EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

IAO?OIss TH??E ?AAAIIAE*

OAeE 336.763.2

IAI?IOAN?EI? NOA’?EOE

?EIEO AEOe?E OE?A?IE

08.01.01 – Aeiiii?/ia oai??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? oa iniia
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee)

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? CAAeIss Aiaoie?e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee),
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? oa iniia i?aei?e?iieoeoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?EOeAIEI Aiae??e Aiae??eiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii?
oai???

oa aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? EIAAEUe*OE O?ioei Oeoiiiae/,

Eii?oao Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee

oa i?aoe?, canooiiee ea??aieea nae?aoa??aoo

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? OA?ANAAE* A?eoi? Ieeieaeiae/,

Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee),

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a),

a?aeae?e aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanoeoe?e ? a?aeoai?aiiy iniiaieo oiiae?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.13 o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252022, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aaneeuee?anueea, 90A, e. 704.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e. 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I. Eaiiaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/ania aeiiii?ea ca nai?th no?oeoo?ith,
aca?iica’yceaie, ?aaoethaaiiyi oa ?ioeie ia?aiao?aie ? aeineoue
neeaaeiith nenoaiith. O oe?e nenoai?, ye na?ae/eoue na?oiaee oa
a?o/eciyiee aeina?ae, aeoaea aaaeeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue o?iainiaiio
?eieo, cie?aia, oae?e eiai neeaaeia?e /anoei?, ye ?eiie aeoe?e.

Iiyaa oa ?icaeoie ?eieo aeoe?e aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c ?noi?e/iith
aaiethoe??th oi?i i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ?c iaiao?aei?noth
caeo/aiiy aaeeeeo eioo?a aeey ?aae?caoe?? iaaieo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo
i?iaeo?a. O no/anieo oiiaao a aeoe?iia?iiio ?iaanooaaii? aa?ooue o/anoue
aeanyoee i?eueeii?a ethaeae o ??cieo e?a?iao na?oo. Aeoe?iia?i?
oiaa?enoaa noaee aeii?ioth/eie i?aei?e?inoaaie a aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo
aea?aeaaao, eeth/iaeie noa’?eoaie na?oiai? aeiiii?ee. Aeoe??, i?ioeane,
ui iia’ycai? c ?o aeioneii oa ia?aii, iaaoee aaee/aciiai cia/aiiy a
no/aniiio aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo? aaaaoueio e?a?i oa na?oo a oe?eiio. Ca
oaia??oi?o oiia noaiiaeua aaaaoueio aeiiii?/ieo noa’?eo?a, aoaeoeai?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e, aeinyaiaiiy noaa?eueiino? oa
?icaeoeo a aeiaaeueiiio aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi?? cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaoue
a?ae i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny ia ?eieao aeoe?e.

?eiie aeoe?e eiaeii? e?a?ie ia? nai? iniaeeaino?. ?o iayai?noue a
Oe?a?i? iia’ycaia, ii-ia?oa, c aaeeeith «ia?a?aith» a ?noi?e/iiio
i?ioean? ?icaeoeo aeoe?iia?ieo a?aeiinei o iao?e e?a?i?, ui iaea i?noea
a?ae e?ioey 20-o aei e?ioey 80-o ??. iei?oiueiai noie?ooy, ii-ae?oaa, c
oei, ui ?i?oe?aoi?ii a?aeiiaeaiiy ?eieo aeoe?e aenooieea aea?aeaaa, a
aieiaiei ?ino?oiaioii eiai ooai?aiiy noaea ianiaa i?eaaoecaoe?y
i?aei?e?inoa. Noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie ?eieo aeoe?e aenooia? aaaeeeaei
neeaaeiaei aeaiaioii caaaeueii? ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueei?
aeiiii?ee.

Ca cia/aiiyi oa i?noeai, yea caeia? ?iaioa ia ?eieo aeoe?e, on?o eiai
noa’?eo?a iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie — i?ioan?ei? oa iai?ioan?ei?
o/anieee. Iai?ioan?iiaee — oea, ianaiia?aae, ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ?iaanoi?e.
Oe? noa’?eoe iathoue aeineoue cia/iee iioaioe?ae naia ye iinoa/aeueieee
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a a aeiiii?eo. Aoaeoeai?noue eiai aeei?enoaiiy
caeaaeeoue a?ae iayaiino? iaaieo oiia oa ?ino?oiaio?a o?ainoi?ioaaiiy
caiuaaeaeaiue aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa a ?iaanoeoe?ei? ?ano?ne.
Caeaoi?noue aeiiii?ee aei a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo iioie?a aecia/a?
oiiae, no?oeoo?o, oaiie oa ?io? ia?aiao?e ?? ?icaeoeo. Aeey aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ?iaanoeoe?e iaaoaa? iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino?
o ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth i?iaaaeaiiy ?? na?eicii? no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae. I?ioa iiee ui Oe?a?i? ia aaeaeiny noai?eoe
aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio

iia?e?caoe?? eioo?a aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa /a?ac nenoaio oiiaeiaiai
?eieo. O oie aea /an, ca aeniiaeaie o?yaeo, ae?ae aaaeeeai a?aeiiaeoe
?ieue caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy o ?iaanoeoe?eiiio i?ioean?.

