13

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AeA?AEAAE ? I?AAA ?i. A.I. EI?AOeUeEIAI

IOCEEA

Aiaoie?e Aiai?eiae/

OAeE 343. 3/. 7

IACAEIIIEE IA?A

IA?EIOE*IEO CANIA?A A OE?A?I?

(e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa e?ei?iieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12.00.08 e?ei?iaeueia i?aai ? e?ei?iieia?y;

e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a
i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie

ssoeaiei Noai?neaa Na?a?eiae/ (noaeaey Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie)

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

1. Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie

Aaoe?i TH??e Aaneeueiae/ (i?ioani? eaoaae?e e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa
Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai).

2. Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe
Oe?a?ie

Caeaethe Aiaoie?e Iao?iae/ (ia/aeueiee Oi?aae?iiy ii ca’yceao c
aea?aeaaieie, noaeiaeie, i?aaiioi?iiieie i?aaiaie Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo
iaoe Oe?a?ie).

3. Aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

No?aeueoeia ?aaai Eueaiae/ (i?i?aeoi? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. I?/i?eiaa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ioae?/iiai ?
i?eaaoiiai i?aaa aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaiai oaeoeueoaoo).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia O?aiea I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie
(i. Euea?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 27 eenoiiaaea 1998?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.50.24.02 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe
i?e ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie (252001, i. Ee?a 1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea,
4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae
? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie
(252001, i. Ee?a 1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 23 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe Eo/a?aiei ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?eiiai?y ? iacaeiiiee ia?a
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a iaeaaeaoue aei
noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo yaeu, ye? o?nii iia’ycai? c i?aai?ciaaiith
cei/eii?noth ? iathoue aeiaaeueiee oa?aeoa?. A?aoiaoth/e oea, Oe?a?ia
i?aeo?eio? ?i?oe?aoeae i?aeia?iaeii? ni?eueiioe uiaei ai?ioueae c
iacaeiiiei ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi cacia/aieo cania?a ? ?a/iaei. Aiia
?aoeo?eoaaea a?aeii? Eiiaaioe?? III 1961, 1971, 1988 ??. Ca
?i?oe?aoeaith Oe?a?ie Aaia?aeueia Anaiaeay III o 1990 ?. i?eeiyea
iie?oe/io aeaeea?aoe?th oa anana?oith i?ia?aio ae?e, iaieineaoe 90-o?
?iee aeanyoe??//yi ai?ioueae c iacaeiiiei ae?iaieoeoaii oa
?iciianthaeaeaiiyi ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei.

Noni?eueii iaaacia/i? iane?aeee iioe?aiiy ia?eiiai?? ? oieneeiiai??
aeeeeeaee iio?aao ii?yae ?c aaeeooyi nioe?aeueieo, aeiiii?/ieo,
iaaee/ieo oa ?ioeo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo i?ioe iacaeiiiiai ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ia?aaeyiooe /eiia o oe?e noa?? iaoe?iiaeueia
aaei?i?no?aoeaia ? e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai.

15 ethoiai 1995 ?. Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie i?eeiyea Caeiie: “I?i ia?a a
Oe?a?i? ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, ?o aiaeia?a ?
i?aeo?ni??a”, “I?i caoiaee i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a oa ceiaaeeaaiith ieie”, “I?i
aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei aeayeeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a Oe?a?ie o
ca’yceo c i?eeiyooyi Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ia?a a Oe?a?i? ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, ?o aiaeia?a ? i?aeo?ni??a” oa Caeiio
Oe?a?ie “I?i caoiaee i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a oa ceiaaeeaaiith ieie”.

Ioaea, Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa c iaoith caaacia/aiiy oa ioi?iie
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o noa?? ia?iaeiiai caei?ia’y anoaiiaeea iniaeeaee
i?aaiaee ?aaeei ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a (aea?aeaaia iiiiiie?y uiaei ?o
ia?ao, niaoe?aeueiee ia?ae?e oeeo cania?a ? ?a/iaei, iaiaaeaiiy ?o
aeei?enoaiiy eeoa ie?aieie aeaeaie ia?eioee?a ? o?eueee c iaoith
caaeiaieaiiy iaaee/ieo ? iaoeiaeo iio?aa, eiio?ieue ca ?o ia?aii). Oeae
?aaeei iaoiiaeaii a?io?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie a?oie ?a/iaei i?e?iaeiiai ?
ooo/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy, iaiaaee/ia aaeeaaiiy yeeo caoaii aieeaa? ia
ethaeeio.

I?eeiyooy aioeia?eioe/ieo caeii?a 1995 ?. aoei aeeeeeaia, cie?aia,
iaiao?aei?noth ocaiaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie a oe?e aaeoc?. O E?ei?iaeueiee eiaeaen
Oe?a?ie aoei aianaii nooo?a? aeiiiaiaiiy oa ci?ie: c’yaeeeny iia?
neeaaee cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th (?o caaaeueia e?euee?noue
nyaioea aeaaaeoeyoe); ?icoe?aii e eiie?aoeciaaii i?aaeiao oaeeo
cei/ei?a; aeeniiceoe?? coa?eo noaoae aeiiiaiai? iiaeie eaae?o?eoth/eie
iciaeaie; ci?iaii naieoe?? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i; ii-?ioiio
noi?ioeueiaaii oiiae ca?eueiaiiy in?a a?ae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? (caioi/oaaeuei? ii?ie). Oiio aeieeea iio?aaa
iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy iiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Ae??a?noue iiiaeaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa iineaaethaaeanue oei, ui
i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie oa noaee aei inoaiiueiai /ano ia iaee ocaaaeueiaieo
aeaieo i?i i?aeoeeo eiai canoinoaaiiy. I?aeaioiaeaiee ua a 1992 ?. (ia
iniia? noa?iai caeiiiaeaanoaa) i?iaeo iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo
Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca cei/eie, iia’ycai? c
ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie, i?noea ?noioi? iaaeie?ee ?, iaaooue, oiio ia aoa
i?eeiyoee. A?aenooi?noue oaeiai aeieoiaioa iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaaeany ia
i?aaicanoinia/?e ae?yeueiino?. O oeueiio ca’yceo oai?aoe/ia e i?eeeaaeia
cia/aiiy ?icaeyaeo ieoaiue, ui neeaaeathoue i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iineeth?oueny ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy aeena?oaioii iauiaeaaii i?eeiyoi?
iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie (27 ethoiai 1998 ?., ? 3) I?i
noaeiao i?aeoeeo a ni?aaao i?i cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eioe/ieie
caniaaie, ineoio?iiieie ?a/iaeiaie oa i?aeo?ni?aie.

Iiiaeaiiy oa ?aoi?ioaaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a eii/a iio?aaothoue nai?/aniiai oa
iaeaaeiiai oai?aoeei-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy. I?ioa no/ani? iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?icaeyaeoaaii? oaiaoeee ia a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai
aeeooy. ?ao?iniaeoeaiee iiaeyae ia aeinyaiaiiy oa caeiaooee a oe?e
aaeoc? iioei?cio ia aeiaea?. Ca ieioeee ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae,
aeeth/ath/e “aiioo ia?aaoaeiae”, ? a inoaii? ?iee a Oe?a?i? ia aoei
i?aeaioiaeaii aeiaeii? aeieoi?nueei? aeena?oaoe??, i?enay/aii? i?aaiaei
i?iaeaiai ai?ioueae c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. Aaoi?e
ie?aieo aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue oi?eaeeny oe??? oaie iia?aeii,
aeoiaey/e c ?ioa?an?a aena?oeaiiy noi?aeieo i?iaeai.

Oaaaa a/aieo-th?eno?a cina?aaeaeoaaeany a iniiaiiio ia aiae?c? neeaae?a
cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie, ? aoea coiiaeaia ia
o?eueee neeaaei?noth aeaii? oaie, a e ?? i?aeoe/iith cia/ou?noth,
ine?eueee ieoiia aaaa oeeo i?aaiii?ooaiue o caaaeuei?e no?oeoo??
cei/eiiino? inoaii?i /anii cia/ii c?inea. Iei? ?ioa?an i?aaiee?a aei
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioee?a iaa
ae a?oiooaaoeny e ia noni?euei?e iaaacia/iino? iioe?aiiy ia?eiiai?? ?
aenieiio nooiai? eaoaioiino? oeueiai yaeua. Aei oiai ae aaaaoi ieoaiue,
ye? noinothoueny oe??? i?iaeaie, ? aeeneon?eieie ? aeioaia?
iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeai?, ui oneeaaeith? ai?ioueao c iacaeiiiei ia?aii
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a.

Oae, iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaii ieoaiiy uiaei ia’?eoa oa i?aaeiaoa
?icaeyaeoaaieo cei/ei?a (cie?aia, aeieeee iia? iiiyooy “ineoio?iii?
?a/iaeie”, “i?aeo?ni?e”, “aiaeiae ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei”); /eiaei noia?a/eeaeo iiiaio?a o?aiey?oueny i?e eaae?o?eaoe??
ae?yiue, iia’ycaieo c iacaeiiiei ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi ia?eioe/ieo cania?a
(a?aeiaaeoaaiiy ?ice?aaeaiiy ?o a?ae ?ice?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai /e
eieaeoeaiiai iaeia, i?eaeaaiiy a?ae aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a, aecia/aiiy
?ici???a i?aaeiaoa cei/ei?a, a/eithaaieo ia a?oio? ia?eiiai??, ? iiiaioo
?o cae?i/aiiy, oiui). Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an ia? e aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aaiaeo i?iaeai i?eioniaiai e?eoaaiiy ia?eiiai?a ? oieneeiiai?a, ye?
a/eieee cei/ei. C i?eeiyooyi aioeia?eioe/ieo caeii?a aino?i iinoaea
i?iaeaia i?eaaoecaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa, ye? caeiathoueny aeaioiaeaiiyi,
?aae?caoe??th ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ui iio?aao? a?aeiia?aeieo ci?i
/eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

O ca’yceo c iiiaeaiiyi caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a iinoaea iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
nioe?aeueii? iaoiiaeaiino? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo caai?ii,
caioi/oaaeueieo ii?i, ?ioeo iiaae. O?aaa a?aooaaoe e ?noioi? iaaeie?ee,
ui ?niothoue a ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ii ai?iouea? c?
cei/eiaie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioee?a. Oiio, aacia?a/ii, iaeiei c
aeooaeueieo caaaeaiue ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oe??? ae?yeueiino?, ui
iaiiaeeeai aac ii?aoethaaiiy ieoaiiy i?aaeeueiiai canoinoaaiiy ii?i
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa. Oaea ?iaioa aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c
iaiao?aei?noth a?oioiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino?
o noa?? iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a.

O ieiuei? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iniaeeao oaaao
caneoaiaothoue i?iaeoe E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie. Aiie
iio?aaothoue aeiii?aoethaaiiy, aae iaeaooi? e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai
aoei iioeiaeueii ocaiaeaeaii c i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie i?i
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioee?a.

Ioaea, ia?aiiy oaie aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaii ?? aeooaeuei?noth,
iaoeiaith iiaeciith oa aaaiiei i?aeoe/iei cia/aiiyi iiaioaaiiy i?iaeai,
ui iia’ycai? c iioaioe?eieie caoiaeaie i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a oa ceiaaeeaaiith
ieie.

O?aaa cacia/eoe, ui ?aaeyinuee? a/ai?, aeieath/e cia/i? neeaaeiiu?,
aeeeeeai? io?oe?eiei caia?a/aiiyi ?nioaaiiy a nioe?ae?noe/iiio
noni?euenoa? ia?eiiai??, iaiaaaeeny cai?iiiioaaoe ia’?eoeaiee iiaeyae ia
aeaio i?iaeaio. C e?ioey 60-o ?ie?a ??ci? aniaeoe iiaeieaiiy ia?eiiai??
oa ai?ioueae c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioee?a aeine?aeaeoaaeeny a
eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?yo, a?eueo?noue c yeeo iaee a?eo Aeey
neoaeaiaiai ei?enooaaiiy: E.O. Eo?iaiiaa (1967), A.TH. Aoaaeeeea (1968),
I.O. I?eiaa (1969), E.A. Ea?iiae/a (1972), A.?. Oeiio??aa (1976), A.?.
Io?aiaiea (1977 ?.), I.A. Eieaniee (1978), A.I. A?eeea (1979), ?.I.
Ae?oaeei?ia (1980), I.I. Oieia/iaa (1982), A.A. ?aaeaeaiiaa (1983), I.A.
I??ioie/aiei, A.A. Ioceee, I.N. O?oiie, A.N. sseoaiaa (1984), I.I.
Na??oiiaa (1985), C.O. Aaaciaa, Ae.?. Iao?aaae? (1988), A.A. Aanaiiaa,
A.A. Ai?e?ia (1991), ?.I. Ieeeoi?/eia, ?nne Oaeaaea Oaoaaea Iinoaoe,
A.?. Ii?aiaa (1994), N.A. Aaaeieai?aa (1996), I.I. Aoi?ia (1997) oa
?ioeo a/aieo.

O 1991 ?. a Eacaonoai? E.O. Eo?iaiiaei ? a 1993 ?. o ?in?enuee?e
Oaaea?aoe?? (Iineaa) I.ss. A?eoeii caoeuaii aeieoi?nuee? aeena?oaoe??
a?aeiia?aeii ia oaio E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? oa e?ei?iieia?/i? i?iaeaie
ai?ioueae c ia?eioeciii ? I?aaia? oa e?ei?iieia?/i? i?iaeaie
nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? o?ii?/ieo aeeiaie?e?a ? ia?eiiai?a.

O ??ci? ?iee aeaia i?iaeaiaoeea aeine?aeaeoaaeany oaeeie ?aaeyinueeeie
oa a?o/eciyieie aaoi?aie, ye A.A. Aaaayi, TH.A. Aaoe?i, A.N. Aaenaiia,
O.A. Aiaiethaiaa, A.I. Aaa?ai?, N.I. Aa?ieoeueeee, A.I. Aeooeia, I.O.
Aiiiiieuenueeee, A.A. Ai?e?i, ?.I. Aioe?a, I.I. Aeaeoaea, N.I.
Ae?aee?anueea, I.I. Eaaee?ia, I.I. Einoaiei, I.O. Eoci?oeiaa, ?.I.
Eaiiaaiei, A.A. Eaaeoeueeee, A.A. Eeoieia, O.A. Eiiooainueeee, A.A.
Ia?oei/ee, I.N. Iaoeoaanueeee, I.?. Iaeeaaiia, I.?. I?eia, I.?.
Ia?aiaeeoey, A.A. I?io/aiei, E.?. ?iiaiiaa, I.ss. Na?oeia, I.I.
Nae?aaiia, Ae.A. Nain, A.I. Ni?o??iei, A.I. Oeoee, A.?. Oea/aiei, E.A.
Oiei?e?i, N.ss. Oeeoeueeee, A.A. Onoeiaiei, ?.A. Oanaiei, I.E. Oiiaiea?,
A.O. *aeooaa oa ?io?.

Aaoi? oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaa i?aoe? caaaeaieo i?aaiciaaoe?a, a oaeiae
nie?aany ia caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy iaoee e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa,
e?ei?iieia??, ui ?ic?iaeyeeny oaeeie a/aieie, ye TH.A. Aeaenaiae?ia,
E.A.  Aaa??e-Oaoiaoia, I.?. Aaaeaiia, A.?. Ai?enia, N.A. Ai?iae?i, O.A.
Ao?/ae, A.E. A?euoe, ?.I. Aeaiueoei, I.?. Caai?iaeieeia, A.I. Caeaethe,
A.O. Cae?inueeee, I.E. Ei?aeainueeee, A.I. Eoae?yaoeaa, I.I. Ieoaeeaiei,
A.I. I?iueeianueeee, A.O. Ii?eoei, I.?. Iaiia, A.I. I?ia?a, A.A.
Neeaeoeueeee, A.A. Noaoen, ?.E. No?aeueoeia, N.A. Oa?a?oo?i, A.ss.
Oaoe?e, ?.N. Oeoeaae/, ?.E. Oo?eaae/, TH.N. Oaioo/aiei, N.N. ssoeaiei oa
?io?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. O 1989 ?. oaia
aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeaeany ia can?aeaii? Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ath?i c
i?iaeai e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa Ananithciiai ?inoeoooo ii aea/aiith i?e/ei
? ?ic?iaeaiith caoiae?a caiia?aaiiy cei/eiiino?, aoea aeciaia
aeooaeueiith ? aeeth/aia aei caaaeaii? eii?aeeiaoe?eii? aeia?aeee
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a N?N? ia 1989 ?. Iiaoi?ii oaia aeieoi?nueei?
aeena?oaoe?? caoaa?aeaeaia a/aiith ?aaeith Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie 25 /a?aiy 1996 ?.

Eiiieaeniith oe?eueiaith i?ia?aiith ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth ia
1996-2000 ?iee (?icae?e O, i. 70; ?icae?e O???, i. 84), Iaoe?iiaeueiith
i?ia?aiith i?ioeae?? ceiaaeeaaiith ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie oa ?o
iacaeiiiiio ia?ao ia 1994-1997 ?iee (?icae?e ?, i. 11) ia?aaeaa/aii
iaoeiaa noi?iaiaeaeaiiy ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth ?,
cie?aia, caieaiiaaii i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai iaiaaee/iiai
aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, ocaaaeueieoe a?o/eciyio
i?aeoeeo oa i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ai?ioueae c iacaeiiiei ia?aii
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?aeaioiaeaia a?aeiia?aeii aei cacia/aieo i?ia?aiieo
iieiaeaiue ? ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o a?aeae?eo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ? e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ia? ca iaoo
eiiieaenia iaoeiaa ?ic?iaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ? e?ei?iieia?/ieo
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ?
oi?ioaaiiy ia oe?e iniia? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo i?iiiceoe?e uiaei
/eiiiai e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, a oaeiae i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e o noa?? i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino?. C?aooith,
eiioeaiooaeueiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ni?eyiiy iioeiaeueiiio
?ica’ycaiith ieoaiue a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca cei/eie, a/eithaai? ia
a?oio? ia?eiiai??, a oiio /ene? e ca iinyaaiiy ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy
ca?aeii c iiaei E?ei?iaeueiei eiaeaenii Oe?a?ie, i?iaeoe yeiai
iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe noi?ioeueiaai? oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

aeaoe caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ? aecia/eoe oaiaeaioe?? iioe?aiiy
ia?eiiai?? a Oe?a?i?, iieacaoe ?? iaaaoeaiee aieea ia neooaoe?th c?
NI?Aeii;

?ice?eoe noni?eueio iaaacia/i?noue cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eioeeaie;

aeooae?coaaoe i?iaeaio ia?eiiai?y ? i?aaa ethaeeie;

aeyaeoe iaoe?iiaeuei? iio?aae e i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? ciaia’ycaiiy
Oe?a?ie o ieiuei? aeiaaeueii? i?iaeaie iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioee?a ?
a?aeieaaiiy a?ioae;

i?iaiae?coaaoe /eiia e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a;

ocaaaeueieoe ne?ae/o e noaeiao i?aeoeeo eiai canoinoaaiiy;

noi?ioethaaoe iniiai? iai?yie aioeia?eioe/ii? iie?oeee ye neeaaeiai?
oe?a?inueei? ea?ii? iie?oeee;

ii??aiyoe i?iaeoe E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, ia iniia? /iai
cai?iiiioaaoe aeieo?eiaeueio iiaeaeue nenoaie ii?i i?i
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ?
iinyaaiiy ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei a
Oe?a?i? iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ca ia?aiith oaiith iniiaieo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo i?iaeai a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca cei/eie o noa??
ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a oa i?iaeai caiia?aaiiy ia?eiiai?? ye
i??i?eoaoiiai iai?yio oe?a?inueei? ea?ii? iie?oeee. Ia iniia? aii??e/ieo
aeaieo oia?oa ocaaaeueiaii? ne?ae/i? ? noaeiai? i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa 1995 ?. i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iacaeiiiee ia?a
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aeena?oaioii:

a) i?iaaaeaii th?eaee/iee aiae?c caaaeueieo ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo
iciae cei/ei?a o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a;

a) aecia/aii i?iaaeeie a caeiiiaeaanoa? oa cai?iiiiiaaii eiie?aoi?
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy;

a) iaa?oioiaaii (c o?aooaaiiyi i?iaeo?a E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie)
iaoeiaee i?iaiic oeyo?a aeae?ei?iae?caoe?? (a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao
e?ei?iae?caoe??) iaaiiai eiea ae?yiue, iia’ycaieo c ia?eioeeaie;

O aeena?oaoe?? aenoiooi ?yae iiaeo eiioeaiooaeueieo o oai?aoe/iiio ieai?
oa aaaeeeaeo aeey th?eaee/ii? i?aeoeee iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a naia:

1. Oia?oa, i?ney i?eeiyooy aioeia?eioe/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa 1995 ?.,
aeaii ?icai?iooee aiae?c neooaoe?? c iioe?aiiyi ia?eiiai?? a Oe?a?i? ?
no?eei? oaiaeaioe?? aei c?inoaiiy cei/eiiino?, iia’ycaii? c ia?eioeeaie,
i?ioyaii inoaii?o aeanyoe??/.

