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Неврозогенез невротичних розладів (чинники, механізми, лікування): Автореф. дис… канд. мед. наук / Р.М. Золотаренко, Укр. НДІ соц. та суд. психіатрі

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I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

OE?A?INUeEEE IAOEIAI-AeINE?AeIEE ?INOEOOO NIOe?AEUeII? OA NOAeIAI?
INEO?AO???

CIEIOA?AIEI ?ONEAIA IEEIEA?AIA

OAeE 616.85-071-059

IAA?ICIAAIAC IAA?IOE*IEO ?ICEAAe?A

(*EIIEEE, IAOAI?CIE, E?EOAAIIss)

14.01.16. – Ineo?ao??y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y yaey? niaith ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?iieoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio

oi?aa?neoao? ?i.I.?.Ie?iaiaa IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe Iooe Iaoae?y A?eai??aia,
A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.?.Ie?iaiaa IIC
Oe?a?ie, aeioeaio eaoaae?e ineo?ao???, caaaeueii? oa iaaee/ii?
ineoieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Niiiee A?eai??e
O?ioeiiae/, Oe?a?inueea iaaee/ia noiiaoieia?/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ineo?ao???, ia?eieia?? oa iaaee/ii? ineoieia??

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ieoaeeia Ai?en Aieiaeeie?iae/,
Oa?e?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ineoioa?ai??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ineo?ao???, ineoieia?? ? naenieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “27” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae-26.620.01 a Oe?a?inueeiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? nioe?aeueii? oa noaeiai? ineo?ao??? IIC
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254080 i.Ee?a, aoe.O?oica, 103.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo nioe?aeueii? oa noaeiai? ineo?ao???
(i.Ee?a, aoe.O?oica, 103).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “25” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe
TH.A.Iieoei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

*a?ac neeaaei? oiiae noni?eueiiai aeeooy, ui iathoue i?noea a no/ani?e
Oe?a?i?, aeiiii?/io ianoaa?euei?noue, ineoieia?/io iai?oao – c iaeiiai
aieo, iaoa?oaaiiy /eneaiieo iaoiaaiieo aieea?a ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua –
c ?ioiai aieo, cia/iiai iioe?aiiy iaaoaa? iaaeiaa ineo?/ia iaoieia?y, ui
noaaeoue aeaio i?iaeaio a ?yae iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? ci?ie
no?oeoo?e ineo?/ii? iaoieia?? ca ?aooiie ia?aaaaeaiiy iaaeiaeo ineo?/ieo
noai?a, iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a oiui (?.E.Aeio, 1994; A.O.Niiiee oa ?i.,
1995; I.E.Iai?a?iei oa ?i., 1996; I.A.Iooe, 1996; I.I.Ia?ooa oa ?i.,
1998; A.A.Ieoaeeia, 1998; F.Rouillon, 1997; K.Stronks et al., 1998).

A ca’yceo c oeei iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy
/eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia iaoiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy
iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a (I.I.Ia?ooa, 1995; I.N.*aaai, 1996; A.I.*oi?eeia,
1997; T.Zyss et al., 1997). Nooo?ao ?ieue a aeaiiio i?ioean?
a?ae?a?athoue ci?ie ?aaeoeaiino? i?aai?cio, i?aeaeuaia aea?a?caoe?y
ianaeaiiy, i?ieeaee niaeo? ineoioa?iaeieia?/iiai a?naiaeo, i?e?aeiaiiy
aeciaaiieo oe?aeeeainoae aeieia?/iiai, ?ioieneeaoe?eiiai, ?aae?aoe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o (A.A.Ia/eii?aiei oa ?i., 1996; I.E.Iai?a?iei,
E.I.Eiaaiianueeee, 1997; I.I.Ii?icia, 1998; E.I.E?eaeai?anueea, 1998).
Iiooaeieie /eiieeaie iaa?iciaaiaco ? i?e/eie nioe?aeueii? i?e?iaee, ui
aeieeathoue aiane?aeie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iaaa?acae?a a
noni?euenoa?, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy a ??cieo noa?ao
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, aeaeici?iaie iniaeno?nieo oe?iiinieo i???ioaoe?e
? aeeoo?aeo noa?aioei?a (A.I.Aaei oa ?i., 1991; E.O.Oanoiiaeiaa, 1996;
R.Jenkins et al., 1997).

