ( e?aii(th.

Ca(aeii c (ia?oe(eiith iiaeaeeth A?aiaoi ( REF granato660 \n 7 ( oa ((
iiaeeo(eaoe(yie, a iaeano( iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? aeeneieaoe(ei( naaiaioe
iiaeooue ia?aeoe a iaaeiaeaiioiaaiee noai aiane(aeie cia/iiai ciaioaiiy
eiao(oe((ioa aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe(e (. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?ioean
iiaeieaiiy cae?(iethth/eo noiii?(a iieaaoo(oueny caaaeyee (ia?oe(eiei
aeanoeainoyi aeeneieaoe(e. Oea iiaea o?aieoenue ca oiiae, ui (( ( 2 (
(A(0)1/2 (( — aeiaaeeia aeeneieaoe(eiiai naaiai-oo, A, (0 — iana oa
aia?a(y iaeeieoe( aeiaaeeie aeeneieaoe((, a(aeiia(aeii). Iai/iei
i?eeeaaeii i?iyao (ia?oe(eieo aeanoeainoae aeeneieaoe(e iiaea neoaoaaoe
ciaioaiiy aeaoi?ioth/iai iai?oaeaiiy i?e (-( ia?aoiae( a
iaaei?ia(aeieeao, eiee i?eiaei( aeey /anoeie aeeneieaoe(eieo naaiaio(a
aeacaia aeua oiiaa ii/eia( caaeiaieueiyoeny aiane(aeie ?(ceiai ciaioaiiy
aeaeo?iiii( a’yceino( oa aaeueioaaiiy aeeneieaoe(e o iaaei?ia(aeiiio
noai(.

Iiyaa iacaaeaiioiaaieo aeeneieaoe(e iiaea aooe ia eeoa iane(aeeii
ia?aoiaeo iaoaeo o iaaei?ia(aeiee noai, aea ( ?acoeueoaoii cia/iiai
iaae(iiy eiao(oe((ioa ( a iai(aiaoaeao, iai(ai?ia(aeieeao oa (cieyoi?ao
i?e aae(eiaeo oaiia?aoo?ao. Oiio ne(ae aoei /aeaoe, ui ?ieue (ia?oe(eieo
aoaeo(a iiaea yne?aai aeyaeoenue a aeine(aeao ii aea/aiith aiie(ooaeii
caeaaeiiai aioo?(oiueiai oa?oy naia a oaeeo iaoa?(aeao. Ae(enii, a iao(e
iiia?aaei(e ?iaio( [ REF pv_fnt_361 \n 8 ] aoei aia?oa aeyaeaia (
nenoaiaoe/ii aea/aia aiiiaeueia

iieaaoaiiy i?ioeano a(aee?(ieaiiy aeeneieaoe(e a iaaeaoi?iiaaieo (
aeaoi?iiaaieo iiiie?enoaeao no?ie ?(cii( /enoioe i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a
aeayei( oa?aeoa?enoe/ii( oaiia?aoo?e O0( ~ 30 E. Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui a
aeii(oeiaeo e?enoaeao a iaeano( iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? aiie(ooaei(
caeaaeiino( aeae?aiaioa ( aeaoaeoo iiaeoey ci(uoaaeenue a iaeanoue
iaioeo aiie(ooae oeueo?acaoeo i?e cieaeaii( oaiia?aoo?e, ui noia?a/eoue
aeniiaeai oa?iioeoeooaoe(eieo oai?(e aeeneieaoe(eiiai a(noa?aceno.
I(aeaeuaiiy /enoioe ( iiia?aaeiy ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe(y e?enoae(a
i?ecaiaeeea aei cieaeaiiy O0( oa i?iyao aiiiae(( eeoa a
aenieiaiie(ooaei(e iaeano(. Oey iniaeea(noue ia ye(niiio ?(ai(
(ioa?i?aoiaaia ye ?acoeueoao ni(eueii( ae(( oa?iioeoeooaoe(eiiai oa
(ia?oe(eiiai iaoai(ci(a a(aee?(ieaiiy aeeneieaoe(e a(ae noiii?(a.

A aeena?oaoe(( ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe [ REF pv_fnt_361 \n 8 ] iaea?aeaee
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie. Ii-ia?oa, aeey iiyniaiiy aeyaeaii( aiiiae((
aiie(ooaeii caeaaeiiai aioo?(oiueiai oa?oy a no?i( i?e iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?ao aoa caeo/aiee iai(ae(euee(niee iien yaeua, yeee aaco(oueny
ia oai?(( iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai oa?iiaeoeaiaaiiai aeeneieaoe(eiiai
aenoa?aceno A?aiaoi ( Etheea ( REF granato7136 \n 9 ( c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaeeeaiai aieeao ia i?ioean a(ae?eao aeeneieaoe(e cia/iiai ciaioaiiy
eiao(oe((ioa aaeueioaaiiy A oa eaaioiaeo oeoeooaoe(e (10-12(.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiiiaeueiee o(ae oaiia?aoo?ii( caeaaeiino( a(noa?acenieo
ao?ao iiaea iaoe i(noea ca oiiae noi(niiai aieeao ?(ceiai iaae(iiy A oa
ae(( eaaioiaeo aoaeo(a.

(ioei iai?yieii ?icaeoeo oe((( i?iaeaie aoei aea/aiiy ?aaeeio
aenieiaiie(ooaeieo aeiooaieo eieeaaiue e?enoae(a i?e ia?aoiae(
aeeneieaoe(e a iacaaeaiioiaaiee noai. Ia i?eeeaae( iiiie?enoae(a
e?aii(th, eaaiaaieo a?naiii, oa no?ie iieacaii, ui a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
aeiooai( eieeaaiiy a aiie(ooaeii caeaaei(e iaeano( iaaoaathoue nooi
iae(i(eiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aoee aeyaeai( aneiao?(y oa a(noa?acen
?aciiainiiai i(ea neeaaeaiiai a(a?aoi?a oa no?eaeiiiae(aia ci(iaiiy
aiie(ooaee i?e iiiioiii(e ci(i( /anoioe eieeaaiue. Aeacai( yaeua aia?oa
iia’ycothoueny (c c?inoaiiyi aiaa?iii(cio a(a?aoi?a aiane(aeie cia/iiai
ca(eueoaiiy aeeneieaoe(eii( aeaoi?iaoe(( c?ace(a, iaoiiaeaiiai iaae(iiyi
oiiiiii( a’yceino( a cii( aae(eiaeo oaiia?aoo?. A i?eiouaii( iae(i(eiiai
oa?aeoa?o eieeaaiue aeeneieaoe(e a aeena?oaoe(( aeaii ye(nia iiyniaiiy
aeyaeaieo aoaeo(a.