2. Oia?oa a Oe?a?i? aeine?aeaeaii oae? eiiieaeni? i?iaeaie, ye
ia?eiiai?y ? i?aaa ethaeeie, iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioee?a ? a?aeieaaiiy
a?ioae, ia i?aenoaa? /iai cai?iiiiiaai? oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a aeai?e noa??; iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy aa?aio?e i?aaa ia caoeno i?aeic?thaaieo ?
iaaeioaa/aieo, oai?eo ia aeeiaie?ci, ia?eiiai?th /e oieneeiiai?th;
oaeineiiaeaii aecia/aiiy iiiyooy a?aeieaaiiy a?ioae, iaea?aeaieo
cei/eiei oeyoii.

3. Ia iniia? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo ? iaoa??ae?a ne?ae/i? oa noaeiai?
i?aeoeee c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ii?ie i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, yeeie aeiiiaiaii E?ei?iaeueiee
eiaeaen Oe?a?ie o 1995 ?., ia canoiniaothoueny (ca aeiyoeii noaoae
22913, 22919 EE).

4. Ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiiy ia’?eoa aiae?ciaaieo
cei/ei?a (noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy ?iaeiaiai ia’?eoa cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo
c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie); iaa?oioiaaii iiceoe?th uiaei iniiaiiai
aaciina?aaeiueiai ia’?eoa cei/ei?a o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioee?a, yeei, ia
aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ? caei?ia’y ie?aieo a?iiaaeyi.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th, ca
?iaeiaei ia’?eoii; iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue aeie?aieaiiy a iiaiio
E?ei?iaeueiiio eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie niaoe?aeueiiai ?icae?eo Cei/eie o noa??
ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ii?yae ?c naiino?eiei ?icae?eii Cei/eie i?ioe
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy; ?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue nenoaie ii?i i?i
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ?
iinyaaiiy ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

6. Oia?oa a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??, i?ney i?eeiyooy aioeia?eioe/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa 1995 ?., aeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaeiaoa
cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th; iaa?oioiao?oueny aeniiaie i?i oa,
ui aeey iaaieo neeaae?a cei/ei?a ia?eioe/i? caniae ? ineoio?iii?
?a/iaeie ? ia i?aaeiaoii, a caniaii /e cia?yaeaeyi a/eiaiiy cei/eio.

7. Oia?oa a ?aaeyinuee?e ? a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy i?i
aiaeiae ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei oa cai?iiiiiaaii
e?ei?iae?coaaoe noni?eueii iaaacia/i? ae?yiiy c ieie; i?eaa?iooa oaaaa
uiaei iaaaciaee ?iciianthaeaeaiiy aiaaie?/ieo noa?i?ae?a ? iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ie?aiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie c
iaoith ?aaeaiaioaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaai? ae?? c aiaaie?eaie.

8. Oaeineiiaeaii aecia/aiiy ae?yiue, ye? neeaaeathoue iacaeiiiee ia?a
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a, cie?aia,
ae?noaei iiaeaeueoa aaeineiiaeaiiy aecia/aiiy iiiyooy noeeyiiy aei
aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei o ca’yceo c
iiyaith no. 22915 EE, yea eiieo?o? c? no. 2295 EE, a oaeiae c
o?aooaaiiyi iiaiai iiaeyaeo ia ni?yiiaai?noue oieneo aeioaaoiai.

9. Ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaa?oiooaaiiy iiceoe?? i?i oa, ui
?ice?aaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? naiino?eiei,
iniaeeaei aeae?eoii, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny ca ia’?eoeaieie ? noa’?eoeaieie
iciaeaie a?ae ?ice?aaeaiiy iaeia.

10. Iaaaaeaii a?aoiaioaoe?th uiaei aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui aeiaaaoaeuenoai
ia?eioee?a ia ioiieth?oueny neeaaeii ?ice?aaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a /e
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei (oae? ae?? iaiao?aeii eaae?o?eoaaoe ca noeoii?noth
cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo no. 862 /e 144 EE ? /. 2 no. 17, no. 2291 aai
2296 EE). Iaa?oioiaaii aeoieo i?i aeioe?euei?noue e?ei?iae?caoe??
aeiaaaoaeuenoaa ia?eioe/ieo cania?a.

11. Iaa?oioiaaii iiceoe?th i?i a?aenooi?noue th?eaee/ieo i?aenoaa aeey
eaae?o?eaoe?? caooo ia?eioe/ieo cania?a iniaai, yeeo o?eiathoue o
i?noeyo iicaaaeaiiy aie?, aeiaeaoeiai ca no. 1834 EE (ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ae?? aeioaaoiai iaiao?aeii eaae?o?eoaaoe
eeoa ca no. 2291 EE, ine?eueee aiie ia ooai?ththoue ?aeaaeueio
noeoii?noue cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo no. 2291 ? 1834 EE).

12. E?eoe/ii ioe?ith?oueny ??oaiiy Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie i?i
iaiaaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiio cai?ioii? neee aei in?a, canoaeaeaieo
ca no. 2299 EE, o ca’yceo c aeeeth/aiiyi inoaiiuei? ?c E?ei?iaeueiiai
eiaeaeno.

13. Oia?oa aena?oeaii a?aoiaioaoe?th i?i oeaio iiceoe?th caeiiiaeaaoey o
aeiaaeeo c e?ei?iae?caoe??th iacaeiiiiai ioae?/iiai aaeeaaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, i?iiiio?oueny no. 22916 EE aeeeth/eoe ?c
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.

14. Iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iaea?eueo iioe?aiei iniiaiei
iioeaii a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo ?c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie aai
ineoio?iiieie ?a/iaeiaie, ? iioea aaeeaaiiy (aeaniiai /e ?ioeie
iniaaie), a ia ei?eneeaee iioea, ye o?aaeeoe?eii noaa?aeaeo?oueny a
th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??.

15. Oia?oa aeine?aeaeo?oueny iaoa caooo-i?eaeaaiiy iaeiai? nieiie /e
eiiiiaeue o eiioaeno? no. 2293 EE ye aeai?aeeia iaoa iacaeiiiiai iin?ao
aai ae?iuoaaiiy niioai?iiai iaeo /e eiiiiaeue; ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe caooo i?aeo?ni??a ye iaia’yceiai? iciaee
neeaaeo cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 22919 EE; iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i
oa, ui ca?aeii ?c no. 22912 EE iaoa i?iaeiaaeaiiy iacaeiiiiai ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei aai i?aeo?ni??a noino?oueny
eeoa aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ? iaeia, caeiaooeo a?ae iacaeiiiiai ia?ao
cacia/aieo cania?a ? ?a/iaei, ? ia ? iaia’yceiaith iciaeith ?ioeo oi?i
a?aeieaaiiy eioo?a.

16. A?aoiaioiaaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui noa’?eoii aoyaiaiiy iaiiaiie?oi?o
o iaiaaee/ia aaeeaaiiy e?ea?nueeeo oa ?ioeo cania?a, ui aeeeeeathoue
iaeo?iaithaaiiy (no. 2082 EE), noeeyiiy iaiiaiie?oiueiai aei aaeeaaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei (/. 2 no. 2295 EE) oa
caeo/aiiy iaiiaiie?oiueiai aei a/eiaiiy iaaieo cei/ei?a (/. 2 no. 2291,
/. 2 no. 2294, /. 3 no. 2296 EE) iiaea aooe eeoa iiaiie?oiy iniaa, oiaoi
oaea, ye?e ia iiiaio ?o a/eiaiiy aeiiaieeiny 18 ?ie?a. Iaaaaeaii
e?eoe/i? i??eoaaiiy uiaei iiceoe??? Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie c oeueiai
ieoaiiy.

17. Aeaii e?ei?iieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo in?a, canoaeaeaieo ca cei/eie o
noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a (?? iniiai? iciaee iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?aaiioi?iiieie i?aaiaie o i?ioean? ieaioaaiiy ? cae?eniaiiy
i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a).

18. Ae?noaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie e?eoeea oai??? iaiaaeaii? inoaeiino? c
o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui oey i?iaeaia aaciina?aaeiuei oi?ea?oueny ieoaiue
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? in?a, eio?? a/eieee noni?eueii iaaacia/i? ae?yiiy o
noai? ia?eioe/iiai ni’yi?iiy /e aanoeiaioe??. Iaa?oioiaaii iiceoe?th i?i
iaaeioe?euei?noue cae??ieaiiy ?inoeoooo iaiaaeaii? inoaeiino? a
E?ei?iaeueiiio eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie.

19. Aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a iiiyooy oe?a?inueea ea?ia iie?oeea
(cai?noue e?ei?iaeueii? iie?oeee) e aioeia?eioe/ia iie?oeea, aeaii
aecia/aiiy inoaiiuei?; i?iaiae?ciaaii caaaeueiee noai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie
oe?a?inueei? ea?ii? iie?oeee; aeyaeaii iaaeie?ee o cae?eniaii?
aioeia?eioe/ii? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i? ? cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe ?o onoiaiiy.

20. Aeine?aeaeaii nioe?aeueio iaoiiaeai?noue ? th?eaee/iee ci?no
caioi/oaaeueieo ii?i, ia?aaeaa/aieo no. 22910 EE; cai?iiiiiaaii iiao
?aaeaeoe?th ? i?noea aeaieo ii?i a Iniaeea?e /anoei? E?ei?iaeueiiai
eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie; aeyaeaia a?aenooi?noue aaaeaiiy oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai
iae?eo aeiaaee?a ca?eueiaiiy a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? in?a
ia i?aenoaa? caioi/oaaeueieo ii?i, ia?aaeaa/aieo no. 22910 EE, ui
iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia iiaeeeaino? i?io?eaeoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo
e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

21. Ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
i?athaeeoe??, ia?aaeaa/aii? noaooyie 2293, 2298 EE. Iaa?oioiaaii aeoieo
i?i oa, ui aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?athaeeoe?y ia? i?aaiaa cia/aiiy, oiaoi
iiaea aooe ia?aaeoiiaith i?eoyaiaiiy aei e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? eeoa o aeiaaeeao ae?eniiai canoinoaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai noyaiaiiy. Aeoeaioiaaii oaaao ia oiio, ui
a?aeiia?aeii aei no. 241 EiAI caoiaee aieeao, ui canoiniaothoueny aei
iaiiaiie?oi?o, ia ? aeaeaie aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai noyaiaiiy, ia?aaeaa/aieie
no. 24 aeaiiai Eiaeaeno. Aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue
a?aooaaiiy oeueiai i?e canoinoaaii? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i c
aaei?i?no?aoeaiith i?athaeeoe??th. Iaaaaeaii aeiaeaoeia? a?aoiaioe i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ?aeeiiai oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai iae?eo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
i?aaiii?ooaiue (iei? ?nio? eeoa ciainiaeaiee iae?e inoaii?o).

22. Aeine?aeaeaii ieoaiiy i?i iaea?eueo noai?ee cao?ae aea?aeaaiiai
i?eiono e?ei?iaeueia iiea?aiiy, yea oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny a
ai?iouea? c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioee?a. Cie?aia, a?aoiaioiaaii
aeniiaie i?i iaiine?aeiaia ? iaaei?aaaeaia ??oaiiy caeiiiaeaaoey i?i
iiaia aeeeth/aiiy iiea?aiiy o aeaeyae? aei?aaieo ?ia?o aac iicaaaeaiiy
aie? ?c naieoe?e noaoae, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a.

23. Oia?oa iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue aeiiiaiaiiy /. 3 no. 2291 EE
eaae?o?eoth/ith iciaeith neoiiaoaaiiy ? ia?ai?iaeaae ia?eioe/ieo cania?a
/e ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei c iaoith iaaeeae, ui iaoeia eiie?aoia
ni?yioaaiiy ai?ioueao c ia?eia?cianii a Oe?a?i?.

24. Ae?noaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie a?aoiaioaoe?y iiceoe?? Aa?oiaiiai
Noaeo Oe?a?ie uiaei iaiao?aeiino? anoaiiaeaiiy iaaaeeeeo, aaeeeeo ?
iniaeeai aaeeeeo ?ici???a ia?eioee?a o caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo, a ia
Eii?oaoii c eiio?ieth ca ia?eioeeaie i?e I?i?noa?noa? ioi?iie caei?ia’y
Oe?a?ie (aeae? Eii?oao).

25. Iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aeyaeai? ii?ooaiiy /eiiiai
e?ei?iaeueiiai oa e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
na?ae/aoue i?i iecueeo ye?noue ae?ciaiiy e iiia?aaeiueiai ne?aenoaa o
ni?aaao i?i cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eioeeaie. Oea, a naith /a?ao,
ia??aeei iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
an?o in?a, i?e/aoieo aei iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, /ei
oneeaaeith?oueny iiaeieaiiy ia?eiiai?? a Oe?a?i?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?ioyaii aaaaoi??/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? oaie aeena?oaioii aoee iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe,
ye? ai?iaaaeaeaii ia ??ai? caeiiiaeaa/i?, noaeiai? ? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee.
Eiie?aoi? oai?aoeei-i?aaia? ia?iaee aaoi?a o?ainoi?iiaai?, cie?aia, a
oae?e i?aeoe/i?e ieiuei?:

1. Caeiiao Oe?a?ie a?ae 15 ethoiai 1995 ?. “I?i ia?a a Oe?a?i?
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, ?o aiaeia?a ? i?aeo?ni??a”,
“I?i caoiaee i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a oa ceiaaeeaaiith ieie”, “I?i aianaiiy
ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei aeayeeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a Oe?a?ie o ca’yceo c
i?eeiyooyi Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ia?a a Oe?a?i? ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, ?o aiaeia?a ? i?aeo?ni??a” oa Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i
caoiaee i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a oa ceiaaeeaaiith ieie”.

2. Iinoaiia? Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie a?ae 27 ethoiai 1998 ?. ?
3 I?i noaeiao i?aeoeeo a ni?aaao i?i cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eioe/ieie
caniaaie, ineoio?iiieie ?a/iaeiaie oa i?aeo?ni?aie.

3. Iinoaiia? Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo N?N? a?ae 24 a?oaeiy 1987 ?. ? 12
I?i noaeiao i?aeoeeo a ni?aaao i?i ?ice?aaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, a
oaeiae iacaeiiia aeaioiaeaiiy, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oa ?io? i?ioei?aai?
ae??, iia’ycai? c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie, neeueiiae?th/eie ? io?oeieie
?a/iaeiaie (Aeea.: Eeno Ee?anueei? aeui? oeiee IAN N?N? a?ae 11 ethoiai
1987 ?. ? AO/413. A?o?a Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie ca 1987 ?.).

4. Ocaaaeueiaii? noaeiai? i?aeoeee a e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao i?i cei/eie,
iia’ycai? c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie, ineoio?iiieie ?a/iaeiaie oa
i?aeo?ni?aie (i?iaaaeaii Aa?oiaiei Noaeii Oe?a?ie a 19961997 ??.).

5. I?ia?ai? eiiieaenieo caoiae?a IAN Oe?a?ie ii aeoea?caoe?? ai?ioueae c
iaiaaee/iei aaeeaaiiyi ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, ?o
iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia 19911995 ??. (aeia?aeea IAN Oe?a?ie a?ae 6 /a?aiy
1997 ?. ? 40/1370).

6. Iaoiaee/iiio iin?aieeo, yeee aoei aeaeaii IAN O?N? iaeeaaeii 6 oen.
i?ei??iee?a, I?eiaiaiea oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
i?eioaeeoaeueiii ea/aiee aeeiaieeeia e ia?eiiaiia: Iaoiaee/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee a iiiiuue nio?oaeieeai i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae. Eeaa,
1988. 32 n. Ianoaiiae, ui i?noeoue oeae iin?aiee, aae?aniaai?
ae?eueie/ei ?iniaeoi?ai, aaei?i?no?aoe?? aei?aaii-o?oaeiaeo onoaiia,
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo e?eoaaeueieo caeeaae?a ? aeei?enoiaothoueny ieie a
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? (aeia?aeea IAN Oe?a?ie a?ae 6 /a?aiy 1997 ?. ?
40/1370).

Aeena?oaio aoiaeea aei neeaaeo aaoi?nueeiai eieaeoeao ii ?ic?iaoe?
aeuacacia/aieo caeii?a. Iei i?iaaaeaia aiae?oe/ia ?iaioa c ieoaiue
ii??aiyeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy aioeia?eioe/iiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Iniaenoei aei?iaeii aeena?oaioa ye /eaia
?iai/i? a?oie ? eiai aeoeaia ? iine?aeiaia iiceoe?y c ieoaiue caoenoo
i?aa ethaeeie, ui ciaeoei ao?eaiiy a iiaeo caeiiao; caeiiiaeaa/a
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie aiaeia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei; iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? aeei?enoaiiy a caeii? iacae
eeoa aeae?a ia?eioeeiai?nieo ?ineei iaeo niioai?iiai ? eiiiiaeue;
?noioi? iii?aaee aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy ia?eiiai??; oi?ioethaaiiy
i?aenoaa i?eioniaiai e?eoaaiiy in?a, oai?eo ia ia?eiiai?th; ocaiaeaeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo iiaae c i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie. (Aeia?aeea
Eii?n?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue ai?ioueae c i?aai?ciaaiith
cei/eii?noth ? ei?oioe??th a?ae 31 aa?aciy 1997 ?. ? 0619/20125).

I?ioyaii IV eaa?oaeo 1996 ?. I eaa?oaeo 1997 ?. Aa?oiaiei Noaeii
Oe?a?ie i?iaiaeeeiny aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy noaeiai? i?aeoeee o
ni?aaao i?i cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie, ineoio?iiieie
?a/iaeiaie ? i?aeo?ni?aie. ?acoeueoaoe oe??? ?iaioe aoee iieeaaeai? a
iniiao iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie a?ae 27 ethoiai 1998
?. ? 3. Aeena?oaio ye /eai ?iai/i? a?oie Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie c
i?aeaioiaee i?iaeoo iinoaiiae Ieaioio a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o
aea/aii? oa ocaaaeueiaii? noaeiai? i?aeoeee, aoa ni?aaaoi?ii i?iaeoo
cacia/aii? iinoaiiae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe??, noi?ioeueiaai? a
aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? iiaeaeueoiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?iaeoo E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie (caoaaaeaiiy aei
i?iaeoo iai?aaeai? 31 aa?aciy 1997 ?., ? IA/687. A?o?a Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie ca 1997 ?.).