Ioaea, a oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe? oi?io?oueny iiaee, ianooaaiee niaeo?
a?aeiinei, iia’ycaieo c o/anoth aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa o ooieoe?iioaaii?
?eieo aeoe?e, eiai ?inoeooo?a. Oa, ye aoaeooue ?icaeaaoeny oe?
a?aeiineie, ae??oaeueiei /eiii aecia/eoue ianooaae oa noaa?euei?noue
iai?aaeaiiy aeiiaoi?ie ainiiaea?noaaie nai?o caiuaaeaeaiue o ?aaeueiee
oa o?iainiaee naeoi?e oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee /a?ac nenoaio ?eieo
aeoe?e. ?acii c oei, nooi?iue ?o aeine?aeaeaiiy a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e
aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? ? yaii iaaaeaeaaoiith i?aeoe/iiio cia/aiith oe???
i?iaeaie. Oi?ioaaiiy iaiao?aeieo ia?aaeoiia aeey aeinyaiaiiy i?eeiyoiiai
??aiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? aeoeaiino? aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa ia ?eieo aeoe?e
oa eiai i?aeo?eiee iio?aao? nooo?aiai ?icoe?aiiy oa iiaeeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue cacia/aieo a?aeiinei, aeyaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
caeiiii??iinoae, eeth/iaeo i?iaeai oa iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a ?o ae??oaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iai?yi
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aea? no?aoaa?/iei i?aeoiaeai ?
ieaiai aea?aeaae uiaei ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee a
oe?eiio oa ie?aieo aaeocae cie?aia, noai?aiiy aoaeoeaiiai aeoe?iia?iiai
iaoai?cio caeo/aiiy a aeiiii?eo ?iaanoeoe?eieo eioo?a.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaaiith ?aae?caoe??th iaoeiai? oaie IAA
Oe?a?ie “?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeieia?th aeieiai-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae a??ie/i-aeaeiaoaieo aaeocae Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieo” (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0197V016026, aoiaeeoue aei
Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ?39).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? iiaoaeiaa oai?aoe/ii?
iiaeae? iiaaae?iee ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?iaanoi?a a i?ioean? io?eiaiiy ?
?aae?caoe?? noaoono aeanieea iaeiaiai aeoe?iia?iiai eai?oaeo oa
aecia/aiiy ia oe?e iniia? iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
caeo/aiiy a aeiiii?eo ?iaanoeoe?eieo eioo?a aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa /a?ac
nenoaio oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. Aeoiaey/e c aeuacacia/aiiai, o aeai?e
aeena?oaoe?? ae??oothoueny oae? iaoeia? caaaeaiiy:

— iiaeeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue uiaei iioea?a ae?yeueiino? ?iaanoi??a,
niinia?a ?o eeaneo?eaoe??, aeyaeaiiy oeo oaeoi??a, ui iaoiiaeththoue
??oaiiy iai?ioan?eieo ?iaanoi??a i?i i?eaeaaiiy (i?iaeaae) aeoe?e, aea??
ia’?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy, a oaeiae aecia/athoue caaaeueiee ?ioa?an oeeo
?iaanoi??a aei ?eieo aeoe?e;

— aecia/aiiy nenoaie iioea?a, ye? iiaeooue ?aae?ciaoaaoeny i?ae /an
i?iaaaeaiiy ai?n?e aeoe?e, noeoiiino? oaeoi??a, ui iaoiiaeththoue iiieo
ai?oaio?a ia o?iainia? ?ano?ne a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae iaea?eueo oeiiaeo
?eieiaeo neooaoe?e aca?iiae?? iieoioe?a oa i?iaeaaoe?a aeoe?e; aeyaeaiiy
caeaaeiinoae i?ae oe?eyie oa no?oeoo?ith aeioneo aeoe?e, c iaeiiai aieo,
oa ?ioa?anaie aeiiii?/ieo noa’?eo?a, c ?ioiai;

— ?icaeoie oai??? ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?ecee?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei ae?e
iai?ioan?eieo noa’?eo?a ia ?eieo aeoe?e Oe?a?ie;

— aecia/aiiy nooiino? aeoe?? a no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao,
aca?iica’yce?a i?ae aaiethoe??th i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? oa
?icaeoeii ooieoe?e ?eieo aeoe?e, niinia?a o?enaoe?? i?aa iaeiai? o/ano?
o i?aei?e?iieoeueeiio eai?oae?; oaeineiiaeaiiy niinia?a eeaneo?eaoe??
?eie?a aeoe?e, aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?eieo aeoe?e a Oe?a?i?; aeyaeaiiy iioea?a oa oi?i ei?ii?aoeaieo
iaiaaeaiue oa naiiiaiaaeaiue i?aa aeaniee?a aeoe?e;

— aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae aeoe?iia?ii? iiaeae? Oe?a?ie, aecia/aiiy
no?oeoo?e, niaoeeo?ee oa caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo a?aeiinei a
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoaao a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, i?noey ? ?ie?
iai?ioan?eieo ?iaanoi??a o ei?ii?aoeaiiio oi?aae?ii?, iniiaieo
aioo??oi?o i?iaeai, ui iaiaaeothoue aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoa, aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae ?? i?aeaeuaiiy;