O i’yoiio ?icae(e( iaaaaeai( aenia?eiaioaeuei( ?acoeueoaoe
aeine(aeaeaiiy e(i(eieo oa iae(i(eieo aeeneieaoe(eieo aeonoe/ieo aoaeo(a
a iiiie?enoaeao o?iio ?(cii( i?((ioaoe((. Oe( ?acoeueoaoe nooo(ai
a(ae?(ciythoueny a(ae aeaieo, iaea?aeaieo ia (ioeo i.oe.e. e?enoaeao, (
oiio aiie aeae(eai( a ie?aiee ?icae(e. Aieiaiith a(aei(ii(noth o(ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae o?iio o aeine(aeaeaiiio (ioa?aae( oaiia?aoo? ( iayai(noue
aeaio oei(a oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue: i?e oaiia?aoo?( Ia(ey (( ( 309 (
a(aeaoaa(oueny ia?ao(ae (c ia?aiaai(oiiai a aioeoa?iiaai(oiee noai c
iiia?a/iith iiey?ecaoe((th oaeeue ni(iiai( aonoeie, a i?e oaiia?aoo?(
ni(i-oeii ia?aoiaeo ((( ( 124 ( iiey?ecaoe(y ci(ith(oueny ia
iiacaeiaaeio. Iaeaeaa oacia( ia?aoiaee noi?iaiaeaeothoueny no?oeoo?ieie
ia?aoai?aiiyie (i.oe.e. ( i?oi?iia(/ia ( i.oe.o. e?enoae(/i(
iiaeeo(eaoe((), oiaoi yaeythoue niaith oacia( ia?aoiaee ia?oiai ?iaeo.
Iaea?aeai( a aeena?oaoe(( ?acoeueoaoe na(ae/aoue ye i?i nooo(aee aieea
oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue ia aeeiai(/i( aeanoeaino( aeeneieaoe(e a
iaaeaoi?iiaaieo iiiie?enoaeao o?iio, oae ( i?i cia/io ci(io iniiaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?e aaaaeaii( aei c?ace(a na(aeeo
aeeneieaoe(e ieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoe((th oa ianooiiei
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iei a(aeiaeii.

I?e aeine(aeaeaii( oaiia?aoo?ieo ( aiie(ooaeieo niaeo?(a aioo?(oiueiai
oa?oy a iiiie?enoaeao o?iio i?((ioaoe(e (100( oa (831( a (ioa?aae(
oaiia?aoo? ((( ( (( (( (oiaoi a i?oi?iia(/i(e oac() aia?oa aeyaeaia
neeueia caeaaei(noue aeae?aiaioa eieeaaiue oa aeaoaeoo iiaeoey a(ae
aiie(ooaee oeueo?acaoeiai( aeaoi?iaoe((. Iniaeeai yne?aai oey aiiiae(y
i?iyaey(oueny a(ey ((( . I?e ( ( ((( oa O ( (( aiie(ooaei(
caeaaeiino( i?aeoe/ii a(aenooi(. Iayai(noue aiie(ooaeieo caeaaeiinoae
aioo?(oiueiai oa?oy iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia ae((th iaiaaeaii( e(eueeino(
o(ce/ieo iaoai(ci(a. A oiiaao i?iaaaeaiiai aenia?eiaioo iaea(eueo
a(?ia(aeiei ne(ae aaaaeaoe i?iya iaoai(cio a(noa?acenieo ao?ao,
iia’ycaieo c a(ae?eaii aeeneieaoe(e a(ae oeaio?(a e?(ieaiiy, aeey yeiai
oa?aeoa?i( ii?iaiaee oa?aeoa?, a oaeiae a(aeiinii aaeee( ( i?eaeecii
?(ai( cia/aiiy aiie(ooaeii caeaaeieo aeae?aiaioa ( aeaoaeoo iiaeoey (
REF nikanorov85 \n 12 (. Aiae(c iieaco(, ui aiie(ooaei( caeaaeiino(
aeae?aiaioa oa aeaoaeoo iiaeoey a o?ii( a(aeiia(aeathoue oeei aeiiaai,
iathoue aeeneieaoe(eio i?e?iaeo ( iaoiiaeai( a i?oi?iia(/i(e oac(
iieaaoaiiyi a(ae?eao aeeneieaoe(e aiane(aeie cia/ii( ci(ie nee
i(aeaoiiii( aca(iiae(( i?e ni(i-oeii ia?aoiae(. Aieea oa?i(/ieo
oeoeooaoe(e ia aiie(ooaei( caeaaeiino( a aenia?eiaio( ia aeyaeaiee.

A iiiie?enoaeao o?iio a(ey oaiia?aoo?e Ia(ey O( ( 309 E ca?a(no?iaaia
aiiiae(y iecueei/anoioii( aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe((: i(e iiaeeiaiiy caoeo
oa iii’yeoaiiy iiaeoey THiaa. Iieacaii, ui oey aiiiae(y /ooeeaa aei
aeeneieaoe(eii( no?oeoo?e iiiie?enoae(a. Iaea ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe(y
caeiii i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icieooy aeacaii( aiiiae(( oa ?icuaieaiiy i(ea
iiaeeiaiiy ( i?iaaeo ia oaiia?aoo?i(e caeaaeiino( aeeiai(/iiai iiaeoey
THiaa. Na?aaeiy oaiia?aoo?a Ia(ey O( cnoaa(oueny i?e oeueiio a ciio
a(eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?, ( aaee/eia cnoao ocaiaeaeo(oueny c a(aeiieie
oai?aoe/ieie ioe(ieaie aieeao aeeneieaoe(e ia ia?aiao?e iaai(oieo
oaciaeo ia?aoiae(a ( REF dubrovskii1017 \n 13 (.

Oinoee ?icae(e aeena?oaoe((, ye ( iiia?aaei( o?e ?icae(ee, i(noeoue a
nia( (ioi?iaoe(th i?i aenia?eiaioaeuei( ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai( a
iae(i(ei(e aenieiaiie(ooaei(e iaeano( oeueo?acoeiaeo eieeaaiue. Aea yeui
aein( eoeiny eeoa i?i iiai(noth iai?ioi( i?ioeane a c?aceao (c
noaa(eueieie aeeneieaoe(eieie no?oeoo?aie, oi a oeueiio ?icae(e(
i?eaaaeai( aeai( a(aeiinii e?enoae(a, ia?aiao?e aeeneieaoe(eieo no?oeoo?
yeeo ci(ithaaeenue aiane(aeie aeonoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aieiaiei /eiii,
iiaa eaea i?i aieea oeueo?acaoeiaeo eieeaaiue aeniei( aiie(ooaee ia oae
caai( iaoanoaa(euei( aeeneieaoe(ei( no?oeoo?e, ye( ooai?ththoueny a
e?enoaeao i?e iecueeioaiia?aoo?i(e ieanoe/i(e aeaoi?iaoe((. Aioo?(oi(
oa?oy, ui aei(?th(oueny a oeueiio aeiaaeeo, a(aeaeca?eaeth( no?oeoo?i(
ci(ie a e?enoae( ( noa( ianoaoe(iia?iei, oiaoi ii/eia( caeaaeaoe a(ae
iiooaeiino( oa /ano ae(( aenieiaiie(ooaeiiai oeueo?acaoeo (aeea., iai?.
( REF ostrovski3718ftt84 \n 14 ().

