I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

OeA?EIIEE IEAA TH??EIAE*

OAeE 624.074

IANO*A CAeAOI?NOUe ? IAI?OAEAII-AeAOI?IIAAIEE NOAI CAE?CIAAOIIIEO
NEEAAe*ANOEO EOIIE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.01 — aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa
nii?oaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?noeoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? ea??aieee:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eeeiaiei Oaae?? ?e?naeiae/, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e “Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? ? iinoe” Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?noeaoo
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio O?aioeia A?eoi? Iao?iae/, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e “Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? ? iinoe” Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?noeaoo
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oiieoey Eaii?ae Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e «Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??» Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?noeaoo;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aa?aaao Aaneeue Ieoaeeiae/, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e «Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??» Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoeaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iieoaanueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH??y Eiiae?aothea I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i.Iieoaaa), eaoaae?a “Cae?ciaaoiii? eiino?oeoe??”.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1000 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E35.052.11 o Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” (290646, Euea?a-13, aoe. N.Aaiaea?e, 12).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” (Euea?a, aoe. I?ioani?nueea, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “10” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee E35.052.11 Aaac I.A.19

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A iaeiiiiaa?oiaoo aaeeeii?ieueioieo aoaeeieao
a?iiaaenueeiai i?ecia/aiiy 20-25 % caaaeueii? nia?aa?oino? neeaaea?
aa?o?noue eiino?oeoe?e iie?eooy, oiio aaeineiiaeaiiy oeeo eiino?oeoe?e c
iaoith ciaioaiiy aeo?ao iaoa??ae?a, cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? ? nei?i/aiiy
oa?i?i?a aoae?aieoeoaa ia? aeooaeueia ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy.
Oiieino?ii? ca??i? i?inoi?ia? eiino?oeoe?? iie?eoue c oe??? oi/ee ci?o ?
iaeieie c iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo.

Aei oaeeo eiino?oeoe?e a?aeiinyoueny ? ca??i? oa ca??ii-iiiie?oi?
neeaae/ano? eoiiee, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iie?eoue e?oaeeo aai
aaaaoieooieo a ieai? aoae?aaeue. ?ic?aooiie oeeo iie?eoue, ui
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ia?
nooo?aee iaaeie?e: coneeey a aeaiaioao nenoaie aecia/athoue,
i?eionoeaoe, ui iaoa??ae i?aoeth? i?oaeii, a i?oei?noue ia?a??c?a ca
ciaeaeaieie coneeeyie ia?aa??ythoue c oiia a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae. A
?acoeueoao? ia a?aoiao?oueny caeaoi?noue noaoe/ii iaaecia/aii?
eiino?oeoe?? aei ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue o noaae??, aeecuee?e aei
?oeioaaiiy, ia a iiai?e i??? a?aeia?aaea?oueny ?aaeueiee oa?aeoa? ??
?iaioe ? caieaeo?oueny iano/a caeaoi?noue. Cia/ii e?aueo ?acoeueoao?a
iiaeia aeinyaoe, canoinoaaaoe iaoiae a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae (IA?).

A ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe? IA? canoiniao?oueny aeey ?ic?aooieo i?inoi?iaeo
eiino?oeoe?e, aeey yeeo iaia?aae a?aeiia noaia ?oeioaaiiy. O aeiaaeeo
ca??ieo cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a /a?ac aieea ??cieo
iaeiaeine?aeaeaieo oaeoi??a noaia ?oeioaaiiy iaia?aae iaa?aeiia. Uia
canoinoaaoe IA? aeey oeueiai eeano i?inoi?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e, aeioe?eueii
i?iaanoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio iiaeae? eoiiea c aeiaaaeaiiyi aei ?oeioaaiiy ??aiii??ii
?iciiae?eaiei ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeyoueny
aia?oa. Aiie aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe oaeoe/io iano/o caeaoi?noue oa
noaio ?oeioaaiiy ca??ieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a, ioe?ieoe aieea
e?eueoeaaeo coneeue oa ?iaioe iaoa??aeo ca iaaeaie i?oaeii? noaae??, ?,
nie?ath/enue ia io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ?iciianthaeeoe ia oe? eiino?oeoe??
?ic?aooiie ca IA?.

Ioaea, aa?o/e aei oaaae, c iaeiiai aieo, iaiaaeaiee ??aaiue
aeine?aeaeaiino? neeaae/anoeo ca??ii-iiiie?oieo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a,
a c ae?oaiai — ia?aaaae, ye? aea? canoinoaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e oaeiai oeio,
aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue ca noi?ioeueiaaiith oaiith aeaea?oueny
iaa?oioiaaiith.

Iaoa ?iaioe: I?iaanoe oai?aee/i? ? aenia?oiaioaeuei? (ia iiaeae?)
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe cae?ciaaoiiiiai ca??ii-iiiie?oiiai eoiiea ?c
neeaaeie c nooeie noeeaie ia an?o noaae?yo caaaioaaeaiiy c aeiaaaeaiiyi
aei ?oeioaaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino?, io?eiaiiy noaie
?oeioaaiiy ? ioe?iee ?aaeueiiai iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
eiino?oeoe??. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiiaoe iioei?caoe?th eoiiea ca
aeo?aoith iaoa??ae?a oa i?aeaiooaaoe i?iiiceoe?? c ?ic?aooieo ?
eiino?othaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a iacaaiiai oeio.

Aaoi? caoeua?:

? oai?aoe/ii ia?aaeaa/ai? oi?ie ?oeioaaiiy ? aeaaaeai? ??aiyiiy aeey
aecia/aiiy aaee/eie iano/i? caeaoiino? cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo
eoiie?a;

? ?acoeueoaoe /enaeueiiai aiae?co aieeao aaiiao?e/ieo ? o?ce/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee eoiie?a iacaaiiai oeio ia ?o iano/o caeaoi?noue ? aeo?aoo
iaoa??ae?a;

? i?iiiceoe?? c ?ic?aooieo ? eiino?othaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo
eoiie?a;

? ?ic?iaeo oa aeaioiaeaiiy iiaeaeae cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaaeie a ianooaa?
1:10 aei iaoo?ieo ? ciiioiaaio ia ?o iniia? aeine?aeio iiaeaeue
ae?aiao?ii 4.5 i cae?ciaaoiiiiai neeaae/anoiai eoiiea;

? aenia?eiaioaeueio onoaiiaeo-noaiae, yeee caaacia/o? nooiaiaaa
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaia iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeae? neeaae/anoiai eoiiea a
i?ioean? aei?iaoaaiiy;

? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iano/i? caeaoiino?, noai
?oeioaaiiy ? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia iiaeae? cae?ciaaoiiiiai
neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ? ?? o?aaiaioao.

Iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe neeaaeathoue:

? canoinoaaiiy oai??? a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae aeey noai?aiiy iaoiaeeee
?ic?aooieo ? iioei?caoe?? neeaae/anoeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a;

? iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? oaeeo eoiie?a;

? aeine?aei? aeai? i?i iano/o caeaoi?noue ? noaie ?oeioaaiiy eoiie?a
iacaaiiai oeio;

? aeine?aei? aeai? i?i iniaeoaino? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
neeaae/anoeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a o aeena?oaoe?? caaacia/o?oueny
aeei?enoaiiyi iieiaeaiue oai??? a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae, no/anii? oai???
cae?ciaaoiio ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo
i?eeaae?a oa AII.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeaiee
?ic?aooieiaee aia?ao caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
eiino?othaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy
iano/i? caeaoiino? ? aeaoi?iaoeaiino? ?nioth/eo eiino?oeoe?e oaeiai
oeio. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo canoiniaaia i?ae /an oaoi?/ii?
aenia?oece aeey aecia/aiiy iaae?eiino? eiino?oeoe?e eoiie?a e?eoeo
?eie?a a i.?aaii-O?aie?anueeo ? i.Oiaeueieoeueeiio. I?iiiceoe?? c
eiino?othaaiiy ? aeaioiaeaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaaeie c nooeie noeeaie,
ye ? naieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a, canoiniaothoueny a eo?niaiio ?,
iniaeeai, aeeieiiiiio i?iaeooaaii? ia i?ioyc? inoaii?o ?ie?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a io?eiaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a. I?ae /an
?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th aaoi?ii i?ney iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e iniaenoi:

? oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii iiaeeea? oi?ie ?oeioaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo
neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a ? na?aae ieo aeyaeaii e?iaiaoe/ii iiaeeea?;

? aeaaaeaii ae?ace aeey aecia/aiiy ?ia?o ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o nee aeey
e?iaiaoe/ii iiaeeeaeo noai ?oeioaaiiy;

? iaea?aeaii oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? neeaae/anoeo
eoiie?a;

? oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii aieea iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aa?oi? e?eueoea,
ai?eciioaeueieo neeaaeiaeo ciai?oiueiai ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, e?eueoeaaeo coneeue ia iano/o caeaoi?noue oaeeo eoiie?a;

? aeine?aeaeaii aieea ci?ie aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ia iano/o
caeaoi?noue ? aeo?aoo noae? ia aeaioiaeaiiy eoiiea;

? cai?iiiiiaaii oe?eueiao ooieoe?th, aecia/aii i?iaeoi? ia?aiao?e ?
iaiaaeaiiy, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iioeiaeueiiai c oi/ee ci?o
aeo?aoe noae? eiino?othaaiiy neeaaeie ? eoiiea;

? ?ic?iaeaii, caeiino?oeiaaii ? aeaioiaeaii cae?ciaaoiii? iiaeae?
neeaaeie eoiiea;