— aecia/aiiy i?e?iaee eieaeoeaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo ae?e ia ?eieo oe?iieo
iaia??a, iioea?a o/ano? a ieo iai?ioan?eieo ?iaanoi??a, iniaeeainoae
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a ?aieao ?inoeooo?a ni?eueiiai
?iaanooaaiiy oa oeo a?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue ia aoaiao ?o ooai?aiiy,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa e?ea?aeaoe??; ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aiae?co
iai?ioan?eiei ?iaanoi?ii ??aiy iiaeeeainoae ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?inoeoooo;
ioe?iea iai?yie?a ?aae?caoe?? caoenii? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae uiaei
o/aniee?a ni?eueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy;

— aeyaeaiiy iniiaieo i?iaeai ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?iaanoi??a, ui ia
ae??oothoueny ?eieiaei naii?aaoethaaiiyi, a oaeiae iai?yie?a oa
?ino?oiaio?a aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia ?iaanoeoe?ei? a?aeiineie, o/anieeaie
yeeo ? aeiiaoi? ainiiaea?noaa, iiaeeeainoae eiai oaeineiiaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeiiaoi? ainiiaea?noaa, ye
o/anieee ?eieo aeoe?e oa aeoe?iia?i? i?aei?e?iieoeuee? oiaa?enoaa
Oe?a?ie, a ?aieao yeeo ?aae?cothoueny iaai? i?aaa oa ?ioa?ane ?iaanoi??a
— aeaniee?a iaeiaiai eai?oaeo.

Iaoa??aeaie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee: e?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea; ia?aeii?
aeieoiaioe ??cieo i?aei?e?inoa; ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe; aaciina?aaei?
niinoa?aaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii, cie?aia, i?ae /an o/ano? o
caaaeueieo cai?ao aeoe?iia??a ?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ?iaio? ?o ea??aieo
i?aai?a, eiioaeo?a c ??cieie noa’?eoaie ?eieo aeoe?e; ?acoeueoaoe,
i?iaaaeaiiai aaoi?ii aieaooaaiiy o?ce/ieo in?a — aeaniee?a oa
iaaeaniee?a aeoe?e; noaoenoe/i? aeai?, i?aaenoaaeai? ??cieie
aea?aeaaieie ? iaaea?aeaaieie onoaiiaaie oa i?aai?caoe?yie,
ae?yeuei?noue yeeo o o?e /e ?io?e i??? iia’ycaia c oiiaeiaei ?eieii,
aeoe?iia?iei i?aei?e?iieoeoaii.

?ino?oiaioa??e aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee oae? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye
aiae?c ? neioac, ?iaeoeoe?y oa aeaaeoeoe?y, aano?aaoaaiiy,
eeaneo?eaoe?y, iaoaiaoe/iee iien (iiaoaeiaa a?ao?e?a caeaaeiinoae,
oi?iae?caoe?y), nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee i?aeo?ae oa ?io?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a a ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyae?
iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? ae?yeueiino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai,
iai?ioan?eiiai ?iaanoi?a uiaei io?eiaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? noaoono aeanieea
iaeiaiai aeoe?iia?iiai eai?oaeo a oiiaao no/anii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo oe??? i?iaeaie, ?o aca?iica’yce?a
aeicaieeei aaoi?o iaa?oiooaaoe ?yae iiaeo iaoeiaeo ??oaiue. ?o nooue oa,
a?aeiia?aeii, iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio: — aei
nenoaie iiaeeeaeo oe?eae ai?n?e aeoe?e aeeth/aii ia?a?iciiae?e aeaaee a
oiaa?enoa?, a ?iaanooaaiiy — io?eiaiiy iai?yiiai aeioiaeo. Cai?iiiiiaaii
iia? niiniae eeaneo?eaoe?? ?iaanoi??a — i?ioan?ei? oa iai?ioan?ei?,
e?eoa??? ?o iiae?eo, aeaia oei?caoe?y ?iaanoi??a ca ineoieia?/iith
iciaeith, i?aaenoaaeaii nioe?aeueio no?oeoo?o iai?ioan?eieo ?iaanoi??a,
aecia/aii nooi?iue noaeino? ?ioa?ano iaaieo a?oi aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa
aei aeoe?e;

— iiaeeaeaii iaoeia? oyaeaiiy uiaei iioea?a oa oaeoi??a caiuaaeaeaiue
aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa, iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue aeae?eaiiy aeoeaieo
oa ianeaieo caiuaaeaeaiue, aecia/aii oaeoi?e ?o iiae?eo oa aieea
eiieo?aioe?? ia iiaaae?ieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?iaanoi??a. Noi?ioeueiaaii
caeiiii??iino? aeai?o aeiiaoi?ie ainiiaea?noaaie ?eieo aeey
?iaanooaaiiy, oe?iia? oa iaoe?iia? oaeoi?e iiieoo ai?oaio?a aeoe?e ia
caiuaaeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaeai? ?eieia? eiieo?aioi? iiaeae?, iaea?eueo
oa?aeoa?i? aeey no/anieo oiia oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee;

— cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th ?ecee?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?iaanoi?a (ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi, iane?aeeaie, oaeaee?noth iiaa?iaiiy a?ioiaeo eioo?a),
aecia/aii oaeoi?e aeai?o i??e ?eceeo oa o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a, a
oaeiae ianoaaeie, ui iaoiiaeththoue ??oaiiy iai?ioan?eiiai ?iaanoi?a i?i
i?eaeaaiiy (i?iaeaae) aeoe?e. I?aaenoaaeaii iiaeae? iaeeie/iiai oa
ii?ooaeueiiai (iaeiioeiiiai ? ??ciioeiiiai) ?iaanooaaiiy;

— cai?iiiiiaaii iiaa aecia/aiiy aeoe??, ye iniaeeai? oi?ie iath o
eai?oae? ainiiaea?nueeiai oiaa?enoaa iaaiiai oeio, yeee aenooia?
ianooaaii aei??o /anoie iaeiaiai eai?oaeo oiaa?enoaa acaaae?, iiaea iaoe
na?e aeaniee ?eieiaee ia?a oa o?eno?oueny ye aeani?noue iaaii? iniae
oeyoii ioi?ieaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai aeieoiaioa aai / oa neeaaeaiiyi
niaoe?aeueiiai ?a?no?o. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a ai?n??
aeoe?e ? i?iaiicoaaiiyi oa iiaeaethaaiiyi iaaieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei,
iiaeaeueoeo oiia ia?ao aeoe?e. Noi?ioeueiaai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
?eieo aeoe?e a Oe?a?i?. Aecia/aii nenoaio iaiaaeaiue i?aa aeanieea
aeoe?e, ?ice?eoi iioeae oa oi?ie naiiiaiaaeaiue;

— aia?oa ?icaeyiooi oiiae oi?ioaaiiy, oaeoi?e, iniaeeaino? aeiiii?/ieo
?ioa?an?a oa caeiiii??iino? iiaaae?iee aeiiii?/ieo noa’?eo?a a
aeoe?iia?i?e iiaeae? ?inaeaea?nueeiai oeio, aeyaeaii iiaeeeaino? oa
ia?niaeoeae iaaieo a?oi o/aniee?a aeoe?iia?iiai oi?aae?iiy, cie?aia
aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe «aaniethoia» oa
«iioi/ia» cia/aiiy eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e, yeee a oe?eiio
?icaeyaea?oueny ye ae?aiacii — c iino?eiei cia/aiiyi aa?oiueiai
ia?aiao?o oa ?ooiiei (caeaaeii a?ae iaaieo ianoaaei) — ieaeiueiai;

— aecia/aii oaeoi?e, ui iaoiiaeththoue ?aaeueio ?ieue caaaeueieo cai??a
oa niinoa?aaeii? ?aaee a oi?aae?ii? aeoe?iia?iei oiaa?enoaii, aeiaaaeaii
iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy eoioeyoeaii? nenoaie aieinoaaiiy, aieea ??
oa ?ioeo oaeoi??a ia iiaeeeaino? ae??aieo aeoe?iia??a a oi?aae?ii?
i?aei?e?inoaii. Aecia/aii iaeano? ca?aaiiy oa iaca?aaiiy ?ioa?an?a
iaiaaeaea??a oa aeaniee?a aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, iaa?oioiaai?
aaei?i?no?aoeai? oa aeiiii?/i? iaoiaee aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo
iaiaaeaea??a, ui caeaoi? iineeeoe oaaao inoaii?o aei a?eueo aoaeoeaii?
?aae?caoe?? oe?eae aeaniee?a i?aei?e?inoa;

— noi?ioeueiaaii i?e/eie iaiaaeaieo iiaeeeainoae ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
?iaanooaaiiy; ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aiae?co iai?ioan?eieie noa’?eoaie
?iaanoeoe?eieo ?inoeooo?a ia aoai? ?o aeai?o, ui aeeth/a? ioe?iee:
iioaioe?aeo oiiaeo, eiai i?eaaaeeaino? c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee
?iaanoeoe?eii? i???ioaoe?? aeiiaoiueiai ainiiaea?noaa, c?o/iino?
aca?iiae?? c oiiaeii, aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c oeei. Aecia/aii ooieoe??
noaoooiiai oiiaeo ?inoeoooo ni?eueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii
nenoaio iniiaieo iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? oiiaeo,
noi?ioeueiaaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aeinoia??iino? iieaciee?a,
oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ca?oiino? oa ii?iaoeaii? ioae?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??;

— aecia/aii i?iaeaie, ui ia ae??oothoueny ?eieiaei ?aaoethaaiiyi
oiiaeiaeo a?aeiinei: caoeno ?iaanoi??a a?ae iaiaio, ooeneo ?o i?aa;
iai?ioethaaiiy ?eieiaeie oe?iaie; iaiaaeaiiy aai onoiaiiy eiieo?aioe??.
Aeyaeaii oi?ie iaaeia?inia?nii? iiaaae?iee ii a?aeiioaiith aei
?iaanoi??a: iaaeia?inia?ni? ai?n?? (cie?aia, aia?oa i?aaenoaaeaii ?o
eeaneo?eaoe?th); aeene?ei?iaoe?y aeoe?iia?ii? iaioino? a oi?aae?ii?
aeoe?iia?iei oiaa?enoaii; iaei?aeoia iiaaae?iea ea??aiee?a-?inaeaea??a;
iaaeia?inia?ni? ae?? ?inoeooo?a ?io?ano?oeoo?e;

