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Несуча здатність і напружено-деформований стан залізобетонних складчастих куполів: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / О.Ю. Царинник, Держ. ун-т ‘Львів

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I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

OeA?EIIEE IEAA TH??EIAE*

OAeE 624.074

IANO*A CAeAOI?NOUe ? IAI?OAEAII-AeAOI?IIAAIEE NOAI CAE?CIAAOIIIEO
NEEAAe*ANOEO EOIIE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.01 – aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa
nii?oaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?noeoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? ea??aieee:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eeeiaiei Oaae?? ?e?naeiae/, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e “Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? ? iinoe” Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?noeaoo
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio O?aioeia A?eoi? Iao?iae/, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e “Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? ? iinoe” Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?noeaoo
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oiieoey Eaii?ae Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e “Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??” Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?noeaoo;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aa?aaao Aaneeue Ieoaeeiae/, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e “Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??” Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoeaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iieoaanueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH??y Eiiae?aothea I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i.Iieoaaa), eaoaae?a “Cae?ciaaoiii? eiino?oeoe??”.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1000 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E35.052.11 o Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” (290646, Euea?a-13, aoe. N.Aaiaea?e, 12).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” (Euea?a, aoe. I?ioani?nueea, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “10” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee E35.052.11 Aaac I.A.19

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A iaeiiiiaa?oiaoo aaeeeii?ieueioieo aoaeeieao
a?iiaaenueeiai i?ecia/aiiy 20-25 % caaaeueii? nia?aa?oino? neeaaea?
aa?o?noue eiino?oeoe?e iie?eooy, oiio aaeineiiaeaiiy oeeo eiino?oeoe?e c
iaoith ciaioaiiy aeo?ao iaoa??ae?a, cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? ? nei?i/aiiy
oa?i?i?a aoae?aieoeoaa ia? aeooaeueia ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy.
Oiieino?ii? ca??i? i?inoi?ia? eiino?oeoe?? iie?eoue c oe??? oi/ee ci?o ?
iaeieie c iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo.

Aei oaeeo eiino?oeoe?e a?aeiinyoueny ? ca??i? oa ca??ii-iiiie?oi?
neeaae/ano? eoiiee, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iie?eoue e?oaeeo aai
aaaaoieooieo a ieai? aoae?aaeue. ?ic?aooiie oeeo iie?eoue, ui
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ia?
nooo?aee iaaeie?e: coneeey a aeaiaioao nenoaie aecia/athoue,
i?eionoeaoe, ui iaoa??ae i?aoeth? i?oaeii, a i?oei?noue ia?a??c?a ca
ciaeaeaieie coneeeyie ia?aa??ythoue c oiia a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae. A
?acoeueoao? ia a?aoiao?oueny caeaoi?noue noaoe/ii iaaecia/aii?
eiino?oeoe?? aei ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue o noaae??, aeecuee?e aei
?oeioaaiiy, ia a iiai?e i??? a?aeia?aaea?oueny ?aaeueiee oa?aeoa? ??
?iaioe ? caieaeo?oueny iano/a caeaoi?noue. Cia/ii e?aueo ?acoeueoao?a
iiaeia aeinyaoe, canoinoaaaoe iaoiae a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae (IA?).

A ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe? IA? canoiniao?oueny aeey ?ic?aooieo i?inoi?iaeo
eiino?oeoe?e, aeey yeeo iaia?aae a?aeiia noaia ?oeioaaiiy. O aeiaaeeo
ca??ieo cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a /a?ac aieea ??cieo
iaeiaeine?aeaeaieo oaeoi??a noaia ?oeioaaiiy iaia?aae iaa?aeiia. Uia
canoinoaaoe IA? aeey oeueiai eeano i?inoi?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e, aeioe?eueii
i?iaanoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio iiaeae? eoiiea c aeiaaaeaiiyi aei ?oeioaaiiy ??aiii??ii
?iciiae?eaiei ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeyoueny
aia?oa. Aiie aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe oaeoe/io iano/o caeaoi?noue oa
noaio ?oeioaaiiy ca??ieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a, ioe?ieoe aieea
e?eueoeaaeo coneeue oa ?iaioe iaoa??aeo ca iaaeaie i?oaeii? noaae??, ?,
nie?ath/enue ia io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ?iciianthaeeoe ia oe? eiino?oeoe??
?ic?aooiie ca IA?.

Ioaea, aa?o/e aei oaaae, c iaeiiai aieo, iaiaaeaiee ??aaiue
aeine?aeaeaiino? neeaae/anoeo ca??ii-iiiie?oieo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a,
a c ae?oaiai – ia?aaaae, ye? aea? canoinoaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e oaeiai oeio,
aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue ca noi?ioeueiaaiith oaiith aeaea?oueny
iaa?oioiaaiith.