? i?iaaaeaii aei?iaoaaiiy iiaeaeae neeaaeie ca aaei/iith oa a?i/iith
noaiaie oa aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo;

? aeaioiaeaii cae?ciaaoiiio iiaeaeue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ae?aiao?ii 4.5
i;

? ?ic?iaeaii, caeiino?oeiaaii ? aeaioiaeaii i?ea?iaeueio onoaiiaeo aeey
caaaioaaeaiiy iiaeae? eoiiea ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiei ii ieiu?
iaaaioaaeaiiyi ca aeiiiiiaith noeniooiai iia?o?y;

? i?iaaaeaii aei?iaoaaiiy c aeiaaaeaiiyi aei ?oeioaaiiy iiaeae? eoiiea,
aecia/aii ?? iano/o caeaoi?noue, noaio ?oeioaaiiy oa
iai?oaeaiiaeaoi?iiaaiee noai aeaiaio?a iiaeae? ia an?o aoaiao
caaaioaaeaiiy;

? ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? c eiino?othaaiiy, iioei?caoe?? oa ?ic?aooieo
cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a ia iniia? oai??? a?aie/ii?
??aiiaaae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeony ?
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia ?-?e Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie no/aniiai cae?ciaaoiio” (Ee?a, 1996), ??-io
i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Iaoai?ea ? o?ceea ?oeioaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e” (Euea?a, 1996), tha?eaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“25 ?ie?a noaeacae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e c ciai?oi?i a?ioaaiiyi”
(Euea?a, 1996), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 125-??//th
?iaeaia?ii-aoae?aaeueiiai oaeoeueoaoo AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”
(Euea?a, 1997), a oaeiae ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e ? iino?a AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 10 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao?? ? aeaio aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa
aeeeaaeaia ia 187 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 153 noi??iee iniiaiiai oaenoo, 23
oaaeeoe?, 85 ?enoie?a, 103 iaeiaioaaiiy e?oa?aoo?e ia 7 noi??ieao ? aeaa
aeiaeaoee ia 18 noi??ieao.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, iaaiaeeoueny
caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe ? ?? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aaoi?
aeiineoue ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii noai ieoaiiy, ocaaaeueiaii ?
i?iaiae?ciaaii eiino?oeoeai? ??oaiiy ? iaoiaee caaaeaiiy eoiieueieo
eiino?oeoe?e. Aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi ca??ii-iiiie?oi? neeaae/ano? eoiiee
ae?aiao?ii 42.4 i, cai?iaeoiaai? ia iniia? ?ic?iaie, aeeiiaieo o
Euea?anuee?e iie?oaoi?oe?, ? ai?iaaaeaeai? aeey iie?eoue e?eoeo ?eie?a a
i. ?aaii-O?aie?anueeo, Oiaeueieoeueeiio oa Oaiao?aoe?** ?iaioe c
?ic?aooieo ? eiino?othaaiiy eoiie?a aeeiioaaee ni?a?ia?oieee eaoaae?e
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e AeO «EUea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» e.o.i., aeioe.
O?aioeia. A.I., e.o.i., aeioe. E?nioeueeee ?.A., ca /anoth aieiaiiai
niaoe?ae?noa ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? o?e?? «Ae?i?ii?noi» Aeaaeaethea C.O.,
iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — ae.o.i., i?io. Eeeiaiei O.?.. ?icaeyiooi oaeiae
iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo oa aenia?oiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia iiaeaeyo
eoiieueieo eiino?oeoe?e. A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co anoaiiaeaii, ui
neeaae/ano? ca??ii-iiiie?oi? eoiiee ca aeo?aoith iaoa??ae?a, niiniaaie
aeaioiaeaiiy ? iiioaaeo ?o iniiaieo eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a — neeaaeie
? aeiiii?/ieie oa ?iaeono??aeueieie eiino?oeoe?yie, aeicaieythoue
noai?eoe ae?aci? a?o?oaeoo?i? oi?ie. ?acii c oei ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee
?ic?aooieo ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c eiino?othaaiiy ia aeicaieythoue a
aeinoaoi?e i??? a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? ?iaioe eiino?oeoe?e oaeiai oeio
? aeinoia??ii ioe?ieoe ?o iano/o caeaoi?noue.

?ic?aooiie neeaae/anoeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a o e?i?eii-i?oaei?e
iinoaiiaoe? ia a?aoiao? caeaoi?noue noaoe/ii iaaecia/aii? eiino?oeoe??
aei ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue o noaae??, aeecuee?e aei ?oeioaaiiy, a,
cia/eoue caieaeo? ?? iano/o caeaoi?noue.

A?aooaaiiy ci?ie aei?noeino? oa aaiiao??? aeaiaio?a eoiiea c ?inoii
iaaaioaaeaiiy aaaea aei iaiao?aeiino? canoinoaaiiy ?oa?aoe?eieo iaoiae?a
?ic?aooieo ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oneeaaeiaiiyi ?ic?aooieiaeo oi?ioe oa
ca?eueoaiiyi ia’?io ia/eneaiue. I?e aenieiio nooiai? noaoe/ii?
iaaecia/aiino? nenoaie ?oa?aoe?ei? iaoiaee aoaeoeai? eeoa ca oiiae
canoinoaaiiy AII c a?aeiia?aeiei i?ia?aiiei caaacia/aiiyi. Ia aeaiee /an
?ic?iaeai? ??ciiiai?oi? iaeaoe i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai ia iniia? iaoiaea
ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a aeey ?ic?aooieo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e, a oiio
/ene? c a?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii? ? aaiiao?e/ii? iae?i?eiino?. Aea iaa?oue ca
iayaiino? aeineiiaeiai i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aaaeeeaa, a a aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao ? ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy iathoue: ia?ao?ae a?ae ?aaeueii?
eiino?oeoe?? aei o?ce/ii? iiaeae?; o?ce/ia aeene?aoecaoe?y oa ia?ao?ae
aei iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?; a?aeiia?aeiee aea?? caeaaeiinoae ia?ai?uaiiy —
aeaoi?iaoe?? — iai?oaeaiiy oa ?ioa?iieyoe?eieo ooieoe?e.

Oiio aeey ia?aa??ee i?aaeeueiino? aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino?
neeaaeieo i?inoi?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e aeei?enoiaothoue IA?. Caaaeuei?
iieiaeaiiy, i?eiouaiiy oa oai?aie IA? noi?ioeueiaaii a ?iaioao Aaicae?aa
A.A., Eiaainaia E., ?iaa?neaaa A., I?aaa?a A., O?eea ?., ?aeai?oeeia
A.?., Ae?aea?a Ae. oa ?ioeo. Ca aeiiiiiaith e?iaiaoe/ii? ? noaeo/ii?
oai?ai IA?, noi?ioeueiaaieo Aaicae?aei A.A., aecia/athoue a?aeiia?aeii
aa?oith ? ieaeith iaae? iano/i? caeaoiino? eiino?oeoe??.

I?eeeaaei? canoinoaaiiy IA? aeey ?ic?aooieo ieeo, ie?aieo eean?a
iaieiiie, neeaaeaieo i?inoi?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e aena?oeaii a ?iaioao
Aoaeaae?ai? I.A., Aeoaeinueeiai A.I., Oaeaeoeiaa A.E., Aeai??eaoa?e?
A.I., Ae?ooy?y A.N., ?aneaciaa A.I., I?ioeaiei A.I., Ooaa?aa A.A.,
*?iaieiaa TH.A. oa ?ioeo.

Canoinoaaiiy noaeo/ii? oai?aie aeey aecia/aiiy ?oeioth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy
a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ia?aaeaa/a? iaeii/anio aa??aoe?th oanoe ooieoe?e:
Nx=Nx(x,y), Ny=Ny(x,y), Nxy=Nxy(x,y), Mx=Mx(x,y), My=My(x,y),
Mxy=Mxy(x,y). Oea o?oaeii?noea caaea/a, ?ica’ycaiiy yei? aoaeoeaia ?c
canoinoaaiiyi AII. Canoinoaaiiy e?iaiaoe/ii? oai?aie i?eaiaeeoue aei
iaiao?aeiino? iaeii/anii? aa??aoe?? eeoa o?ueio ooieoe?e
ia?ai?uaiue:U=U(x,y), V=V(x,y), W=W(x,y) oiaoi ?ica’ycie caaea/?
a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae iiaeia iaea?aeaoe aeaui i?ino?oa.