— iaa?oioiaaii oeyoe iiaeieaiiy iaaeie?e?a ?eieiaiai naii?aaoethaaiiy,
cie?aia: canoinoaaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? iiaeae? noai?aiiy a?aee?eoeo
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, aeei?enoaiiy aiaea??aeoeiao, i?aeaeuaiiy aeiia
aei ?ice?eooy ?ioi?iaoe??, anoaiiaeaiiy aeiia uiaei ii?yaeeo aeieaoe
aeea?aeaiae?a, cae?eniaiiy aeueie iaiaaeaea?aie oa /eaiaie niinoa?aaeii?
?aaee iniaenoeo iia?aoe?e c aeoe?yie aeaiiai i?aei?e?inoaa, aaaaeaiiy a
i?aeoeeo cai?ioieo aeoe?e, iaaeaiiy i?aaiaeo iiaeeeainoae ae??aiei
?iaanoi?ai aa?aioiaaiiai i?aaa aeeoio ?o aeoe?e ca iiyaith iaaieo oiia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo
aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea ni?eyoe a?eueo
aoaeoeaiiio noai?aiith oeo ia?aaeoiia, ye? iaiao?aei? aeey caeo/aiiy a
oe?a?inueeo aeiiii?eo caiuaaeaeaiue aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa oa ?ioeo
?iaanoi??a /a?ac nenoaio ?eieo aeoe?e, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
oi?aae?iiy aeoe?iia?ieie i?aei?e?iieoeueeeie oiaa?enoaaie. Uiaei
eiie?aoieo noa’?eo?a aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, oi ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?: — aeiiaoi?ie ainiiaea?noaaie —
?iaanoi?aie ia ?eieo aeoe?e i?e i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue uiaei aeioe?eueiino?
?iaanooaaiiy, ioe?iee eiai oiia oa iiaeeeaeo ?acoeueoao?a. A?aeiia?aei?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o eiec? «Iai?ioan?ei? noa’?eoe ?eieo aeoe?e
Oe?a?ie», ?yae? noaoae, a oaeiae o oeeee? ia?aaea/, i?iaaaeaieo ia
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaeaniiio oaeaaa/aii? ca o/anoth
aaoi?a c ieoaiue i?eaaoecaoe?? oa ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a?iiaaeyi
ia ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a (aeia?aeea ?172 a?ae 08.06.99 ?.);

— i?aei?e?inoaaie: a) aeoe?iia?ieie oiaa?enoaaie, ye? ia iathoue
oiiaeiai? niaoe?ae?caoe??, — o ieoaiiyo i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy
ai?n??, aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy oiaa?enoaa oiui
(i?iiiceoe?? aaoi?a ?aae?ciaai? a ?iaio? AAO «O??ia
«Aei?i?iaoae?iaeono??y», i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aeia?aeea ?118 a?ae
14.04.99 ?.) oa cae?eniaiiy ei?ii?aoecaoe?? (i?iiiceoe?? aaoi?a
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny AAO AeOE «Iaaeia?aaeaoa?eey», aeia?aeea ?7/1632, a?ae
08.06.99 ?); a) niaoe?ae?ciaaieie i?aei?e?iieoeueeeie no?oeoo?aie —
?iaanoeoe?eieie oiiaeaie oa eiiiai?yie, eiia?oe?eieie aaieaie,
oiiaeiaeie a??aeaie — o ieoaiiyo a?eueo aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai a?ciano, caeo/aiiy eioo?a aeiiaoi?o
ainiiaea?noa. Ie?ai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a aeei?enoiaothoueny a CAO
«A?cian-Oiiae» (aeia?aeea ?1902-AO a?ae 07.06.99 ?.) oa CAO
«Eiioaeo-I?eaaoecaoe?y» (aeia?aeea ?1903-EI a?ae 07.06.99 ?.);

— i?aaiaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy (oeaio?aeueiiai oa ?aa?iiaeueiiai
??aiy). Cie?aia, aeniiaee, ui i?noyoueny a aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a caeiiioai?/?e ?iaio? — i?e i?aeaioiaoe? oa oaeineiiaeaii?
oeo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ui ?aaoeththoue ae?yeuei?noue aeoe?iia?ieo
oiaa?enoa, ?inoeooo?a ni?eueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy. ?yae a?aeiia?aeieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aaoi?a i?eeiyo? aei aeei?enoaiiy Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith
Oe?a?ie: o aeaeyae? aianaiiai caeiiii?iaeoo «I?i aianaiiy ci?i aei
Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ainiiaea?nuee? oiaa?enoaa» (ca?a?no?iaaiee ca ?3306
a?ae 28.05.99 ?.) oa i?iiiceoe?e aei i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i
?inoeoooe ni?eueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy (iaeia? oa ei?ii?aoeai? ?iaanoeoe?ei?
oiiaee)» (?35935 a?ae 13.05.99 ?., ?06-8/12-787 a?ae 29.06.99 ?.), a
oaeiae Aea?aeaaiith eii?n??th c oe?iieo iaia??a oa oiiaeiaiai ?eieo
Oe?a?ie (?5320/06 a?ae 14.05.99 ?.);