A ?iaioao ( REF pv_fnt_77 \n 15 , REF pv_fnt_77 \* MERGEFORMAT REF
pv_fmm_79 \* MERGEFORMAT REF pv_fmm_79 \n 16 ( aoa aia?oa
ca?a(no?iaaiee aieea aenieiaiie(ooaeieo iiacaeiaaeieo oeueo?acaoeiaeo
oaeeue c /anoioith 7.5 IAoe ia aeeneieaoe(eia iiaeeiaiiy a iiiie?enoaeao
no?ie oa a(niooo, ui caciaee ae(( iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii( ieanoe/ii(
aeaoi?iaoe((. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aae(eiaeo oaiia?aoo?ao caoaeaeaiiy a
c?aceao oeueo?acaoeiaeo (iioeuen(a aeniei( aiie(ooaee i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy aioo?(oiueiai oa?oy a aiie(ooaeii caeaaei(e iaeano(, oiae( ye
a aiie(ooaeii iacaeaaei(e iaeano( iiaeeiaiiy caeeoa(oueny iaci(iiei. I?e
acioieo oaiia?aoo?ao aioo?(oi( oa?oy c?inoa( a on(e aeine(aeaeai(e
iaeano( aiie(ooae. Aeine(aeaeaiiy e(iaoeee aioo?(oiueiai oa?oy i(ae
aieeaii (iioeuen(a aeniei( aiie(ooaee iieaco(, ui eiio?iethth/ei
iaoai(ciii ciaioaiiy aiie(ooaeii caeaaeiiai iiaeeiaiiy oeueo?acaoeo i?e
aae(eiaeo oaiia?aoo?ao ( oa?iiaeoeaiaaia ca(eueoaiiy iacai?eieo oeaio?(a
e?(ieaiiy aeeneieaoe(e. Ca(eueoaiiy aeeneieaoe(eiiai aioo?(oiueiai oa?oy
i?e 78 E iaoiiaeaii ca(eueoaiiyi aonoeie aeeneieaoe(e i(ae aieeaii
(iioeuen(a aeniei( aiie(ooaee. Iieacaii, ui ye(nia a(aei(ii(noue
oa?aeoa?o aieeao (iioeuen(a aeniei( aiie(ooaee i?e aae(eiaeo oa acioieo
oaiia?aoo?ao iaoiiaeaia ?(ciei noaiii aeeneieaoe(eieo no?oeoo? i?e oeeo
oaiia?aoo?ao.

A aeena?oaoe(( i?e aeine(aeaeaii( iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai e(i(eiiai
iiaeeiaiiy oeueo?acaoeo a e(eiaa?oeaaiio ae(aiacii( /anoio a
iiiie?enoaeao aeniei/enoiai iie(aaeaio (((((1(105) aia?oa anoaiiaeaii,
ui iecueeioaiia?aoo?ia i(e?iieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe(y i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iiyae a e?enoaeao cia/ii( e(eueeino( no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo(a, ni?iiiaeieo
eiieo?oaaoe c oiiiiaie a iaiaaeaii( aeiaaeeie a(eueiiai i?ia(ao
aeaeo?ii(a. Ii?yae c oeei, aia?oa aeyaeaiee oaeiae iecueeioaiia?aoo?iee
«aeeiai(/iee a(aeiae» e?enoae(a, caciaaoeo ae(( iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii(
i(e?iieanoe/ii( aeaoi?iaoe((. Caoaeaeaiiy eieeaaiue aeniei( aiieiooaee a
c?aceao c iaea?aeaieie oaeei /eiii iaoanoaaieueieie aeaoaeoieie
no?oeoo?aie i?ecaiaeeoue aei a(aeiiaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii /ooeeaiai
aeaeo?iiiiai iiaeeiaiiy oa i?oaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?enoae(a. Nooi(iue
a(aeiiaeaiiy caeaaeeoue a(ae aaee/eie i(e?iieanoe/ii( aeaoi?iaoe(( oa
/ano ae(( aenieiaiie(ooaeiai oeueo?acaoeo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i(ae aieeaii oeueo?acaoeiaeo eieeaaiue aeniei(
aiie(ooaee aeaoaeoii no?oeoo?e aeine(aeaeaieo e?enoae(a caciathoue
iaiai?ioieo ci(i. A caeaaeiino( a(ae oaiia?aoo?e oa iai?yieo
?iciianthaeaeaiiy aenieiaiieiooaeiiai oeueo?acaoeo, a e?enoaeao iiaeooue
niinoa?(aaoenue ?iciiiaeaiiy aeeneieaoe(e, c?inoaiiy na?aaeiuei(
aeiaaeeie aeeneieaoeieieo naaiaio(a, i?i?ea aeeneieaoeieieo neoi/aiue
aai iaoaii/ia aea(eieeoaaiiy.

Nueiiee ?icae(e aeena?oaoe(eii( ?iaioe i?enay/aiee aeine(aeaeaiith
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aeonoe/ieo ?aeaenaoe(eieo i?ioean(a, iaoiiaeaieo
oa?iiaeoeaiaaiei ca?iaeaeaiiyi ia? e(ie(a ia aeeneieaoe(yo.

sse a(aeiii, ?ooeea(noue aeeneieaoe(e a aeinoaoiuei /enoeo e?enoaeao c
aenieei ?aeue(oii Iae(?ena aecia/a(oueny a iaeano( iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?
aieiaiei /eiii oa?iiaeoeaiaaiei aeieaiiyi aeeneieaoe(yie aa?'(?(a
Iae(?ena ia?oiai oa ae?oaiai ?iaeo ( REF seeger369 \n 17 (.
Aeaiaioa?ieie aeoaie ?ooo aeeneieaoe(e /a?ac ?aeue(o Iae(?ena (
ca?iaeaeaiiy ia? e(ie(a ia aeeneieaoe(yo oa aeeooc(eiee ?oo iiiaeeiieeo
(aaiiao?e/ieo) e(ie(a. Aeonoe/i( iaoiaee aeathoue iiaeeea(noue
iaea?aeaoe ?(ciia(/io ( iaae(eio (ioi?iaoe(th i?i iaeaeaa oeie
aeaiaioa?ieo iaoai(ci(a ?ooo aeeneieaoe(e a e?enoae(. A aeaiiio ?icae(e(
c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy iiai( (ioi?iaoe(( i?i ia?aiao?e
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii( ?ooeeaino( aeeneieaoe(e ia noaae((
i(e?iieanoe/iino( aeaoaeueii aea/ai( aeonoe/i( aeanoeaino(
iaaeaoi?iiaaieo ( aeaoi?iiaaieo e?enoae(a aeniei/enoiai (-cae(ca oa
i(ia(th ( (-oee?eii(th iii(?ii( /enoioe a iaeano( oaiia?aoo? 6 — 300 E (
oe?ieiio (ioa?aae( aiie(ooae oeueo?acaoeo.