Iaoa ?iaioe: I?iaanoe oai?aee/i? ? aenia?oiaioaeuei? (ia iiaeae?)
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe cae?ciaaoiiiiai ca??ii-iiiie?oiiai eoiiea ?c
neeaaeie c nooeie noeeaie ia an?o noaae?yo caaaioaaeaiiy c aeiaaaeaiiyi
aei ?oeioaaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino?, io?eiaiiy noaie
?oeioaaiiy ? ioe?iee ?aaeueiiai iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
eiino?oeoe??. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiiaoe iioei?caoe?th eoiiea ca
aeo?aoith iaoa??ae?a oa i?aeaiooaaoe i?iiiceoe?? c ?ic?aooieo ?
eiino?othaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a iacaaiiai oeio.

Aaoi? caoeua?:

? oai?aoe/ii ia?aaeaa/ai? oi?ie ?oeioaaiiy ? aeaaaeai? ??aiyiiy aeey
aecia/aiiy aaee/eie iano/i? caeaoiino? cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo
eoiie?a;

? ?acoeueoaoe /enaeueiiai aiae?co aieeao aaiiao?e/ieo ? o?ce/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee eoiie?a iacaaiiai oeio ia ?o iano/o caeaoi?noue ? aeo?aoo
iaoa??ae?a;

? i?iiiceoe?? c ?ic?aooieo ? eiino?othaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo
eoiie?a;

? ?ic?iaeo oa aeaioiaeaiiy iiaeaeae cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaaeie a ianooaa?
1:10 aei iaoo?ieo ? ciiioiaaio ia ?o iniia? aeine?aeio iiaeaeue
ae?aiao?ii 4.5 i cae?ciaaoiiiiai neeaae/anoiai eoiiea;

? aenia?eiaioaeueio onoaiiaeo-noaiae, yeee caaacia/o? nooiaiaaa
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaia iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeae? neeaae/anoiai eoiiea a
i?ioean? aei?iaoaaiiy;

? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iano/i? caeaoiino?, noai
?oeioaaiiy ? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia iiaeae? cae?ciaaoiiiiai
neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ? ?? o?aaiaioao.

Iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe neeaaeathoue:

? canoinoaaiiy oai??? a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae aeey noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee
?ic?aooieo ? iioei?caoe?? neeaae/anoeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a;

? iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? oaeeo eoiie?a;

? aeine?aei? aeai? i?i iano/o caeaoi?noue ? noaie ?oeioaaiiy eoiie?a
iacaaiiai oeio;

? aeine?aei? aeai? i?i iniaeoaino? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
neeaae/anoeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a o aeena?oaoe?? caaacia/o?oueny
aeei?enoaiiyi iieiaeaiue oai??? a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae, no/anii? oai???
cae?ciaaoiio ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo
i?eeaae?a oa AII.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeaiee
?ic?aooieiaee aia?ao caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
eiino?othaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy
iano/i? caeaoiino? ? aeaoi?iaoeaiino? ?nioth/eo eiino?oeoe?e oaeiai
oeio. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo canoiniaaia i?ae /an oaoi?/ii?
aenia?oece aeey aecia/aiiy iaae?eiino? eiino?oeoe?e eoiie?a e?eoeo
?eie?a a i.?aaii-O?aie?anueeo ? i.Oiaeueieoeueeiio. I?iiiceoe?? c
eiino?othaaiiy ? aeaioiaeaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaaeie c nooeie noeeaie,
ye ? naieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a, canoiniaothoueny a eo?niaiio ?,
iniaeeai, aeeieiiiiio i?iaeooaaii? ia i?ioyc? inoaii?o ?ie?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a io?eiaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a. I?ae /an
?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th aaoi?ii i?ney iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e iniaenoi:

? oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii iiaeeea? oi?ie ?oeioaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo
neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a ? na?aae ieo aeyaeaii e?iaiaoe/ii iiaeeea?;

? aeaaaeaii ae?ace aeey aecia/aiiy ?ia?o ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o nee aeey
e?iaiaoe/ii iiaeeeaeo noai ?oeioaaiiy;

? iaea?aeaii oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? neeaae/anoeo
eoiie?a;

? oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii aieea iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aa?oi? e?eueoea,
ai?eciioaeueieo neeaaeiaeo ciai?oiueiai ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, e?eueoeaaeo coneeue ia iano/o caeaoi?noue oaeeo eoiie?a;

? aeine?aeaeaii aieea ci?ie aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ia iano/o
caeaoi?noue ? aeo?aoo noae? ia aeaioiaeaiiy eoiiea;

? cai?iiiiiaaii oe?eueiao ooieoe?th, aecia/aii i?iaeoi? ia?aiao?e ?
iaiaaeaiiy, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iioeiaeueiiai c oi/ee ci?o
aeo?aoe noae? eiino?othaaiiy neeaaeie ? eoiiea;

? ?ic?iaeaii, caeiino?oeiaaii ? aeaioiaeaii cae?ciaaoiii? iiaeae?
neeaaeie eoiiea;

? i?iaaaeaii aei?iaoaaiiy iiaeaeae neeaaeie ca aaei/iith oa a?i/iith
noaiaie oa aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo;