Iaea?aeai? aeena?oaioii ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? th?eaee/ieo aoc?a Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a
naie ioae?eaoe?yo, aeeiiaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?ioeie th?enoaie.
I?ioeaioia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o/ano? aeena?oaioa o iaienaii? oeeo i?aoeue
oaea: c A.E. Iaoa?e/oeii 90 %, ?c I.ss. Na?oeiaei 90 %, c I.N.
Iai?a?iei ? I.I. Nae?aaiiaei 20 %, ?c N.Ae. Oai/aieii 50 %, ?c A.?.
Iieneeii 90 %, ?c ?.O. No?aeaeiaei 50 %. Iniaenoei aianeii caeiaoaa/a
aei an?o iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?, ? eiai aeani?
oai?aoe/i? ia?iaee, ui neeaaeathoue iaoeiao iiaecio iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??,
oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii?eethaeiaii ia
i?aeia?iaeieo, ananithcieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo, ?aa?iiaeueieo ?
i?aeaoc?anueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, neiiic?oiao o i?noao:
Ee?a? (1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998), ?ycai? (1990), Oa?eia?
(1997), ss?ai/? (1998).

Iiiia?ao?y aaoi?a A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a (1998), o ye?e aeeeaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, oaeinoi?ia i?ai?? ia?oiai
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai eiieo?no ia e?aua th?eaee/ia aeaeaiiy 19971998
??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaaii o?e iiiia?ao?? ? o?e iaa/aeueieo iin?aieea. Ie?ai?
aeniiaee, i?iiiceoe?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a noaooyo o iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao, ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e
(anueiai 48 ioae?eaoe?e).

O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii aeina?ae ?iaioe aaoi?a o neeaae? oai?/iai
eieaeoeao c i?aeaioiaee caeiiii?iaeo?a i?i a?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei o
noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a; iaoa??aee i?iaaaeaiiai ca eiai o/anoth
o 1987 ?. ? i?ioyaii IV eaa?oaeo 1996 ?. ia?oiai i?a??//y 1997 ?.
ocaaaeueiaiue i?aeoeee ?icaeyaeo noaeaie Oe?a?ie 450 e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa
i?i cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eioeeaie, a oaeiae aeaniee i?aeoe/iee
aeina?ae aeena?oaioa o noa?? i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. I?aoey neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, ui ia’?aeiothoue aeanyoue i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, aeiinie ?
i?ei?oie, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (402 iaeiaioaaiiy). Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 486 noi??iie. Ianya aeiinie ? i?ei?oie oa nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae noaiiaeoue 86 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee. Aecia/aii
iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Noi?ioeueiaai? eiioeaiooaeuei? o
oai?aoe/iiio ieai? oa aaaeeea? aeey th?eaee/ii? i?aeoeee iieiaeaiiy ?
aeniiaee, ye? coiiaeththoue iaoeiao iiaecio aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e Ia?eiiai?y ? iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ye
nioe?aeueia oa i?aaiaa i?iaeaia no/aniino? neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio
i?ae?icae?e?a. O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1. No/aniee noai i?iaeaie ?ice?eaa?oueny
noni?eueia iaaacia/i?noue iioe?aiiy ia?eiiai?? ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a a Oe?a?i?; aiae?cothoueny, c iaeiiai aieo, oaeoe/i?
aeai? i?i aca?iiae?th ia?eiiai?? ? cei/eiiino?, c ?ioiai ia?eiiai?? ?
NI?Aeo.

Ia?eiiai?y iaeaaeeoue aei yaeu nioe?aeueii? iaoieia?? ? ca nai?ie
iane?aeeaie aaaaoieeea. Ai?aeai?y no??iei iioe?th?oueny, aiia ioiieea
anth oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie, iniaeeai ?? i?aaeaiio /anoeio. ?i’?eoe?ei?
ia?eiiaie noaiiaeyoue oaea 80% A?E-?io?eiaaieo. Ca aeaieie I?i?noa?noaa
aioo??oi?o ni?aa (aeae? IAN), caaaeueia e?euee?noue ia?eiiai?a, ui
ia?aaoaathoue ia iae?eo, noaiiaeoue aeecueei 67 oen. /ieia?e (iiiaae
0,1% ianaeaiiy e?a?ie). ?acii c oei iani?aaae? e?euee?noue oai?eo ia
ia?eiiai?th cia/ii a?eueoa. C o?aooaaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa 9,4 (eiai
canoiniaothoue o aaaaoueio e?a?iao na?oo aeey aecia/aiiy ae?enii?
e?eueeino? in?a, ye? aeiioneathoue iaiaaee/ia aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a), ?o
a Oe?a?i? aeecueei 630 oen.

Noaiii ia aeiaoaiue 1997 ?. a Oe?a?i? ca?a?no?iaaii iiiaae 24 oen.
iin??a a??ono ?ioiiaeao?oeeoo ethaeeie. Uii?nyoey ?o aeyaey?oueny ua
iaeaea i?aoi?e oeny/?. I?ioa e?ea?? oa i?aaiioi?iioe? noaa?aeaeothoue,
ui aeey aecia/aiiy ?aaeueii? e?eueeino? oai?eo ia NI?Ae oe? oeeo?e
iio??aii ca?eueoeoe ia ii?yaeie.

Iaaaaeai? oaeoe na?ae/aoue, ui ae?yeuei?noue i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ii
iiaeieaiith ia?eiiai?? o?nii iia’ycaia c aeyaeaiiyi ca?aaeaieo NI?Aeii,
iaaeaiiyi i?aeoe/ii? aeiiiiiae i?aaiai ioi?iie caei?ia’y.

Ca iia?aeiieaiiyi IAN, ??aaiue cei/eiiino?, iia’ycaii? c ia?aii
ia?eioee?a, noaiiaeoue iiiaae 80 aeiaaee?a ia 100 oen. aeeoae?a Oe?a?ie
? nyaa? 42 oen. cei/ei?a, ui a?eueoa, i?ae a onueiio N?N? iai?ee?ioe?
80-o ?ie?a. Oea eiaeiee aeanyoee cei/ei ii e?i?? ea?iiai ?icooeo. A 1996
?. o ii??aiyii? c 1992 ?. cei/eii?noue c?inea a 2,5 ?ace, a a ie?aieo
?aa?iiao iaaaaaoi a?eueoa: a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei o 5 ?ac?a, o
Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano? a 4, AEeoiie?nuee?e iaeaea a 6, a Eoaainuee?e
o 12 ?ac?a.

Ia a?oio? ia?eiiai?? a/eiy?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue ??cieo cei/ei?a. Ca
aeaieie IAN, ia?eiiaiaie oa iniaaie a noai? ia?eioe/iiai ni’yi?iiy
a/eiaii cei/ei?a: o 1992 ?. 2 oen., o 1993 ?. 6 oen. (ao?e/? a?eueoa),
o 1994 ?. 7,6 oen. (+25,9%), o 1995 ?. 11 oen. (+44,6%), 1996 ?. 16,3
oen. (+47,2%). Ioaea, c 1992 ?. ii 1996 ?. e?euee?noue cei/ei?a,
a/eiaieo cacia/aieie iniaaie, c?inea o a?n?i ?ac?a. O 1996 ?.
ia?eiiaiaie a/eiaii 366 a?aaaae?a, 91 ?ica?eiee iaiaae ? 41 aaeanoai.

Oaeeie ae o?eaiaeieie ? ? noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i noaeei?noue ca cei/eie,
iia’ycai? c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie. Ca ieo canoaeaeaii: a 1992 ?. 6498
in?a, o 1993 ?. 11 918 (+83,4%), o 1994 ?. 14 004 (+17,4%), o 1995 ?.
17 870 (+27,7%), o 1996 ?. 21 571 (+20,7%). C 1992 ?. ii 1996 ?. /enei
canoaeaeaieo c?inei a?eueoa, i?ae oo?e/?. sseui ae ii??aithaaoe oe?
aeai? c 1988 ? 1989 ??., eiee a Oe?a?i? ui?ieo canoaeaeoaaeiny ii 2,5
oen. in?a, oi noaeei?noue c?inea iaeaea a 9 ?ac?a. Ioaea, aeeiai?ea
noaeeiino? ei?aeth? c? noaiii cei/eiiino? a aeai?e noa??. A caaaeuei?e
no?oeoo?? noaeeiino? /anoea canoaeaeaieo ca cei/eie, iia’ycai? c
ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie, ca?eueoeeany c 5,6% o 1992 ?. aei 8,9% o 1996 ?.

Aiae?c aeaieo i?i noaeei?noue iieaco?, ui iaea?eueo iioe?aiei aeaeii
cei/ei?a o aeai?e noa?? ? iacaeiii? ae?iaeaiiy, aeaioiaeaiiy,
i?eaeaaiiy, caa??aaiiy, ia?aaacaiiy, ia?aneeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. O
1996 ?. ca a/eiaiiy oaeeo ae?e canoaeaeaii: ca no. 2296 EE (aac iaoe
caooo ia?eioe/ieo cania?a /e ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei) 18 491 iniao (85,7%);
ca no. 2291 EE (ca ae?yiiy, a/eiai? c iaoith caooo, a oaeiae ca caoo
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei) 2005 (9,3%); ca no. 2298
EE (ca ae?yiiy, a/eiai? aac iaoe caooo a iaaaeeeiio ?ici??? ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei) 48 (0,2%).

Noaoenoe/i? aeai? I?i’thnoo Oe?a?ie na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui a 1995 — 1996
??. ca noaooyie 22911, 22912, 22914 22919 EE ia aoei canoaeaeaii
aeiaeii? iniae, oiaoi iia? noaoo? E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno, ca aeiyoeii
aeaio 22913 ? 22920, iiaeeeai, acaaae? ia canoiniaoaaeenue ia
i?aeoeoe?. *iio aiie ia “i?aoeththoue” /a?ac iaaei??io i?aaiao
?aaeaiaioaoe?th a?aeiia?aeieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei /e c i?e/ei ?ioiai
ii?yaeeo (iaaaaeaiiy i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a iaaaioaaeoaaoe naaa
“caeaith” ?iaioith; o?iainiaa iacaaacia/ai?noue iioaioe?eiiai
ca?eueoaiiy ianyao ?iaioe o ca’yceo c iiaei caeiiiaeaanoaii), ?
aaaeeeaei ieoaiiyi, yea iio?aao? niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea
o?aaa oieeaoe e ?ioi? e?aeiino? “iie?ioaiiy” neooaoe?? oeyoii
iaieioaiiy ? i?iaaaeaiiy /a?aiai? eaiiai?? aeey ca?oo i?i oaeaaaio
aeoeai?noue o ai?iouea? c iioe?aiiyi ia?eiiai??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ai?ioueao c iacaeiiiei
ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ia iiaeia aeciaoe oni?oiith. Ii noo?,
ai?ioueaa aaaeaoueny ?c niiaeeaa/aie ia?eioee?a ia?aaaaeii oai?eie ia
ia?eiiai?th, ia?eiae?eee ae iaeaea ia aee?eaathoueny. ? iaae /ei
caieneeoenue aaei?i?no?aoe?? aei?aaii-o?oaeiaeo onoaiia. Ca aeaieie
aaoi?a, 17% iieoaieo ia?eiiai?a aia?oa aaeeee ia?eioe/iee can?a o
i?noeyo iicaaaeaiiy aie?.

Aeey iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioee?a ? oa?aeoa?ieie i?aeia?iaei? cei/eii?
ca’ycee. Oiio neooaoe?y, yea neeaaea?oueny o iaeaeeae/eo non?ae?a
Oe?a?ie, ia iiaea ia oaeethaaoe ian.

?in?enuee? a/ai? oa i?aeoeee i?iaaee a 1996 ?. i?aea?aeii/a
nioe?ieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy c ieoaiue eiio?aaaiaee ia?eioee?a o
?in?enueeo Oaaea?aoe?th, a i?ioean? yeiai c’ynoaaeiny, ui na?aae
eieeoi?o nithcieo ?anioae?e o oeueiio ieai? aeae?eythoueny Ocaaeenoai
17,1%, Oe?a?ia 16,8, Oaaeaeeeenoai 13,6, Eacaonoai 12,7,
Aca?aaeaeaeai 11,2%.

Aeeeaaeaia ia? a?aoiaoaaoeny i?aaiioi?iiieie i?aaiaie o i?ioean?
?ic?iaeaiiy caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?io?eaeoeeo eiio?aaaiaee
ia?eioee?a oa ?ioeo iia’ycaieo c ieie cei/ei?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2. Ia?eiiai?y ? i?aaa ethaeeie oeyoii aiae?co
eiiaaioe?e, iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, a?aeii/eo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a
i?i ai?ioueao c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, iioe?aiiyi
ia?eiiai?? oa i?aeoeee ?o canoinoaaiiy aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui o oe?e
aaeoc? ia ana aa?acae c i?aaaie ethaeeie. Ine?eueee cia/ia e?euee?noue
iaaaoeaieo oaeo?a aeaii? oaie ni?eeia?oueny, ia ia?oee iiaeyae, ye
ia?aaeienaeuei? ?a/?, oea iaaeaei aeena?oaioo i?aenoaao ?nioth/?
i?iaeaie oae ? iacaaoe i?iaeaiaie-ia?aaeienaie. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue oae?
nioe?aeueii-i?aaia? yaeua: ia e?eoaaoe, a ea?aoe, uiaei eaaae?caoe??
aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, i?eioniaa e?eoaaiiy ? ii?ooaiiyi i?aa
ethaeeie, caai?iia eoeueoeaoaaiiy ia?eioeeiai?nieo ?ineei ii?ooo? i?aaa
ethaeeie, caeiii? caoiaee, ui ii?ooothoue i?aaa ethaeeie.

Aaoi? i?eaa?oa? oaaao aei oiai, ui I?aceae?y Aa?oiaii? ?aaee O?N?,
nie?ath/enue ia aeniiaie Eii?oaoo eiinoeoooe?eiiai iaaeyaeo N?N? a?ae 25
aeiaoiy 1990 ?. i?i iaa?aeiia?aei?noue Eiinoeoooe?? N?N? ? i?aeia?iaeiei
aeoai i?i i?aaa ethaeeie ie?aieo iieiaeaiue /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c
ieoaiue i?eioniaiai e?eoaaiiy ? o?oaeiaiai ia?aaeoiaaiiy in?a, oai?eo ia
o?ii?/iee aeeiaie?ci ? ia?eiiai?th, iinoaiiaith a?ae 10 a?oaeiy 1990 ?.
“I?i ii?yaeie ca?eueiaiiy aeayeeo eaoaai??e in?a a?ae i?eioniaiai
e?eoaaiiy, e?ei?iaeueiiai iiea?aiiy aai aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai noyaiaiiy”
aeciaea ca iaiao?aeia ca?eueieoe aeaye? eaoaai??? in?a c
e?eoaaeueii-o?oaeiaeo ? e?eoaaeueii-aeoiaieo i?io?eaeoi???a. Ioieo 7
iinoaiiae i?noeoue oaeo ii?io: “…i?aenoaaith aeey iai?aaeaiiy aei
e?eoaaeueii-o?oaeiaiai aai e?eoaaeueii-aeoiaiiai i?io?eaeoi??th
a?iiaaeyi, ye? ooeeythoueny a?ae e?eoaaiiy aeeiaie?cio /e ia?eiiai?? aai
i?iaeiaaeothoue iey/eoe i?ney e?eoaaiiy, ? eeoa nenoaiaoe/ia ii?ooaiiy
ieie a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo aai i?aa ?ioeo in?a” (aeae?eaii iaie. A.
I.).

I?e a?aei?aoethaaii? iaeaoa caeiiii?iaeo?a i?i caoiaee i?ioeae??
iacaeiiiiio ia?ao a Oe?a?i? ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ?
i?aeo?ni??a aoee ni?iae iiaa?iooeny aei noa?iai caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea
i?aenoaaith aeey canoinoaaiiy i?eioniaiai e?eoaaiiy iniae ia?aaeaa/aei
eeoa ooeeaiiy a?ae e?eoaaiiy. Aa?o/e o/anoue o ?ic?iaeaii?
aioeia?eioe/ieo caeii?a, aaoi?o aaeaeiny caoenoeoe ?nioth/o c oeeo
ieoaiue caeiiiaeaa/o aaco a?ae ?oeiaoe??. A Caeii? a?ae 15 ethoiai 1995
?. “I?i caoiaee i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a oa ceiaaeeaaiith ieie” a?aoiaai?
i?aaa ethaeeie. A iueiio ao?eai? oaea aeaiie?aoe/ii ae??oai? ieoaiiy
i?eioniaiai e?eoaaiiy ia?eiiai?a, ye? ocaiaeaeai? c Eiinoeoooe??th
Oe?a?ie ? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie.

Aeae? ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia eaaae?caoe?? aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a. O oe?eiio aeena?oaio ia caia?a/o? i?ioe ?? ao?eaiiy a aeeooy,
aea c iaeiei aaaeeeaei canoa?aaeaiiyi i?ia?aio eaaae?caoe?? aaeeaaiiy
ia?eioee?a iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe ye iaeei ?c iai?yi?a aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee a aaeoc? nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ia?eieia?/ieo oai?eo.

O?aaa /?oei ona?aeiieoe, ui eaaae?caoe?y aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a ?
a?aenooi?noue a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?o iaiaaee/ia aaeeaaiiy (/e
aeae?ei?iae?caoe?y oaeeo ae?e) oea ??ci?, oi/a e aeecuee?, o?nii
iia’ycai? ieoaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei iaaieioo?oueny ia oiio, ui
neanoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aac
i?ecia/aiiy e?ea?y ia icia/a? eaaae?caoe?th iaiaaee/iiai aaeeaaiiy
ia?eioee?a. Inoaii? ia?aaeaa/a? ao?eaiiy a aeeooy eiiieaeno aea?aeaaieo
caoiae?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy oai?eo ia ia?eiiai?th a?aeiia?aeiith ii?eith
? eiio?ieai. Oea nai???aeia ia?eieia?/ia aeiiiiiaa.

Aaoi? cacia/a?, ui anoaiiaeaiiy o 1995 ?. e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iacaeiiia ioae?/ia aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a
(no. 22916 EE) ii?ooo? i?aaa ethaeeie, noia?a/eoue /eiiiio Oeaco
I?aceae?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?inueei? ?N? a?ae 28 n?/iy 1991 ?. “I?i
aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei aeayeeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a Oe?a?inueei?
?N? (iei aoea neaniaaia e?ei?iaeueia ? aaei?i?no?aoeaia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iaiaaee/ia aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a), aeaco? ia
?nioaaiiy a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo eie?c?? o i?aa?.

I?iaeaia-ia?aaeien i?eioniaa e?eoaaiiy ? ii?ooaiiyi i?aa ethaeeie
iieyaa?, cie?aia, a iaiaeiicia/iiio noaaeaii? ie?aieo oao?aoe?a aei
naii? iacae oaeiai e?eoaaiiy.

I?e aecia/aii? nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai caoiaeo, yeei ? i?eioooaaiiy
ia?eiiai?a aei e?eoaaiiy, caeiiiaeaaaoeue i?aaeeueii a?aeoeeea oa?i?ie
“iaaeia?ia?eueia e?eoaiiy”, “iaia’yceiaa e?eoaaiiy” ? aecia/ea eiai
iiiyooyi “i?eioniaa e?eoaaiiy”.