(, ye( ?ooathoueny a i?eciaoe/ieo ( i(?ai(aeaeueieo ieiueiao eiacaiiy.
Aeey an(o e?enoae(a iaea?aeai( iniiai( aeoeaaoe(ei( ia?aiao?e
a(aeiia(aeieo ?aeaenaoe(eieo i?ioean(a. Aeey iiiie?enoae(a aeniei/enoiai
(-cae(ca c?iaeaia ioe(iea iai?oaeaiiy Iae(?ena aeey e?aeiaeo
aeeneieaoe(e nenoaie eiacaiiy (112((111(, yea aeyaeeinue o 4.7 ?ac(a
iaioei ca iai?oaeaiiy Iae(?ena aeey aaeioiaeo aeeneieaoe(e nenoaie
eiacaiiy (110((111(.

)(111(, oae ( aeey iiiaeeiiiai eiacaiiy ca nenoaiaie (112((111(,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy aaeeei( e(eueeino( iaaaeioiaeo
aeeneieaoe(eieo naaiaio(a, i?e/iio aonoeia iaaaeioiaeo aeeneieaoe(e
c?inoa( (c c?inoaiiyi aaee/eie iiia?aaeiuei( ieanoe/ii( aeaoi?iaoe((
(((, i?i ui na(ae/eoue c?inoaiiy aenioe ?aeaenaoe(eieo i(e(a i?e
iine(aeiaiiio ca(eueoaii( ((( .

I?e cieaeaii( oaiia?aoo?e aeaoi?iaoe(( ni(aa(aeiioaiiy i(ae aonoeiith
aaeioiaeo oa e?aeiaeo aeeneieaoe(eieo eiiiiiaio a aeaoi?iiaaieo c?aceao
ci(ith(oueny oaeei /eiii, ui a(aeiinia /anoea aaeioiaeo aeeneieaoe(e
c?inoa(, a aenioa ?aeaenaoe(eiiai i(ea i?e iaeiaeia(e ((( cia/ii
ciaioo(oueny. Oeae aeniiaie i?i aieea oaiia?aoo?e aeaoi?iaoe(( ia
ni(aa(aeiioaiiy aaeioiaeo ( iaaaeioiaeo eiiiiiaio aeia?a ocaiaeaeo(oueny
c ?acoeueoaoaie, iaea?aeaieie (ioeie iaoiaeaie, a oiio /ene(, c aeaieie
aeaeo?iiiii(e?ineii(/ieo aeine(aeaeaiue (( (((( .

O?eaaeee a(aeiae c?ace(a i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?(ceiai cieaeaiiy ?ooeeaino(
aeeneieaoe(e. I?e/eiith oeueiai ( aenieioaiia?aoo?ia aeeooc(y
aeii(oeiaeo aoii(a aei aeeneieaoe(e, ooai?aiiy «aoiinoa?» Eioo?aeea (,
ye iane(aeie, ciaioaiiy a(?ia(aeiino( oa?iiaeoeaiaaiiai ca?iaeaeaiiy ia?
e(ie(a ( REF petukhov1445 \n 18 (. E?(i oeueiai, a(aeiae aeaui cieaeo(
aonoeio aeeneieaoe(e ca ?aooiie aeoiaeo c e?enoaeo iaea(eueo ?ooeeaeo
iaaaeioiaeo eiiiiiaio i(ae aieeaii aioo?(oi(o aai oa?i(/ieo iai?oaeaiue.

Aia?oa caa?iooi oaaao ia oie oaeo, ui iieiaeaiiy ?aeaenaoe(eieo i(e(a
acaeiaae oaiia?aoo?ii( in( oa (o oi?ia a i.oe.e. iaoaeao aeyaeythoue
iii(oio /ooeea(noue aei no?oeoo?iiai noaio e?enoae(a: ia?aiao?e i(e(a
nenoaiaoe/ii ci(iththoueny i?e oa?iioeeeethaaii(, ieanoe/i(e
aeaoi?iaoe((, aeniei- oa iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiio a(aeiae(. No?oeoo?ia
/ooeea(noue ia?aiao?(a i(e(a iaoiiaeaia ci(iith ye ia'(iii( aonoeie
?aeaenaoi?(a, oae ( noaoenoe/iiai ?iciiae(eo aia?a(( aeoeaaoe(( i?e
ci(iao aeaoaeoii( no?oeoo?e c?ace(a. A on(o aeine(aeaeaieo i.oe.e.
iaoaeao noaoenoe/iee ?iciiae(e aia?a(( aeoeaaoe(( ?aeaenaoi?(a iiaea
aooe iienaiee ooieoe((th eaac(aaoniaiai oeio c iaeith aeenia?n((th,
aaee/eia yei( caeaaeeoue a(ae no?oeoo?iiai noaio e?enoaeo. Iaea(eueo(
cia/aiiy aeenia?n(y iaaoaa( a(ae?aco i(ney ieanoe/ii( aeaoi?iaoe((.
Aeniei- oa iecueeioaiia?aoo?i( a(aeiaee nooo(ai ciaioothoue aeenia?n(th
?iciiae(eo aia?a(( aeoeaaoe((.

Aeey ei?aeoiiai aeae(eaiiy aeeneieaoe(eiiai aeeaaeo aei aei(?aieo
cia/aiue aeae?aiaioa eieeaaiue oa ?aciiainii( /anoioe oa?iiaai(oieo
iiiie?enoae(a (-cae(ca aoee i?iaaaeai( eiio?ieuei( aenia?eiaioe c
iaeiaeaiiyi ciai(oiueiai iaai(oiiai iiey. I?e oeueiio aoei iieacaii, ui
a iaeano( oaiia?aoo?, aea niinoa?(aaeanue iecueeioaiia?aoo?ia
aeeneieaoe(eia ?aeaenaoe(y, iaai(oiaeonoe/i( aoaeoe a iane/oth/iio
iaai(oiiio iie( oi/ ( aoee cia/i( ca aaee/eiith, aea aeyaeee neaaeo
iiiioiiio caeaaei(noue a(ae oaiia?aoo?e ( oiio ia iiaee nooo(ai aieeiooe
ia aecia/aiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao?(a ?aeaenaoe(eiiai i(ea.

O ainueiiio ?icae(e( aeena?oaoe(( i(noyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine(aeaeaiiy
iniaeeai iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieo ?aeaenaoe(eieo i?ioean(a, ye( aeyaeythoueny
a cii( aae(eiaeo oaiia?aoo? a e?enoaeao i(ia(th ( N(( ( iathoue
aeeneieaoe(eio i?e?iaeo.

I(ia(e. A 1967 ?. E?aia? ( Aaoa? iioae(eoaaee iia(aeiieaiiy i?i i(e
iiaeeiaiiy i?oaeieo eieeaaiue a i(ia(( a iaeano( aae(eiaeo oaiia?aoo? (
REF kramer407 \n 19 (. I(e niinoa?(aaany ye a ii?iaeueiiio, oae ( a
iaaei?ia(aeiiio noai(, i?e/iio (-( ia?ao(ae iii(oii i(aeaeuoaaa
oaiia?aoo?o i(ea O( . I(ci(oa iiae(ai( i(ee niinoa?(aaeenue a aeonoe/ieo
aenia?eiaioao ia i(ia(( a ?(cieo ae(aiaciiao /anoio oeueo?acaoeo. Cnoa
O( a a(e aenieeo oaiia?aoo? i?e ca(eueoaii( /anoioe eieeaaiue aeacoaaa
ia ?aeaenaoe(eio i?e?iaeo i(ea. Aoei cai?iiiiiaaii aeae(eueea
i(e?ineii(/ieo iaoai(ci(a ?aeaenaoe((, ye( iiynithaaee ie?ai(
aeanoeaino( i(ea, aea aeiaeia c a(iioac ia i(aeoaa?aeaeoaaeanue on((th
noeoii(noth aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. Oiio aieiaieie oe(eyie
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine(aeaeaiiy aoee eiiieaenia aea/aiiy aieeao
?(ciiiai(oieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaeoi?(a ia ia?aiao?e i(ea, (o
nenoaiaoecaoe(y oa ?ic?iaea ia oe(e iniia( iiai( oai?aoe/ii( iiaeae(
aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe((.