O eeane/i?e oi?i? e?iaiaoe/iee niin?a aaco?oueny ia i?eiouaii? i?i
nooe?eueio ieanoeo?eaoe?th iaoa??aeo iaieiiee. Aea aeey aaaaoueio
eiino?oeoe?e, na?aae yeeo a?eueo?noue cae?ciaaoiiieo i?inoi?iaeo
oiieino?iieo eiino?oeoe?e, nooo?aiai ni?iuaiiy ? a?eueoi? iaaeyaeiino?
iiaeia aeinyaoe, i?eionoeaoe, ui ieanoe/i? aeaoi?iaoe??
eiioeaio?othoueny a aeineoue aocueeeo iaeanoyo eiino?oeoe?e — oi/eao aai
e?i?yo, ye? iaceaathoueny oa?i??aie (e?i?yie) ieanoe/iino?, a ?aooa
iaeanoae caeeoathoueny aei?noeeie ? iaaeaoi?iiaaieie. I?eiouaiiy i?i
aei?noei-ieanoe/iee oa?aeoa? ?iaioe iaoa??aeo i?eaiaeeoue aei oai???
cina?aaeaeaieo ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, aai e?iaiaoe/iiai niiniao
a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae o iinoaiiaoe? e?i?e oaeo/ino?. Oey oai??y
?ic?iaeyeany a ?iaioao Eiaainaia E., Aeaeiina E., Aoaea ?., ?aeai?oeeia
A.?., Naa/oea A. oa ?i. aaoi??a. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo cai?noue
aa??aoe?eii? caaea/? i?i i?i?ioi ooieoe?iiaea (eeane/ia iinoaiiaea)
iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe caaea/o i?i i?i?ioi ooieoe?? c e?eueeiia ci?iieie —
ia?aiao?aie oi?ie ?oeioaaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oaeoe/ii? iano/i? caeaoiino?, noai ?oeioaaiiy oa
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio i?inoi?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e oe?iei
canoiniaothoueny aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. A?eueo?noue
a?aeiieo aei?iaoaaiue iiaeaeae eoiieueieo eiino?oeoe?e na?aaeiueiai
ianooaao (1/25…1/5 iaoo?aeueii? aaee/eie) aoei i?iaaaeaii
cina?aaeaeaieie neeaie, ye? noai?thaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith neeaaeii?
nenoaie aaaeae?a ? oya (aenia?eiaioe Eueaiaa A.I., AEoeianueeiai A.C.,
Aaneeueeiaa A.N., Noai?e?ia E.Ae., Ooaa?aa A.A., I’yoee?anoianueeiai
I.I., Aaca?iaa A.A., Oaeaeoeiaa A.E., ?noaeiaa ss.O.), aai ca
aeiiiiiaith aei?noeeo ooaii?a, /a?ac ye? iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae
a?ae?aae?/ieo aeiie?ao?a ia?aaeaaaeeny ia eiino?oeoe?th (aeine?aee
Ia?/e?ia A.I., Oacae?y A.?.). Oae? niiniae caaaioaaeaiiy cia/iith i??ith
aecia/athoue oi?io ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe?? ? oo?oaeiththoue aiae?c
iano/i? caeaoiino?. E??i oiai, noai?aia oaeei /eiii iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
a?aeiia?aea? iaaaioaaeaiith ia iaoo?i? eoiiee, yea aeecueea aei
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu?.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo c a?aooaaiiyi
eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae neeaae/anoeo cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a
iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie ? noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith iano/i?
caeaoiino? oa noai ?oeioaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a ?c neeaaeie c
nooeie noeeaie ia iniia? e?iaiaoe/iiai niiniao iaoiaea a?aie/ii?
??aiiaaae a iinoaiiaoe? e?i?e oaeo/ino?. O oeueiio ?icae?e?
?ic?iaey?oueny iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue eoiiea c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
aeaii? eiino?oeoe??, ?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeeea? c oi/ee ci?o IA? noaie
?oeioaaiiy, aeaiaeeoueny oi?ioea aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? oa
iieiaeaiiy iaaacia/iiai ia?a??co o neeaaeeao eoiiea, iaaiaeeoueny
ioe?iea aieeao i?iaeoieo ia?aiao??a ia iano/o caeaoi?noue,
?ic?iaey?oueny iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai c oi/ee ci?o aeo?aoe
iaoa??ae?a iaai?o i?iaeoieo ia?aiao??a.

Aeey cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a i?ae ae??th ??aiii??ii
?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiy aaoi?ii oai?aoe/ii aecia/ai? ?
iaa?oioiaai? oae? e?iaiaoe/ii iiaeeea? noaie ?oeioaaiiy:

? i?e aei?noeiio c’?aeiaii? neeaaeie c aa?oi?i iii?iei e?eueoeai:

noaia 1 — ia?eae?iiaeueii-e?eueoeaaa c ooai?aiiyi aeaio e?eueoeaaeo
e?i?e ieanoe/iino? o neeaaeeao (?en. 1a);

noaia 2 — ia?eae?iiaeueii-e?eueoeaaa c ooai?aiiyi iaei??? e?eueoeaai?
e?i?? ieanoe/iino? o neeaaeeao ? ?oeioaaiiyi ieaeiueiai iii?iiai
e?eueoey (?en. 1a);

? i?e oa?i??iiio c’?aeiaii? neeaaeie c aa?oi?i iii?iei e?eueoeai:

noaia 1a — ia?eae?iiaeueii-e?eueoeaaa c ooai?aiiyi iaei??? e?eueoeaai?
e?i?? ieanoe/iino? o neeaaeeao;
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noaia 2a — ia?eae?iiaeueia c ?oeioaaiiyi ieaeiueiai iii?iiai e?eueoey.

?en.1. E?iaiaoe/ii iiaeeea? noaie ?oeioaaiiy neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a i?e
aei?noeiio c’?aeiaii? neeaaeie c aa?oi?i e?eueoeai: a — c ooai?aiiyi
aeaio e?eueoeaaeo e?i?e ieanoe/iino?; a — c ooai?aiiyi iaei???
e?eueoeaai? e?i?? ieanoe/iino? ? ?oeioaaiiyi ieaeiueiai e?eueoey.

Aeey noaie 1 iieiaeaiiy iaei??? c e?eueoeaaeo e?i?e ieanoe/iino? ii
a?ai? cauaieaiiy iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe ia iniia? noaoe/iiai ?ic?aooieo
a?ee c aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo neeaaeie, aei?noei c’?aeiaieo a iaieiaeo ?
ia’?aeiaieo ii ieco caoyaeeith. Iieiaeaiiy i?ieueioii? e?i??
ieanoe/iino? iaa?aeiia. O noai? 2 iieiaeaiiy i?ieueioii? e?i??
ieanoe/iino? oaeiae aoaea iaa?aeiiei. Aeey ?oeioaaiiy eoiiea ye
i?inoi?iai? eiino?oeoe?? iaiao?aeia ooai?aiiy ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?e
ieanoe/iino?. ?icoaooaaiiy ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?e ieanoe/iino? oaea, ui
niieo/a? ?aaeuei? oa?i??e (iii?i?) c ieanoe/ieie oa?i??aie. Oaeei /eiii,
?icoaooaaiiy ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?e ieanoe/iino? iaeiicia/ii
aecia/a?oueny iieiaeaiiyi i?ieueioii? e?i?? ieanoe/iino?.

Ia iniia? i?eioeeio iiaeeeaeo ia?ai?uaiue Eaia?aiaea oiiae ??aiiaaae
caienothoueny o aeaeyae? ??aiino? ?ia?o ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o nee ia
iiaeeeaeo ia?ai?uaiiyo. Neeaaoe oiiae ??aiino? ?ia?o, aecia/athoue
aaee/eio ?oeioth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy ye:

(1)

aea xi — ?-oee ia?aiao? noaie ?oeioaaiiy. Cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a xi
aecia/athoueny c oiiae i?i?ioio aaee/eie ?oeioth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy
dq/dxi=0. Oaeei /eiii iaea?aeothoue nenoaio c n+1 ??aiyiue c n+1
iaa?aeiieie (q ? n oooe xi), c yei? aecia/athoue e?euee?nio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo noaie ?oeioaaiiy (oiaoi oi/ia ?icoaooaaiiy on?o oa?i???a
? e?i?e ieanoe/iino?) oa cia/aiiy ?oeioth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aeey
aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai neeaae/anoiai eoiiea
nenoaia aoaea i?noeoe eeoa aeaa ??aiyiiy, ine?eueee ca iaiia iiaeeeaeie
noaiaie ?oeioaaiiy iaa?aeiiei ? iieiaeaiiy i?ieueioiiai oa?i??a
ieanoe/iino? oa aaee/eia iano/i? caeaoiino?.

Iano/a caeaoi?noue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ca 1-ith noaiith ?oeioaaiiy c
a?aooaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo coneeue ? iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?eeeaaeaiiai aei
aa?oiueiai e?eueoey, aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

(2)

aea q1 — aaee/eia ciai?oiueiai e?i?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia neeaaeeo; RsAs
— coneeey oaeo/ino? a ?icoyaio?e a?iaoo??; l — aeiaaeeia ai?eciioaeueii?
i?iaeoe?? iicaeiaaeiuei? in? neeaaeee a?ae iii?iiai oa?i??a aei oa?i??a
ieanoe/iino? ii a?ai? iaaoiioaaiiy; x — a?aeiinia ai?eciioaeueia
eii?aeeiaoa i?ieueioiiai oa?i??a ieanoe/iino?. Eiao?oe??ioe a
/enaeueieeo ae?aco (2) aecia/athoue ?iaioo aioo??oi?o nee o e?eueoeaaeo
? ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?yo ieanoe/iino? ? caeaaeaoue a?ae aaiiao?e/ieo
?ici???a ia?a??c?a neeaaeie, oa?aeoa?o ?o ci?ie, a oaeiae a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?ioaaiiy a ia?a??cao neeaaeie. Eiao?oe?aioe a
ciaiaiieeo aecia/athoue ?iaioo ciai?oiueiai ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai
ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aa?oi? e?eueoea eoiiea ?
caeaaeaoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ae?aiao??a ieaeiueiai ? aa?oiueiai
e?eaoeue eoiiea, aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a neeaaeie ? eoiiea, a oaeiae a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?eueoea aei iaaaioaaeaiiy,
?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu?.