I?e aena?oeaii? i?iaeaie-ia?aaeieno caai?iia eoeueoeaoaaiiy
ia?eioeeiai?nieo ?ineei ii?ooo? i?aaa ethaeeie aaoi? cina?aaeaeo? oaaao,
cie?aia, ia iaiaeiicia/iino? aecia/aiiy a Caeii? Oe?a?ie a?ae 20 a?oaeiy
1990 ?. “I?i i?e?oe?th” (i. 15 no. 11) ?? i?aa uiaei aeeiiaiiy ii?i
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ia?aaeoiiaith aeeiiaiiy yeeo ?
aoiaeaeaiiy a aeee? i?ei?uaiiy a?iiaaeyi oa ia ?o caiaeuei? ae?eyiee. Ia
i?aeoeoe? oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy eiinoeoooe?eieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi
(/. 2 no. 30, no. 41 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie). I?iiiio?oueny aianoe ci?ie
aei /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, aae caaacia/eoe i?aaa ethaeeie a oeeo
aeiaaeeao.

Eiee aiooaaany Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i caoiaee i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a oa ceiaaeeaaiith
ieie”, oaeno eiai no. 8 “Iaeyae o?ainii?oieo cania?a, aaioaae?a ?
iniaenoeo ?a/ae a?iiaaeyi” nii/aoeo ia iaa i? /?oeeo i?aaiaeo i?aenoaa,
i? aa?aio?e caeiiiino? i?iaaaeaiiy oaeeo iaeyae?a. O oeueiio, cie?aia,
i?iyaeeany i?iaeaia-ia?aaeien “caeiii?” caoiaee, ui ii?ooothoue i?aaa
ethaeeie.

Aaoi? aeieeaa cia/ieo coneeue, aae oey noaooy Caeiio ia ii?iaeaeoaaea
ceiaaeeaaiue c aieo i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a. ?? e?ioeaaee
aa??aio a?aoiao? i?aaa ethaeeie ? i?noeoue ii?io-i?ioeaaao uiaei
iiaeeeaeo ii?ooaiue caeiio i?aaiioi?iioeyie.

I?ae?icae?e 1.3. Iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? a?aeieaaiiy
a?ioae (i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaee aeina?ae ? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie ?o
caiia?aaiiy) i?noeoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo neooaoe?? o na?o? oa a Oe?a?i? c
aeaii? i?iaeaie, aiae?c /eiieo eiiaaioe?e, ?ioeo aeieoiaio?a, ye?
noaiiaeyoue ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco a aaeoc? ai?ioueae c a?aeieaaiiyi
a?ioae.

Ca?aeii c ioe?ieaie III, aa?o?niee ianya iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei neeaaea? i?eaeecii 400 ie?ae. aeie. NOA
ia ??e, i?e/iio 50 70 % eiai i?eiaaea? ia aio?aeiaee ia?a. O ca’yceo c
oeei o oi?aiaoe?a ia?eioeeaie aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ia?aaanoe aaee/acio
e?euee?noue aio?aeiaeo eioo?a o aacaio?aeiaee ia?a, yeee caaacia/o? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy c iaeiaioei ?eceeii. Aeey oeueiai oae? iniae aaeathoueny
aei iineoa e?aaeeoii-o?iainiaeo onoaiia, aeei?enoiaoth/e inoaii? c
iaoith a?aeieaaiiy aeioiae?a, iaea?aeaieo a?ae iacaeiiiiai ia?ao
ia?eioee?a. E??i oiai, aeey i?eoiaoaaiiy aeaea?aea iioiaeaeaiiy nai?o
noaoe?a oi?aiaoe? ia?eioeeaie aeeaaeathoue cei/eiii aeiaoo? eiooe a
??cio ?ooiio e ia?ooiio aeani?noue.

Aeoiaey/e c iieiaeaiue no. 3 Eiiaaioe?? III i?i ai?ioueao i?ioe
iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei 1988 ?.,
no. 6 Eiiaaioe?? ?aaee ?a?iie i?i a?aeieaaiiy, iiooe, a?aoo oa
eiio?neaoe?th aeioiae?a, iaea?aeaieo cei/eiiei oeyoii, a?ae 8 eenoiiaaea
1990 ?., noi?ioeueiaaii aecia/aiiy a?aeieaaiiy a?ioae. Oea cei/eiia
ae?yeuei?noue, ia?aaaaeii i?aeia?iaeiiai ianooaao, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
oieniei i?eoiaoaaiiyi ae?eniiai oa?aeoa?o (iioiaeaeaiiy) aeaea?aea iaeia
/e o?iainiaeo eioo?a oeyoii iacaeiiiiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy (i?eaeaniaiiy,
ia?aaea/a, aieiae?iiy, ?ici?uaiiy, ia?ai?uaiiy oiui) c iaoith
“eaaae?caoe??” cei/eiieo aeioiae?a, ?, cie?aia, a?ae ia?eia?ciano.

Ca aeia?aeeaie I?ia?aie III c i?aeia?iaeiiai eiio?ieth ca ia?eioeeaie,
nueiaiaei? ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ae?? i?aeia?iaeia ia?eiiao?y. I?i oea
na?ae/aoue ?aaoey?i? aeiaaeee a?aeieaaiiy ia?eiaeiea??a oeyoii ??cieo
eaaaiaeiaaieo ia?aeac?a a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia ?aooiee i?noeaaeo
iaaea?aeaaieo i?aai?caoe?e c ianooiiei ?o iiaa?iaiiyi io?oe?eieie
eaiaeaie. Ca oaa?aeaeaiiyie aenia?o?a NOA, iathoue i?noea e i?yi?
i?iiiceoe?? c aieo noii?aieo e?aaeeoi??a iaaeaoe Oe?a?i? cia/i? iiceee,
nei??oa ca ana o ia?eiaeiea?ao, i?i ui na?ae/aoue aeineoue iecuee?
a?aenioee e aaeee? no?iee ?o iiaaoaiiy. Oiae iio??aii oa?i?iiai iieeanoe
e?ae a?aeieaaiith oa aaaaeaiith oaeeo aeioiae?a o eaaaeueiee ia?a, ai
yeui nueiaiaei? i?aaenoaaieee cei/eiiiai na?oo iinyaeooue aeiiii?/i?
aenioe, oi caao?a aiie iinyaeooue iie?oe/i?, ? ie iaoeiaii ni?aao c
e?ei?iaeueiith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith ia c?acie eieoia?enueei? /e
aie?a?enueei?.

Ia eiie?aoieo i?eeeaaeao aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue iaa?oioiaai?noue oeueiai
aeniiaeo ? cacia/a?, ui oey i?iaeaia aeey a?o/eciyieo i?aaiee?a ?
iiaith, ine?eueee iaoeiaoe? ?ai?oa iath ia caeiaeeny. O oeueiio
eiioaeno? aa?oi caa?iooe oaaao ia oo ianoaaeio, ui a?aeii? aeaa i?iaeoe
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie a ia?oeo aa??aioao acaaae? ia iaee
noaoae i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca a?aeieaaiiy “a?oaeieo” a?ioae.

?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui iiaeieaiiy (aai i?eiaeii? aeieoaaiiy) oaeiai
yaeua, ye a?aeieaaiiy a?ioae, iio?aao? eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo. Oea
icia/a?, ia?o ca ana (? iaeaieiai?oa), caeiiiaeaa/o ? i?aai?caoe?eio
ia?aaoaeiao o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino?, oiaoi on? o?iainia? onoaiiae
iiaeii? i?aoethaaoe ocaiaeaeaii c i?aaiioi?iiieie i?aaiaie. Ioaea,
iio??aii iaaaeii ?ic?iaeoe aein? iaa?aeiio iaoiio caeiiiaeaanoao
ii?iaoeaio aaco a aaeocyo aaie?anueeiai, o?iainiaiai, iiaeaoeiaiai,
oeea?eueiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa, ? aaea o?eueee i?ney oeueiai
i?eeiaoe e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? ii?ie.

Oo?i, nueiaiaei? ? iaiao?aei? th?eaee/i? i?aenoaae a ieiuei?
i?aeia?iaeieo ciaia’ycaiue aeey ai?ioueae c a?aeieaaiiyi a?ioae,
ine?eueee Oe?a?ia ?aoeo?eoaaea Eiiaaioe?th i?i a?aeieaaiiy, iiooe, a?aoo
oa eiio?neaoe?th aeioiae?a, iaea?aeaieo cei/eiiei oeyoii, 1990 ?. Ie??i
oiai, ? iaoe?iiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai (no. 22912) ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a, caeiaooeo a?ae iacaeiiiiai
ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a.

Ii?yae c oeei i?iiiio?oueny ?ic?iaeoe ? i?eeiyoe Caeii I?i ai?ioueao c
a?aeieaaiiyi aeioiae?a, iaea?aeaieo cei/eiiei oeyoii.

O ?icae?e? ae?oaiio I?iaeaie e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a
(neeaaea?oueny ?c i’yoe i?ae?icae?e?a) ia aac? /eiiiai aioeia?eioe/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy oa iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie
aea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaiaio?a neeaae?a cei/ei?a,
iia’ycaieo c ia?eioeeaie. I?iiiiothoueny a?aeiia?aei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa a aaeoc? ai?ioueae c iacaeiiiei
ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo cania?a.

I?ae?icae?e 2.1. Aecia/aiiy ia’?eoa cei/ei?a o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a aena?oeth? caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei a/aiiy i?i
ia’?eo cei/eio, ye? aeineoue a?oioiaii ?ic?iaeai? a oai??? ?aaeyinueeiai
e oe?a?inueeiai e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? ? aecia/aeueieie a aeaiiio
aeine?aeaeaii?. Aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c oiai i?eioeeiiaiai aeniiaeo, ui
ia’?eoii cei/eio a e?ei?iaeueiiio i?aa? ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ye?
ioi?iiythoueny e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii a?ae cei/eiieo iinyaaiue. Ia
ei?enoue oe??? iiceoe?? iaaaaeai? iaiao?aei? a?aoiaioe.

Aiae?cothoueny oi/ee ci?o uiaei aecia/aiiy ia’?eoa cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo
c ia?eioeeaie. Aeena?oaio iiae?ey? aeneiaeaio a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??
aeoieo i?i oa, ui ia?iaeia caei?ia’y — oea ia a?io?c?ieia?/iee /e
ineoieia?/iee noai ianaeaiiy, a “noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ui
?aaoeththoueny a?aeiia?aeieie i?aaeeaie oa caaacia/othoue ni?eyoeea?
oiiae aeey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
ethaenueeiai i?aai?cio”. Oea aecia/aiiy, caaaeii i?aaeeueia, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, o?aaa aeaui ooi/ieoe, eiie?aoecoaaoe a oiio ieai?, ui oiiaaie
ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?aai?cio ethaeeie ?
caaacia/aia noni?euenoaii ? ioi?iithaaia aea?aeaaith iiaeeea?noue
ia?aaoaaoe a aeeaiio noai?, a?ae/oaaoe ?aae?noue aeeaiai, caei?iaiai
aoooy. Iayai?noue oaei? iiaeeeaino? o iaaii? ethaenueei? ni?eueiioe ? a
ie?aii? iniae ye ?? /eaia ? iniiaiei, aeeaeiiei ci?noii eaoaai???
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy, yea ioi?iiy?oueny e?ei?iaeueiei caeiiii. Naia
iiaeeea?noue noaio aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, yeee a?aeiia?aea?
?ioa?anai noni?euenoaa, ? aieiaiei o ci?no? caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy ye
ia’?eoa cei/eiieo iinyaaiue.

Noni?eueia nooi?noue ? iaaacia/i?noue cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c
ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie, o oiio e iieyaa?, ui aiie ?oeiothoue oeth
iiaeeea?noue. A?aoo?-?aoo cei/eiiei iane?aeeii aiae?ciaaieo ae?yiue noa?
oai?iaa — ia?eiiai?y (oieneeiiai?y). Ia?eiiaie oiio ? ? oai?eie, ui
iicaaaeai? iiaeeeaino? ia?aaoaaoe o caei?iaiio noai?, ei?enooaaoeny
aeaaaie aeeooy, ui ii?ooaia ?o aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue. Ia?eiiai?y ye
oai?iaa ? i?ioeeaaei?noth caei?ia’th ianaeaiiy. Nooi?noue ia?eiiai?? ia?
iaaia cia/aiiy aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eoa oeeo cei/ei?a, ine?eueee
cei/eii? iane?aeee iaeaaeaoue iaeii/anii aei ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie ? aei
ia’?eoa cei/eio.

Ia?eiiai?y ye cei/eiiee iane?aeie aeaco? ia ?oeiaoe?th caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy ? aea? ciiao iaea?eueo iiaii e a?oioiaii ?ice?eoe eiai ci?no
ye ia’?eoa aiae?ciaaii? eaoaai??? cei/ei?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeeeaaeaiiai c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui ?iaeiaei ia’?eoii
cei/ei?a o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ye?
caaacia/othoue iaaecia/aiiio eieo in?a iiaeeea?noue ? ni?eyoeea? oiiae
aeey ia?aaoaaiiy o aeeaiio noai?, ?aae?niiai ? caei?iaiai aoooy.

Oe? noni?euei? a?aeiineie ? noni?eueii-a?iiaaenueeei ci?noii caei?ia’y
ianaeaiiy ye i?aaiai? iaoa???. Iaoai?ci caiiae?yiiy oeiaee ia?iaeiiio
caei?ia’th (?iaeiaiio ia’?eoo) iieyaa? a oiio, ui “ia?eioe/i?” cei/eie
?oeiothoue oe? noni?euei? iiaeeeaino?, ia?aoai?ththoue ?o ia
iaiiaeeea?noue aeey iioa?i?eeo a?ae oaeeo cei/ei?a, ine?eueee
iane?aeeaie inoaii?o ? caa?ica /e ?aaeueia ianoaiiy oyaeei? oai?iae —
ia?eiiai?? (aai oieneeiiai??).

I/aaeaeii, ui ca ?iaeiaei ia’?eoii ia an? neeaaee cei/ei?a, ui iia’ycai?
c ia?eioeeaie, iaeaaeaoue aei iinyaaiue o noa?? ia?iaeiiai caei?ia’y
(aeiyoeii ?, cie?aia, noaoo? 22912, 22915, 22916 EE). I?ioa aiie aoee
?ici?uai? na?aae cei/ei?a i?ioe ia?iaeiiai caei?ia’y ia i?aenoaa?
ni?eueii? aeey ieo aioeia?eiiai?eii? ni?yiiaaiino?. Ia?aiee oeyo
caia?a/o? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee iaoiae iiaoaeiae aeaa Iniaeeai? /anoeie
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno ca iciaeaie ?iaeiaiai ia’?eoa. A?aeoeeaiiy a?ae
oeueiai iaoiaea iaia’yceiai i?ecaaaea aei oneeaaeiaiue a canoinoaaii?
e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, c?oeio? ai?iaiaaio nenoaio eiai
eiaeeo?eaoe?? ? iicaaaeoue caeiiiaeaaoey iaae?eiiai ?ino?oiaioa
inoaiiuei?.

Aaoi? ia?aeiiaiee, ui iaai? iaaa?acaee, ye? o?aieythoueny a i?ioean?
?icaoaeiae Iniaeeai? /anoeie /eiiiai E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie
(oae naii ye ? i?e ?ic?iaeaii? i?iaeoo iiaiai), aeeeeeai? ia yeeienue
iiieeeiaeie iaoiaeaie ?? eiino?othaaiiy, a neeaaei?noth i?aaeeueiiai ?
/?oeiai aecia/aiiy ?iaeiaiai ia’?eoa cei/eio.

Aeena?oaio ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui iaai? cei/eie (iai?eeeaae, ia?aaeaa/ai?
noaooyie 2291, 2292, 22917, 22919, 22920 EE) caa?iaeothoue caei?ia’th ia
iaaieo, eiie?aoieo in?a, a a?eueo-iaio oe?ieiai, iaaecia/aiiai eiea in?a
(ui iino?aaeaeaee a?ae ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?eioee?a). Oiio ?o ?iaeiaei
ia’?eoii ? caei?ia’y ia ie?aii? iniae, a caei?ia’y ethaeae (e?eueeio
in?a, a?eueo-iaio cia/iiai ?o /enea, ye? aai cian?i cacaeaeaa?aeue ia
a?aeii? cei/eioeaa?, aai i?i yeeo a?i ia? eeoa caaaeueia oyaeaiiy). Ca
aeacaieo ia’?eoeaieo i?aenoaa oe? cei/eie iiaeooue aooe aeciai?
iinyaaiiyie ia caei?ia’y ethaeae (ianaeaiiy). Iaeaieiai?oei
ia’?aeioth/ei ia/aeii “ia?eioe/ieo” cei/ei?a a iaeio a?oio iinyaaiue ia
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy ? ?o caeaoi?noue caaaeaaaoe iaeii??aeii? oeiaee o
aeaeyae? iioe?aiiy ia?eiiai?? ? oieneeiiai?? oeyoii iacaeiiiiai ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a.

Ioaea, on? cei/eie, ye? i?yii /e iia?/ii iia’ycai? c ia?eioe/ieie
caniaaie, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiaeia ca?oioaaoe ca ?iaeiaei ia’?eoii oaeei
/eiii:

1) cei/eie, ui iinyaathoue ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy (noaoo? 701, 2082,
2291 — 2298, 22911, 22917, 22919, 22920 EE);

2) cei/eie, ui iinyaathoue ia caei?ia’y /e aeeooy iniae (no. 22915 EE);

3) cei/eie, ui iinyaathoue ia a?iiaaenueeee ii?yaeie (no. 22916 EE);

4) cei/eie, ui iinyaathoue ia ii?yaeie oi?aae?iiy (noaoo? 22913, 22914,
22918 EE);

5) cei/eie, ui iinyaathoue ia aeiiii?/io nenoaio aea?aeaae (no. 22912
EE);

6) cei/eie, ui iinyaathoue ia i?aainoaeaey (noaoo? 1834, 184, 186, 187
EE).

Cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y iai/ii na?ae/eoue, ui aeaeaei ia an?
cei/eie, ye? ? aeaiaioaie iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
iinyaathoue ia ia?iaeia caei?ia’y.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? cei/ei?a iiaea aooe ?ic?iaeaia
oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue nenoaie ii?i i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie,
iia’ycai? c ia?eioeeaie. Oea, a naith /a?ao, aea? iiaeeea?noue
iaa?oiooaaoe aeioe?euei?noue aeie?aieaiiy a iiaiio E?ei?iaeueiiio
eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie niaoe?aeueiiai ?icae?eo Cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ii?yae ?c naiino?eiei ?icae?eii Cei/eie i?ioe
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

Aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? caai?iie o noa?? ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia ioi?iio caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy,
aeinyaathoue nai?? aieiaii? ? e?ioeaai? iaoe iiina?aaeeiaaii /a?ac
ioi?iio caei?ia’y eiie?aoii? ethaeeie. Naia aiii ? iiaeiii aeciaaaoeny
iniiaiei aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii ia?oi? a?oie cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c
ia?eioeeaie.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaeiaoa cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c
ia?eiiai??th aaoi? cacia/a?, ui a ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyae? i?aaeiao
aiae?ciaaieo cei/ei?a neeaaeathoue:

1) ia?eioe/i? caniae, ye? ? i?aaeiaoii cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo noaooyie
701, 2291 2292, 2296, 2298 EE;

2) ineoio?iii? ?a/iaeie (noaoo? 7011, 22911, 2292, 2296, 2298 EE);

3) i?aeo?ni?e (noaoo? 701, 22919, 22920 EE);

4) niioai?iee iae /e eiiiie? (no. 2293 EE);

5) o?iainia? eiooe, caeiaoo? a?ae iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a
? aeei?enoiaoaai? c iaoith ?o a?aeieaaiiy (no. 22912 EE);

6) aeieoiaioe (i?ae?iaeai? /e iacaeiiii iaea?aeai?) ia io?eiaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a (no. 22913 EE);

7) io?oe?ei? aeieoiaioe, ye? i?noyoue caa?aeiii iai?aaaeea? a?aeiiino?
i?i ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a (no. 22918 EE);

8) ?aoeaio (iacaeiiii aeaeaiee) ia i?aai i?eaeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a
aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei (no. 22914 EE);

9) iaeaaeiaiiy, i?ecia/aia aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei (no. 22917 EE);

10) ae?i oa i?ei?uaiiy aeey aaeeaaiiy /e aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei aai aeey aaeeaaiiy iaeo?iaithth/eo cania?a
(noaoo? 2294, 22911 EE).