Nenoaiaoecaoe(y iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao(a ( a(aeiieo oaeo(a aeicaieeea
anoaiiaeoe oae( caaaeuei( aeanoeaino( i(ea E?aia?a-Aaoa?a:

— on( a(aeii( a oeueiio oaiia?aoo?iiio (ioa?aae( i(ee iiaeeiaiiy
iathoue (aeeio o(ce/io i?e?iaeo ( iaoiiaeai( ae((th nenoaie iaeiioeiieo
oa?iiaeoeaiaaieo ?aeaenaoi?(a;

— e(i(eiee a(aeaoe ?aeaenaoi?(a ia aeonoe/ia caoaeaeaiiy a(aeiia(aea(
iiaeae( noaiaea?oiiai e(i(eiiai o(ea c iaei((th oa?aeoa?iith /anoioith
?aeaenaoe((;

— oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei(noue /ano ?aeaenaoe(( ye(nii iieno(oueny
ni(aa(aeiioaiiyi A?ai(ona, a aii(?e/i( cia/aiiy aia?a(( aeeaaoe(( oa
/anoioe ni?ia (, a(aeiia(aeii, (0 ( (2(3)(10-3 aA ( (0 ~1010 (10 11
n-1;

— (-( ia?ao(ae i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ca(eueoaiiy /ano ?aeaenaoe((,
ui oi?iaeueii aea(aaeaioii ca(eueoaiith aia?a(( aeoeaaoe(( ia aaee/eio
((0 ( 1(10-3 aA;

— ?aeaenaoi?e, ui a(aeiia(aeaeuei( ca i(e E?aia?a-Aaoa?a, c’yaeythoueny
a c?aceao aiane(aeie ae(( oa?i(/ieo iai?oaeaiue i?e oaeaeeiio
ioieiaeaeaii(; i?e iia(eueiiio ioieiaeaeaii( i(e a(aenooi(e;

- ca(eueoaiiy aeii(oie a c?aceao ni?ey( iaeiie/aiith ?aeaenaoi?(a i?e
oaeaeeiio ioieiaeaeaii(.

E?eoe/iee aiae(c aeanoeainoae i(ea aeicaieea cai?iiiioaaoe aeey (o
ianoia?a/eeaiai iiyniaiiy iiaeaeue eaioethaee(a aeeneieaoe(eieo e(ie(a,
eio?a aaco(oueny ia aeaeo?iiiii(e?ineii(/ieo aeaieo i?i aeeneieaoe(eio
no?oeoo?o i.oe.e. iaoae(a, ia a(aeiieo a oai?(( aeeneieaoe(e oyaeaiiyo
i?i aaiiao?e/i( e(iee ( REF hirth \n 20 (, a oaeiae ia ?acoeueoaoao
eiiiuethoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ?ooo ie?aiiai e(iea a i.oe.e. iaoaeao
/a?ac aa?'(?e Iae(?ena ae?oaiai ?iaeo ( REF klyavin3388ftt \n 21 (.
Ca(aeii c oe((th iiaeaeeth, a e?enoaeao c aenieeie aa?'(?aie Iae(?ena
aeey aeeneieaoe(e iecueeiaia?aaoe/i( i(ee aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoe(( a
iaeano( aae(eiaeo oaiia?aoo? iaoiiaeai( ?aciiainiith aca(iiae((th
caoeiaeo eieeaaiue c eaioethaeeaie aeeneieaoe(eieo e(ie(a. A
aeena?oaoe(( aia?oa aeyaeai( oa /(oei noi?ioeueiaai( ia?aaeoiiae
oi?ioaaiiy a e?enoaeao eaioethaee(a aeeneieaoe(eieo e(ie(a, ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea aiae(co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ( iaea?aeaia aaaeeeaa
(ioi?iaoe(y i?i iniiai( aeeiai(/i( ( e(iaoe/i( aeanoeaino(
aeeneieaoe(eieo e(ie(a i?e (o ?on( /a?ac aa?'(?e Iae(?ena ae?oaiai
?iaeo.

?aoaeueia aea/aiiy aeanoeainoae iecueeiaia?aaoe/iiai i(ea a ii?iaeueiiio
oa iaaei?ia(aeiiio i(ia(( aeaei ciiao aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
i(aeoaa?aeeoe iao?ea(aeueiee e(iaoe/iee aoaeo, ia?aaeaa/aiee E?aia?nii (
REF kramers284 \n 22 ( i?e aiae(c( aeeooc(eiiai ?ooo /anoeiee o
a’yceiio na?aaeiaeu( /a?ac iioaioe(eiee aa?'(? — i(aeaeuaiiy aeeooc(eii(
?ooeeaino( /anoeiie a ?acoeueoao( c?inoaiiy eiao(oe((ioa oa?oy. Oei
naiei aoei ciaeaeaii iiyniaiiy iaea(eueo (io?eaoth/(e iniaeeaino( i(ea
E?aia?a-Aaoa?a, a naia eiai cnoao a iaeanoue a(eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?
i?e (-( ia?aoiae(. Aaaiiei a?aoiaioii ia ei?enoue aaeaeaaoiino( oai?((
oa aenia?eiaioo ( ciaeaeaia a ?iaio( ei?aeyoe(y aaee/eie cnoao i(ea c
oaiia?aoo?iith caeaaei(noth aia?aaoe/ii( u(eeie iaaei?ia(aeiiai i(ia(th.

Aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy iiaaae(iee iecueeiaia?aaoe/iiai i(ea a i(ia((
aeicaieeei aia?oa aeaoe i?inoa ( ianoia?a/eeaa iiyniaiiy a(aeiiiio
caeaaia, aea caaaaeeiaiio aiiiaeueiiio ciaioaiith iiaeeiaiiy caoeo a
ci(oaiiio (() noai( i?e aeinyaiaii( aaee/eie ia?oiai e?eoe/iiai iiey In1
. Aeacaia yaeua ( iane(aeeii iayaiino( i(ea iiaeeiaiiy caoeo a oe(e
iaeano( oaiia?aoo? oa eiai aiiiaeueiiai ci(uaiiy i?e s-m-n ia?aoiae(.