Caaaeath/e ia i?e?iaeo iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a, o?aaeeoe?eieie iaoiaeaie
e?eoaaiiy aeaii? iaoieia?? ? ineoioa?ai?y ? oa?iaeioa?ai?y
(A.Ae.Ea?aana?nueeee, 1990; TH.A.Aeaenaiae?ianueeee, 1993; A.A.Ieoaeeia,
1995; I.I.Oieiaeiaa, 1999; W.Deberdt, 1994; S.M.Evans et al., 1994).
Iaeiae, no/ani? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i /anoee ?icaeoie iaaaoeaieo
yaeu i?e canoinoaaii? ineoioa?iaeieia?/ieo i?aia?ao?a (iie?i?aaiac?y,
iia?/i? oiene/i? aoaeoe, oa?iaeio?e?y), oiio a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y
cia/iiai iioe?aiiy iaaoee iaoiaee iaiaaeeeaiaioiciiai aieeao
(aieei?aoeaenioa?ai?y oa ?? iiaeeo?eaoe??, aeaeo?inoaeiiia oa?ai?y,
eaoa?aeueia na?oeioa?ai?y, oioioa?ai?y, iaoiaee ni?aoe?eii?
aeaoie-neeaoe??, ?io?) a eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii?
iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a

(TH.E.Ai?iaeeeianueeee oa ?i., 1993; ?.E.Ia/a?ao, I.A.*oi?eeiaa, 1993;
I.A.Aaeyeia, 1994; A.A.Iaaeoaa, 1994; E.A.AEo/eiaa, 1995; ?.A.Iaeeoei,
1996; A.ss.I?oaeue, I.TH.Iieea’yia, 1996; A.I.*oi?eeia oa ?i., 1996;
N.I.Eieyaeei, 1997; A.Ae.Nieiaeiaa, A.ss.O?oiai, 1997). Ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a iaiaaeeeaiaioicii? oa?ai?? ?
iaeiei ?c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a a?o/eciyii? ee?i?/ii? ineo?ao???.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia a iaaeao eiiieaenii? aaeocaai? IAe? «?ic?iaeoe
iia? iaoiaee i?io?eaeoeee oa e?eoaaiiy oa?aiaaoe/ii ?acenoaioieo oi?i
ineoic?a oa iaa?ic?a ia iniia? aea/aiiy iaoio?c?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae
caoai?thaaiiy, ?o aeeiai?ee i?ae aieeaii ??cieo aeae?a
iaiaaeeeaiaioicii? oa iaaeeeaiaioicii? oa?ai?? oa ?o ii?aeiaiiy» (oeo?
AI 27.12.95).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – aiae?c ee?i?ei-ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae
iaa?iciaaiaco iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a oa ?ic?iaea ?o eiiieaeniiai
e?eoaaiiy ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo aioa?ini?aoe??.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1.I?iaanoe ineoiiaoieia?/iee aiae?c ee?i?/ii? ea?oeie iaaeiaeo
iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a.

2.Aecia/eoe i?aaeeniiioth/? /eiieee eiinoeoooe?iiaeueii-a?ieia?/iiai oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ui iaoiiaeththoue iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy ee?i?/ii? ea?oeie iaa?ioe/ieo noai?a.

3.?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo canoinoaaiiy aioa?ini?aoe?eii? aeaoieneeaoe?? ia
iiaeae? aioa?ini?aaioa «Neeea?ae I» a eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii? iaa?ioe/ieo
?iceaae?a.

4.Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? aeeiai?ee ee?i?/ii? ea?oeie iaa?ioe/ieo noai?a
i?ae aieeaii aioa?ini?aoe?? oa aeine?aeeoe caeiiii??iino? e?eoaaeueiiai
aoaeoo aioa?ini?aaioo «Neeea?ae I» a eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia
iaa?ice.