?ice?eaa?oueny e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaee ci?no oeeo i?aaeiao?a. Cie?aia,
?icaeyiooi eeaneo?eaoe?th ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ?
i?aeo?ni??a, ye? ia?aaoaathoue o iacaeiiiiio ia?ao, oa e?euee?nia
cia/aiiy ?o iaaaeeeeo, aaeeeeo ? iniaeeai aaeeeeo ?ici???a. Oe? ieoaiiy
?aaeaiaioiaaii aeieoiaioaie, ui caoaa?aeaeothoueny Eii?oaoii.

Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue ianaiia?aae Ia?ae?e ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei, ?o aiaeia?a ? i?aeo?ni??a, ui i?aeeyaathoue niaoe?aeueiiio
eiio?ieth o a?aeiia?aeiino? c /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie. Ia?ae?e
yaey? niaith oaaeeoe? eeaneo?eaoe?? ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a (oeeo oaaeeoeue /ioe?e). ?ice?eaa?oueny ci?no
cacia/aieo oaaeeoeue.

Ii?yae c aeaeaiiyi Ia?ae?eo aei eiiiaoaioe?? Eii?oaoo caeiiii a?aeianaii
oaeiae aecia/aiiy ?ici???a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ?
i?aeo?ni??a (i?ei?oee aei noaoae 701, 2291, 2298, 22919 EE). Ii?iaoeaii
oaea aecia/aiiy nii/aoeo aoei ioi?ieaii Eii?oaoii o aeaeyae? /ioe?ueio
Aeniiae?a a?ae 18 ea?oiy 1995 ?. Iio?i cai?noue ieo Eii?oao caoaa?aeea
Oaaeeoe? iaaaeeeeo, aaeeeeo oa iniaeeai aaeeeeo ?ici???a ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o
iacaeiiiiio ia?ao.

Oaaeeoe? ?ici???a ocaiaeaeaii c oaaeeoeyie (? ?o nieneaie) eeaneo?eaoe??
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a, oiaoi c
Ia?ae?eii.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeaieo i?i aeaee ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a iacaeiiiiio ia?ao, aeiaiaeeoue a?aenooi?noue
noaeino? o ?o no?oeoo??. Ia caieoaiiy, ye? ia?eioeee aai ineoio?iii?
?a/iaeie iae/ano?oa ? i?aaeiaoii iaiaaee/iiai aaeeaaiiy oa iacaeiiiiai
ia?ao, ia iiaeia a?aeiia?noe iaeiicia/ii. Ana caeaaeeoue a?ae
eiie?aoiiai ?aa?iio e?a?ie ? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. Oea iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe i?aaiioi?iiiei i?aaiai i?e ieaioaaii? a?aeiia?aeieo
i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a.

Iaaiaeyoueny ii??aiyeuei? aeai? i?i iaea?eueo iioe?ai? aeaee ia?eioee?a,
ye? aoee a iacaeiiiiio ia?ao a eieeoiueiio N?N? ? a O?N? iai?ee?ioe? 80
?ie?a, ? oaia? a Oe?a?i?.

O aea/aieo aaoi?ii ni?aaao aeaii? eaoaai???, ?icaeyiooeo noaeaie Oe?a?ie
a 1995 ?. I i?a??//y 1997 ?., iae/ano?oa i?aaeiaoii cei/eio aoee
ia?eioe/i? caniae ?ineeiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy: iaeiaa nieiia, ii?e-ne?aoeue,
ii?e aeno?aeoe?eiee aai aoeaoeeueiaaiee, aaoeo, ia?eooaia (aeecueei
80%). Oaia? a ia?ao c’yaeeeny iniaeeai iaaacia/i? ia?eioe/i? caniae —
aa?i?i, ii?o?e, eiea?i (i?eaeecii 17%). Na?aae ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei a
iniiaiiio cono??/a?oueny aoaae?ei, a na?aae i?aeo?ni??a — aoeaoii,
aia?ae?eae ioeoiai? eeneioe, n??/aia e nieyia eeneioe.

I?aaeiao iinyaaiiy o?nii iia’ycaiee c oaeeie iciaeaie ia’?eoeaii?
noi?iie neeaaeo cei/eio, ye caniae ? cia?yaeaey a/eiaiiy inoaiiueiai.
I?aaeeueia anoaiiaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa iinyaaiiy, iai???a ? oe?eae
aeei?enoaiiy cania?a ? cia?yaeue a/eiaiiy cei/eio iiaea iaoe aaeeea
aeieaciaa cia/aiiy o e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao ? a ca’yceo c oeei inoaoi/ii
aecia/aoe eaae?o?eaoe?th cei/eio.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e oea ieoaiiy, aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui ia?eioe/i?
caniae, ineoio?iii? ?a/iaeie a iaeieo aeiaaeeao (iai?eeeaae,
ia?aaeaa/aieo noaooyie 2291, 2292 EE) ? i?aaeiaoii cei/eio, a ?ioeo —
caniaii (cie?aia, noaoo? 2295, 22916 EE) aai cia?yaeaeyi (no. 22915 EE)
eiai a/eiaiiy. I?ioa aiie iiaeooue ? ia iaeaaeaoe aei caaaeaieo
eaoaai??e, a aooe /anoeiith oaenoo e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ii?ie (noaoo?
22912, 22917, 22918 EE).

Ca?aeii c /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoiaii Oe?a?ie iia?aoe?? c aiaeiaaie
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ia ooai?ththoue iacaeiiiiai
ia?ao, a oiio ia i?noyoue neeaaeo cei/eio ?, ioaea, — ia ? i?aaeiaoii
?icaeyaeoaaieo cei/ei?a.

Niaoe?aeueio oaaao cina?aaeaeaii ia oiio, ui inoaii?i /anii
niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy iiieoo ia aiaaie?/i? noa?i?aee (?a/iaeie,
eio?? ca?eueoothoue i’yciao iano e o?ce/io neeo), c?inoathoue ? ianooaae
?o aeeo/aiiy. Oao?aoe? ae?eoee aeniiaeo i?i aeineoue oe?aeeea?
nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee ceiaaeeaaiiy aiaaie?eaie. Cie?aia, ? iaaaciaea
oi?ioaaiiy o?ce/ii? ? ineo?/ii? caeaaeiino? i?aai?cio ethaeeie
aiane?aeie aaeeaaiiy aaeeeeo aeic aiaaie?/ieo noa?i?ae?a (i?iaiaeeeenue,
oi/a e a iaiaaeaieo ianooaaao, iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo aeiaaee?a).
I?iiiio?oueny i?iaiae?coaaoe /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai c oi/ee ci?o iineeaiiy
eiio?ieth ca ia?aii aiaaie?/ieo noa?i?ae?a.

I?ae?icae?e 2.3. Ci?no ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c
ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie. Ia’?eoeaia noi?iia a?eueoino? cei/ei?a o noa??
ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a a?aecia/a?oueny o??th iniaeea?noth, ui
aeeniiceoe?? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aeai? cei/eie, ? aeaieaoieie, — ?o ci?no
aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee oeeie ii?iaie, a e i?aecaeiiieie aeoaie ?ioeo
aaeocae i?aaa.

Aiae?ciaai? cei/eie acaaae? ? ii?ooaiiyi i?aaiaiai ?aaeeio ia?ao
cacia/aieo cania?a ? ?a/iaei. Oeae ?aaeei ?aaeaiaioiaaii ii?iaie
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa — Eiiaaioe?yie III i?i ai?ioueao c iacaeiiiei
ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a 1961,
1971, 1988 ??., iaoe?iiaeueiei caeiiiaeaanoaii oa ?ioeie ii?iaoeaieie
aeoaie.

Ia’?eoeaia noi?iia neeaae?a cei/ei?a o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeei /eiii: 1) an? oe? cei/eie (noaoo? 701, 2082,
2291 2298, 22911 22920 EE) a/eiythoueny oeyoii ae?? (cei/eie,
ia?aaeaa/ai? no. 2297 EE, iiaeooue aooe a/eiai? oaeiae oeyoii
aacae?yeueiino?); 2) ia?aaaaeia ?o a?eueo?noue iathoue oae caai?
oi?iaeuei? /e nei?i/ai? neeaaee; 3) cia/ia /anoeia e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo
ii?i, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oe? cei/eie,
iiaoaeiaaia ca i?eioeeiii niaoe?aeueieo ii?i; 4) an? oe? cei/eie, ye
i?aaeei, ia iathoue oaeoeueoaoeaieo iciae ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie neeaaeo
cei/eio — ?o eaae?o?eaoe?y ia caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao, /ano, i?noey,
ianoaiiaee ? cia?yaeue a/eiaiiy cei/eio (eeoa a no. 22915 EE ? aeac?aea
ia a/eiaiiy cei/eio i?ioe aie? iioa?i?eiai, oiaoi niiniaii ianeeuenoaa,
o /. 2 no. 2292 ? /. 2 no. 22919 EE oa /. 3 oeeo noaoae — ia
eaae?o?eoth/? iciaee ?ice?aaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei /e i?aeo?ni??a a?aeiia?aeii niiniaii ianeeueieoeueeiai a?aaaaeo
? niiniaii ?ica?eiiai iaiaaeo, a a /. 2 no. 2291, no. 22916 EE
ia?aaeaa/aii oaeo iaia’yceiao iciaeo ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie, ye i?noea
a/eiaiiy oeueiai cei/eio — a a?iiaaenueeeo i?noeyo); 5) eaae?o?eoth/?
iciaee oeeo cei/ei?a iaeaea oeiia?: iiaoi?i?noue a/eiaiiy cei/eio,
a/eiaiiy cei/eio ca iiia?aaei?i caiai?ii a?oiith in?a, aai
i?aai?ciaaiith a?oiith, aai iniaeeai iaaacia/iei ?aoeeaeea?noii; 6)
ie?ai? cei/eie iathoue niaoeeo?/i? eaae?o?eoth/? iciaee, iia’ycai? c
iniaeeainoyie i?aiaoa cei/eio, — aaeee? oa iniaeeai aaeee? ?ici??e
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei aai i?aeo?ni??a; iniaeeai
iaaacia/i? ia?eioe/i? caniae /e ineoio?iii? ?a/iaeie; 7) aea? ii?ie
iathoue aaei?i?no?aoeaio i?athaeeoe?th (noaoo? 2293, 2298 EE).

Niaoe?aeueieie eaae?o?eoth/eie iciaeaie ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie ie?aieo
cei/ei?a ?, iai?eeeaae: a) caoo ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei o a?iiaaenueeeo i?noeyo, a naia “o i?noeyo, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo, nii?oeaieo ?
eoeueoo?ieo caoiae?a, oa a ?ioeo i?noeyo ianiaiai ia?aaoaaiiy a?iiaaeyi”
(/. 2 no. 2291 EE); a) ?ice?aaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei aai i?aeo?ni??a iniaith, ye?e cacia/ai? caniae ? ?a/iaeie aoei
aeia??aii o ca’yceo c ?? neoaeaiaei noaiii /e i?ae ioi?iio (/. 2 no.
2292, /. 2 no. 22919 EE); a) iacaeiiiee iin?a aai ae?iuoaaiiy
niioai?iiai iaeo /e eiiiiaeue o e?eueeino? i’yoenio ? a?eueoa ?ineei
(/. 2 no. 2293 EE).

Aiae?cothoueny ia’?eoeai? iciaee cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eioe/ieie
caniaaie.

Ia aeoieo ie?aieo th?eno?a, o ?ac? iacaeiiii? ia?aaea/? ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a iniaai, yeeo o?eiathoue o aei?aaii-o?oaeiaeo onoaiiaao, ne?ae/eo
?cieyoi?ao, e?eoaaeueii-o?oaeiaeo ? e?eoaaeueii-aeoiaieo i?io?eaeoi??yo,
ae?? aeiieo in?a o?aaa eaae?o?eoaaoe ca noeoii?noth cei/ei?a,
ia?aaeaa/aieo noaooyie 1834 ? 2291 EE. Iaaaaeai? noaeaeaiiy uiaei
i?aaiai? ioe?iee cacia/aieo ae?e iaa?yae /e iiaeia aeciaoe ei?aeoieie.
Aaoi? iaa?oioiao? naith iiceoe?th a?aeiia?aeieie a?aoiaioaie.

Oe?a?inueeee caeiiiaeaaaoeue ii?yae c ii?iaie i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ca ?ice?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai /e eieaeoeaiiai iaeia (noaoo? 81 84, 86,
861 EE) ia?aaeaa/ea oaeiae a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?ice?aaeaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei (no. 2292 EE), ?ice?aaeaiiy
iaeaaeiaiiy, i?ecia/aiiai aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei (no. 22917 EE), ? ?ice?aaeaiiy i?aeo?ni??a (no.
22919 EE). Iaiao?aei?noue oaeeo caai?ii aeeeeeaia ianaiia?aae
niaoeeo?eith i?aaeiaoa cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo noaooyie 2292, 22917,
22919 EE, ? coiiaeaiei oeei iniaeeaei i?aaiaei ?aaeeiii ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a. Aiaeii/an oe?
neeaaee cei/ei?a a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith ca ia’?eoeaieie oa
noa’?eoeaieie iciaeaie. ?o ia o?eueee ia’?aeiothoue, a e a?ae??ciythoue
iniaeeaino? i?aaeiaoa iinyaaiiy, iaia’yceia?noue iaoe caooo (aeey
?ice?aaeaiiy i?aeo?ni??a), iciaee noa’?eoa cei/ei?a. Aea iaeaieiai?oa
oa, ui aiie a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?ice?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai /e
eieaeoeaiiai iaeia.

?ice?aaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei (no. 2292 EE)
— oea oienia i?ioei?aaia ?o aeeo/aiiy aoaeue-yeei niiniaii ?c
aea?aeaaieo, eieaeoeaieo /e i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia,
i?aai?caoe?e, ?c i?aaii??iiai /e iacaeiiiiai aieiae?iiy a?iiaaeyi, a, ca
iaaieo oiia, oaeiae cae?aiiy ia?eioeeiai?nieo ?ineei aai ?o /anoei aeey
i?ioei?aaiiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Aeaii oaeiae aecia/aiiy ?ice?aaeaiiy i?aeo?ni??a (no. 22919 EE) ?
?ice?aaeaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy (no. 22917 EE).

O e?eoe/iiio ieai? ?icaeyioo? oi/ee ci?o th?eno?a, ye? iaeiei ?c
niinia?a ?ice?aaeaiiy ia?eioee?a iaceaathoue aeiaaaoaeuenoai. Aeena?oaio
aaaaea?, ui aeiaaeee aeiaaaoaeuenoaa ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei iio??aii eaae?o?eoaaoe ia ye ?ice?aaeaiiy oeeo
i?aaeiao?a (no. 2292 EE), a ca noeoii?noth cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo no.
862 /e 144 EE ? /. 2 no. 17, no. 2291 aai 2296 EE. O oie aea /an
aeeeaaeaia na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue i?iaaeeie a caeiiiaeaanoa?.
A?aoiaoth/e noni?eueio iaaacia/i?noue aeiaaaoaeuenoaa ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei /e i?aeo?ni??a aoei a aei?aaaeaiei
anoaiiaeoe e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oae? ae??.

Aeeeth/aiiy no. 2299 ?c E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno ? ci?ia aeeniiceoe?? /.
1 no. 2293 iioyaee ca niaith iaiao?aei?noue caeiiiaeaa/iai oeoia/aiiy
ieoaiiy i?i canoinoaaiiy (iacanoinoaaiiy) cai?ioii? neee caeiio uiaei
in?a, canoaeaeaieo ca no. 2299 EE. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui ??oaiiy Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie c oeueiai ieoaiiy ia iiaiith i??ith a?aeiia?aea?
i?eioeeiiaei iieiaeaiiyi caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i cai?ioio neeo caeiio (/. 2,
3 no. 6 EE), iaaiaeeoue aeiaiaee ? i??eoaaiiy ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oe???
aeoiee.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.3. aea?oueny oaeiae ocaaaeueiaiee aiae?c ie?aieo
eaae?o?eoth/eo iciae, ye? oa?aeoa?i? aeey aaaaoueio neeaae?a cei/ei?a o
noa?? ia?ao ia?eioee?a.

I?ae?icae?e 2.4. Iniaeeaino? noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c
ia?eiiai??th. On? cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie (noaoo?
701, 2082, 2291 2298, 22911 22920 EE), a/eiythoueny oienii. Eeoa iaeei
c ieo, ui ia?aaeaa/aiee no. 2297 EE (ii?ooaiiy anoaiiaeaiieo i?aaee
ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a) iiaea
aooe a/eiaii ye oienii, oae ? iaiaa?aaeii.

Ia oieniee oa?aeoa? iaaieo ae?yiue aeaco? caeiiiaeaa/a oi?ioethaaiiy
ie?aieo noaoae, yea i?noeoue iineeaiiy ia iioeae e iaoo cei/eio (no.
2291, /. 2 no. 2293, 2294, no. 22911, 22912, 22914, /. 3 no. 22917, no.
22919, /. 2 no. 22920 EE), caa?aeii?noue (no. 22918 EE),
aaei?i?no?aoeaio i?athaeeoe?th (/. 1 no. 2293, no. 2298 EE). ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie, ui aiae?ciaai? cei/eie iiaea aooe a/eiaii eeoa c i?yiei
oieneii.

Iniaeea?noth aeaio neeaae?a cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo /. 2 no. 2297 ? /. 2
/e 3 no. 22915 EE, ? oa, ui aiie aeiioneathoue a/eiaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
ae?yiue c iiaea?eiith oi?iith aeie (?? ua iaceaathoue ci?oaiith oi?iith
aeie). Oea ieoaiiy aiae?co?oueny a aeena?oaoe??.

On? cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eiiai??th, a/eiythoueny ca iaaieie iioeaaie,
oi/a a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a inoaii? ia ia?aaeaa/ai? caeiiii ye
iaia’yceia? iciaee oeeo cei/ei?a. Aea aiae?c noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie
cacia/aieo cei/ei?a aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iioeae ?o a/eiaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e aa?o?noue (oe?io) ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei
ia “/i?iiio” ?eieo, i?eaooeia?noue oi?a?ae? ieie, iiaeia iiieeeiai
aeciaoe, ui ia?oa i?noea na?aae iioea?a aiae?ciaaieo cei/ei?a iin?aea?
ei?eneeaee iioea. Oae, a?i ae?enii iiaea aooe ?oo?eiith neeith i?e
a/eiaii? aoaeue-yeiai cei/eio, iia’ycaiiai c ia?eiiai??th. Iaeiae oea ia
icia/a?, ui a?eueo?noue /e yeanue /anoeia ?icaeyaeoaaieo cei/ei?a
a/eiy?oueny eeoa c ei?eneeaeo iioea?a. Aiae?c e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa a oe?e aaeoc? aeiaiaeeoue, ui o?eueee ie?ai? neeaaee
cei/ei?a i?noyoue aeac?aeo ia ei?eneeaee iioea aai ei?eneeao iaoo.
Ia?aoo?, noaeiaa i?aeoeea e?aniiiiaii na?ae/eoue: i?eaeecii 90%
canoaeaeaieo ca cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a — oea iniae, ye? iacaeiiii ae?iaeee, aeaioiaeee,
i?eaeaaee oiui oe? caniae e ?a/iaeie aeey aeaniiai aaeeaaiiy.