Iiiie?enoaee NsI. A aae(eia(e iaeano( oaiia?aoo? a iiiie?enoaeao NsI
aia?oa ca?a(no?iaaiee iecueeiaia?aaoe/iee ?aeaenaoe(eiee i(e
aioo?(oiueiai oa?oy c a(aeiia(aeiei aeaoaeoii iiaeoey, yeee aoa
(i(oe(eiaaiee iiia?aaeiueith ieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoe((th. I?iaaaeaiee
aiae(c iieacaa, ui iaea(eueo a(?ia(aeiei i(e?ineii(/iei iaoai(ciii
oeueiai i(ea oaeiae ( ?aciiainia aca(iiae(y caoeiaeo eieeaaiue c
eaioethaeeaie aaiiaoe/ieo e(ie(a, ye( aeeooiaeothoue /a?ac
iioaioe(aeueiee ?aeue(o Iae(?ena ae?oaiai ?iaeo.

AENIIAEE

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeeiiaii aeaoaeueia nenoaiaoe/ia aea/aiiy
oe(ei( iecee iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aeonoe/ieo aoaeo(a ( aiiiae(e a
e?enoae(/ieo iaoa?(aeao. Cai?iiiiiaai( iine(aeiai( ( ianoia?a/eea(
i(e?ineii(/i( (ioa?i?aoaoe(( aeyaeaieo aoaeo(a, eio?( a?oioothoueny ia
no/anieo oyaeaiiyo aeeiai(/ii( oai?(( e?enoae(a c aeaoaeoaie oa aaciaeo
iieiaeaiiyo oai?(( aeeneieaoe(e. E(ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii ?iaioe ( cia/ia
?icoe?aiiy ( iiaeeaeaiiy oeeo aaaeeeaeo ?icae(e(a no/anii( o(ceee
oaa?aeiai o(ea. Cie?aia, ne(ae a(aei(oeoe ianooii( iieiaeaiiy:

— cia/ii aaeineiiaeai( ( aeiiiaiai( (nioth/( oyaeaiiy i?i ?oo
aeeneieaoe(e a iioaioe(aeueiiio ?aeue(o( e?enoae(/ii( a?aoee;

— a(eueo aeaoaeueii iienaia aeeiai(/ia aca(iiae(y aeeneieaoe(e c aoiiaie
aeii(oie;

— noai?ai( iia( oyaeaiiy i?i iao?ea(aeueiee aieea oiiiiii( ( aeaeo?iiii(
a’yceino( e?enoae(a ia oa?i(/ii aeoeaiaaiee ?oo aeeneieaoe(eieo
naaiaio(a a oe(eiio ( ie?aieo e(ie(a ia e(i(yo aeeneieaoe(e;

— cai?iiiiiaai( eiino?oeoeai( niiniae a?aooaaiiy noaoenoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o
eieaeueieo aaiethoe(e aeaiaio(a aeeneieaoe(eii( no?oeoo?e a ?aaeueieo
e?enoaeao(

— aeiiiaiai( oyaeaiiy i?i aieea aeeneieaoe(e ia oacia( ia?aoai?aiiy oa
aeeiai(eo aeeneieaoe(e iiaeeco e?eoe/ieo oi/ie oaciaeo ia?aoiae(a(

— a ie?aieo aaaeeeaeo aeiaaeeao noai?aia iine(aeiaia ( i?ici?a ea?oeia
ca’yceo aeeiai(/ii( iiaaae(iee e?enoaea, ye e(i(eiiai aai iae(i(eiiai
aeaiaioa iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aeonoe/ieo i?eno?i(a, c
no?oeoo?ii-aeeneieaoe(eieie i?ioeanaie a eiai ia'(i(.

?acii c oei, a aeena?oaoe(( iai(/ai( aeaye( iia( iai?yiee
aeine(aeaeaiue ( ie?aneai( neaai aea/ai( ieoaiiy aeeiai(ee aeaoaeo(a a
?aaeueieo e?enoaeao a oiiaao iecueeeo ( iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo?. Oae,
iai?eeeaae, iiaeaeueoiai ?aoaeueiiai aea/aiiy caneoaiao( i?iaeaia
iecueeiaia?aaoe/ieo ?aeaenaoe(eieo ?aciiain(a, eio?( niinoa?(aathoueny
i?e aea/aii( aeonoe/ieo aeanoeainoae aaaaoueio e?enoae(a a cii(
aae(eiaeo ( noaeaeuea(iiaeo oaiia?aoo?, a oaeiae i?iaeaia noi(nii( ae((
( a(aeiinii( ?ie( oaieiaeo oa eaaioiaeo oeoeooaoe(e a oaeeo yaeuao. A
naith /a?ao, ae?(oaiiy oeeo caaea/ iio?aao( (noioiiai iiiaeaiiy (
aaeineiiaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae(a aeonoe/ii( niaeo?ineii((,
?ic?iaee iiaeo i?eeaae(a ( iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aeeiai(/ii( oai?((
?iai/eo aeaiaio(a aeonoe/ieo i?eno?i(a.

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Iaeue-Aaeue I.I., Eaooiaii O.-E. Iaeeiaeiua yooaeou i?e
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1995. — O. 21, ? 6. — N. 647-662.

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/anoeoeu /a?ac iioaioeeaeueiue aa?uea? a ayceie n?aaea i?e
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O. 25, ? 7. — N. 748-757.

Natsik V.D., Smirnov S.N., Pal-Val P.P. Anomalies of internal friction
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deformation // Czech. J. Phys. — 1999. — V. 49, ? 7. — P. 1091-1096.

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AIIOAOe((

Iaeue-Aaeue I.I. Iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii iaoaiicie aeeneieaoeieii(
aeonoe/ii( ?aeaenaoei( a e?enoaeao. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe(aeuei(noth 01.04.07 — oiceea oaa?aeiai oiea. —
O(ceei-oaoi(/iee (inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? (i. A.(.A(?e(ia IAI
Oe?a(ie, Oa?e(a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe(th i?enay/aii aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aea/aiith aeaiaioa?ieo
iaoai(ci(a aeeiai(ee aeeneieaoe(e a e?enoaeao i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao.
?acoeueoaoe aeine(aeaeaiiy aacothoueny ia aeaoaeueiiio aea/aii( iecee
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aeonoe/ieo aoaeo(a ( aiiiae(e. Cai?iiiiiaai( iia(
iine(aeiai( ( ianoia?a/eea( i(e?ineii(/i( (ioa?i?aoaoe(( aeyaeaieo
aoaeo(a. Cia/ii aaeineiiaeai( ( aeiiiaiai( (nioth/( oyaeaiiy i?i ?oo
aeeneieaoe(e a iioaioe(eiiio ?aeue(o( Iae(?ena. Aeaoaeueii aea/aia
aeeiai(/ia aca(iiae(y aeeneieaoe(e c aoiiaie aeii(oie. Noai?ai( iia(
oyaeaiiy i?i iao?ea(aeueiee aieea oiiiiii( ( aeaeo?iiii( a’yceino(
e?enoae(a ia oa?i(/ii aeoeaiaaiee ?oo aeeneieaoe(e ( ie?aieo e(ie(a ia
aeeneieaoe(yo. Cai?iiiiiaai( niiniae a?aooaaiiy noaoenoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o
eieaeueieo aaiethoe(e aeaiaio(a aeeneieaoe(eii( no?oeoo?e a ?aaeueieo
e?enoaeao. Aeiiiaiai( oyaeaiiy i?i aieea aeeneieaoe(e ia oacia(
ia?aoai?aiiy oa aeeiai(eo aeeneieaoe(e iiaeeco oaciaeo ia?aoiae(a.
Noai?aia iine(aeiaia ( i?ici?a ea?oeia ca’yceo aeeiai(/ii( iiaaae(iee
e?enoaea, ye e(i(eiiai aai iae(i(eiiai aeaiaioa iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo
aeonoe/ieo i?eno?i(a, c no?oeoo?ii-aeeneieaoe(eieie i?ioeanaie a eiai
ia'(i(. Ie?aneai( iia( iai?yiee aeine(aeaeaiue aeeiai(ee aeaoaeo(a a
?aaeueieo e?enoaeao a oiiaao iecueeeo ( iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo?.