5.?ic?iaeoe oa ai?iaaaeeoe a i?aeoeeo ioi?iie caei?ia’y i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy aioa?ini?aaioo «Neeea?ae I» a
eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii? iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O aeeiiai?e ?iaio? c ?aeeieo
iaoiaeieia?/ieo iiceoe?e i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae
iaa?iciaaiaco iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a i?ae aieeaii niaeo?o
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oa eiinoeoooe?iiaeueii-a?ieia?/ieo /eiiee?a.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy iaaii? ee?i?/ii? ea?oeie iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a
? iane?aeeii niieo/aii? ae?? iaoiaaiieo ineoinioe?aeueieo oa
eiinoeoooe?iiaeueii-a?ieia?/ieo /eiiee?a.

Aecia/aia ?ieue ie?aieo nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo /eiiee?a, oaeeo ye
??aaiue iniaeno?nii? o?eaiaeiino?, ??aaiue ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
no?anino?eeino?, ??aaiue nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe??, o aeieeiaii?
iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a, eiie?aoeciaaiee ?oi?e aieea o oi?ioaaii?
i?ia?aeiiai iaa?ioe/iiai neiioiiieiiieaeno.

Anoaiiaeaii ?nioaaiiy caeaaeiino? i?ae ?ioaineai?noth aeooaeueieo
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-cia/oueo ineoiaai?e ? iniaeeainoyie oi?ioaaiiy
i?ia?aeiiai iaa?ioe/iiai neiae?iio.

Aeiaaaeaia ?ieue ie?aieo eiinoeoooe?iiaeueii-a?ieia?/ieo /eiiee?a (a?e
ia?oi? iaa?ioe/ii? aeaeiiiainaoe??, iayai?noue oa oei aeoeaiooeiaaieo
?en oa?aeoa?o a i?aii?a?ae?, niiaoiaaii? oa aeciaaiii-i?aai?/i? aieeae a
aiaiiac?) oa a?io?i?/ieo iaoai?ci?a (i?aeaeuaiee ??aaiue aeoeaaoe??
i?ioean?a ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a) o oi?ioaaii? iaa?ioe/ieo
noai?a.

C iiceoe?? aeeiai?/ii? ioe?iee ?icaeoeo iaa?ic?a aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? ?o
iaa?iciaaiaco a caeaaeiino? a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iaa?ioe/ieo
aeaeiiiainaoe?e, ui caciaee oai?? ai?iaeiaae aeeooy.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai canoinoaaiiy
aioa?ini?aoe?eii? aeaoieneeaoe?? ia iiaeae? aioa?ini?aaioo «Neeea?ae I»
a e?eoaaii? iaa?ioe/ieo noai?a.

Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? aeeiai?ee ee?i?/ii? ea?oeie iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a oa
caeiiii??iino? ?aaeoeoe?? ?o iniiaieo ineoiiaoieia?/ieo i?iya?a i?ae
aieeaii aioa?ini?aaioo. Aeine?aeaeai? iaoai?cie e?eoaaeueiiai aoaeoo
aioa?ini?aoe?? ca aeaieie ?ioi?iaoeaieo ia’?eoeaieo
ee?i?ei-ineoieia?/ieo oa a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a. Caeiaoo? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue neoaoaaoe oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeey iiaeaeueoeo
iiooe?a uiaei canoinoaaiiy aioa?ini?aoe?eieo cania?a a eiiieaeniiio
e?eoaaii? iaaeiaeo ineo?/ieo ?iceaae?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e ae?aaiinoeoe? iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a ne?ae
caa?oaoe oaaao ia eiiieaen nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oa
eiinoeoooe?iiaeueii-a?ieia?/ieo /eiiee?a iaa?iciaaiaco, ui aeicaiey?
ocaaaeueieoe ? aaeaeaaoii ioe?ieoe oiiae oi?ioaaiiy iaa?ioe/iiai noaio ?
aecia/a? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae i?e aeai?? oa?aiaaoe/ii? oaeoeee.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiee oa aeei?enoaiee a e?eoaaii? iaa?ioe/ieo noai?a
iaoiae aioa?ini?aoe?eii? aeaoieneeaoe?? aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe
oa?aiaaoe/io aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaaeueiiai aieeao, nei?ioeoe oa?i?ie
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia iaa?ioe/i? ?iceaaee, ciaioeoe ianya o?aaeeoe?eii?
iaaeeeaiaioicii? oa?ai??. Aeeth/aiiy aioa?ini?aoe?? a eiiieaen
e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a caiia?aa? iiya? iaaaaeaieo oa?iaeiaaiieo aoaeo?a
oa oneeaaeiaiue.