— iaoeiaeie oa o/aiaeie caeeaaeaie i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiaeo oai oa
aeeeaaeaii? ?yaeo o/aiaeo aeenoeeie?i, a naia «Iniiae aeiiii?/ii?
oai???», «I?e?iaeiiii?ea», «?iaanooaaiiy», «Ei?ii?aoeaia oi?aae?iiy»,
«O?iainiaee iaiaaeaeiaio», «?eiie o?iainiaeo iineoa», «Oi?aae?iiy
o?iainaie a ?iaanoeoe?eieo eiiiai?yo» oa ?ioeo. A?aeiia?aei?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a aeei?enoiaothoueny a o/aiaiio i?ioean? a
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (aeia?aeea ?01-08/43 a?ae
10.06.99 ?.) oa a Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy, a?ciano oa
i?aaa (aeia?aeea ?279 a?ae 07.06.99 ?.).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?eethaeiaii ia ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? a 1993 ?. (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee),
ia?aae? oa «e?oaeiio noie?», i?iaaaeaiei Aea?aeaaiith eii?n??th c
oe?iieo iaia??a oa oiiaeiaiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie a 1997 ?. (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i. Ee?a), i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo (i. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1999 ?.; i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999
?.), anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998 ?., 1999 ?.; i. Ee?a, 1999 ?., 1999 ?.; i.
Eooeuee, 1999 ?.), ia iaoeiai-iaoiaeieia?/ieo nai?ia?ao Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie, can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? oa
iniia i?aei?e?iieoeoaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie oa
eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy,
a?ciano oa i?aaa. Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeai? o 34 iaae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo caaaeueiei
ianyaii iiiaae 50 iae.-aeae. a?e., o oiio /ene? iaei?e ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e
iiiia?ao?? (12 iae.-aeae. a?e.), 6 iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao, 27 noaooyo
o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue (c ieo 22 – aac
ni?aaaoi??a).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 376 noi??iie. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 15 ?enoie?a
oa 16 oaaeeoeue, ye? neeaaeathoue a?aeiia?aeii 8 oa 9 noi??iie. Nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 122 iaeiaioaaiue neeaaea? 9 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoa, caaea/? oa ia’?eo, iaoeiaa iiaecia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ?o ai?iaaoe?y.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Noai ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
iai?ioan?eieo noa’?eo?a ia ?eieo aeoe?e oa i?aeoiaee aei ??
aeine?aeaeaiiy” aecia/athoueny iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo oai??? aeoe?e oa
aeoe?iia?iiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, e?eoe/ii aiae?cothoueny caeiaooee
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee oa a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeaieo i?iaeai o caeiiiaeaanoa?
Oe?a?ie. Cacia/a?oueny, ui iniiaieie iai?yieaie no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue
oe?a?inueeeie aeiiii?noaie i?iaeai ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia ?eieo
aeoe?e oa aeoe?iia?iiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
aeoe?iia?ii? oi?ie aeaniino? oa ?? ?ie? o nenoai? ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa, iiaeeeainoae aeoe?iia?ieo oi?i i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, i?noey
aeoe?e na?aae ?ioeo aeae?a oe?iieo iaia??a, ioe?iee aa?oino? iaeia
aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoa, aieeao i?eaaoecaoe?? ia oaiie, ianooaae oa
oiiae oi?ioaaiiy aeoe?iia?iiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee, caaaeueieo i?iaeai
i?neyi?eaaoecaoe?eii? ?eieiai? ae?yeueiino? aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa,
aeina?aeo ooieoe?iioaaiiy a??aeiaeo oiiaeiaeo ?inoeooo?a o ?icaeiooeo
e?a?iao na?oo oiui.