Eeth/ia( neiaa: iecueeioaiia?aoo?ia aeeiai(ea aeeneieaoe(e,
aeeneieaoe(eia aeonoe/ia ?aeaenaoe(y, aeeneieaoe(eia aioo?(oi( oa?oy,
aeonoe/ia niaeo?ineii(y ?aaeueieo e?enoae(a, aa?'(?e Iae(?ena ia?oiai oa
ae?oaiai ?iaeo, iecueeiaia?aaoe/i( ?aeaenaoe(ei( i?ioeane a e?enoaeao.

Iaeue-Aaeue I.I. Ieceioaiia?aoo?iua iaoaieciu aeeneieaoeeiiiie
aeonoe/aneie ?aeaenaoeee a e?enoaeeao. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 — oeceea oaa?aeiai oaea. —
Oeceei-oaoie/aneee einoeooo ieceeo oaiia?aoo? ei. A.E. Aa?eeia IAI
Oe?aeiu, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia yenia?eiaioaeueiiio eco/aieth yeaiaioa?iuo
iaoaieciia aeeiaieee aeeneieaoeee a e?enoaeeao i?e ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao.
?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iniiaaiu ia aeaoaeueiii eco/aiee eeiaeiuo e
iaeeiaeiuo aeonoe/aneeo yooaeoia e aiiiaeee, iaoneiaeaiiuo
aeeiaie/aneeie aeeneieaoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie.

A aeenna?oaoeee nouanoaaiii aeiiieiaiu eiaaoeany i?aaenoaaeaiey i
aeaeaeaiee aeeneieaoeee a iioaioeeaeueiii ?aeueaoa Iaea?ena. A iaeanoe
oaiia?aoo? aeeaeeiai aaeey a e?enoaeeao (( e N(( auyaeaiu
ieceiyia?aaoe/aneea ieee aeonoe/aneie ?aeaenaoeee, iaoneiaeaiiua
?aciiainiui acaeiiaeaenoaeai caoea n oeaii/eaie aaiiao?e/aneeo eeieia.
Aia?aua onoaiiaeaiu i?aaeiinueee ia?aciaaiey oaeeo oeaii/ae, ?ac?aaioaia
iaoiaeeea aiaeeca yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo e iieo/aia eioi?iaoeey ia
iniiaiuo aeeiaie/aneeo e eeiaoe/aneeo naienoaao aaiiao?e/aneeo eeieia
i?e eo aeaeaeaiee /a?ac aa?uea?u Iaea?ena aoi?iai ?iaea.

?ac?aaioaiu iiaua i?aaenoaaeaiey i iao?eaeaeueiii aeeyiee oiiiiiie e
yeaeo?iiiie ayceinoe ia oa?iiaeoeae?iaaiiia aeaeaeaiea aaiiao?e/aneeo
eeieia. Eco/aiea naienoa ieceiyia?aaoe/aneiai ieea a ii?iaeueiii e
naa?oi?iaiaeyuai (( aeaei aiciiaeiinoue aia?aua yenia?eiaioaeueii
iaaethaeaoue iao?eaeaeueiue eeiaoe/aneee yooaeo — iiauoaiea
aeeoooceiiiie iiaeaeaeiinoe eeieia a ?acoeueoaoa aic?anoaiey
eiyooeoeeaioa o?aiey i?e ia?aaiaea (( ec naa?oi?iaiaeyuaai a ii?iaeueiia
ninoiyiea.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ieee aeonoe/aneie ?aeaenaoeee a (-((, (( e (-(( i?e
oia?aiii ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao ((-ieee) iaoneiaeaiu oa?iioeoeooaoeeiiiui
ca?iaeaeaieai ia? eeieia ia aeeneieaoeeyo, o.a. aeaeaeaieai
aeenei-eaoeee /a?ac aa?uea?u Iaea?ena ia?aiai ?iaea. Ii?aaeaeaiu
iniiaiua aeoeaaoeeiiiua ia?aiao?u niioaaonoaothueo ?aeaenaoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia e i?iecaaaeaia ioeaiea iai?yaeaiey Iaea?ena. Aia?aua
iieacaii, /oi nenoaiaoe/aneia eciaiaiea iieiaeaiey e oi?iu (-ieeia i?e
oa?iioeeeee?iaaiee, ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee, auniei- e
ieceioaiia?aoo?iii ioaeeaa iaoneiaeaii eciaiaieai eae iauaiiie ieioiinoe
?aeaenaoi?ia, oae e noaoenoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee yia?aee aeoeaaoeee i?e
eciaiaieyo aeaoaeoiie no?oeoo?u ia?acoeia. I?aaeeiaeaiu niiniau o/aoa
noaoenoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a eieaeueiuo yaiethoeee yeaiaioia
aeeneieaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?. Ii?aaeaeaiu ooieoeee noaoenoe/aneiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey cia/aiee yia?aee aeoeaaoeee ?aeaenaoi?ia e iieo/aiu
ioeaiee /anoioiiai oaeoi?a, aeenia?nee e n?aaeiaai cia/aiey yia?aee
aeoeaaoeee.

Aeiiieiaiu i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeeyiee aeeneieaoeee ia oaciaua i?aa?auaiey
e aeeiaieeo aeeneieaoeee a ie?anoiinoe oaciauo ia?aoiaeia. Aia?aua
yenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, /oi aiiiaeey iecei/anoioiie aeonoe/aneie
?aeaenaoeee a iiiie?enoaeeao (( aaeece oaiia?aoo?u Iaaey O( ( 309 E
/oanoaeoaeueia e aeeneieaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a ia?acoeia. Ieanoe/aneay
aeaoi?iaoeey i?eaiaeeo e ?aciuoeth e ?anuaieaieth aiiiaeee, a n?aaeiyy
oaiia?aoo?a Iaaey O( niauaaony a iaeanoue aieaa aunieeo oaiia?aoo?.
Aaee/eia niauaiey niaeanoaony n oai?aoe/aneeie ioeaieaie aeeyiey
aeeneieaoeee ia ia?aiao?u oaciauo ia?aoiaeia.