? aeaioiaeaii cae?ciaaoiiio iiaeaeue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ae?aiao?ii 4.5
i;

? ?ic?iaeaii, caeiino?oeiaaii ? aeaioiaeaii i?ea?iaeueio onoaiiaeo aeey
caaaioaaeaiiy iiaeae? eoiiea ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiei ii ieiu?
iaaaioaaeaiiyi ca aeiiiiiaith noeniooiai iia?o?y;

? i?iaaaeaii aei?iaoaaiiy c aeiaaaeaiiyi aei ?oeioaaiiy iiaeae? eoiiea,
aecia/aii ?? iano/o caeaoi?noue, noaio ?oeioaaiiy oa
iai?oaeaiiaeaoi?iiaaiee noai aeaiaio?a iiaeae? ia an?o aoaiao
caaaioaaeaiiy;

? ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? c eiino?othaaiiy, iioei?caoe?? oa ?ic?aooieo
cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a ia iniia? oai??? a?aie/ii?
??aiiaaae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeony ?
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia ?-?e Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie no/aniiai cae?ciaaoiio” (Ee?a, 1996), ??-io
i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Iaoai?ea ? o?ceea ?oeioaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e” (Euea?a, 1996), tha?eaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“25 ?ie?a noaeacae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e c ciai?oi?i a?ioaaiiyi”
(Euea?a, 1996), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 125-??//th
?iaeaia?ii-aoae?aaeueiiai oaeoeueoaoo AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”
(Euea?a, 1997), a oaeiae ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e ? iino?a AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao?? ? aeaio aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa
aeeeaaeaia ia 187 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 153 noi??iee iniiaiiai oaenoo, 23
oaaeeoe?, 85 ?enoie?a, 103 iaeiaioaaiiy e?oa?aoo?e ia 7 noi??ieao ? aeaa
aeiaeaoee ia 18 noi??ieao.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, iaaiaeeoueny
caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe ? ?? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aaoi?
aeiineoue ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii noai ieoaiiy, ocaaaeueiaii ?
i?iaiae?ciaaii eiino?oeoeai? ??oaiiy ? iaoiaee caaaeaiiy eoiieueieo
eiino?oeoe?e. Aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi ca??ii-iiiie?oi? neeaae/ano? eoiiee
ae?aiao?ii 42.4 i, cai?iaeoiaai? ia iniia? ?ic?iaie, aeeiiaieo o
Euea?anuee?e iie?oaoi?oe?, ? ai?iaaaeaeai? aeey iie?eoue e?eoeo ?eie?a a
i. ?aaii-O?aie?anueeo, Oiaeueieoeueeiio oa Oaiao?aoe?** ?iaioe c
?ic?aooieo ? eiino?othaaiiy eoiie?a aeeiioaaee ni?a?ia?oieee eaoaae?e
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e AeO “EUea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” e.o.i., aeioe.
O?aioeia. A.I., e.o.i., aeioe. E?nioeueeee ?.A., ca /anoth aieiaiiai
niaoe?ae?noa ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? o?e?? “Ae?i?ii?noi” Aeaaeaethea C.O.,
iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – ae.o.i., i?io. Eeeiaiei O.?.. ?icaeyiooi oaeiae
iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo oa aenia?oiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia iiaeaeyo
eoiieueieo eiino?oeoe?e. A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co anoaiiaeaii, ui
neeaae/ano? ca??ii-iiiie?oi? eoiiee ca aeo?aoith iaoa??ae?a, niiniaaie
aeaioiaeaiiy ? iiioaaeo ?o iniiaieo eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a – neeaaeie
? aeiiii?/ieie oa ?iaeono??aeueieie eiino?oeoe?yie, aeicaieythoue
noai?eoe ae?aci? a?o?oaeoo?i? oi?ie. ?acii c oei ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee
?ic?aooieo ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c eiino?othaaiiy ia aeicaieythoue a
aeinoaoi?e i??? a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? ?iaioe eiino?oeoe?e oaeiai oeio
? aeinoia??ii ioe?ieoe ?o iano/o caeaoi?noue.

?ic?aooiie neeaae/anoeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a o e?i?eii-i?oaei?e
iinoaiiaoe? ia a?aoiao? caeaoi?noue noaoe/ii iaaecia/aii? eiino?oeoe??
aei ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue o noaae??, aeecuee?e aei ?oeioaaiiy, a,
cia/eoue caieaeo? ?? iano/o caeaoi?noue.