Na?aae oeo ieoaiue ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iai?ioan?eieo noa’?eo?a
ia ?eieo aeoe?e Oe?a?ie, ui ia ae?noaee aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee, caeeoathoueny iaae??oaieie a oai?aoe/iiio ieai?,
aeae?eythoueny: aecia/aiiy aeoe??, niaoeeo?ee oe?eae ai?n?? oa iioea?a
?iaanooaaiiy a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, no?oeoo?e ?iaanoi??a oa
iniaeeainoae iiaaae?iee aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo
Oe?a?ie, nenoaie iaiaaeaiue aeoe?iia?ieo i?aa, aecia/aiiy ?o i?e/ei oa
oi?i i?iyao, a?aeiia?aeiino? iiaeeeainoae oa oiia ?eieo aeoe?e ?ioa?anai
oa iiaeeeainoyi ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy, aeyaeaiiy oaeoi??a, ui
iaoiiaeththoue aea?? nooiaiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eceeo, eeaneo?eaoe??
?ecee?a, aecia/aiiy ianoaaei, ui aieeaathoue ia ??oaiiy iai?ioan?eieo
noa’?eo?a ia ?eieo aeoe?e, iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo iiaeaeae
?iaanooaaiiy. Ia ae??oaieie caeeoathoueny ?yae ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c
aioo??oi?ie aca?iia?aeiineiaie o ?aieao aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa,
i?aai?caoe?? eiai aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy, cie?aia caiia?aaiiy
aeene?ei?iaoe?? aeoe?iia?ii? iaioino? c aieo aeoe?iia?ii? a?eueoino?,
ciaoiaeaeaiiy ?ino?oiaio?a noeioethaaiiy iaiaaeaea??a oa eiio?ieth ca ?o
ae?yeuei?noth a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee. Iio?aao? aeeaieiai
iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaia noai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo
?inoeooo?a ni?eueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, caeaoieo iia?e?ciaoaaoe eiooe
aaaaoueio aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa oa aoaeoeaii ?iaanooaaoe ?o a iaaeao
o?iainiaiai ?eieo, cie?aia, oae? ?? aniaeoe, ye i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaa
iiaoaeiaa ?inoeoooo, i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy, caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai
??aiy i?ici?ino? oa eiio?ieth, oi?ie oa ?ino?oiaioe aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy. Ia ciaeoea iaiao?aeiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?iaeaia aca?iiae??
?eieiaiai naii?aaoethaaiiy oa aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei, ui
iathoue i?noea ia ?eieo aeoe?e. Na?aae iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo ?? neeaaeiaeo
? i?iaeaie iaaeia?inia?nieo ai?n?e, ?aii?oaaiiy ?ioa?an?a iaaieo a?oi
aeoe?iia??a i?e cae?eniaii? oi?aae?iiy oiaa?enoaii, aecia/aii? iniiaieo
iai?yie?a eiai ae?yeueiino?, aeei?enoaiiy ?inaeaea?nueei? ?ioi?iaoe??,
iaei?aeoii? aeea?aeaiaeii? iie?oeee, eiieo?aioe?? oa iiiiiie?? ia ?eieo
aeoe?e oiui. ?nioaaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino? iiae?aiiai ?iaeo i?iaeai
iia’ycaia, ianaiia?aae, c “a?eii” oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo aeoe?e oa
nenoaiith aeoe?iia?iiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa – nai ?eiie ?, a?aeiia?aeii,
eiai ?inoeoooe, ciaoiaeyoueny eeoa a noaae?? noaiiaeaiiy, yea
a?aeaoaa?oueny o eiioaeno? caaaeueii? ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?eiie aeoe?e, eiai i?e?iaea, o/anieee oa iioeae ?o
ae?e” a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ?eiie aeoe?e iio??aii ?icaeyaeaoe ye nenoaio
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, iia’ycaieo c io?eiaiiyi, aeei?enoaiiyi oa
a?ae/oaeaiiyi i?aa iaeiai? o/ano? o eai?oae? i?aei?e?inoaa. O?aaeeoe?eia
aecia/aiiy aeoe??, ye oe?iiiai iaia?o, ui cana?ae/o? iaai? i?aaa eiai
aeanieea, ia a?aeaeaa? ?aaeueii? i?aeoeee oiiaeiaeo a?aeiinei. O
aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao cana?ae/aiiy aeacaieo i?aa a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ioei
oeyoii – oeyoii caa?iaiiy aei niaoe?aeueiiai ?a?no?o. Noa’?eo iiaea aooe
aeoe?iia?ii, ?aae?ciaoaaoe a?aeiia?aei? i?aaa, ia iath/e i?e oeueiio
niaoe?aeueii ioi?ieaiiai aeieoiaioo – aeoe??, na?oeo?eaoo aeoe??. A?eueo
oiai, o caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie c’yaeany oaeee oa?i?i, ye
“aacaeieoiaioa?ia oi?ia oe?iiiai iaia?o”. Oiaoi oe?iiei iaia?ii
aecia?oueny oa, ui ye ??/ ia ?nio? acaaae?. C o?aooaaiiyi on?o ?nioth/eo
ianoaaei, iiaeia cai?iiiioaaoe oaea oeoia/aiiy aeoe??: aeoe?y – oea
iniaeeaa oi?ia iath o eai?oae? ainiiaea?nueeiai oiaa?enoaa iaaiiai oeio,
yeee aenooia? ianooaaii aei??o /anoie iaeiaiai eai?oaeo oiaa?enoaa
acaaae?, iiaea iaoe na?e aeaniee ?eieiaee ia?a oa o?eno?oueny ye
aeani?noue iaaii? iniae oeyoii ioi?ieaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai aeieoiaioa aai
/ oa neeaaeaiiyi niaoe?aeueiiai ?a?no?o.