Iaoiae aioa?ini?aoe?eii? aeaoieneeaoe?? ia iiaeae? aioa?ini?aaioo
«Neeea?ae I» i?inoee o aeei?enoaii?, ia iio?aao? neeaaeiiai iaaee/iiai
iniauaiiy ? niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee iaoe??io?a. Iiaea aooe
?aeiiai-aeiaaiee aeey aeei?enoaiiy a ineo?ao?e/i?e i?aeoeoe? ye a
noaoe?iia?ieo, oae ? a aiaoeaoi?ieo oiiaao.

Canoinoaaiiy aioa?ini?aaioo «Neeea?ae I», iaoai?ci ae?? yeiai
iai?aaeaiee ia noaa?e?caoe?th oa iie?ioaiiy eiiiainaoi?ii-aaeaioaoe?eieo
iiaeeeainoae i?aai?cio, iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ye iaoiae aoi?eiii?
i?io?eaeoeee caoyaeieo iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a c iaoith noeioeyoe??
ianiaoeeo?/ii? ?acenoaioiino? i?aai?cio oa iioaioe?thaaiiy ae??
oa?iaeieia?/ieo cania?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio?
Oe?a?inueeiai IAe? ee?i?/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaa?ieia?? oa
ineo?ao???, Oa?e?anueei? i?nueei? ee?i?/ii? ineo?ao?e/ii? e?ea?i? ?15,
Eoaainueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? ineoiiaa?ieia?/ii? e?ea?i?,
E??iaia?aaenueei? iaeanii? ineo?ao?e/ii? e?ea?i?, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
e?eoaaeueii-ae?iaie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy «I?aeiaeaniee ee?i?/iee
ineoiiaa?ieia?/iee oeaio?», a iaaeaaia?/iiio i?ioean? ia eaoaae??
ia?aiaeo oai?ia c eo?nii iae?io??o?a?? Oe?a?inueei? iaaee/ii?
noiiaoieia?/ii? aeaaeai??.

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
«Canoinoaaiiy aioa?ini?aoe?eii? aeaoieneeaoe?? a eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii?
iaa?ic?a» (A?iieoey, 1997).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniee
ee?i?ei-ineoiiaoieia?/iee oa ineoieia?/iee aiae?c oai?eo ia iaa?ice, ui
aeaei ciiao ioe?ieoe ?ieue ie?aieo /eiiee?a iaa?iciaaiaco o oi?ioaaii?
iniaeeainoae ee?i?/ii? ea?oeie iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a. ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai canoinoaaiiy aioa?ini?aoe?eii?
aeaoieneeaoe?? ia iiaeae? aioa?ini?aaioo «Neeea?ae I» a eiiieaeniiio
e?eoaaii? iaa?ioe/ieo noai?a, i?iaaaeaii e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia ??ci? oi?ie
iaa?ic?a.

Oaanue ianya ee?i?/ieo, ineoieia?/ieo ianoaaeaiue, ca?? iaoa??aeo aeey
a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea aeaieo, oai?aoe/ia
ocaaaeueiaiiy oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaii
aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e
100-??//th A?iieoeueei? iaeanii? ineoiiaa?ieia?/ii? e?ea?i?
?i.I.?.THuaiei (A?iieoey, 1997), II I?aeia?iaeiiio Eiia?an? c
?ioaa?aoeaii? aio?iiieia?? (A?iieoey, 1998), II I?aeia?iaeiiio
iaaee/iiio Eiia?an? nooaeaio?a ? iieiaeeo a/aieo (Oa?iii?eue, 1998), II
Oe?a?inuee?e Iaoeia?e Eiioa?aioe?? c i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth «Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ee?i?/ii? oa?iaeieia??» (A?iieoey, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 12 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeue (a oiio /ene? 4 noaoo? o iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 265 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno ? neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue (4 ?icae?ee), i?aenoieiaiai ?icae?eo, aeniiae?a,
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia 46 noi??ieao,
ui i?noeoue 466 ?ia?o (362 a?o/eciyieo oa e?a?i NIAe, 104 ca?oa?aeieo),
7 aeiaeaoe?a, ?icoaoiaaieo ia 24 noi??ieao. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 24
oaaeeoeyie, ye? caeiathoue 22 noi??iee, ? 10 ?enoieaie.