A?aooaaiiy ci?ie aei?noeino? oa aaiiao??? aeaiaio?a eoiiea c ?inoii
iaaaioaaeaiiy aaaea aei iaiao?aeiino? canoinoaaiiy ?oa?aoe?eieo iaoiae?a
?ic?aooieo ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oneeaaeiaiiyi ?ic?aooieiaeo oi?ioe oa
ca?eueoaiiyi ia’?io ia/eneaiue. I?e aenieiio nooiai? noaoe/ii?
iaaecia/aiino? nenoaie ?oa?aoe?ei? iaoiaee aoaeoeai? eeoa ca oiiae
canoinoaaiiy AII c a?aeiia?aeiei i?ia?aiiei caaacia/aiiyi. Ia aeaiee /an
?ic?iaeai? ??ciiiai?oi? iaeaoe i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai ia iniia? iaoiaea
ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a aeey ?ic?aooieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e, a oiio
/ene? c a?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii? ? aaiiao?e/ii? iae?i?eiino?. Aea iaa?oue ca
iayaiino? aeineiiaeiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aaaeeeaa, a a aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao ? ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy iathoue: ia?ao?ae a?ae ?aaeueii?
eiino?oeoe?? aei o?ce/ii? iiaeae?; o?ce/ia aeene?aoecaoe?y oa ia?ao?ae
aei iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?; a?aeiia?aeiee aea?? caeaaeiinoae ia?ai?uaiiy –
aeaoi?iaoe?? – iai?oaeaiiy oa ?ioa?iieyoe?eieo ooieoe?e.

Oiio aeey ia?aa??ee i?aaeeueiino? aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino?
neeaaeieo i?inoi?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e aeei?enoiaothoue IA?. Caaaeuei?
iieiaeaiiy, i?eiouaiiy oa oai?aie IA? noi?ioeueiaaii a ?iaioao Aaicae?aa
A.A., Eiaainaia E., ?iaa?neaaa A., I?aaa?a A., O?eea ?., ?aeai?oeeia
A.?., Ae?aea?a Ae. oa ?ioeo. Ca aeiiiiiaith e?iaiaoe/ii? ? noaeo/ii?
oai?ai IA?, noi?ioeueiaaieo Aaicae?aei A.A., aecia/athoue a?aeiia?aeii
aa?oith ? ieaeith iaae? iano/i? caeaoiino? eiino?oeoe??.

I?eeeaaei? canoinoaaiiy IA? aeey ?ic?aooieo ieeo, ie?aieo eean?a
iaieiiie, neeaaeaieo i?inoi?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e aena?oeaii a ?iaioao
Aoaeaae?ai? I.A., Aeoaeinueeiai A.I., Oaeaeoeiaa A.E., Aeai??eaoa?e?
A.I., Ae?ooy?y A.N., ?aneaciaa A.I., I?ioeaiei A.I., Ooaa?aa A.A.,
*?iaieiaa TH.A. oa ?ioeo.

Canoinoaaiiy noaeo/ii? oai?aie aeey aecia/aiiy ?oeioth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy
a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ia?aaeaa/a? iaeii/anio aa??aoe?th oanoe ooieoe?e:
Nx=Nx(x,y), Ny=Ny(x,y), Nxy=Nxy(x,y), Mx=Mx(x,y), My=My(x,y),
Mxy=Mxy(x,y). Oea o?oaeii?noea caaea/a, ?ica’ycaiiy yei? aoaeoeaia ?c
canoinoaaiiyi AII. Canoinoaaiiy e?iaiaoe/ii? oai?aie i?eaiaeeoue aei
iaiao?aeiino? iaeii/anii? aa??aoe?? eeoa o?ueio ooieoe?e
ia?ai?uaiue:U=U(x,y), V=V(x,y), W=W(x,y) oiaoi ?ica’ycie caaea/?
a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae iiaeia iaea?aeaoe aeaui i?ino?oa.