A ?acoeueoaoa nenoaiaoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey aiieeooaeiuo caaeneiinoae
aeae?aiaioa eieaaaiee e aeaoaeoa iiaeoey a iaaeaoi?ie?iaaiiuo e
aeaoi?ie?iaaiiuo iiiie?enoaeeao ((, ((, (( e (( ?acee/iie /enoiou e
i?eaioaoeee a eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? 5.9 — 300 E onoaiiaeaii, /oi iniiaiui
iaoaieciii iaeeiaeiuo aeonoe/aneeo yooaeoia a yoeo e?enoaeeao i?e
ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao yaeyaony oa?iiaeoeae?iaaiiia ioe?aieaiea
aeeneieaoeee io eieaeueiuo noiii?ia. Iieo/aiu iniiaiua eiee/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeanna io?uaa aeeneieaoeee io oeaio?ia cae?aieaiey.

A iiiie?enoaeeao (( aia?aua iaia?oaeaia neeueiay aiecio?iiey ii?iaiaie
aiieeooaeu e aaee/eiu iaeeiaeiie aeonoe/aneie ?aeaenaoeee, /oi yaeyaony
neaaenoaeai ii?aaeaeythuaai aeeaaea a iaeeiaeiia iiaeiuaiea e aeaoaeo
iiaeoey ?acei auaeaeaiiie nenoaiu aaceniuo aeeneieaoeee. A i.oe.e.
iaoaeeao i?eaioaoeeiiiay caaeneiinoue iaeeiaeiuo iioa?ue ii?aaeaeyaony
noiia?iie aaee/eiie ia?oeeaeueiuo aeeaaeia aeeceeo ii ia?aiao?ai nenoai
neieueaeaiey e ia yaeyaony noieue ?acei au?aaeaiiie, eae a
iiiie?enoaeeao ((.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeaia iineaaeiaaoaeueiay e iaaeyaeiay ea?oeia nayce
aeeiaie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey e?enoaeea, eae eeiaeiiai eee iaeeiaeiiai
yeaiaioa ieceioaiia?aoo?iuo aeonoe/aneeo ono?ienoa, n aeeneieaoeeiiiuie
i?ioeannaie a aai iauaia. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieaea ~ 30 E a
aunieiaiieeooaeiuo yenia?eiaioao ia iiiie?enoaeeao (( e (( iaia?oaeaiu
aneiiao?ey e aenoa?acen ?aciiainiiai ieea ninoaaiiai aea?aoi?a e
nea/eiia?aciia eciaiaiea aiieeooaeu i?e iiiioiiiii eciaiaiee /anoiou
eieaaaiee a ie?anoiinoe ?aciiaina. Oeacaiiua yaeaiey aia?aua
naycuaathony n aic?anoaieai aiaa?iiiecia e?enoaeeia aneaaenoaea
cia/eoaeueiiai oaaee/aiey aeeneieaoeeiiiie aeaoi?iaoeee ia?acoeia ec-ca
?aceiai iaaeaiey oiiiiiie ayceinoe a iaeanoe aaeeaauo oaiia?aoo?.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iiae aicaeaenoaeai aunieiaiieeooaeiiai oeueo?acaoea
aeaoaeoiua no?oeoo?u e?enoaeeia i?aoa?iaaatho iaia?aoeiua eciaiaiey. A
caaeneiinoe io oaiia?aoo?u e iai?aaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey caoea iiaoo
iaaethaeaoueny ?aciiiaeaiea aeeneieaoeee, oaaee/aiea n?aaeiae aeeeiu
aeeneieaoeeiiiuo naaiaioia, i?i?ua aeeneieaoeeiiiuo neiieaiee eee
iaoaie/aneia aeaieieeiaaiea. Aia?aua iieacaii, /oi a oneiaeyo ieceeo
oaiia?aoo? ia?aaioea aunieiaiieeooaeiui caoeii ia?acoeia n
iaoanoaaeeueiuie aeaoaeoiuie no?oeoo?aie i?eaiaeeo e ieceioaiia?aoo?iiio
“aeeiaie/aneiio ioaeeao”. Yoio yooaeo iicaieyao ainnoaiaaeeaaoue
no?oeoo?ii /oanoaeoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e?enoaeeia, iiaeaa?aoeony
ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee eee aicaeaenoaeth oa?iioi?oaeo iai?yaeaiee.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeaiu iineaaeiaaoaeueiua e iai?ioeai?a/eaua
iee?ineiie/aneea eioa?i?aoaoeee auyaeaiiuo yooaeoia. Iaia/aiu iiaua
iai?aaeaiey enneaaeiaaiey aeeiaieee aeaoaeoia a ?aaeueiuo e?enoaeeao a
oneiaeyo ieceeo e naa?oieceeo oaiia?aoo?.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ieceioaiia?aoo?iay aeeiaieea aeeneieaoeee,
aeeneieaoeeiiiay aeonoe/aneay ?aeaenaoeey, aeeneieaoeeiiiia aioo?aiaa
o?aiea, aeonoe/aneay niaeo?ineiiey ?aaeueiuo e?enoaeeia, aa?uea?u
Iaea?ena

ia?aiai e aoi?iai ?iaea, ieceiyia?aaoe/aneea ?aeaenaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu
a e?enoaeeao.

Pal-Val P.P. Low-temperature mechanisms of dislocation acoustic
relaxations in crystals. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by the speciality 01.04.07 — Solid State
Physics. — B.Verkin Institute for Low-Temperature Physics and
Engineering of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to an experimental study of elementary
mechanisms of dislocation dynamics in crystals at low temperatures. The
investigation is based on the results obtained when studying in detail a
number of low-temperature acoustic effects and anomalies. The new
consistent microscopic interpretations of the effects observed are
suggested. The existing concept of dislocation mobility in the Peierls
potential relief is refined and considerably extended. The dislocation —
impurity atom dynamic interaction is investigated in detail. A new
concept of the non-trivial influence of the crystal phonon and electron
viscosity on the thermally activated motion of dislocations and
dislocation kinks is developed. A method of consideration of a
statistical character of local evolutions of the dislocation structure
elements in real crystals is suggested. The notions of influence of
dislocations on phase transformations as well as of the dislocation
dynamics near the critical points are also extended and improved. A
consistent and clear relation is proposed between dynamic behaviour of a
crystal, as a linear or non-linear element of a low-temperature acoustic
systems, and dislocation processes in its volume. New directions of the
study of the defects dynamics in real crystals at low and extremely low
temperatures are pointed out.

Key words: low-temperature dislocation dynamics, dislocation acoustic
relaxation, dislocation internal friction, acoustic spectroscopy of real
crystals, 1st and 2nd order Peierls barriers, low-energy relaxation
processes in crystals.

A(aeiia(aeaeueiee ca aeione — eaiae. o(c.-iao. iaoe

Eoaaiaoeue N.A.

_____________________________________________________________

I(aeienaii aei ae?oeo 04.08.99 ?., oi. ae?oe. a?e. 2,0

Caiiaeaiiy ? 30-99, oe?aae 100 i?ei.

_____________________________________________________________

?ioai?(io OO(IO IAI Oe?a(ie, 310164 Oa?e(a, i?. Eai(ia 47

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