Ia iniia? /enaeueiiai aiae?co ae?aco (2) aecia/aii, ui iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aa?oi? e?eueoea ca oiiae ?aae?caoe?? 1-i? noaie ?oeioaaiiy ca?eueoo?
iano/o caeaoi?noue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea. E?eueoeaa? coneeey o
neeaae/anoeo eoiieao c ?ici??aie, iiae?aieie aei iaoo?ieo,
caaacia/othoue aei 10% ?o iano/i? caeaoiino? iaa?oue i?e eiino?oeoeaiiio
a?ioaaii? a e?eueoeaaiio iai?yieo. No?oeoo?a ae?aco (2) a?aeia?aaea?
o?ce/iee ci?no oiiae ??aiino? ?ia?o ? aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe
iaaa?oeeaeuei? neeaaeia? iaaaioaaeaiiy aaaaeaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo
aeiaeaie?a o eiai ciaiaiiee.

Iano/a caeaoi?noue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ca 2-ith noaiith ?oeioaaiiy c
a?aooaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo coneeue ? iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?eeeaaeaiiai aei
aa?oiueiai e?eueoey aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

(3)

aea q2 — aaee/eia ciai?oiueiai e?i?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia neeaaeeo;
RsAs, l, x — oa ae, ui ? o ae?ac? (2). Eiao?oe??ioe a /enaeueieeo
ae?aco (3) aecia/athoue ?iaioo aioo??oi?o nee o e?eueoeaaeo ?
ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?yo ieanoe/iino? ? ieaeiueiio iii?iiio e?eueoe?.
Aiie caeaaeaoue a?ae aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a ia?a??c?a neeaaeie, oa?aeoa?o
?o ci?ie, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy coneeue oaeo/ino? o ieaeiueiio iii?iiio
e?eueoe? ? ?icoyaioo?e a?iaoo?? a i?ieueio? neeaaeie, a oaeiae a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieiu iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co ia?eae?iiaeueii? ? e?eueoeaai?
a?iaoo?e. Eiao?oe?aioe a ciaiaiieeo aecia/athoue ?iaioo ciai?oiueiai
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aa?oi? e?eueoea eoiiea ? caeaaeaoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ae?aiao??a
ieaeiueiai ? aa?oiueiai e?eaoeue eoiiea, aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a neeaaeie
? eoiiea, a oaeiae a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?eueoea aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu?.

Ia iniia? /enaeueiiai aiae?co ae?aco (3) aecia/aii, ui iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aa?oi? e?eueoea ca oiiae ?aae?caoe?? 2-i? noaie ?oeioaaiiy ciaioo?
iano/o caeaoi?noue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea. E?eueoeaa? coneeey o
neeaae/anoeo eoiieao c ?ici??aie, iiae?aieie aei iaoo?ieo, oaeoe/ii ia
aieeaathoue ia ?o iano/o caeaoi?noue.

Aeey ioe?iee aieeao aaiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia iano/o caeaoi?noue
?icaeyiooi ni?iuaio iiaeaeue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea, a yeiio neeaaeee
ooai?ai? oieueee aeaiia a?aiyie ? aeey aoaeueyeiai ?o ia?a?ico
niiaaiaeiioaiiy oe?eie i aenioe iaeiaeiaa. Ia iniia? /enaeueiiai aiae?co
ni?iuaii? iiaeae? aecia/aii, ui aeey an?o iacaeaaeieo aaiiao?e/ieo
ia?aiao??a ?niothoue oae? ?o cia/aiiy, ca yeeo iano/a caeaoi?noue aoaea
iaeiaeiaith aeey iaio oi?i ?oeioaaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iaai?o aaiiao?e/ieo oa o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a eoiiea, yeee
caaacia/o? i?iaeoio iano/o caeaoi?noue eiino?oeoe?? ca oiiae
i?i?iaeueii? aeo?aoe noae? ia a?ioaaiiy neeaaeie ? aeaioiaeaiiy
ieaeiueiai iii?iiai e?eueoey, a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? noi?ioeueiaaii
iioei?caoe?eio caaea/o. Aeey ?? ae??oaiiy aecia/aii i?iaeoi? ia?aiao?e,
yeeie ?: n eieueeinoue neeaaeie eoiiea; s niiaaiaeiioaiiy ?aaeionia
ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai iii?ieo eieaoeue; a eoo iaoeeo neeaaeee aei
ai?eciioo; hon aenioa neeaaeie ia iii?i; nk=RyAk/RsAs ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
coneeue oaeo/ino? o ieaeiueiio iii?iiio e?eueoe? oa ?icoyaioo?e
i?ieueioi?e a?iaoo??, a oaeiae iaiaaeaiiy o aeaeyae? oiiae caaacia/aiiy
i?i?iaeueii? i?iaeoii? iano/i? caeaoiino?. Oe?eueiao ooieoe?th caaeaii o
aeaeyae?:

(4)

aea As — a?eueoa ?c cia/aiue ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co iicaeiaaeiuei?
a?iaoo?e a i?ieueio? neeaaeie, iaiao?aeia aeey caaacia/aiiy i?iaeoii?
iano/i? caeaoiino?; R — ?aae?on ieaeiueiai iii?iiai e?eueoey eoiiea; b —
eoo noiaeaeaiiy a?aiae neeaaeee; f — ai?eciioaeueia i?iaeoe?y
oeaio?aeueiiai eooa i?ae inyie non?aei?o neeaaeie.

Ia iniia? /enaeueiiai aiae?co ni?iuaii? iiaeae? aecia/aii, ui aeey
eiaeiiai c i?iaeoieo ia?aiao??a (e??i s) ?niothoue oae? eiai cia/aiiy,
ye? caaacia/othoue i?i?ioi oe?eueiai? ooieoe??. I?e oeeo cia/aiiyo
iano/a caeaoi?noue ca iaiia oi?iaie ?oeioaaiiy iaeiaeiaa. Cai?iiiiiaaia
iaoiaeeea canoiniaaia aeey iioei?caoe?? iaoo?iiai eoiiea, a ?acoeueoao?
/iai aeyaeaii, ui ca oiiae caaacia/aiiy eiai iano/i? caeaoiino? aeo?aoo
noae? iiaeia ciaioeoe a?eueo i?ae ia 30%.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo a oai?aoe/i?e /anoei?, a
oaeiae aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
cae?ciaaoiiiiai neeaae/anoiai eoiiea aeeiiaii eiai aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? iienaii a o?aoueiio ?icae?e?. A oiae? aenia?eiaio?a
iine?aeiaii aeine?aeaeai? ie?ai? neeaaeee, o?aaiaioe iiaeae? eoiiea ?
eiai iiaeaeue ae?aiao?ii 4.5 i.

Neeaaeee iiaeae? aaoiioaaee a ?icai?iooiio iieiaeaii? o aeaeyae?
?aa?enoi? ieeoe, ?ic??caii? eeeiaie iiaeoai/ii? oi?ie ia aea? /anoeie,
c’?aeiai? aio/eith a?iaoo?ith. I?ney oaa?ae?iiy aaoiio a?ai? neeaaeee
iiaa?oaee iaaeiei iiacaeiaaeiuei? in? aei caieeaiiy ?ic??co ? ooai?aiiy
ia eiai i?noe? nooiai noeea i?ae a?aiyie. Aeey aeaioiaeaiiy neeaaeie
iiaeae? ?ic?iaeaii ? aeaioiaeaii aea? iaeiaeia? iiaeoai/i? oi?ie (?en.
2). Aeaioiaeai? neeaaeee aoee iiaeaeeth iaoo?ieo o ianooaa? 1:10, aea
oiaueia a?ai? ciaioaia c oaoiieia?/ieo i??eoaaiue eeoa a o?e ?ace i?ioe
iaoo?ii? (30 ii) ? noaiiaeea 10 ii. Neeaaeee iiaeae? aeaioiaeyeeny c
ae??aiica?ienoiai aaoiio (ca?ia e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a ?ici??ii 5 ii) ia
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio? ia?ee 400. Aeey aecia/aiiy i?oeiino? aaoiio neeaaeie
ia?aeaeueii c ?o oi?ioaaiiyi aeaioiaeyeeny ii o?e eoaeee ?ici??ii
10o10o10 ni ia eiaeiee cai?n aaoiiii? noi?o?, ye? aoee aei?iaoaai? ia
noene aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae aei?iaoaaiiyie iiaeae? eoiiea. Ia iniia?
aei?iaoaaiue eoaee?a aecia/aii, ui na?aaeiy i?oei?noue ia noene aaoiio
neeaaeie, c yeeo aoei ciiioiaaii iiaeaeue eoiiea, noaiiaeea Rbm=20.73
IIa, eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? i?oeiino? aaoiio v=/Rbm=0.127, i?oei?noue
aaoiio c caaacia/ai?noth 95% noaiiaeoue 18.2 IIa, ui i?eaeecii
a?aeiia?aea? eeano aaoiio ii i?oeiino? ia noene A25.

Iicaeiaaei? a?ioaaiiy neeaaeie neiao?e/ia — ii aeaa noa?aei? ae?ai.3 ii
o ieaei?o iicaeiaaei?o ?aa?ao oa aa?oi?e iiee/oe?. A?ioaaiiy ieeoe
a?aiae eiino?oeoeaia n?oeith ?aa?ooea 8o1.4. Aeey a?ioaaiiy nooiai noeea
aeei?enoaii noaeaaee a?aeiaeaiee ae??o ae?ai.1 ii c e?ieii a?ae 20 ii o
oe?oeiio oi?oe? aei 60 ii o aoae/iio.