O eeane/i?e oi?i? e?iaiaoe/iee niin?a aaco?oueny ia i?eiouaii? i?i
nooe?eueio ieanoeo?eaoe?th iaoa??aeo iaieiiee. Aea aeey aaaaoueio
eiino?oeoe?e, na?aae yeeo a?eueo?noue cae?ciaaoiiieo i?inoi?iaeo
oiieino?iieo eiino?oeoe?e, nooo?aiai ni?iuaiiy ? a?eueoi? iaaeyaeiino?
iiaeia aeinyaoe, i?eionoeaoe, ui ieanoe/i? aeaoi?iaoe??
eiioeaio?othoueny a aeineoue aocueeeo iaeanoyo eiino?oeoe?e – oi/eao aai
e?i?yo, ye? iaceaathoueny oa?i??aie (e?i?yie) ieanoe/iino?, a ?aooa
iaeanoae caeeoathoueny aei?noeeie ? iaaeaoi?iiaaieie. I?eiouaiiy i?i
aei?noei-ieanoe/iee oa?aeoa? ?iaioe iaoa??aeo i?eaiaeeoue aei oai???
cina?aaeaeaieo ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, aai e?iaiaoe/iiai niiniao
a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae o iinoaiiaoe? e?i?e oaeo/ino?. Oey oai??y
?ic?iaeyeany a ?iaioao Eiaainaia E., Aeaeiina E., Aoaea ?., ?aeai?oeeia
A.?., Naa/oea A. oa ?i. aaoi??a. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo cai?noue
aa??aoe?eii? caaea/? i?i i?i?ioi ooieoe?iiaea (eeane/ia iinoaiiaea)
iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe caaea/o i?i i?i?ioi ooieoe?? c e?eueeiia ci?iieie –
ia?aiao?aie oi?ie ?oeioaaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oaeoe/ii? iano/i? caeaoiino?, noai ?oeioaaiiy oa
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio i?inoi?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e oe?iei
canoiniaothoueny aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. A?eueo?noue
a?aeiieo aei?iaoaaiue iiaeaeae eoiieueieo eiino?oeoe?e na?aaeiueiai
ianooaao (1/25…1/5 iaoo?aeueii? aaee/eie) aoei i?iaaaeaii
cina?aaeaeaieie neeaie, ye? noai?thaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith neeaaeii?
nenoaie aaaeae?a ? oya (aenia?eiaioe Eueaiaa A.I., AEoeianueeiai A.C.,
Aaneeueeiaa A.N., Noai?e?ia E.Ae., Ooaa?aa A.A., I’yoee?anoianueeiai
I.I., Aaca?iaa A.A., Oaeaeoeiaa A.E., ?noaeiaa ss.O.), aai ca
aeiiiiiaith aei?noeeo ooaii?a, /a?ac ye? iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae
a?ae?aae?/ieo aeiie?ao?a ia?aaeaaaeeny ia eiino?oeoe?th (aeine?aee
Ia?/e?ia A.I., Oacae?y A.?.). Oae? niiniae caaaioaaeaiiy cia/iith i??ith
aecia/athoue oi?io ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe?? ? oo?oaeiththoue aiae?c
iano/i? caeaoiino?. E??i oiai, noai?aia oaeei /eiii iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
a?aeiia?aea? iaaaioaaeaiith ia iaoo?i? eoiiee, yea aeecueea aei
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu?.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo c a?aooaaiiyi
eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae neeaae/anoeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a
iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie ? noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith iano/i?
caeaoiino? oa noai ?oeioaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a ?c neeaaeie c
nooeie noeeaie ia iniia? e?iaiaoe/iiai niiniao iaoiaea a?aie/ii?
??aiiaaae a iinoaiiaoe? e?i?e oaeo/ino?. O oeueiio ?icae?e?
?ic?iaey?oueny iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue eoiiea c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
aeaii? eiino?oeoe??, ?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeeea? c oi/ee ci?o IA? noaie
?oeioaaiiy, aeaiaeeoueny oi?ioea aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? oa
iieiaeaiiy iaaacia/iiai ia?a??co o neeaaeeao eoiiea, iaaiaeeoueny
ioe?iea aieeao i?iaeoieo ia?aiao??a ia iano/o caeaoi?noue,
?ic?iaey?oueny iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai c oi/ee ci?o aeo?aoe
iaoa??ae?a iaai?o i?iaeoieo ia?aiao??a.

Aeey cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a i?ae ae??th ??aiii??ii
?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiy aaoi?ii oai?aoe/ii aecia/ai? ?
iaa?oioiaai? oae? e?iaiaoe/ii iiaeeea? noaie ?oeioaaiiy:

? i?e aei?noeiio c’?aeiaii? neeaaeie c aa?oi?i iii?iei e?eueoeai:

noaia 1 – ia?eae?iiaeueii-e?eueoeaaa c ooai?aiiyi aeaio e?eueoeaaeo
e?i?e ieanoe/iino? o neeaaeeao (?en. 1a);

noaia 2 – ia?eae?iiaeueii-e?eueoeaaa c ooai?aiiyi iaei??? e?eueoeaai?
e?i?? ieanoe/iino? o neeaaeeao ? ?oeioaaiiyi ieaeiueiai iii?iiai
e?eueoey (?en. 1a);

? i?e oa?i??iiio c’?aeiaii? neeaaeie c aa?oi?i iii?iei e?eueoeai:

noaia 1a – ia?eae?iiaeueii-e?eueoeaaa c ooai?aiiyi iaei??? e?eueoeaai?
e?i?? ieanoe/iino? o neeaaeeao;
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noaia 2a – ia?eae?iiaeueia c ?oeioaaiiyi ieaeiueiai iii?iiai e?eueoey.

?en.1. E?iaiaoe/ii iiaeeea? noaie ?oeioaaiiy neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a i?e
aei?noeiio c’?aeiaii? neeaaeie c aa?oi?i e?eueoeai: a – c ooai?aiiyi
aeaio e?eueoeaaeo e?i?e ieanoe/iino?; a – c ooai?aiiyi iaei???
e?eueoeaai? e?i?? ieanoe/iino? ? ?oeioaaiiyi ieaeiueiai e?eueoey.