Ci?no ?iaioe

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea oai?eo ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?ae iaoei niinoa?aaeaiiyi ciaoiaeeeenue 120 oai?eo ia iaa?ioe/i?
?iceaaee: 50 oai?eo ia iaa?anoai?th, 35 – ia ?noa?e/iee iaa?ic, 35 – ia
aeai?aneaiee iaa?ic; IEO-9 (F48.0, F45.0, F45.2, F32.0; IEO-10).
Ia?aaaaeia e?euee?noue ianoaaeaieo (85,0%) ia?aaoaaea o a?oe? a?ae 21
aei 50 ?ie?a. Ca noaooth aoei a?eueoa ae?iie (78 – 65,0%), /ieia?e?a
aoei 42 (35,0%). Aia?oa anooieee ia e?eoaaiiy a ca’yceo c iaa?ioe/ieie
?iceaaeaie 37,5% in?a. ?aooa caoai??ee ia iaa?ic iiaoi?ii, na?aae ieo
31,7% – aae?oaa, 30,8% – ao?ao?.

I?iaaaeaia eiiieaenia ee?i?ei-ineoiiaoieia?/ia, a?io?i?/ia oa
ineoieia?/ia aea/aiiy oai?eo aacoaaeinue ia ianooiieo iaoiaeao
aeine?aeaeaiiy: ee?i?ei-ineoiiaoieia?/iee iaoiae; iaoiae ee?i?/ii?
?oa?eo?eaoe??; iaoiae eaaioeo?eaoe?eiiai aiae?co;
aenia?eiaioaeueii-ineoieia?/iee iaoiae; a?io?i?/iee iaoiae;
noaoenoe/ii-iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii-ineoieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi Nei?i/aiiai aaaaoioaeoi?iiai iieooaaeueieea iniaenoino?
(A.I.Caeoeaa, 1981), iieooaaeueieea naiiioe?iee ??aiy o?eaiaeiino?
Ni?eaa?aa?a, oanoa ia aecia/aiiy ??aiy no?anino?eeino? iniaenoino? oa
oeaee nioe?aeueii? aaeaioaoe?? (I.A.E??oaaa, I.A.?ya/eeiaa, 1995).

A?io?i?/iei iaoiaeii aecia/aeanue aeoeai?noue i?ioean?a ia?aeeniiai
ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (IIE) ca iieacieeii ??aiy iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo
(IAeA) ieacie e?ia? (E.Saton, 1978).

I?e noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai?
iaoiaee ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co, e?eoa??? No’thaeaioa. ?acoeueoaoe
ia?iaeyeenue ca aeiiiiiaith noaiaea?oieo iaeao?a i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai
(IBM PC AT Pentium).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee ineoiiaoieia?/iee aiae?c ee?i?/ii? ea?oeie iaa?ioe/ieo
?iceaae?a aeicaieea aeae?eeoe /ioe?e i?ia?aeieo iaa?ioe/ieo
neiioiiieiiieaena: anoaii-aa?eii?/iee (22,5% in?a a?ae an?o
ianoaaeaieo), anoaiiaeai?aneaiee (28,3%), anoaii?iioiiae?e/iee (25,0%),
o?eaiaeii-oia?/iee (24,2%).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ui iaoiiaethaaee ?icaeoie
oai?iaeeaiai noaio, i?iaeaiiino?oaaee ia??aiicia/io ?ieue ?oi?o aieea?a
o iaa?iciaaiac? iaa?ioe/ieo ?iceaae?a.

Aiae?c neee ? o?eaaeino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-cia/oueo ineo?/ieo o?aai
aeyaea, ui aino?? ineoiaai?? aeinoia??ii /ano?oa (?

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