Aei?iaoaaiiy ie?aieo neeaaeie aeey aecia/aiiy i?oeiino? ii ii?iaeueieo
ia?a??cao aoei i?iaaaeaii ca aaei/iith noaiith.

Aei?iaoaaiiy o?aaiaio?a iiaeae? o aeaeyae? a?ee** Aei?iaoaaiiy
i?iaaaeaii noi?nii c aeeeaaea/ai eaoaae?e aaoiiia?eueieo oeyo?a AeO
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» Aea?aioeai TH.I. c aeaio neeaaeie, aei?noei
c’?aeiaieo a iaieiaeo ? ia’?aeiaieo ii ieco caoyaeeith, aeeiioaaeiny ia
niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeai?e onoaiiaoe? (?en. 3). Iaaaioaaeaiiy
cina?aaeaeaieie neeaie, aea?aaeaioia ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiio ii ieiu?,
noai?thaaeiny nenoaiith aaaeae?a ? oya.

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08000000000000022200040000002d01020007000000fc020000ffffff02000004000000
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050000000902ff003302040000002d010000040000002d01010004000000f00102000400
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2d010000040000002d010100030000001e000700000016043400b4074efece0509000000
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13022c00ce05040000002d010000040000002d01010004000000f0010200040000002701
ffff0f00000026060f001400544e505004000c0000000000000000000000000009000000
26060f000800ffffffff01000000040000002d010000040000002d010100030000000000