Aeeeaaeaia aeiaiaeeoue, ui iaea?eueo iioe?aiei iniiaiei iioeaii a/eiaiiy
cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo ?c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie aai ineoio?iiieie
?a/iaeiaie, ? iioea aaeeaaiiy (aeaniiai /e ?ioeie iniaaie). Oea iiaeiii
aooe a?aoiaaii a i?ioean? iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy aioeia?eioe/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea iei? ni?yiiaaia a iniiaiiio i?ioe niiaeeaa/a
ia?eioee?a, ia??aeei oai?i? ethaeeie (ia?eiiaia).

On? cei/eie, ii?aeiai? c ia?eiiai??th, a/eiythoueny c o??th /e ?ioith
iaoith (aac iaoe ia aoaa? a/eieo), aea ia a on?o oeeo cei/eiao iaoa ?
iaia’yceiaith iciaeith noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie.

Iai?eeeaae, iniaeeaei ci?noii iaiiaiaia noa’?eoeaia noi?iia iacaeiiieo
aeaioiaeaiiy, i?eaeaaiiy, caa??aaiiy, ia?aaacaiiy aai ia?aneeaiiy
i?aeo?ni??a. Oi/a a /. 1 no. 22920 EE iaia? aeac?aee ia iaoo a/eiaiiy
oeeo ae?e, ?? iayai?noue ? anoaiiaeaiiy o ni?aaao aeaii? eaoaai??? ?
iaia’yceiaeie. Ia?ae?/ai? ae?? iaoeiooue cei/eiiee oa?aeoa? eeoa ca
iaaii? iaoe — eiee aiie a/eiythoueny naia aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeaioiaeaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei.

O aeayeeo neeaaeao cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th, iaoa ?o a/eiaiiy
? eiino?oeoeaiith iciaeith noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie. Oaeo ?ieue
a?ae?a?athoue:

iaoa caooo ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei i?e ?o
iacaeiiiiio ae?iaeaii?, aeaioiaeaii?, i?eaeaaii?, caa??aaii?,
ia?aaacaii? /e ia?aneeaii? (no. 2291 EE ); iaoa caooo i?aeo?ni??a i?e ?o
?ice?aaeaii? (no. 22919 EE) oa iacaeiiiiio aeaioiaeaii?, i?eaeaaii?,
caa??aaii?, ia?aaacaii? aai ia?aneeaii? (/. 2 no. 22920 EE); iaoa
caooo-i?eaeaaiiy iaeiai? nieiie /e eiiiiaeue i?e iacaeiiiiio iin?a? aai
ae?iuoaaii? niioai?iiai iaeo /e eiiiiaeue (/. 2 no. 2293 EE); ei?eneeaa
iaoa i?e i?aai?caoe?? aai aea?aeaii? aeiio aeey aaeeaaiiy /e
aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei (/. 2 no. 2294
EE); iaoa iaeo?iaithaaiiy e?ea?nueeeie oa ?ioeie caniaaie, ui ia ?
ia?eioe/ieie aai ineoio?iiieie (no. 22911 EE); iaoa i?iaeiaaeaiiy
iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei aai
i?aeo?ni??a i?e aeei?enoaii? iaaiiai ?iaeo eioo?a ? iaeia (no. 22912
EE); iaoa aeaioiaeaiiy iniaeeai iaaacia/ieo ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei i?e ?ice?aaeaii?, iacaeiiieo aeaioiaeaii?,
i?eaeaaii?, caa??aaii?, ia?aaea/? /e i?iaeaaeo ?ioei iniaai iaeaaeiaiiy,
i?ecia/aiiai aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei (/. 3 no. 22917 EE).

Iniao iiaeia i?eoyaoe aei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oeeie
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeie ii?iaie eeoa o oiio ?ac?, eiee ia?aaeaa/ai? ieie
ae?yiiy aoee a/eiai? ?c cacia/aiith iaoith.

Aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a, caeiaooeo a?ae iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a (no. 22912 EE),
a?aeaoaa?oueny a o?ueio aeueoa?iaoeaieo oi?iao, eiaeia c yeeo ia?
niaoeeo?/i? eiia?iaoe?? iciae. Oeeie oi?iaie ?: a) ?ici?uaiiy o?iainiaeo
eioo?a, caeiaooeo a?ae iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei aai i?aeo?ni??a, o aaieao, ia i?aei?e?inoaao oa a
?ioeo no?oeoo?ao iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino?; a) i?eaeaaiiy ia oae?
eiooe ia’?eo?a, ui i?aeeyaathoue i?eaaoecaoe??, /e iaeaaeiaiiy aeey
ae?iaie/eo oa ?ioeo iio?aa; a) aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo eioo?a ? iaeia c
iaoith i?iaeiaaeaiiy iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei aai i?aeo?ni??a.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaoa i?iaeiaaeaiiy cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino?,
iia’ycaii? c ia?eiiai??th, noino?oueny eeoa o?aouei? oi?ie aeei?enoaiiy
eioo?a, caeiaooeo a?ae ia?eia?ciano. Ao?i, cae??ieaiiy a no. 22912 EE
niaoe?aeueii? iaoe o?aaa aeciaoe caeaei. Aiia ia iiaeiia aooe
ia?aaeoiiaith a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o ?aieao oe??? noaoo?

Aaoi? aiae?co? oi/ee ci?o th?eno?a uiaei ?icoi?iiy iaoe caooo-i?eaeaaiiy
iaeiai? nieiie /e eiiiiaeue (/. 2 no. 2293 EE). O aeena?oaoe??
iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea i?i oa, ui cacia/aia iaoa ia?aaeaa/a? ia
aeueoa?iaoeai? ae?? — caoo /e i?eaeaaiiy (ia aeiaaeeiai a oe?e
eiino?oeoe?? a?aenooi? niieo/ieee ”aai”, “/e”), a ioiieth? e ia’?aeio?
a/eiaiiy iaio oeeo ae?e. Iaoa caooo-i?eaeaaiiy ia?eine?iaeie ?
aeai?aeeiith — ye ca oa?aeo?enoeeith noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie ae?e eiaeiiai
?c ni?ao/aniee?a, oae ? ca i?iyaii ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie cei/eio. Oea
ni?eueia iaoa ae?iaieea e caiiaieea ia?eioeeiai?nieo eoeueoo?. Aiia
ia’?aeio? neeaaeia ineo?/ia noaaeaiiy aei nai?o ae?e ? ?o iane?aee?a
aeaio noi??i, a oiio iaoyaeo? ?o a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea i?i oa, ui e?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
noeeyiiy aei aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a /e ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei
ianoa? ca no. 2295 EE ia o?eueee ca iayaiino? iaoe aeeeeeaoe o
iioa?i?eiai aaaeaiiy aaeeaaoe oe? caniae /e ?a/iaeie, a e oiae?, eiee
aeioaaoee iaa ia iao? aeiaeoeny a?ae iioa?i?eiai caiaee ?o aaeeoe, ?
iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, /e aaeeaaea oe? caniae e ?a/iaeie iniaa, yeo aei
oeueiai noeeyee.

I?ae?icae?e 2.5. Noa’?eo iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. Ca?aeii
?c caeiiii noa’?eoaie a?eueoino? cei/ei?a o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a ? iniae, ye? aeinyaee 16-??/iiai a?eo. Aeiyoeii ? ?ice?aaeaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, a/eiaia oeyoii e?aae?aeee,
a?aaaaeo ? ?ica?eiiai iaiaaeo (no. 2292), — e?ei?iaeueia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iueiai ianoa? c 14-oe ?ie?a. Caoaaaeo?oueny, ui
aiaeia?/i? ae?? c i?aeo?ni?aie, a oaeiae c iaeaaeiaiiyi, i?ecia/aiei
aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei (noaoo?
22919, 22917 EE), ia aeeth/ai? aei /. 2 no. 10 EE, a oiio noa’?eoii oeeo
cei/ei?a iiaeooue aooe iniae, ui aeinyaee 16-oe ?ie?a.

Ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiao? ieoaiiy i?i i?i?iaeueiee a?e i?eoyaiaiiy
aei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo no. 2082 EE
(aoyaiaiiy iaiiaiie?oi?o o iaiaaee/ia aaeeaaiiy e?ea?nueeeo oa ?ioeo
cania?a, ui aeeeeeathoue iaeo?iaithaaiiy), /. 2 no. 2295 EE (noeeyiiy
iaiiaiie?oiueiai aei aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei), /. 2 no. 2291, /. 2 no. 2294, /. 3 no. 2296 EE (iacaeiii?
ae?iaeaiiy, aeaioiaeaiiy, i?eaeaaiiy, caa??aaiiy, ia?aaacaiiy,
ia?aneeaiiy c iaoith /e aac iaoe caooo, a oae naii caoo ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei, i?aai?caoe?y aai aea?aeaiiy aeiio aeey
aaeeaaiiy /e aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei
?c caeo/aiiyi iaiiaiie?oiueiai).

On? iacaai? aeua cei/eie oaeoe/ii ? ??ciiaeaeaie aoyaiaiiy
iaiiaiie?oiueiai o cei/eiio /e ?ioo aioea?iiaaenueeo ae?yeuei?noue (no.
208 EE).

Aeiiaaeaaia Ieaioi Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie o i. 9 iinoaiiae a?ae 23
a?oaeiy 1983 ?. ? 6 “I?i i?aeoeeo canoinoaaiiy noaeaie Oe?a?ie
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aoyaiaiiy iaiiaiie?oi?o o
cei/eiio oa ?ioo aioea?iiaaenueeo ae?yeuei?noue” ?ic’ynithaaa, ui “i?ae
noeeyiiyi iaiiaiie?oiueiai aei aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca yea ianoa? ca /. 2 no. 2295 EE, iaiao?aeii
?icoi?oe oieni? ae?? aei?inei? iniae (aeae?eaii iaie. — A.I.),
ni?yiiaai? ia oa, uia caoaeeoe o iaiiaiie?oiueiai aaaeaiiy aaeeaaoe
ia?eioeee”.

Nie?ath/enue ia oea oeoia/aiiy caeiio, aaoi? aaaaea?, ui noa’?eoii
aoyaiaiiy iaiiaiie?oi?o o iaiaaee/ia aaeeaaiiy e?ea?nueeeo oa ?ioeo
cania?a, ui aeeeeeathoue iaeo?iaithaaiiy, a oaeiae a/eiaiiy iacaeiiieo
iia?aoe?e c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie e ineoio?iiieie ?a/iaeiaie ?c
caeo/aiiyi iaiiaiie?oiueiai iiaea aooe eeoa iiaiie?oiy iniaa, oiaoi
oaea, ye?e ia iiiaio ?o a/eiaiiy aeiiaieeiny 18 ?ie?a. sseui, i?ei??ii,
iaiiaiie?oiueiai noeey? aei aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ?ioee iaiiaiie?oi?e, ae?? inoaiiueiai ia iiaeia
eaae?o?eoaaoe ca /. 2 no. 2295 EE; o aeaiiio ?ac? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ianoa? aac o?aooaaiiy oe??? eaae?o?eoth/i? iciaee. Ia aeaeue, i. 9
caaaeaii? iinoaiiae a ?aaeaeoe?? a?ae 3 a?oaeiy 1997 ?. ne?a aei?inei?
iniae aaea ia i?noeoue. Oaea iiceoe?y Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie
(yeee, aei oiai ae, o iinoaiia? a?ae 27 ethoiai 1998 ?. ? 3 oea ieoaiiy
ia?eoia oaaaith) i?/ei ia iaa?oioiaaia ? iiaea aeaci???iooaaoe
i?aaicanoinia/? i?aaie.

Iaai? neeaaee cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th, iathoue niaoe?aeueiee
noa’?eo. O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny oea ieoaiiy. Aea?oueny
e?ei?iieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea in?a, canoaeaeaieo ca cei/eie o noa??
ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a.

Aiae?co?oueny noaaeaiiy oao?aoe?a aei i?iaeaie iaiaaeaii? inoaeiino?.
Caa?iooi oaaao ia oa, ui ca no. 14 i?iaeoo E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno,
i?aeaioiaeaiiai ?iai/ith a?oiith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie,
iainoaei?noue iiaea aooe aeeeeeaia o?ii?/iei ineo?/iei caoai?thaaiiyi,
oei/aniaei ?iceaaeii ineo?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, iaaeioinoaii /e ?ioei
oai?iaeeaei noaiii ineo?ee. O no. 15 iaienaii, ui iaiaaeaia inoaei?noue
oaeiae aeieea? aiane?aeie oai?iaeeaiai noaio ineo?ee.

sse? ae oiae? e?eoa??? o?aaa iaoe a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeey ?iciaaeoaaiiy
iainoaeiino? oa iaiaaeaii? inoaeiino?? *e aoaeooue aeciaaaoe
ia?eieia?/ieo oai?eo (aeeiaie?e?a, ia?eiiai?a ? oieneeiiai?a) iaiaaeaii
inoaeieie? Oea caieoaiiy ia aeaaaeaia, ine?eueee ia? ?aaeueia
i?aea?oioy. A Caeii? “I?i caoiaee i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a oa ceiaaeeaaiith
ieie” iiiyooy ia?eiiai?? aecia/a?oueny naia ye oai?iaeeaee ineo?/iee
noai (no. 1).

Aei?a/ii cacia/eoe, ui iaae i?iaeaiith iaiaaeaii? inoaeiino?
Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo nioe?aeueii? oa noaeiai?
ineo?ao??? i?aoeth? iiiaae o?e ?iee. I?ioa aeine?aeieee aeaii? i?iaeaie
neooii caoaaaeothoue, ui ia nueiaiaei? iaia? /?oei?, iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii? oai??? iaiaaeaii? inoaeiino?.

Iaa?oioiaoth/e naith iiceoe?th, aaoi? caia?a/o? aeioe?euei?noue
cae??ieaiiy a E?ei?iaeueiiio eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie ?inoeoooo iaiaaeaii?
inoaeiino?.

?icae?e o?ao?e Oe?a?inueea ea?ia iie?oeea a aaeoc? ai?ioueae c
iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo cania?a neeaaea?oueny ?c aeaio
i?ae?icae?e?a. O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1. Caiia?aaiiy iacaeiiiiio ia?ao
ia?eioee?a ye i??i?eoaoiee iai?yi oe?a?inueei? ea?ii? iie?oeee
(e?ei?iieia?/i? oa e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia? i?iaeaie) ?icaeyaea?oueny
iiiyooy iie?oeee a aaeoc? ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth, iaa?oioiao?oueny
aeioe?euei?noue iicia/aiiy ?? oa?i?iii ea?ia iie?oeea (?in. — oaieiaiay
iieeoeea). Aiae?co?oueny noai aeine?aeaeaiiy ea?ii? iie?oeee
oe?a?inueeeie th?enoaie ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui ea?ia iie?oeea iaia’yceiai cina?aaeaeo? a nia?, ii?yae
c ?ioeie, caoiaee i?ioeae?? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao ia?eioee?a ? iioe?aiith
ia?eiiai?? a Oe?a?i?. Oaea a?aeaaeoaeaiiy (aeaiaio, i?aenenoaio)
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth iiaeia iacaaoe
aioeia?eioe/iith iie?oeeith. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, aioeia?eioe/ia
iie?oeea — oea eiiieaen caoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai, a?iiaaenueeiai,
?ae?a?eiiai, i?eaaoiiai oa ?ioiai oa?aeoa?o, ni?yiiaaieo i?ioe
iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioee?a ? iioe?aiiy ia?eiiai?? a Oe?a?i?, ui
ioiieth? i?ia?aie ai?ioueae c iacaeiiieie i?iiiceoe?yie ? (/e) iiieoii
ia ia?eioeee, i?io?eaeoeeo ceiaaeeaaiiy ieie (a oiio /ene?
aioeia?eioe/io i?iiaaaiaeo), oi?ioaaiiy i?aaeeueii? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee
uiaei oai?eo ia ia?eiiai?th, e?eoaaiiy ? noai?aiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo
nenoai iaaeeei-nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ia?eieia?/ieo oai?eo oa in?a,
ui aeiioneathoue iaiaaee/ia aaeeaaiiy ia?eioee?a.

A a?naiae? aioeia?eioe/ii? iie?oeee ? ??ci? caniae i?aai?caoe?eiiai,
iaaee/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai oa i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o. Na?aae
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo cania?a caiia?aaiiy ia?eiiai?? oa iacaeiiiiio
ia?ao ia?eioee?a iniaeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue caioi/oaaeuei? ii?ie,
aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?athaeeoe?y, i?eioniaa ? i?io?eaeoe/ia e?eoaaiiy
ia?eiiai?a oa e?ei?iaeueia iiea?aiiy. ?icaeyaeathoueny ?o ci?no ?
iaoai?ci ae??.

O i?ioean? ocaaaeueiaiiy noaeiai? i?aeoeee aaoi?o ia o?aieany aeiaeai
aeiaaeie canoinoaaiiy no. 22910 EE. sse c’ynoaaeiny, iae?e canoinoaaiiy
ii?i no. 22910 EE (ye ? /. 2 no. 44 EiAI) ia aaaeaoueny. Ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, oea oeiaeeoue noai?aiith ii?iaeueieo oiia aeey ?aae?caoe??
i?io?eaeoe/ieo ooieoe?e aioeia?eioe/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Aaeaea
a?aenooi?noue iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c oeueiai ieoaiiy iiaea na?ae/eoe
? i?i oa, ui iieiaeaiiy no. 22910 EE acaaae? ia canoiniaothoueny. ? yeui
oea oae, oi iiae?aia i?aeoeea niioai?th? ea?io iie?oeeo a aaeoc?
iiaeieaiiy ia?eiiai??, ii?iaeaeo? i?aaiaee i?a?e?ci o a?iiaaeyi ?
iinaaeiaeo in?a. Ioaea, oeaio?ae?ciaaiee iae?e canoinoaaiiy no. 22910 EE
? /. 2 no. 44 EiAI iaia’yceiai ia? aooe ai?iaaaeaeaiee.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui caioi/oaaeuei? ii?ie iio?aaothoue aaeineiiaeaiiy.
Aeioe?eueii ia’?aeiaoe aea? /anoeie no. 22910 EE a iaeio ii?io,
?icii/aoe ?? iieiaeaiiyi uiaei oai?eo ia ia?eiiai?th /e oieneeiiai?th ?
ia?aaeaa/eoe aeey ieo iiaeeea?noue ca?eueiaiiy a?ae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
ca o? ae cei/eie, ui ia?ae?/ai? a /. 1 no. 22910 EE. Aiaeia?/i? ci?ie e
aeiiiaiaiiy iaiao?aeii aianoe aei aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e ?inoeooo aaei?i?no?aoeaii? i?athaeeoe?? a e?ei?iaeueiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa?, aaoi? e?eoe/ii ioe?ith? i?aeo?ae caeiiiaeaaoey aei
ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i i?eoyaiaiiy a?iiaaeyieia aei e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, eiee a eiai iniiao iieeaaeaii ia ae?yiiy, a iniao.

Aaei?i?no?aoeaio i?athaeeoe?th iathoue aeaa neeaaee cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo
c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie ? ineoio?iiieie ?a/iaeiaie (noaoo? 2293, 2298
EE). Eieeoiy ?aaeaeoe?y no. 2293 EE aaei?i?no?aoeaii? i?athaeeoe?? ia
ia?aaeaa/aea. Ae??ooth/e ieoaiiy i?i i?eoyaiaiiy iniae aei e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca /. 1 no. 2293 aai no. 2298 EE, iaiao?aeii
anaa?/ii ? iiaii aeine?aeaeoaaoe an? iaoa??aee ni?aae, a oiio /ene?
ianoaaeie, iia’ycai? ?c canoinoaaiiyi caoiae?a aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
noyaiaiiy.