Aeey noaie 1 iieiaeaiiy iaei??? c e?eueoeaaeo e?i?e ieanoe/iino? ii
a?ai? cauaieaiiy iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe ia iniia? noaoe/iiai ?ic?aooieo
a?ee c aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo neeaaeie, aei?noei c’?aeiaieo a iaieiaeo ?
ia’?aeiaieo ii ieco caoyaeeith. Iieiaeaiiy i?ieueioii? e?i??
ieanoe/iino? iaa?aeiia. O noai? 2 iieiaeaiiy i?ieueioii? e?i??
ieanoe/iino? oaeiae aoaea iaa?aeiiei. Aeey ?oeioaaiiy eoiiea ye
i?inoi?iai? eiino?oeoe?? iaiao?aeia ooai?aiiy ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?e
ieanoe/iino?. ?icoaooaaiiy ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?e ieanoe/iino? oaea, ui
niieo/a? ?aaeuei? oa?i??e (iii?i?) c ieanoe/ieie oa?i??aie. Oaeei /eiii,
?icoaooaaiiy ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?e ieanoe/iino? iaeiicia/ii
aecia/a?oueny iieiaeaiiyi i?ieueioii? e?i?? ieanoe/iino?.

Ia iniia? i?eioeeio iiaeeeaeo ia?ai?uaiue Eaia?aiaea oiiae ??aiiaaae
caienothoueny o aeaeyae? ??aiino? ?ia?o ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o nee ia
iiaeeeaeo ia?ai?uaiiyo. Neeaaoe oiiae ??aiino? ?ia?o, aecia/athoue
aaee/eio ?oeioth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy ye:

(1)

aea xi – ?-oee ia?aiao? noaie ?oeioaaiiy. Cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a xi
aecia/athoueny c oiiae i?i?ioio aaee/eie ?oeioth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy
dq/dxi=0. Oaeei /eiii iaea?aeothoue nenoaio c n+1 ??aiyiue c n+1
iaa?aeiieie (q ? n oooe xi), c yei? aecia/athoue e?euee?nio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo noaie ?oeioaaiiy (oiaoi oi/ia ?icoaooaaiiy on?o oa?i???a
? e?i?e ieanoe/iino?) oa cia/aiiy ?oeioth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aeey
aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai neeaae/anoiai eoiiea
nenoaia aoaea i?noeoe eeoa aeaa ??aiyiiy, ine?eueee ca iaiia iiaeeeaeie
noaiaie ?oeioaaiiy iaa?aeiiei ? iieiaeaiiy i?ieueioiiai oa?i??a
ieanoe/iino? oa aaee/eia iano/i? caeaoiino?.

Iano/a caeaoi?noue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ca 1-ith noaiith ?oeioaaiiy c
a?aooaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo coneeue ? iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?eeeaaeaiiai aei
aa?oiueiai e?eueoey, aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

(2)

aea q1 – aaee/eia ciai?oiueiai e?i?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia neeaaeeo; RsAs
– coneeey oaeo/ino? a ?icoyaio?e a?iaoo??; l – aeiaaeeia ai?eciioaeueii?
i?iaeoe?? iicaeiaaeiuei? in? neeaaeee a?ae iii?iiai oa?i??a aei oa?i??a
ieanoe/iino? ii a?ai? iaaoiioaaiiy; x – a?aeiinia ai?eciioaeueia
eii?aeeiaoa i?ieueioiiai oa?i??a ieanoe/iino?. Eiao?oe??ioe a
/enaeueieeo ae?aco (2) aecia/athoue ?iaioo aioo??oi?o nee o e?eueoeaaeo
? ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?yo ieanoe/iino? ? caeaaeaoue a?ae aaiiao?e/ieo
?ici???a ia?a??c?a neeaaeie, oa?aeoa?o ?o ci?ie, a oaeiae a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?ioaaiiy a ia?a??cao neeaaeie. Eiao?oe?aioe a
ciaiaiieeo aecia/athoue ?iaioo ciai?oiueiai ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai
ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aa?oi? e?eueoea eoiiea ?
caeaaeaoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ae?aiao??a ieaeiueiai ? aa?oiueiai
e?eaoeue eoiiea, aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a neeaaeie ? eoiiea, a oaeiae a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?eueoea aei iaaaioaaeaiiy,
?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu?.

Ia iniia? /enaeueiiai aiae?co ae?aco (2) aecia/aii, ui iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aa?oi? e?eueoea ca oiiae ?aae?caoe?? 1-i? noaie ?oeioaaiiy ca?eueoo?
iano/o caeaoi?noue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea. E?eueoeaa? coneeey o
neeaae/anoeo eoiieao c ?ici??aie, iiae?aieie aei iaoo?ieo,
caaacia/othoue aei 10% ?o iano/i? caeaoiino? iaa?oue i?e eiino?oeoeaiiio
a?ioaaii? a e?eueoeaaiio iai?yieo. No?oeoo?a ae?aco (2) a?aeia?aaea?
o?ce/iee ci?no oiiae ??aiino? ?ia?o ? aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe
iaaa?oeeaeuei? neeaaeia? iaaaioaaeaiiy aaaaeaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo
aeiaeaie?a o eiai ciaiaiiee.