Iaeneiaeuei? i?iaeie neeaaeie i?ae ae??th ii?iaoeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy 600
ea/i2 noaiiaeee 0.67…1.63 ii, fmax/l=1/949<1/200, ca oiiaith aei?noeino? o?aaiaioe iiaeae? eoiiea a?aeiia?aeaee ii?iaoeaiei aeiiaai. Aei iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea noaiiaeei 24...36 % a?ae ?oeioth/iai, caeaaei?noue i?iaei?a a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy aeecueea aei e?i?eii?. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aiee oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo iicaeiaaei?o aeaoi?iaoe?e aaoiio ii aeiaaeei? neeaaeie na?ae/eoue i?i /?oeo ?aae?caoe?th cauaieaiiy neeaaeie a iaieiaeao. Aeaoi?iiaaiee noai neeaaeie o?aaiaio?a aecia/a?oueny, a iniiaiiio, caeiath/eie iiiaioaie, aieea ii?iaeueii? neee iacia/iee. ?oeioaaiiy o?ueio c /ioe?ueio a?i/ieo o?aaiaio?a i?ieoei ca oai?aoe/ii ia?aaeaa/aiith noaiith 1 c ooai?aiiyi ieanoe/ieo oa?i???a ii a?ai? cauaieaiiy ? o i?ieueio? neeaaeie. ?oeioaaiiy a?aeaoeiny c ?ic?eaii a?iaoo?e o i?ieueioiiio oa?i??? ieanoe/iino?; a?iaoo?a a cauaieaii? ia ?ic??aaeany. ?oeioaaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny /a?ac 5…10 oaeeei i?ney i?eeeaaeaiiy inoaiiueiai nooiaiy iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui aea? ciiao aiai?eoe i?i iae?eoeee oa?aeoa? ?oeioaaiiy. Oai?aoe/ia iieiaeaiiy i?ieueioiiai oa?i??a ieanoe/iino? ? iano/a caeaoi?noue o?aaiaioa aecia/ai? c ?ic?aooieo ca IA? ia ae?th iaaaioaaeaiiy, ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu?. Oe? cia/aiiy caaeia?eueii ni?aiaaeathoue c ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioo. Aeey aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? oa noaie ?oeioaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiiiai neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ? aeyaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o i?inoi?iai? ?iaioe eiino?oeoe??, aei?iaoaaii c aeiaaaeaiiyi aei ?oeioaaiiy iiaeaeue eoiiea a i.Oaiao?aoe? a ianooaa? 1:10 ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiei ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Iiaeaeue neeaaeaeany ?c ca??ieo i??ai?aeaeueieo cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaaeie (44 oo.), ye? aoei aeaioiaeaii a eaai?aoi??? eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai iii?ieo e?eaoeue a?aeiia?aeii ae?aiao?aie 4540 ii ? 1000 ii. No??ea i?aeeiio iiaeae? eoiiea 700 ii. Caaaeueiee aeaeyae iiaeae? eoiiea cia?aaeaii ia ?en. 4. Aei?iaoaaiiy iiaeae? neeaae/anoiai eoiiea aoei aeeiiaii ca aeiiiiiaith ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiy, noai?aiiai oeneii iia?o?y o caieiooiio ia’?i?. Aeey ooai?aiiy oeueiai ia’?io ia aeaye?e aenio? iaae iiaa?oiath iiaeae? aoea cae??ieaia iaoaeaaa ?aa?enoi-e?eueoeaaa eii?/ia iaieiiea. Iaieiiea aoea ?ic?aoiaaia ia ni?eeiyooy oeneo aei 4000 ea/i2. I?ae iaoaeaaith iaieiieith oa cae?ciaaoiiiith iiaeaeeth aoei ai?uaii niaoe?aeueii aeaioiaeaiee aa?iaoe/iee i?oie c iie?aoeeaiiai? ie?aee. Iia?o?y iaai?oaeiny a i?oie ca aeiiiiiaith eiii?ani?a. Aaee/eia iaaaioaaeaiiy (oene) aei??thaaeany aiaeyiei U-iiae?aiei iaiiiao?ii c e?i?eeith c i?e?iao?iaeie iiae?eeaie (1 ii ia e?i?eoe? a?aeiia?aeaa 2 ea/i2) oa eiio?iethaaeany i?oaeeiiei iaiiiao?ii c oe?iith iiae?eee 50 ea/i2. I?iaeie neeaaeie a na?aaeei? oa /aa?oyo ?o i?ieueioo, a oaeiae aa?oeeaeuei? ia?ai?uaiiy aa?oiueiai e?eueoey aei??thaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith 16 i?iaeiii???a 6IAI c oe?iith iiae?eee 0.01 ii. I?eeaaee aoei anoaiiaeaii ia aeaio ia?ao i?ioeeaaeieo neeaaeie, ?icoaoiaaieo i?ae eooii 900. Iicaeiaaei? aeaoi?iaoe?? ieaeiueiai e?eueoey aei??thaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith 4 i?e?i?iaeeeaoi??a ia aac? 200 ii c oe?iith iiae?eee 0.01 ii. Iicaeiaaei? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoaeaaiai eooieea aa?oiueiai e?eueoey, a oaeiae iicaeiaaei? picscalex6440100090000034101000004001100000000001100000026060f001800ffff ffff00001000b004000030fdffffcc0800004c0100000900000026060f000800ffffffff 020000001000000026060f001600ffffffff04000e00544e50500700a8623d5039058600 0a00000026060f000a00544e505000000200f0030900000026060f000800ffffffff0300 00000f00000026060f001400544e505004000c0001000000010000000000000005000000 0b0230fdb004050000000c021c041c0409000000fa02050000000000ffffff0022000400 00002d01000007000000fc020100000000000000040000002d01010009000000fa020600 08000000000000022200040000002d01020007000000fc020000ffffff02000004000000 2d010300050000000902ffffff020400000004010d00070000001b044c01cc0830fdb004 050000000902ff003302040000002d010000040000002d01010004000000f00102000400 0000f0010300030000001e000700000016043400b4074efece0509000000fa0206004000 0000ff0033022200040000002d0102000500000014024efece050500000013022c00ac07 040000002d010000040000002d01010004000000f0010200040000002701ffff04000000 2d010000040000002d010100030000001e000700000016043400b4074efece0509000000 fa02060040000000ff0033022200040000002d0102000500000014024efeac0705000000 13022c00ce05040000002d010000040000002d01010004000000f0010200040000002701 ffff0f00000026060f001400544e505004000c0000000000000000000000000009000000 26060f000800ffffffff01000000040000002d010000040000002d010100030000000000 ?en. 4 Cae?ciaaoiiia iiaeaeue neeaae/anoiai eoiiea. ? iiia?a/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiio neeaaeie aei??thaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith oaici?acenoi??a (174 aeoeaieo oaici?acenoi?e ia aac? 20 ii). Oaici?acenoi?e ianeoaiaoaaeenue aaoiiaoe/ieie aei??thaa/aie aeaoi?iaoe?e AAAe-4I. Iaeneiaeuei? i?iaeie neeaaeie i?ae ae??th ?ic?aooieiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy 600 ea/i2 niinoa??aaeeny a na?aaeei? ?o i?ieueioo ? noaiiaeee 2.95...5.10 ii, a na?aaeiueiio 4.43 ii, f/l=1/350<1/200; oe?eia ?ice?eooy o??uei neeaaeaea 0.05...0.1 ii, oiaoi ca oiiaaie aei?noeino? ? o??ueiino?eeino? iiaeaeue eoiiea a?aeiia?aeaea ii?iaoeaiei aeiiaai. Aiae?c o??ueiiooai?aiiy aea? ciiao aeae?eeoe oa?aeoa?i? a?oie o??uei, na?aae yeeo: a) ii?iaeuei? o??ueie ii ieaei?e iiaa?oi? neeaaeie (?en.5), ?icoaoiaai? ia a?aeaeae? 800...1300 ii a?ae ?o oe?ieeo oi?oe?a; o??ueie iaeneiaeueii? aeiaaeeie oa oe?eie ?ice?eooy o an?o neeaaeeao neiioeaio?iaai? iiaeeco iaaacia/iiai ia?a??co ia a?aeaeae? 1210±50 ii a?ae ?o oe?ieeo oi?oe?a. C iaio noi??i a?ae iaeneiaeueii? o??ueie, c e?ieii a?ae 25 aei 100 ii, ?icoaoiaai? ii?iaeuei? o??ueie, aeiaaeeia ? oe?eia ?ice?eooy yeeo ciaioo?oueny c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeoa a noi?iio aa?oiueiai e?eueoey. ?ioaineai?oa o??ueiiooai?aiiy niinoa??aaeiny a oiio naeoi?? eoiiea, aea c?oeioaaeeny neeaaeee ? ae?aiao?aeueii eiio i?ioeeaaeiiio, iaio ?ioaineaia - o ia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo naeoi?ao; ?en. 5. Noaia ooai?aiiy ii?iaeueieo o??uei ii ieaei?e iiaa?oi? eoiiea. picscalex4650100090000034101000004001100000000001100000026060f001800ffff ffff00001000b004000030fdffffcc0800004c0100000900000026060f000800ffffffff 020000001000000026060f001600ffffffff04000e00544e50500700a8623d5039058600 0a00000026060f000a00544e505000000200f0030900000026060f000800ffffffff0300 00000f00000026060f001400544e505004000c0001000000010000000000000005000000 0b0230fdb004050000000c021c041c0409000000fa02050000000000ffffff0022000400 00002d01000007000000fc020100000000000000040000002d01010009000000fa020600 08000000000000022200040000002d01020007000000fc020000ffffff02000004000000 2d010300050000000902ffffff020400000004010d00070000001b044c01cc0830fdb004 050000000902ff003302040000002d010000040000002d01010004000000f00102000400 0000f0010300030000001e000700000016043400b4074efece0509000000fa0206004000 0000ff0033022200040000002d0102000500000014024efece050500000013022c00ac07 040000002d010000040000002d01010004000000f0010200040000002701ffff04000000 2d010000040000002d010100030000001e000700000016043400b4074efece0509000000 fa02060040000000ff0033022200040000002d0102000500000014024efeac0705000000 13022c00ce05040000002d010000040000002d01010004000000f0010200040000002701 ffff0f00000026060f001400544e505004000c0000000000000000000000000009000000 26060f000800ffffffff01000000040000002d010000040000002d010100030000000000 a) ia?eae?iiaeuei? o??ueie ii aa?oi?e iiaa?oi? a?aiae aieiaiei /eiii ooai?eeeny a oeo naieo naeoi?ao eoiiea, aea niinoa??aaany ?ioaineai?oee ?icaoeie ii?iaeueieo o??uei ii ieaei?e a?ai? neeaaeie. Iai?yiie ia?eae?iiaeueieo o??uei o a?aiyo ca?aaany c oai?aoe/iei ia ae?eyieao aeua e?eueoeaaiai i?ieueioiiai oa?i??a ieanoe/iino?. Ieae/a a?ae iueiai ia?eae?iiaeuei? o??ueie o a?aiyo ci?ithaaee na?e iai?yiie ? ia?aoiaeeee o ii?iaeuei?. I?noey ci?ie iai?yieo ia?eae?iiaeueieo o??uei, a iniiaiiio, ca?aathoueny c iiia?a/ieie ?aa?aie; a) o??ueie ii aa?oi?e iiaa?oi? iaaoiioaaiiy aa?oiueiai e?eueoey iaee ?aae?aeueiee iai?yiie ? neiioeaio?iaai? ii eiai eooao. Iai?yiie a?eueoino? o??uei a?aeoeeyany a?ae ?aae?aeueiiai a iaeei ? oie naiee a?e, ui iiaea aeacoaaoe ia cae?o/oaaiiy e?eueoey a nai?e ieiuei?. Naia aa?oi? e?eueoea i?ney ?oeioaaiiy eoiiea iaaoei n?aeeiaeaeii? oi?ie c iaeieae/eie oi/eaie iai?ioe naeoi?a, ui c?oeioaaany ? ae?aiao?aeueii eiio i?ioeeaaeiiio. Iniiaia a?aei?ii?noue ?iaioe iiaeae? eoiiea a?ae eiai o?aaiaio?a - oea iayai?noue e?eueoeaaeo coneeue. E??i oiai, ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aaiaio?a iiaeae? eoiiea, a yeeo eiino?oeoeaii caaacia/oaaeiny aei?noea cauaieaiiy neeaaeie o a?aaai?, aa?oi? e?eueoea iiaeae? ia caaacia/eei iiaiiai cauaieaiiy neeaaeie o iueiio. Oiio neeaaeee iaee iiaeeea?noue iiaa?oaoeny iaaeiei aeayei? oi/ee iiaeeco ?o aocueeiai oi?oey. Oey a?aei?ii?noue noaoe/ii? noaie, a oaeiae cia/ii iaioa, o ii??aiyii? c o?aaiaioaie iiaeae?, aei?noe?noue ieaeiueiai e?eueoey, coiiaeee a?eueoo aeaoi?iaoeai?noue iiaeae? eoiiea o ii??aiyii? c ?? a?i/ieie o?aaiaioaie. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeae? eoiiea aeyaeee cia/iee aieea ia eiai aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoeneo nooeo ? iiiiie?