Iniaeeai ?aoaeueii iaeaaeeoue aeine?aeaeoaaoe aaei?i?no?aoeai? iaoa??aee
uiaei iaiiaiie?oi?o. Iaiao?aeii iai’yoaoe, ui Eiaeaen Oe?a?ie i?i
aaei?i?no?aoeai? i?aaiii?ooaiiy 15 eenoiiaaea 1994 ?. aoei aeiiiaiaii
no. 241 (caoiaee aieeao, ui canoiniaothoueny aei iaiiaiie?oi?o). Ca?aeii
c oe??th noaooath aei iaiiaiie?oi?o o a?oe? a?ae o?noiaaeoeyoe aei
a?n?iiaaeoeyoe ?ie?a iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? ca a/eiaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?aaiii?ooaiue iaai? caoiaee aieeao (canoa?aaeaiiy,
aeiaaia, noai?a aeiaaia oiui). Ine?eueee aeai? caoiaee ia ? aeaeaie
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai noyaiaiiy (aiie ia caaaeothoueny na?aae inoaii?o o
no. 24 EiAI, a naia i?i ieo eaeaoueny o /. 1 no. 2293, no. 2298 EE), oi
canoinoaaiiy aei iaiiaiie?oiueiai no. 241 EiAI aeeeth/a? a?aooaaiiy
iiaoi?iino? ae?e a ?ac? a/eiaiiy iiaiai i?aaiii?ooaiiy. Oiaoi ca oaeeo
ianoaaei uiaei iniae ia iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia?
ii?ie c aaei?i?no?aoeaiith i?athaeeoe??th.

Aeei?enoaiiy a e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? caoiae?a, ui iaeaaeaoue aei
a?naiaeo ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa, e?eoe/ii ioe?ith?oueny aaaaoueia
i?aaieeaie. Ia aeiaaeeiai iiaei E?ei?iaeueiei eiaeaenii ?O
aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?athaeeoe?y iiai?noth aeeo/aia c i?aaiaiai ia?ao.
Iiaeeeai, oaeei oeyoii i?aea e oe?a?inueeee caeiiiaeaaaoeue. sseui ae
caa?aaeaoueny noa?a caeiiiaeaa/a i?aeoeea, oi o?aaa aeciaoe iaaeinoaoi?i
aeei?enoaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? i?athaeeoe?? ye i?io?eaeoe/iiai iai?yieo
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? iie?oeee o noa?? ai?ioueae c iacaeiiiei ia?aii
ia?eioee?a. *anoeiai? aeae?ei?iae?caoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith ?inoeoooo
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? i?athaeeoe?? a oaeiio aeiaaeeo iio?aaothoue noni?eueii
iaaacia/i? ae?yiiy, ia?aaeaa/ai? /. 2 no. 229, /. 1 no. 2297, /. 1
no. 22920 EE.

Ca aeeaieei ia?aeiiaiiyi aaoi?a, aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?athaeeoe?y, ui
cae??ieaia a noaooyo 2293, 2298 EE (oa a ?ioeo iiae?aieo neeaaeao
cei/ei?a), ia? i?aaiaa cia/aiiy, oiaoi iiaea aooe ia?aaeoiiaith
i?eoyaiaiiy aei e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, eeoa o aeiaaeeao
ae?eniiai canoinoaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai noyaiaiiy. Aoaeue-yeee ?ioee
i?aeo?ae aei oeueiai ieoaiiy ? iaaacia/iei, ine?eueee i?eoiao? a nia?
iioaioe?eia ii?ooaiiy caeiiiino? oa i?aa ethaeeie.

I?ae?icae?e 3.1. caaa?oo?oueny aiae?cii i?aeoeee i?ecia/aiiy
e?ei?iaeueiiai iiea?aiiy ca cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eioeeaie. O 1996 ?.
a Oe?a?i? ca noaooyie 701, 2291 2298, 22913, 22920 EE canoaeaeaii 21
571 iniao, c ieo: aei iicaaaeaiiy aie? — 11 058 (51,3%); aei aei?aaieo
?ia?o — 451 (2,1%); oiiaii ?c canoinoaaiiyi no. 45 EE — 3214 (14,9%); c
a?aeno?i/eith aeeiiaiiy ae?ieo a?aeiia?aeii aei no. 461 EE — 4712
(21,8%); aei oo?aoo — 1898 (8,8%); aei ?ioeo aeae?a iiea?aiiy — 1;
ca?eueiaii a?ae iiea?aiiy o ca’yceo c aii?no??th — 237 (1,1%). E??i
oiai, aei 1340 (6,2%) canoaeaeaieo ca oe? cei/eie canoiniaaii
aeiaeaoeiaa iiea?aiiy o aeaeyae? eiio?neaoe?? iaeia; aei 5018 (23,3%)
canoaeaeaieo ia i?aenoaa? no. 14 EE canoiniaaii i?eioniaa e?eoaaiiy a?ae
ia?eiiai??.

ssnia ??/, ui ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ae?ie?a, ca yeeie i?ecia/aii
iiea?aiiy o aeaeyae? aei?aaieo ?ia?o aac iicaaaeaiiy aie?, ? iane?aeeii
iaiine?aeiaiiai ? iaaei?aaaeaiiai ??oaiiy caeiiiaeaaoey i?i iiaia
aeeeth/aiiy oeueiai iiea?aiiy ?c naieoe?e noaoae, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioee?a. A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ca a/eiaiiy cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th, ia? aooe
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia ca aeiiiiiaith ??ciiiai?oieo i?aaiaeo ?inoeooo?a, o
oiio /ene? e iiea?aiiy. Oea ni?yiiaoaaei a i?aaie i?aainoaeaey ia iiaia
aeei?enoaiiy i?io?eaeoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie.

Iaiao?aeii caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui aa?o?niei e?eoa???i ?ici??o oo?aoo
ye aeaeo iiea?aiiy ca cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eioeeaie, aeciaii
i?i?iaeueiee ?ici?? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe (/. 1 no. 2293, /. 1 no. 2296, no.
2297, no. 2298, no. 22911, /. 1 no. 22913 — /. 1 no. 22917, no. 22918,
/. 1 no. 22919, /. 1 no. 22920 EE). Oe? iieiaeaiiy ocaiaeaeaii c? no. 32
EE (oo?ao). Iaeiae ii?yae c iaaaaeaiei e?eoa???i o E?ei?iaeueiiio
eiaeaen? aeei?enoiao?oueny ua iaeia iaeeieoey aei??o ?ici??o oo?ao?a —
iaiiiaeaoeiaoaaiee i?i?ioi aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi (iai?eeeaae, o /. 1 no.
167, /. 1 no. 172 EE). Oeae naiee e?eoa??e cae??ieaii aeey aecia/aiiy
iaaieo eaae?o?eoth/eo iciae iinaaeiaeo cei/ei?a (no. 164 EE). Aeeeaaeaia
iio?aao? oaaae caeiiiaeaaoey, c oei uia oi?o?eoaaoe aa?o?ni? e?eoa???
?ici??o oo?ao?a oa ie?aieo eaae?o?eoth/eo iciae neeaae?a cei/ei?a.

?icaeyaea?oueny i?aeoeea i?ecia/aiiy i?eioniaiai e?eoaaiiy,
ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 14 EE.

I?ae?icae?e 3.2. I?iaeaia e?ei?iae?caoe?? oa aeae?ei?iae?caoe?? ae?yiue,
iia’ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th. Oi/a oe?a?inueea e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai
i?i ai?ioueao c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioee?a cian?i iaaeaaii caciaei
nooo?aeo ci?i, i?iaeaia e?ei?iae?caoe?? (aeae?ei?iae?caoe??) ae?yiue o
oe?e noa??, ye iieaco? aiae?c /eiieo e?ei?iaeueii- e
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaiaeo ii?i oa ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeoeee ?o
canoinoaaiiy, caeeoa?oueny aeineoue aeooaeueiith. Aei oiai ae, aiia
caaino?th?oueny ?ic?iaeaiiyi iiaiai E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, ui
iiaeiai i?iaeaiiino?oaaoe a?eueo aenieo ye?noue eiaeeo?eaoe??
caeiiiaeaanoaa a oe?e aaeoc?.

sse oaea cacia/aeiny, ?iai/ith a?oiith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie
i?aeaioiaeaii /a?aiaee aa??aio i?iaeoo E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie
ca noaiii ia 12 /a?aiy 1997 ?. Caaaeueiee ii?iioai?/ee ? iaoeiaee
??aaiue eiai i?aeaioiaee a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai nueiaiaeaiiy. Aeeiiaii
aaeeeo, eii?oeo, ie?aeio ?iaioo, ? oai?/ee eieaeoea, aei neeaaeo yeiai
caeo/aii oe?iei a?aeiieo i?aeoee?a oa iaoeiaoe?a, caneoaiao? ia iiaeyeo.

Aa?oee oaaae oaeiae aeueoa?iaoeaiee i?iaeo E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie (?ic?iaeaiee a?oiith iaoeiaoe?a Oe?a?ie ? ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe?? ia /ie? c i?ioani?ii A.I. Ni?o??ieii).

Nie?ath/enue ia i?aaeiao aeanieo iaoeiaeo ?ioa?an?a, aaoi? cina?aaeea
naith oaaao a iniiaiiio ia ia?oiio aeieoiaio?. A iueiio, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, i?iaeaie e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe??
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aena?oeaii
a?eueo iiaii ? /?oei.

I?iaeo i?noeoue ?icae. OIII “Cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a
oa i?ioe caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy” (ooo ? aeae? eaeaoueny i?i ?icae?ee
Iniaeeai? /anoeie, yeui ia aoaea cacia/aii ?ioa). Aei eiai neeaaeo,
ii?yae c ?ioeie ii?iaie, aoiaeyoue 18 noaoae, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie, ui a/eiythoueny ia a?oio? ia?eiiai??.
Caaaeii aaoi?e i?iaeoo iiai?noth (ca aeayeeie iacia/ieie aeiyoeaie)
ni?eeiyee iiaa caeiiiaeaanoai o oe?e noa?? ? i?iaeoaethaaee eiai a
noaooyo 279 295, 297 aeaiiai ?icae?eo.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui /eiia e?ei?iaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai i?i ai?ioueao c
iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioee?a ia ? aeineiiaeei, a oiio e ?icae. OO
i?iaeoo E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno iio?aao? aeiii?aoethaaiiy.

O?aaa aaeueie e?eoe/ii i?ae?eoe aei iiaoaeiae ?icae?eo, aea
aecia/aoeiooueny cei/eie i?ioe caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy. Aeey oeueiai
iaiao?aeii ii?ooeoe o?aaeeoe?eiee i?aeo?ae, ca?aeii c yeei cei/eie i?ioe
caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy — oea iaia’yceiai (? aieiaiei /eiii) cei/eie o noa??
ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. I?iiiio?oueny noi?ioaaoe ia aac? ?icae. OIII
aeaa naiino?ei? ?icae?ee: “Cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a” ?
“Cei/eie i?ioe caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy”. O aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii
oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue nenoaie ii?i oeeo ?icae?e?a.

Iath/e ia oaac?, ui /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai ni?yiiaaia a iniiaiiio i?ioe
niiaeeaa/?a iaeo?iaithth/eo ?a/iaei, /anoi oai?eo ia ia?eiiai?th (a oea
ia iiaea caaeiaieueiyoe iaoa noni?euenoai, ine?eueee ia a?aeiia?aea?
caaaeaiiyi ? oe?eyi ea?ii? iie?oeee o noa?? ai?ioueae c iacaeiiiei
ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo cania?a), ? ea?oth/enue i?eioeeiii aeiiii??
e?ei?iaeueii? ?ai?an??, aaoi? i?iiiio? aeeo/eoe c i?iaeoo oae? noaoo?:
279. Eiio?aaaiaea ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei aai
i?aeo?ni??a; 288. Iacaeiiia aaaaeaiiy a i?aai?ci ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei; 290. Iacaeiiia ioae?/ia aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a; 292. Iacaeiiia aeaioiaeaiiy, i?ae?iaeaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy /e
caoaaiiy i?ae?iaeaieo aeieoiaio?a ia io?eiaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei aai i?aeo?ni??a; 293. Iacaeiiia aeaea/a ?aoeaioa ia
i?aai i?eaeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei; 295.
Iia?aeiieaiiy caciaee iai?aaaeeaeo a?aeiiinoae i?i ia?a ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeai? a?aeiia?aei? a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue iiceoe??
aaoi?a. Cie?aia, aeneiaeai? eaoaai?e/i? caia?a/aiiy i?ioe caa?aaeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iacaeiiia ioae?/ia aaeeaaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. Iaiaaaiiy iiaeieaoe iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioee?a
oeyoii iiea?aiiy oai?eo na?ae/eoue i?i ni?iuaia noaaeaiiy aei caaaeaiue
? iiaeeeainoae e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa.

I?iiiio?oueny aianoe iaai? ei?aeoeae aei ie?aieo noaoae i?iaeoo
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno. Ianaiia?aae oea noino?oueny no. 280
“Aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a, caeiaooeo a?ae iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a” ? no. 193 “Eaaae?caoe?y
(a?aeieaaiiy) a?ioiaeo eioo?a oa ?ioiai iaeia, caeiaooeo iacaeiiiei
oeyoii”. Oe? aeaa neeaaee cei/ei?a, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iaei? e o? ae ae?? — a?aeieaaiiy a?ioae
(a?aei?ii?noue iieyaa? eeoa a aeaea?aeao iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeioiae?a, ui
iia’ycaii c ??cieie aeaeaie cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino?), iiaeii? iaoe
oioiaei? ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? iciaee. A aeaiiio ae aeiaaeeo oeueiai
iaia. Aiaeii/an iiaoaeiaa ?icaeyaeoaaieo neeaae?a cei/ei?a aeiaaa?
a?aooaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo iieiaeaiue caaaeaii? Eiiaaioe?? ?aaee ?a?iie
1990 ?. oa Eiiaaioe? III i?i ai?ioueao i?ioe iacaeiiiiai ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei a?ae 1988 ?. ?ioeie neiaaie,
eiino?othaaiiy aeeniiceoe?e noaoae 193 ? 280 i?iaeoo o?aaa iia’ycoaaoe c
aecia/aiiyi naiiai iiiyooy a?aeieaaiiy a?ioae.

Iaiao?aeii aeaui ci?ieoe ?aaeaeoe?th no. 280 i?iaeoo (aae caiia?aoe
iai?aaeeueiiio ?? oeoia/aiith): a) aeacaoe, ui eaeaoueny i?i
aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a, caa?aeiii caeiaooeo a?ae iacaeiiiiai ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei /e i?aeo?ni??a; a) aeeeth/eoe
c /. 1 iineeaiiy ia iaoo i?iaeiaaeaiiy iacaeiiiiai ia?ao oeeo cania?a ?
?a/iaei, ine?eueee oaea iciaea noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie cei/eio acaaae?
oiaiiaeeeaeoue canoinoaaiiy oe??? noaoo? ia i?aeoeoe?; a) i?e
oi?ioethaaii? ci?noo noaoo? o?aaa aeei?enoaoe i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaa
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy a?aeieaaiiy a?ioae ? iacaaoe ?? “A?aeieaaiiy
aeioiae?a, iaea?aeaieo a?ae iacaeiiiiai ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a’’
(aa??aio: “A?aeieaaiiy aeioiae?a, iaea?aeaieo cei/eiiei oeyoii”).

Aeena?oaioii i?eaa?iooi oaaao e aei ?ioeo noaoae ?icae. OIII i?iaeoo
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno.

O ieiuei? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie e?ei?iae?caoe?? (aeae?ei?iae?caoe??)
ae?yiue o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioee?a ia? cia/aiiy ae?yeuei?noue Eii?oaoo,
yeiio caeiiii iaaeaii i?aai, cie?aia, a?aeiineoe caniae e ?a/iaeie aei
ia?eioe/ieo, ineoio?iiieo /e i?aeo?ni??a oa anoaiiaethaaoe ?o ?ici??e.
Ia eiie?aoieo i?eeeaaeao aeaiiino?o?oueny, ui a oe?e ae?yeueiino?
Eii?oao ia caaaeaee aeiaea?aeo? aeiia caeiio.

Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a?, ui ae?yiiy, ye? ? cei/eiaie, oa
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ieo aecia/athoueny aeeeth/ii caeiiaie Oe?a?ie
(i. 22 /. 1 no. 92). O oeueiio ca’yceo, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ? iaiao?aeiei
ia?aaeyiooe iieiaeaiiy aiae?ciaaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, c oei uia iaaaeee?,
aaeee? e iniaeeai aaeee? ?ici??e ia?eioee?a anoaiiaethaaeeny a
caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo.

O aeniiaeao i?aoe? i?noeoueny i?aenoiie i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeeeaaeaii caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? a aeena?oaoe??, ?
noi?ioeueiaai? iieiaeaiiy uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa a aaeoc? ai?ioueae c iacaeiiiei ia?aii ia?eioe/ieo
cania?a; ie?aneaii eiei ieoaiue, ye? iio?aaothoue ?ic’yniaiue c aieo
Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie; aecia/ai? iai?yie iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeai iiaeieaiiy ia?eiiai?? ? iacaeiiiiai ia?ao
ia?eioee?a. Cie?aia, i?iiiio?oueny:

1. A?aoiaoth/e caeiiiaeaa/a aecia/aiiy ia?eiiai?? (oai?iaeeaee ineo?/iee
noai), c iaoith iineeaiiy aa?aio?e i?aaa ia caoeno i?aeic?thaaiiai /e
iaaeioaa/aiiai o ni?aaao a?aeiinii ia?eiiai?a, aeeiaie?e?a, oieneeiiai?a
o/anoue caoenieea ia iiia?aaeiueiio ne?aenoa? ? a noae? o?aaa aeciaoe
iaia’yceiaith. O ca’yceo c oeei no. 46 EIE iaiao?aeii aeiiiaieoe oaeei
iieiaeaiiyi: 6) o ni?aaao in?a, ye? aeciai? oai?eie ia aeeiaie?ci,
ia?eiiai?th /e oieneeiiai?th.

2. Nueiaiaei? ?nio? iaaaeueia iio?aaa o i?eeiyoo? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai?
ii?ie i?i i?io?eaeoe/ia e?eoaaiiy canoaeaeaieo, ye? ia aeyaeythoue iciae
ia?eiiai?? /e oieneeiiai??, aea aee?eo? a iaiaaee/iiio aaeeaaii?
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a (ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei). Oea aoaea e?ieii o iai?yi?
caiia?aaiiy ia?eieia?/iei caoai?thaaiiyi ia ?aii?o noaae?yo. Aoei a
aei?aaaeaiei aeiiiaieoe no. 14 EE /anoeiith i’yoith i?eaeecii oaeiai
ci?noo:

“Noae ciaia’yco? in?a, ye? a/eieee cei/eie ? ceiaaeeaathoue nie?oieie
iaiiyie, ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie, ineoio?iiieie ?a/iaeiaie /e ?ioeie
iaeo?iaithth/eie caniaaie, i?ieoe eo?n i?io?eaeoe/iiai e?eoaaiiy ?
ia??iaee/ii c’yaeyoeny aei e?ea?y-ia?eieiaa i?ioyaii eiio?ieueiiai
no?ieo”.