Iano/a caeaoi?noue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ca 2-ith noaiith ?oeioaaiiy c
a?aooaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo coneeue ? iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?eeeaaeaiiai aei
aa?oiueiai e?eueoey aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

(3)

aea q2 – aaee/eia ciai?oiueiai e?i?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia neeaaeeo;
RsAs, l, x – oa ae, ui ? o ae?ac? (2). Eiao?oe??ioe a /enaeueieeo
ae?aco (3) aecia/athoue ?iaioo aioo??oi?o nee o e?eueoeaaeo ?
ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?yo ieanoe/iino? ? ieaeiueiio iii?iiio e?eueoe?.
Aiie caeaaeaoue a?ae aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a ia?a??c?a neeaaeie, oa?aeoa?o
?o ci?ie, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy coneeue oaeo/ino? o ieaeiueiio iii?iiio
e?eueoe? ? ?icoyaioo?e a?iaoo?? a i?ieueio? neeaaeie, a oaeiae a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieiu iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co ia?eae?iiaeueii? ? e?eueoeaai?
a?iaoo?e. Eiao?oe?aioe a ciaiaiieeo aecia/athoue ?iaioo ciai?oiueiai
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aa?oi? e?eueoea eoiiea ? caeaaeaoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ae?aiao??a
ieaeiueiai ? aa?oiueiai e?eaoeue eoiiea, aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a neeaaeie
? eoiiea, a oaeiae a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?eueoea aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu?.

Ia iniia? /enaeueiiai aiae?co ae?aco (3) aecia/aii, ui iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aa?oi? e?eueoea ca oiiae ?aae?caoe?? 2-i? noaie ?oeioaaiiy ciaioo?
iano/o caeaoi?noue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea. E?eueoeaa? coneeey o
neeaae/anoeo eoiieao c ?ici??aie, iiae?aieie aei iaoo?ieo, oaeoe/ii ia
aieeaathoue ia ?o iano/o caeaoi?noue.

Aeey ioe?iee aieeao aaiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia iano/o caeaoi?noue
?icaeyiooi ni?iuaio iiaeaeue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea, a yeiio neeaaeee
ooai?ai? oieueee aeaiia a?aiyie ? aeey aoaeueyeiai ?o ia?a?ico
niiaaiaeiioaiiy oe?eie i aenioe iaeiaeiaa. Ia iniia? /enaeueiiai aiae?co
ni?iuaii? iiaeae? aecia/aii, ui aeey an?o iacaeaaeieo aaiiao?e/ieo
ia?aiao??a ?niothoue oae? ?o cia/aiiy, ca yeeo iano/a caeaoi?noue aoaea
iaeiaeiaith aeey iaio oi?i ?oeioaaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iaai?o aaiiao?e/ieo oa o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a eoiiea, yeee
caaacia/o? i?iaeoio iano/o caeaoi?noue eiino?oeoe?? ca oiiae
i?i?iaeueii? aeo?aoe noae? ia a?ioaaiiy neeaaeie ? aeaioiaeaiiy
ieaeiueiai iii?iiai e?eueoey, a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? noi?ioeueiaaii
iioei?caoe?eio caaea/o. Aeey ?? ae??oaiiy aecia/aii i?iaeoi? ia?aiao?e,
yeeie ?: n eieueeinoue neeaaeie eoiiea; s niiaaiaeiioaiiy ?aaeionia
ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai iii?ieo eieaoeue; a eoo iaoeeo neeaaeee aei
ai?eciioo; hon aenioa neeaaeie ia iii?i; nk=RyAk/RsAs ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
coneeue oaeo/ino? o ieaeiueiio iii?iiio e?eueoe? oa ?icoyaioo?e
i?ieueioi?e a?iaoo??, a oaeiae iaiaaeaiiy o aeaeyae? oiiae caaacia/aiiy
i?i?iaeueii? i?iaeoii? iano/i? caeaoiino?. Oe?eueiao ooieoe?th caaeaii o
aeaeyae?:

(4)

aea As – a?eueoa ?c cia/aiue ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co iicaeiaaeiuei?
a?iaoo?e a i?ieueio? neeaaeie, iaiao?aeia aeey caaacia/aiiy i?iaeoii?
iano/i? caeaoiino?; R – ?aae?on ieaeiueiai iii?iiai e?eueoey eoiiea; b –
eoo noiaeaeaiiy a?aiae neeaaeee; f – ai?eciioaeueia i?iaeoe?y
oeaio?aeueiiai eooa i?ae inyie non?aei?o neeaaeie.