/aieo noee?a i?ae neeaaeeaie, a oaeiae noee?a i?ae oi?oeyie neeaaeie ? aa?oi?i ? ieaei?i iii?ieie e?eueoeyie. Oeae aieea iaea?eueo a?ae/ooiee ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao caaaioaaeaiiy. Aeey iaoo?ieo eiino?oeoe?e a?aeiiniee aieea iiaeaoeeaino? noee?a caaaeyee ianooaaiiio oaeoi?o iaioee. I?ioean aeaoi?ioaaiiy iiaeae? eoiiea i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiiyi iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia e?eueea aoai?a: - eoiie i?aoeth? ye /enoi ?aa?enoee ?c aei?noeei c’?aeiaiiyi neeaaeie c aa?oi?i e?eueoeai. Aeieeiaiith e?eueoeaaeo coneeue ia?aoeiaeaea? aeaoi?iaoeai?noue nooeo ? iiiiie?/aieo noee?a i?ae neeaaeeaie. Ia aaee/eio i?iaei?a nooo?ai aieeaa? iaoene noee?a i?ae oi?oeyie neeaaeie ? ieaei?i e?eueoeai; - i?e ca?eueoaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy aei 25...30% a?ae ?oeioth/iai a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia noaoe/ii? noaie ?iaioe eoiiea: aei?noe?noue cauaieaiiy aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy o??uei ? ii?ooaiiy ca’yce?a i?ae aeaiaioaie aa?oiueiai e?eueoey ciaioo?oueny, ia aeaye?e a?aeaeae? a?ae aocueeiai oi?oey neeaaeie ooai?th?oueny i?ii?aeia e?eueoea (a oeueiio i?noe? i?eeeaaeaia ??aiiae?eia noeneath/eo e?eueoeaaeo coneeue). Iieiaeaiiy i?ii?aeiiai e?eueoey ci?ith?oueny a i?ioean? aeaoi?ioaaiiy eoiiea. Ci?ia noaoe/ii? noaie i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy i?e?inoo i?iaei?a; - aei iaaaioaaeaiiy 50% a?ae ?oeioth/iai oaeaee?noue i?e?inoo i?iaei?a aeecueea aei oaei? ia ia?oeo aoaiao; iacia/ia ?? ca?eueoaiiy iia’ycaia c ooai?aiiyi ? ?icaeoeii o??uei; i?ioean iaoeneo iicaeiaaei?o noee?a i?iaeiaaeo?oueny; - i?e iaaaioaaeaii? 50...60% a?ae ?oeioth/iai iaoene iicaeiaaei?o noee?a a iniiaiiio caaa?oo?oueny ? noeneath/? e?eueoeaa? coneeey ii/eiathoue aieeaaoe ia ?iaioo eiino?oeoe??. Oea aeeeeea? aeoeaiee ia?a?iciiae?e coneeue a aeaiaioao eoiiea ? niia?eueiaiiy i?e?inoo i?iaei?a; - i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy oa?aeoa? i?e?inoo i?iaei?a caa??aa?oueny iino?eiei aeey ia?e i?ioeeaaeieo neeaaeie, ye? ia c?oeioaaeeny. I?e??no i?iaei?a a ?io?e ia?? neeaaeie ca?eueooaaany, iniaeeai ?ioaineaii i?ney ca?eueoaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy aei 77% a?ae ?oeioth/iai, ui iiynith?oueny ooai?aiiyi ia?eae?iiaeueieo e?i?e ieanoe/iino?, aiane?aeie /iai e?eueoeaa? coneeey aaea ia ca?eueooaaeeny c ?inoii iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?e iaaaioaaeaii? 1950 ea/i2 c?oeioaaeeny /ioe?e noi?aei? neeaaeee iiaeae?. ?oeioaaiiy a?aeaoeiny i?ney cia/ieo ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e eoiiea a oe?eiio aiane?aeie ?ic?eao a?iaoo?e a ia?a??cao ia a?aeaeae? 1210...1260 ii a?ae oe?ieiai oi?oey neeaaeie. Ine?eueee aa?oi? e?eueoea ia caaacia/eei aei?noeiai cauaieaiiy neeaaeie o iueiio, oi ?aae?coaaeany noaia ?oeioaaiiy 1a. Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino?, aecia/aia ca oe??th noaiith, noaiiaeoue 2010 ea/i2. ?icoiaeaeaiiy a iaaeao 5% iiynith?oueny oei, ui i?ieueioiee oa?i?? ieanoe/iino? ooai?eany aeua a?ae naiai oai?aoe/iiai iieiaeaiiy, aea aenioa neeaaeee iaioa. I?noey ooai?aiiy oa?i???a ni?aiaaeathoue c iiia?a/ieie ?aa?aie, ye? aeeeeeathoue eiioeaio?aoe?th iai?oaeaiue aiane?aeie ??cei? ci?ie iicaeiaaeiuei? ? iiia?a/ii? aei?noeinoae neeaaeee. Iano/a caeaoi?noue, ia/eneaia a i?eiouaii? ?aae?caoe?? ?ioeo iiaeeeaeo oi?i ?oeioaaiiy iiaeae? eoiiea, a?eueoa, oiaoi oe? noaie ia iiaeooue ?aae?coaaoeny ca aeaieo aaiiao?e/ieo ? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaeae?. Ca?aeii c ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a aeiaeaoeo A aei aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii i?iiiceoe?? c ?ic?aooieo oa iioeiaeueiiai eiino?othaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a. A ieo iienaii iiaeeea? oi?ie ?oeioaaiiy oaeeo eoiie?a ? iaaaaeaii oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? ? iieiaeaiiy iaaacia/iiai ia?a??co. Iaaaaeaii oaeiae i?iiiceoe?? c aeai?o aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a oa a?ioaaiiy neeaaeie ? eoiiea, ca yeeo i?e caaacia/aii? i?iaeoii? iano/i? caeaoiino? eiino?oeoe?? aeo?aoa noae? i?i?iaeueia. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE 1. Oai?aoe/ii iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? ? e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a noai ?oeioaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a ia iniia? iaoiaea a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae o iinoaiiaoe? e?i?e oaeo/ino?. 2. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeae? oaeiai eoiiea ae?aiao?ii 4.5 i i?ae ae??th ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe eiai oaeoe/io iano/o caeaoi?noue, aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? ? oi?io ?oeioaaiiy. 3. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii oa?aeoa? o??ueiiooai?aiiy, i?iaei?a neeaaeie ? aeaoi?iaoe?e aaoiio a iicaeiaaeiueiio ? e?eueoeaaiio iai?yieao; aeyaeaii oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo e?eueoeaaeo coneeue o eoiie?. 4. Aei?iaoaaiith iiaeae? neeaae/anoiai eoiiea ia?aaeoaaee aei?iaoaaiiy ?? a?i/ieo o?aaiaio?a. Iniiaia a?aei?ii?noue a?i/iiai o?aaiaioa a?ae iiaeae? eoiiea - aeieeiaiiy a inoaii?e e?eueoeaaeo coneeue, ye? i?aeaeuothoue iano/o caeaoi?noue eoiiea. Ia iniia? ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aei?iaoaaiue o?aaiaio?a ? iiaeae? anoaiiaeaii, ui nooi?iue cauaieaiiy neeaaeie o aa?oiueiio e?eueoe? nooo?ai aieeaa? ia iano/o caeaoi?noue eiino?oeoe??. 5. Canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aeey oai?aoe/iiai aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo oi?i ?oeioaaiiy neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a, aecia/aiiy ?o iano/i? caeaoiino? oa e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a noai ?oeioaaiiy caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, ye? caaeia?eueii ni?aiaaeathoue c ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeae? neeaae/anoiai eoiiea. 6. Canoinoaaiiy IA? aeey aiae?co aieeao i?iaeoieo ia?aiao??a ia iano/o caeaoi?noue neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a aeicaieeei ae??oeoe caaea/o iioeiaeueiiai aeai?o oeeo ia?aiao??a, ye? caaacia/othoue iaiao?aeio iano/o caeaoi?noue eoiiea i?e i?i?iaeuei?e aeo?ao? noae?. 7. I?aeaioiaaii i?iiiceoe?? c eiino?othaaiiy, iioei?caoe?? oa ?ic?aooieo cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a ia iniia? oai??? a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a oaeeo ?iaioao: 1. Eeeiaiei O.?., O?aioeia A.I., E?nioeueeee ?.A., Oea?eiiee I.TH. Ca??i? cae?ciaaoiii? i??ai?aeaeuei? neeaaeee iiaeae? eoiiea oa ?o aeaioiaeaiiy//?aca?ae i?ia?ano a a?o?oaeoo?? ? aoae?aieoeoa?. - Euea?a: Aeae-ai AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. - 1995. - ?287. - N. 64-68. 2. O?aioeia A.I., Oea?eiiee I.TH. Aecia/aiiy iieiaeaiiiy ?ic?aooieiaiai ia?a??co cae?ciaaoiiii? i??ai?aeaeueii? neeaaeee eoiiea, caaaioaaeaiiai ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiei ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiyi//?aca?ae i?ia?ano a a?o?oaeoo?? ? aoae?aieoeoa?. - Euea?a: Aeae-ai AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. - 1995. - ?287. - N. 126-130. 3. O?aioeia A.I., Oea?eiiee I.TH. A?aooaaiiy e?eueoeaaeo coneeue i?e ?ic?aooieo eoiie?a ?c cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaaeie c nooeie noeeaie//Oai??y ? i?aeoeea aoae?aieoeoaa. - Euea?a: Aeae-ai AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. - 1996. - ? 300 - N. 141-145. 4. Eeeiaiei O.?., O?aioeia A.I., Oea?eiiee I.TH., Aa?aiae?e E.Ae. Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?ciaaoiiii? iiaeae? neeaae/anoiai eoiiea//I?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee aoae?aieoeoaa. - Euea?a: Aeae-ai AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. - 1997. - O.1. - N. 100-106. 5. Eeeiaiei O.?., O?aioeia A.I., Oea?eiiee I.TH. Noaie ?oeioaaiiy neeaae/anoiai cae?ciaaoiiiiai eoiiea oa ioe?iea iiaeeeaino? ?o ?aae?caoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaea a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae//Oai??y ? i?aeoeea aoae?aieoeoaa. - Euea?a: Aeae-ai AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. - 1997. - ? 335 - N. 89-99. 6. Oea?eiiee I.TH., Eeeiaiei O.?., O?aioeia A.I. A?aooaaiiy e?eueoeaaeo coneeue i?e ?ic?aooieo iaoiaeii a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a//Oai??y ? i?aeoeea aoae?aieoeoaa. - Euea?a: Aeae-ai AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. - 1997. - ? 335 - N. 194-198. 7. Eeeiaiei O.?., O?aioeia A.I., Oea?eiiee I.TH. Aecia/aiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? cae?ciaaoiiii? iiaeae? neeaae/anoiai eoiiea//Iaoa??aee ?? i?aeia?. neiiic?oio “Iaoai?ea ? o?ceea ?oeioaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa eiino?oeoe?e”. - Euea?a: Neiai ? Eiia?oe?y. - 1996. - N.202-205. 8. O?aioeia A.I, Aea?aiaoeue TH.I., Oea?eiiee I.TH. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a//Iaoa??aee ?? i?aeia?. neiiic?oio “Iaoai?ea ? o?ceea ?oeioaaiiy aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.” - Euea?a: Neiai ? Eiia?oe?y. - 1996. - C. 432-433. 9. Eeeiaiei O.?., O?aioeia A.I., Oea?eiiee I.TH. Canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a oai??? a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae aeey ?ic?aooieo cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a//Ia?oa anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiio. “Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie no/aniiai cae?ciaaoiio”. Ca??iee oac. - Ee?a. - 1996. - N. 136-141. 10. Oea?eiiee I.TH. Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?ciaaoiiii? iiaeae? neeaae/anoiai eoiiea//THa?eaeia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiio. “25 ?ie?a noaeaaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e c ciai?oi?i a?ioaaiiyi”. Ca??iee iaoa??ae?a eiio. - Euea?a: Ae?iaie/i-iie?a?ao?/iee a?aeae?e Ea OIOA?. - 1996. -N.104-107. Oea?eiiee I.TH. Iano/a caeaoi?noue ? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.01 - aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa nii?oaee. - Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, Euea?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ? iano/i? caeaoiino? cae?ciaaoiiieo eoiie?a ?c neeaaeie c nooeie noeeaie c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaea a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae (IA?) o iinoaiiaoe? e?i?e oaeo/ino?. Aeaaaeai? ia eiai iniia? ??aiyiiy aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe iano/o caeaoi?noue ? e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e noai ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e oaeiai oeio i?ae ae??th inaneiao?e/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, a oaeiae cae?enieoe ?o iioei?caoe?th ca aeo?aoith iaoa??ae?a. Ca aeiiiiiaith aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia iiaeae? eoiiea ae?aiao?ii 4.5 i i?ae ae??th ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai ii ieiu? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ia ?? o?aaiaioao aecia/aii iano/o caeaoi?noue oa aeaye? c iiaeeeaeo oi?i ?oeioaaiiy neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a. Aeyaeaii oa?aeoa? o??ueiiooai?aiiy, i?iaei?a, iicaeiaaei?o ? iiia?a/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aaoiio neeaaeie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy IA? aeey aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo oi?i ?oeioaaiiy neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a, aecia/aiiy ?o iano/i? caeaoiino? oa e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a noai ?oeioaaiiy caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a, ye? caaeia?eueii ni?aiaaeathoue c aenia?eiaioaeueieie. Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? c ?ic?aooieo oa iioeiaeueiiai eiino?othaaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo neeaae/anoeo eoiie?a. Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?inoi?ia? eiino?oeoe??, eoiie, neeaaeea, e?eueoeaa? coneeey, iaoiae a?aie/ii? ??aiiaaae, e?iaiaoe/iee iaoai?ci, ieanoe/iee oa?i??, iano/a caeaoi?noue, noaia ?oeioaaiiy, iioei?caoe?y. Oea?eiiee I.TH. Ianouay niiniaiinoue e iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea aeaeaciaaoiiiuo neeaae/aouo eoiieia. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.01 - no?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee, caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey. Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, Eueaia, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia yenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/aneiio eco/aieth ianouae niiniaiinoe, oi?i ?ac?ooaiey e iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey aeaeaciaaoiiiuo neeaae/aouo eoiieia. A ia?aie aeaaa aeenna?oaoeee eceiaeaii ninoiyiea aii?ina, iaiauaiu e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu eiino?oeoeaiua ?aoaiey e iaoiaeu aicaaaeaiey eoiieueiuo eiino?oeoeee. Aeaoaeueii ?anniio?aiu nai?ii-iiiieeoiua neeaae/aoua eoiiea aeeaiao?ii 42.4 i, cai?iaeoe?iaaiiua ia iniiaaiee ?ac?aaioie, auiieiaiiuo a Ainoaea?noaaiiii oieaa?neoaoa “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, e aiaae?aiiua aeey iie?uoee e?uouo ?uieia a a.Eaaii-O?aieianea, Oiaeueieoeeii, Oaiaoiaea. ?anniio?aiu oaeaea iaoiaeu ?an/aoa e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee eoiieueiuo eiino?oeoeee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi nai?ii-iiiieeoiua neeaae/aoua eoiiea ii ?anoiaeo iaoa?eaeia, niiniaai ecaieiaeaiey e iiioaaea eo iniiaiuo yeaiaioia - neeaaeie yaeythony yeiiiie/iuie e eiaeono?eaeueiuie eiino?oeoeeyie, iicaieytho nicaeaaaoue au?aceoaeueiua a?oeoaeoo?iua oi?iu. Aianoa n oai eiaeaia?iua iaoiaeu ?an/aoa e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eiino?oe?iaaieth ia iicaieytho a aeinoaei/iie noaiaie o/anoue iniaaiiinoe ?aaiou eiino?oeoeee oaeiai oeia e aeinoiaa?ii ioeaieoue eo ianouoth niiniaiinoue. Iiyoiio aoi?ay aeaaa aeenna?oaoeee iinayuaia oai?aoe/aneiio enneaaeiaaieth ianouae niiniaiinoe e oi?i ?ac?ooaiey aeaeaciaaoiiiuo neeaae/aouo eoiieia n eniieueciaaieai oai?ee i?aaeaeueiiai ?aaiiaaney a iinoaiiaea eeiee oaeo/anoe (oai?ee nin?aaeioi/aiiuo ieanoe/aneeo aeaoi?iaoeee). A yoie aeaaa ?anniio?aiu e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu eeiaiaoe/anee aiciiaeiua noaiu ?ac?ooaiey oaeeo eoiieia, ?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue neeaae/aoiai aeaeaciaaoiiiiai eoiiea n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae aeaiiie eiino?oeoeee. Aeey auyaeaiiuo noai ?ac?ooaiey ninoaaeaiu o?aaiaiey ?aaiiaaney a aeaea ?aaainoaa ?aaio aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo nee ia ae?ooaeueiuo ia?aiauaieyo eeiaiaoe/aneiai iaoaiecia. Ec oneiaee ?aaiiaaney auaaaeaiu oi?ioeu aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ianouae niiniaiinoe (aaee/eiu i?aaeaeueiie ?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ii ieiuaaee ai?eciioaeueiie i?iaeoeee eoiiea iaa?ocee) e eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia noai ?ac?ooaiey. Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo o?aaiaiee enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea i?iaeoiuo ia?aiao?ia ia ianouoth niiniaiinoue aeaeaciaaoiiiuo neeaae/aouo eoiieia, i?aaeeiaeaia oeaeaaay ooieoeey e ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey iiooiaeueiiai n oi/ee c?aiey ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia iaai?a i?iaeoiuo ia?aiao?ia. Aeey i?iaa?ee oai?aoe/aneeo caaeneiinoae, iieo/aiiuo ai aoi?ie aeaaa, auiieiaiu yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeaciaaoiiiuo neeaaeie, a?i/iuo o?aaiaioia iiaeaee eoiiea e aai iiaeaeue aeeaiao?ii 4.5 i. Iaa?oaeaiea a?i/iuo o?aaiaioia auiieiyeinue nin?aaeioi/aiiuie a?ocaie, aeaeaaeaioiuie ?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeaiiie iaa?ocea, n iiiiuueth nenoaiu ?u/aaia e oya. Eniuoaiea iiaeaee eoiiea auiieiaii iaa?oceie, eioi?ay nicaeaaaeanue aeaaeaieai aicaeooa a caieiooii iauaia. N yoie oeaeueth auea ?ac?aaioaia e ecaioiaeaia yenia?eiaioaeueiay onoaiiaea, iicaieythuay nicaeaaaoue eaeaaeueii ?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeaiioth ii ieiuaaee iaa?oceo, ieaaii aa oaaee/eaaoue e n aunieie oi/iinoueth eiio?iee?iaaoue. I?e iiiiue yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee iiaeaee eoiiea aeeaiao?ii 4.5 i e aa o?aaiaioia ii?aaeaeaiu ianouay niiniaiinoue e iaeioi?ua ec aiciiaeiuo oi?i ?ac?ooaiey aeaeaciaaoiiiuo neeaae/aouo eoiieia. Auyaeai oa?aeoa? ia?aciaaiey o?auei, i?iaeaia, i?iaeieueiuo e iiia?a/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee aaoiia. Ioeaiaii aeeyiea eieueoeaauo oneeee, aeanoeinoe cauaieaiey neeaaeie a aa?oiai iii?iii eieueoea ia ianouoth niiniaiinoue e aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea iiaeaee. Auyaeaiu e iienaiu yoaiu aeaoi?ie?iaaiey iiaeaee n iiaeaoeeaui niaaeeiaieai neeaaeie n aa?oiei eieueoeii. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?eiaiaiea oai?ee nin?aaeioi/aiiuo ieanoe/aneeo aeaoi?iaoeee aeey auyaeaiey aiciiaeiuo oi?i ?ac?ooaiey neeaae/aouo eoiieia, ii?aaeaeaiey eo ianouae niiniaiinoe e eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia noai ?ac?ooaiey iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea ?acoeueoaoia, oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii niaeanothueony n yenia?eiaioaeueiuie. Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia yenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee iiaeaioiaeaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?an/aoo e iioeiaeueiiio eiino?oe?iaaieth aeaeaciaaoiiiuo neeaae/aouo eoiieia, i?eaaaeaiiua a i?eeiaeaiee A. A ieo iienaiu aiciiaeiua oi?iu ?ac?ooaiey oaeeo eoiieia e i?eaaaeaiu o?aaiaiey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ianouae niiniaiinoe e iieiaeaiey iianiiai na/aiey a neeaaeeao eoiiea. Oaeaea eceiaeaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii iacia/aieth aaiiao?e/aneeo ?acia?ia e a?ie?iaaieth neeaaeie e eoiiea, i?e eioi?uo iaania/eaaaony i?iaeoiay ianouay niiniaiinoue eiino?oeoeee e ?anoiae noaee ia aa ecaioiaeaiea ieieiaeai. Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ino?ainoaaiiua eiino?oeoeee, eoiie, neeaaeea, eieueoeaaua oneeey, iaoiae i?aaeaeueiiai ?aaiiaaney, eeiaiaoe/aneee iaoaieci, ieanoe/aneee oa?ie?, ianouay niiniaiinoue, oi?ia ?ac?ooaiey, iioeiecaoeey. O.Tsarynnyk. Limit Load, Strength and Deformation of Reinforced Concrete Folded Domes. Manuscript. Master of Technical Science thesis. Line number: 05.23.01 Building Structures, Buildings and Constructions. State University “Lviv Polytechnic”, Lviv, 1999. This thesis focuses on the study of the deflected mode and on the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete domes assembled from precast folds with dry joint using the yield line theory of the limit load analysis. The developed equations allow to determine the bearing capacity and quantitative parameters of collapse mode for this type of structures under axisymmetric loads, as well as to optimize such structures in terms of material usage. Based on the experiments with the 4.5m diameter dome model under uniformly distributed load and its fragments, bearing capacity and certain possible collapse modes were established. The character of crack formation, deflection, as well as lateral and longitudinal deformation of concrete folds were determined. It was established that application of the limit load analysis for determining the possible collapse modes of folded domes and for learning their bearing capacity and quantitative parameters of collapse mode, provides results that are satisfactorily close to the experimental. Based on the results of the experimental and theoretical studies this thesis offers computations and optimal ways of constructing reinforced concrete folded domes. Key words: spatial structure, dome, fold, ring stress, limit load analysis, kinematics mechanism, plastic hinge, bearing capacity, collapse mode, optimization.

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