Iaaeeiiaiiy canoaeaeaiei oeueiai i?eieno iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny,
iai?eeeaae, ye i?aenoaaa aeey iacanoinoaaiiy uiaei iueiai
oiiaii-aeino?ieiaiai ca?eueiaiiy a?ae iiea?aiiy /e cai?ie inoaiiueiai
a?eueo i’yeei (noaoo? 52, 53 EE), a oaeiae aeoa aii?no??.

3. Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui caioi/oaaeuei? ii?ie (no. 22910 EE)
aeioe?eueii aeeeanoe i?eaeecii a oae?e ?aaeaeoe??:

Iniaa, yea aei ii?ooaiiy uiaei ia? e?ei?iaeueii? ni?aae aeia?ia?eueii
caa?ioeany aei iaaee/iiai caeeaaeo ? ?icii/aea e?eoaaiiy a?ae ia?eiiai??
/e oieneeiiai??, aai aeia?ia?eueii caeaea ia?eioe/i? caniae, ineoio?iii?
?a/iaeie, i?aeo?ni?e /e aeacaea aeaea?aei ?o i?eaeaaiiy, ni?eyea
?ice?eooth cei/ei?a o noa?? ia?ao oeeo cania?a ? ?a/iaei, ca?eueiy?oueny
a?ae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?o iacaeiii? ae?iaeaiiy,
aeaioiaeaiiy, i?eaeaaiiy, caa??aaiiy, ia?aaacaiiy, ia?aneeaiiy (/anoeia
1 noaoo? 2291, /anoeia 1 noaoo? 2296, noaooy 2298, /anoeia 1 noaoo?
22920 oeueiai Eiaeaeno).

4. C iaoith aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ae??, ui iathoue
??ciee nooi?iue noni?eueii? iaaacia/iino?, i?iiiio?oueny ye aa??aio oaea
?aaeaeoe?y no. 2294 EE:

“Noaooy 291. I?aai?caoe?y aai aea?aeaiiy i?eoiio /e iaaeaiiy i?ei?uaiiy

aeey ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo

/e ?ioeo iaeo?iaithth/eo ?a/iaei

Iaaeaiiy i?ei?uaiiy aeey aaeeaaiiy, ae?iaeaiiy aai aeaioiaeaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo /e ?ioeo iaeo?iaithth/eo ?a/iaei —

ea?a?oueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie aei o?ueio ?ie?a /e aei?aaieie
?iaioaie ia no?ie aei aeaio ?ie?a.

I?aai?caoe?y /e aea?aeaiiy i?eoiio c o??th ae iaoith —

ea?athoueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie a?ae i’yoe aei aeanyoe ?ie?a c
eiio?neaoe??th iaeia aai aac oaei?.

O? nai? ae??, a/eiai? c ei?eneeaeo iioea?a aai ?c caeo/aiiyi
iaiiaiie?oiueiai, —

ea?athoueny iicaaaeaiiyi aie? ia no?ie a?ae naie aei aeaaiaaeoeyoe ?ie?a
c eiio?neaoe??th iaeia”.

5. Iac??ea ia’?eoeaia iio?aaa a?aaoethaaoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
iacaeiii? ae?? c aiaeiaaie ia?eioee?a ia eooaeo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a ? ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei. O oeueiio
ca’yceo aaoi? aaaaea? aei?aaaeaiei aeiiiaieoe ae. O E?ei?iaeueiiai
eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie (?icae. O??? i?iaeoo EE) noaooath oaeiai i?eaeecii
ci?noo:

“Noaooy… Iacaeiiiee ia?a aiaeia?a ia?eioe/ieo

cania?a /e ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei

Iacaeiii? ae?? c aiaeiaaie ia?eioe/ieo cania?a /e ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei —

ea?athoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei noaoae… oeueiai Eiaeaeno”.

6. I?iiiio?oueny noi?ioaaoe ia aac? ?icae. OIII i?iaeoo E?ei?iaeueiiai
eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie aeaa naiino?ei? ?icae?ee: “Cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a” ? “Cei/eie i?ioe caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy”. Aei
inoaiiueiai aeioe?eueii aeeth/eoe oae? noaoo? ?icae. II, VIII, IO, OIII
(ioia?aoe?y, ui a i?iaeo? Eiaeaeno):

296. Ae?iaeaiiy, aeaioiaeaiiy, i?eaeaaiiy, ia?aaacaiiy, ia?aneeaiiy,
caa??aaiiy c iaoith caooo aai caoo io?oeieo ? neeueiiae?th/eo ?a/iaei.

298. Ii?ooaiiy i?aaee ai?ioueae c ai?aeai?yie.

299. Ii?ooaiiy i?aaee iiaiaeaeaiiy c i?e?ia?ieia?/ieie aai ?ioeie
a?ieia?/ieie aaaioaie /e oieneiaie.

300. Caaio?aey, ia?a?iaeaiiy aai caoaaiiy ?aae?iaeoeaii caa?oaeiaieo
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy /e ?ioi? i?iaeoeoe??.

301. Iinyaaiiy ia caei?ia’y ethaeae i?ae i?eaiaeii aeeiiaiiy ?ae?a?eieo
ia?yae?a.

125. Ca?aaeaiiy a??onii ?ioiiaeao?oeeoo ethaeeie.

126. Iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaia’yce?a, ui ni?e/eieei
ca?aaeaiiy a??onii ?ioiiaeao?oeeoo ethaeeie.

128. Ca?aaeaiiy aaia?e/iith oai?iaith.

228. Ii?ooaiiy aaoa?eia?ieo i?aaee.

239. Iacaeiiia iiaiaeaeaiiy c ?aae?iaeoeaieie iaoa??aeaie.

240. Iia?ica a/eieoe ?ice?aaeaiiy aai aeei?enoaoe ?aae?iaeoeai?
iaoa??aee.

242. Iacaeiiia aaacaiiy ia oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie a?aeoiae?a ? aoi?eiii?
ne?iaeie.

7. ?icae?e “Cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a” aeioe?eueii
?icoaooaaoe i?ney ?icae?eo “Cei/eie i?ioe caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy”.
Oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue nenoaie ii?i i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie o
noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a (ye i?iaeo iiaiai ?icae?eo) iiaea a
iaoe, iai?eeeaae, oaeo no?oeoo?o:

Noaooy… A?aeieaaiiy eioo?a, iaea?aeaieo a?ae iacaeiiiiai ia?ao
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a oa ?ioi? cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino?.

Noaooy… Iacaeiii? ae?? c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie aai ineoio?iiieie
?a/iaeiaie c iaoith caooo.

Noaooy… ?ice?aaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei.

Noaooy… ?ice?aaeaiiy i?aeo?ni??a.

Noaooy… Aeiaaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei aai
i?aeo?ni??a.

Noaooy… Iacaeiii? ae?? c iaeaaeiaiiyi, i?ecia/aiei aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei.

Noaooy… Iacaeiiia eoeueoeaoaaiiy ia?eioeeiai?nieo ?ineei.

Noaooy… I?aai?caoe?y aai aea?aeaiiy i?eoiio /e iaaeaiiy i?ei?uaiiy
aeey ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo /e ?ioeo
iaeo?iaithth/eo ?a/iaei.

Noaooy… Noeeyiiy aei aaeeaaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a, ineoio?iiieo /e
?ioeo iaeo?iaithth/eo ?a/iaei.

Noaooy… Iacaeiii? ae?? c i?aeo?ni?aie c iaoith ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy ia?eioe/ieo cania?a aai ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei.

Noaooy… Ii?ooaiiy anoaiiaeaieo i?aaee ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a,
ineoio?iiieo ?a/iaei ? i?aeo?ni??a.

Noaooy… Iacaeiii? ae?? c ia?eioe/ieie caniaaie /e ineoio?iiieie
?a/iaeiaie aac iaoe caooo.

Noaooy… Iacaeiiiee ia?a aiaeia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a /e ineoio?iiieo
?a/iaei.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a oaeeo iioae?eiaaieo

i?aoeyo aaoi?a:

?. Iiiia?ao??

1. A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a. —
E.: Eiain, 1998. — 324 n.

2. I?eionia? caoiaee iaaee/iiai ? aeoiaiiai oa?aeoa?o. — E.:
Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa, 1997. — 125 n.

3. Ie?ioie/aiei I.A., Iocuea A.A. Oaieiaii-i?aaiaay ai?ueaa n
ia?eiiaieae. — Eeaa; Iaeanna: Aeua oe., 1988. — 208 n. ?aoe.: Pravny
obzor. 1989, ? 1. S. 100 101.

??. Iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee

4. Eaaeeoeeaoeey i?aaiaie aioo?aiieo aeae i?anooieaiee, niaa?oaaiuo ia
ii/aa ia?eiiaiee: O/aa. iiniaea. — Eeaa: Eeaaneay aunoay oeiea IAAe
NNN?, 1988. — 89 n.

5. Aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae ii i?eiaiaieth
i?eioaeeoaeueiiai ea/aiey aeeiaieeeia e ia?eiiaiia (oaieiaii-i?aaiaua e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua aniaeou): O/aa. iiniaea. — Eeaa: Eeaaneay aunoay oeiea
IAAe NNN?, 1987. — 84 n.

6. I?eiaiaiea oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i i?eioaeeoaeueiii ea/aiee
aeeiaieeeia e ia?eiiaiia. — Eeaa, 1988. — 32 n.

???. Noaoo?, oace iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeae, ?aoeaic??

7. I?eioaeeoaeueiia ea/aiea io oieneeiiaiee ioaeaeaaony a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii o?aaoee?iaaiee // Aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee
i?eioaeeoaeueiiai ea/aiey e i?ioeeaeoeee ?aoeeaeeaia aeeiaieecia: Na.
iao/. o?. — Eeaa: ?EI IAAe ONN?, 1984. — N. 127 — 128.

8. Eniieueciaaiea niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee a iaeanoe ia?eieiaee a i?ioeanna
?anneaaeiaaiey oaieiaiuo aeae // E?eieiaeenoeea e noaeaaiay iaaeeoeeia.
?ani. iaaeaeoaaaeiinoa. iao/.-iaoiae. na. — Eeaa, 1985. — Aui. 30 — N.
100 — 105.

9. Iocuea A.A., Ia?/oe A.E. ?aoeaicey ia iiiia?aoeth: Eeneoeei TH.I.,
Eiiuo I.ss. Aeeiaieeci: nioeeaeueii-aeaeaie/aneea aniaeou. — 2-a ecae.,
ia?a?aa. e aeii. — I.: Iaaeeoeeia, 1983. — N. 264 // A?a/aaiia aeaei. —
1985. — ? 12. — N. 106 — 108.

10. I?eioaeeoaeueiia ea/aiea ia?eiiaiia eae ia?a i?ioeeaeoeee
i?anooieaiee // I?iaeaiu aeaeueiaeoaai oe?aieaiey nioeeaeenoe/aneie
caeiiiinoe a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae: Iaaeaoc. na. iao/.
o?. — Eeaa, 1986. — N. 70 — 75.

11. Aeaee oa e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa cia/aiiy ni’yi?iiy // ?aae. i?aai. —
1986. — ? 5. — N. 64 — 67.

12. Iacia/aiea i?eioaeeoaeueiiai ea/aiey aeeiaieeeai e ia?eiiaiai,
niaa?oeaoei i?anooieaiea // ?ieue i?aaiia aioo?aiieo aeae a iaania/aiee
i?aaiauo ia? oneeaiey ai?ueau n iueyinoaii e aeeiaieeciii: Iaaeaoc. na.
iao/. o?.. — Eeaa, 1986. — N. 94 — 99.

13. Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy i?ecia/aiiy i?eioniaiai e?eoaaiiy a ii?yaeeo
no. 14 EE O?N? // ?aae. i?aai. — 1987. — ? 2. — N. 57 — 61.

14. TH?eaee/aneay i?e?iaea i?eioaeeoaeueiuo ia? iaaeeoeeineiai
oa?aeoa?a, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo no. 62 OE ?NON? // Aii?inu ai?ueau n
i?anooiiinoueth: Na. iao/. o?. — I., 1987. Aui. 45. — N. 64 — 74.

15. Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeeiaieecia //
Nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaua i?iaeaiu ai?ueau n iueyinoaii e aeeiaieeciii:
Iaaeaoc. na. iao/. o?. — Eeaa, 1987. — N. 25 — 31.

16. Iaoaae/oe A.E., Iocuea A.A. Ia?eiiaiey: naiaa?aiaiiia
oaieiaii-i?aaiaia enneaaeiaaiea. ?aoeaicey ia iiiia?aoeth: Ee?aiiaa
I.A. Oaieiaii-i?aaiaay ai?ueaa n ia?eiiaieae. — Oaoeaio, 1982. — 110 n.
// Nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaua i?iaeaiu ai?ueau n iueyinoaii e aeeiaieeciii:
Iaaeaoc. na. iao/. o?. — Eeaa, 1987. — N. 174 — 178.

17. Ioa?aie/aiea oeuaiey nioeeaeenoe/aneiai eiouanoaa io oeuaiey
ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa // I?aaiu aioo?aiieo aeae a ai?ueaa n
aanoicyenoaaiiinoueth, ?anoi/eoaeuenoaii e oeuaieyie nioeeaeenoe/aneie
nianoaaiiinoe (yeiiiieei-i?aaiaua aniaeou): Iaaeaoc. na. iao/. o?. —
Eeaa, 1987. — N. 118 — 125.

18. Iai?a?i I.N., Nae?aaiia I.I., Ioceea A.A. ?icaeyae ni?aa i?i
cei/eie, iia’ycai? c ia?eiiai??th // ?aae. i?aai. — 1988. — ? 6. — N. 32
— 36.

19. I?aeo?eio?ii, i?iiiio?ii ci?ieoe e aeiiiaieoe // ?aae. i?aai. —
1989. — ? 3. — N. 16 — 17.

20. Naaoeia A.ss., Iocuea A.A. Niaa?oainoaiaaoue oaieiaiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i ai?ueaa n ia?eiiaieae // Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai e
i?aai. — 1989. — ? 3. — N. 99 — 105.

21. Oaieiaii-i?aaiaua iiiyoey iinaaa e au?aueaaiey ia?eioeeiniaea?aeaueo
?anoaiee // I?iaeaiu i?aaiaaaeaiey: ?ani. iaaeaaaeiino. iao/. na. —
Eeaa, 1989. Aui. 50. — N. 128 — 133.

22. I?aaeiao cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo no. 2293 ? 2299 EE O?N? // ?aae.
i?aai. — 1989. — ? 6. — N. 52 — 54.

23. Ioceea A., Oai/aiei N. I?aoey c i?iaeai e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai?
ioi?iie caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy. ?aoe. ia iiiia?ao?th A.I. Ni?o??iea:
Oaieiaii-i?aaiaay io?aia caei?iauey ianaeaiey a NNN?. — Eeaa: Aeua
oeiea. Aieiaiia ecae-ai, 1989. — 243 n.) // ?aae. i?aai. 1989. — ? 9. —
N. 93 94.

24. Naaoeia A.ss., Iocuea A.A.. Eiaao ee oeac i ai?ueaa n ia?eiiaieae
ia?aoioth neeo? // Nioeeaeenoe/aneay caeiiiinoue. — 1990. — ? 6. — N. 57
— 58.

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27. Ia?eiiaiey: iaeioi?ua iai?aaeaiey e?eieiaeecaoeee
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34. I?aaiaua i?iaeaiu i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaei?eyoee, inouanoaeythueo
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35. I?i ocaiaeaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie c
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36. A?ae no. 22912 EE Oe?a?ie aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiio i?i a?aeieaaiiy
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Aiioaoe?y

Ioceea A.A. Iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioe/ieo cania?a a Oe?a?i?
(e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa e?ei?iieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.08. — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai oa e?ei?iieia?y;
e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai. — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.
Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaei i?iaeaiai
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca cei/eie o noa?? ia?ao ia?eioe/ieo cania?a oa
i?iaeaiai caiia?aaiiy ia?eiiai?? ? iacaeiiiiio ia?ao ia?eioee?a. Oia?oa
a Oe?a?i? aeine?aeaeai? oae? eiiieaeni? i?iaeaie, ye ia?eiiai?y ? i?aaa
ethaeeie, iacaeiiiee ia?a ia?eioee?a ? a?aeieaaiiy a?ioae, aecia/ai?
iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa a aeai?e noa??. Cai?iiiiiaaii
eeaneo?eaoe?th cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ia?eiiai??th, ca ?iaeiaei
ia’?eoii. Iaa?oioiaaii iaoeiaee i?iaiic oeyo?a aeae?ei?iae?caoe??
(e?ei?iae?caoe??) iaaiiai eiea ae?yiue, iia’ycaieo c ia?eioeeaie.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ai?iaaaeaeaii i?e ?ic?iaeaii? aioeia?eioe/ieo
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ethoiai 1998 ?. ? 3.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?eioe/i? caniae, iacaeiiiee ia?a, i?aaa ethaeeie,
a?aeieaaiiy a?ioae, e?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

Aiiioaoeey

Iocuea A.A. Iacaeiiiue iai?io ia?eioe/aneeo n?aaenoa a Oe?aeia
(oaieiaii-i?aaiaia e e?eieiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a th?eaee/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.08 — oaieiaiia i?aai e e?eieiieiaey;
oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiia i?aai. — Einoeooo ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ei. A.I.
Ei?aoeeiai IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oaieiaii-i?aaiaui i?iaeaiai ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
i?anooieaiey a noa?a iai?ioa ia?eioe/aneeo n?aaenoa e i?iaeaiai
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey ia?eiiaiee e iacaeiiiiai iai?ioa ia?eioeeia. Aia?aua a
Oe?aeia enneaaeothony oaeea eiiieaeniua i?iaeaiu, eae ia?eiiaiey e i?aaa
/aeiaaea, iacaeiiiue iai?io ia?eioeeia e ioiuaaiea aeaiaa, ii?aaeaeaiu
iai?aaeaiey niaa?oainoaiaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a aeaiiie noa?a.
I?aaeeiaeaii eeanneoeeaoeeth i?anooieaiee, naycaiiuo n ia?eiiaieae, ii
?iaeiaiio iauaeoo. Iainiiaaii iao/iue i?iaiic aeae?eieiaeecaoeee
(e?eieiaeecaoeee) ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa aeayiee, naycaiiuo n ia?eioeeaie.
Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aiaae?aiu i?e ?ac?aaioea aioeia?eioe/aneeo
caeiiia 1995 a. e iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea Oe?aeiu io 27
oaa?yey 1998 a. ? 3.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?eioe/aneea n?aaenoaa, iacaeiiiue iai?io, i?aaa
/aeiaaea, ioiuaaiea aeaiaa, oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

Annotation

Muzyka A.A. Illicit traffic of narcotic drugs in Ukraine (criminal legal
and criminological investigation). — Manuscript.

The dissertation for obtaing a scientific degree of Doctor of Sciences
(Law), speciality 12.00.08 Criminal Law and Criminology;
Criminal-Executive Law. V.M.Koretsky Institute of State and Law of the
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the research of criminal legal problems
of responsibility for crimes in the sphere of illegal operations with
narcotic substances and questions of prevention of narcomania and
illicit traffic of narcotic drugs. For the first time in Ukraine such
complex problems as narcomania and human rights, illicit traffic of
narcotic drugs and money-laundering are investigated and the directions
of improving legislation in this field are shown. The classification of
crimes connected with narcotic drugs abuse according to a gender object
is proposed.

The scientific prognosis of ways of decriminalization (criminalization)
of certain actions connected with drugs is made. The main results of the
thesis are translated into practice during the elaboration of
antinarcotic laws of 1995 and Resolution No 3 of the Plenum of the
Supreme Court of Ukraine of 27 February 1998.

Key words: narcotic drugs, illicit traffic, human rights,
money-laundering, criminal responsibility.

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