Ia iniia? /enaeueiiai aiae?co ni?iuaii? iiaeae? aecia/aii, ui aeey
eiaeiiai c i?iaeoieo ia?aiao??a (e??i s) ?niothoue oae? eiai cia/aiiy,
ye? caaacia/othoue i?i?ioi oe?eueiai? ooieoe??. I?e oeeo cia/aiiyo
iano/a caeaoi?noue ca iaiia oi?iaie ?oeioaaiiy iaeiaeiaa. Cai?iiiiiaaia
iaoiaeeea canoiniaaia aeey iioei?caoe?? iaoo?iiai eoiiea, a ?acoeueoao?
/iai aeyaeaii, ui ca oiiae caaacia/aiiy eiai iano/i? caeaoiino? aeo?aoo
noae? iiaeia ciaioeoe a?eueo i?ae ia 30%.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo a oai?aoe/i?e /anoei?, a
oaeiae aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
cae?ciaaoiiiiai neeaae/anoiai eoiiea aeeiiaii eiai aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? iienaii a o?aoueiio ?icae?e?. A oiae? aenia?eiaio?a
iine?aeiaii aeine?aeaeai? ie?ai? neeaaeee, o?aaiaioe iiaeae? eoiiea ?
eiai iiaeaeue ae?aiao?ii 4.5 i.

Neeaaeee iiaeae? aaoiioaaee a ?icai?iooiio iieiaeaii? o aeaeyae?
?aa?enoi? ieeoe, ?ic??caii? eeeiaie iiaeoai/ii? oi?ie ia aea? /anoeie,
c’?aeiai? aio/eith a?iaoo?ith. I?ney oaa?ae?iiy aaoiio a?ai? neeaaeee
iiaa?oaee iaaeiei iiacaeiaaeiuei? in? aei caieeaiiy ?ic??co ? ooai?aiiy
ia eiai i?noe? nooiai noeea i?ae a?aiyie. Aeey aeaioiaeaiiy neeaaeie
iiaeae? ?ic?iaeaii ? aeaioiaeaii aea? iaeiaeia? iiaeoai/i? oi?ie (?en.
2). Aeaioiaeai? neeaaeee aoee iiaeaeeth iaoo?ieo o ianooaa? 1:10, aea
oiaueia a?ai? ciaioaia c oaoiieia?/ieo i??eoaaiue eeoa a o?e ?ace i?ioe
iaoo?ii? (30 ii) ? noaiiaeea 10 ii. Neeaaeee iiaeae? aeaioiaeyeeny c
ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio (ca?ia e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a ?ici??ii 5 ii) ia
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio? ia?ee 400. Aeey aecia/aiiy i?oeiino? aaoiio neeaaeie
ia?aeaeueii c ?o oi?ioaaiiyi aeaioiaeyeeny ii o?e eoaeee ?ici??ii
10o10o10 ni ia eiaeiee cai?n aaoiiii? noi?o?, ye? aoee aei?iaoaai? ia
noene aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae aei?iaoaaiiyie iiaeae? eoiiea. Ia iniia?
aei?iaoaaiue eoaee?a aecia/aii, ui na?aaeiy i?oei?noue ia noene aaoiio
neeaaeie, c yeeo aoei ciiioiaaii iiaeaeue eoiiea, noaiiaeea Rbm=20.73
IIa, eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? i?oeiino? aaoiio v=/Rbm=0.127, i?oei?noue
aaoiio c caaacia/ai?noth 95% noaiiaeoue 18.2 IIa, ui i?eaeecii
a?aeiia?aea? eeano aaoiio ii i?oeiino? ia noene A25.

Iicaeiaaei? a?ioaaiiy neeaaeie neiao?e/ia – ii aeaa noa?aei? ae?ai.3 ii
o ieaei?o iicaeiaaei?o ?aa?ao oa aa?oi?e iiee/oe?. A?ioaaiiy ieeoe
a?aiae eiino?oeoeaia n?oeith ?aa?ooea 8o1.4. Aeey a?ioaaiiy nooiai noeea
aeei?enoaii noaeaaee a?aeiaeaiee ae??o ae?ai.1 ii c e?ieii a?ae 20 ii o
oe?oeiio oi?oe? aei 60 ii o aoae/iio.

Aei?iaoaaiiy ie?aieo neeaaeie aeey aecia/aiiy i?oeiino? ii ii?iaeueieo
ia?a??cao aoei i?iaaaeaii ca aaei/iith noaiith.

Aei?iaoaaiiy o?aaiaio?a iiaeae? o aeaeyae? a?ee** Aei?iaoaaiiy
i?iaaaeaii noi?nii c aeeeaaea/ai eaoaae?e aaoiiia?eueieo oeyo?a AeO
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” Aea?aioeai TH.I. c aeaio neeaaeie, aei?noei
c’?aeiaieo a iaieiaeo ? ia’?aeiaieo ii ieco caoyaeeith, aeeiioaaeiny ia
niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeai?e onoaiiaoe? (?en. 3). Iaaaioaaeaiiy
cina?aaeaeaieie neeaie, aea?aaeaioia ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiio ii ieiu?,
noai?thaaeiny nenoaiith aaaeae?a ? oya.
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Iaeneiaeuei? i?iaeie neeaaeie i?ae ae??th ii?iaoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy 600
ea/i2 noaiiaeee 0.67…1.63 ii, fmax/l=1/949

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