?eiie aeoe?e aeeiio? ooieoe?? iia?e?caoe?? oa o?ainoi?iaoe??
caiuaaeaeaiue a ?iaanoeoe??, ?o ?iciiae?eo i?ae aaeocyie aeiiii?ee,
ia?a?iciiae?eo i?aa aeaniino? ia eai?oae, ?ioi?ioaaiiy i?i noai
aeiiii?ee oa ?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a. ?eiee aeoe?e iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ca
aaia?ao?/iith oa iaoe?iiaeueiith iciaeith, ii?yaeeiaei cia/aiiyi oaiaee
eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo aeoe??, nooiaiai i?aai?ciaaiino?, ye?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ia’?eoo a?aeiinei. Iniiaieie iieacieeaie aieeao ?eieo
aeoe?e ia iaoe?iiaeueio aeiiii?eo o?aaa aeciaoe ianyae ?ici?uaieo ai?n?e
oa ??aaiue eai?oae?caoe??. Ia?oee iieaciee iaaea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe
?iaanoeoe?eio ?ieue aeoe?iia?iiai iaoai?cio a iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeiiii?oe?,
ae?oaee – aa?o?niee ??aaiue aeoe?e ca ?eieiaeie ioe?ieaie, ?o
?iaanoeoe?eio i?eaaaeea?noue, noai ae?eiai? aeoeaiino?. Caaaeueiee ianya
ai?n?e aeoe?e a Oe?a?i? aei??aith? 24,5% ie?ae a?i., i?ioa ia?aaaaeia ?o
/anoeia ?ici?uaia aac caeo/aiiy ?aaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo eioo?a. ??aaiue
eai?oae?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo aeoe?e iiee ui ia ia? a?eueo-iaio
iaa?oioiaaieo aecia/aiue, aea iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui a?i ia ia?aaeuo? 20%
AAI, ui ? oa?aeoa?iei aeey oeo ?eie?a, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a noaae??
noaiiaeaiiy. Aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a ai?n?? aeoe?e iaeii/anii ?:
i?iaiicoaaiiyi ?iaanoeoe?eieo iai???a aeaniee?a caiuaaeaeaiue oa
i?enoinoaaiiyi aei iniaeeainoae ?o ?ioa?an?a oa ineoieia??;
iiaeaethaaiiyi oeo a?aeiinei, ye? anoaiiaeyoueny a aeoe?iia?iiio
oiaa?enoa?; aeai?ii iaaieo oiia ia?ao aeoe?e.

Oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo aeoe?e a?aeaoaa?oueny ia no?eueee
i?e?iaeiei, aaiethoe?eiei oeyoii, ne?eueee i?ae aieeaii aeoeaieo
ciai?oi?o ae?e — ianooaaieo i?eaaoecaoe?eieo ?i?oe?aoea aea?aeaae.
Ia?aaaaeiee ianya aeoe?e ia ia?aeiiiio ?eieo aoa ?aae?ciaaiee ia ca
a?io?, a ca i?eaaoecaoe?ei? iaia?e. Oea iicia/eeiny ia neeaae?
aeoe?iia??a, aioo??oi?o a?aeiineiao, aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy. Ooai?eeany
aaeeea e?euee?noue aeoe?iia??a-o?ce/ieo in?a c ae??aieie iaeaoaie
aeoe?e, aaniethoia a?eueo?noue c yeeo ? aeiaaeeiaeie ?iaanoi?aie.
E?euee?noue aeoe?iia??a-o?ce/ieo in?a neeaaea? a Oe?a?i? ia iaioa 50%
ianaeaiiy (aeey ii??aiyiiy o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao oeae iieaciee aei??aith?
5-25%). Iaaecia/ai?noue, iai?aai?ciaai?noue aioo??oi?o aeoe?iia?ieo
a?aeiinei o aeineoue o?eaaeee ia??iae i?eaaoecaoe?eiiai ?ici?uaiiy
aeoe?e noaee ae??oaeueieie /eiieeaie nooo?aiai cieaeaiiy ??aiy
oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie, oneeaaeieee i?aei?e?iieoeuee? ia?niaeoeae
aaaaoueio aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa.

I?e aecia/aii? oe?eae ai?n?? aeoe?e cae/aeii aeoeaioothoue oaaao ia
caeo/aii? ?iaanoeoe?e. I?ioa uiiaeiaioa noiniaii Oe?a?ie iio??aii
?icoe?eoe oyaeaiiy i?i oe?e? ai?n??, aeeth/eaoe aei ieo i?eaaoecaoe?th
i?aei?e?inoa, caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e, aeeiiaiiy iaaieo ii?iaoea?a,
onoaiiaeaieo aea?aeaaith oa ia?a?iciiae?e aeaaee a oiaa?enoa?. A
inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo ai?n?y ?i?oe?th?oueny oa cae?enith?oueny aeey
ca?eueoaiiy iaeao?a ? a?aeiia?aeii iineeaiiy iiceoe?e iaaieo
aeoe?iia??a, ui aea? i?aenoaae aeacaoe ia ?? iaei?aeoiee oa?aeoa?.

Aieiaieie noa’?eoaie iiieoo ia aeoe?? aenooiathoue i?aei?e?inoaa oa
aeiiaoi? ainiiaea?noaa. ?iaanoi?e a?ae??ciythoueny oiiaaie ae?yeueiino?,
niiniaaie oi?ioaaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue, ?ioa?anii aei o??? aai ?ioi? oi?ie
aeioiaeo, noeeai ?iaanoeoe?eii? iiaaae?iee. A?aoiaoth/e oe? ianoaaeie,
?iaanoi??a iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ca noaoonii (?iaeea?aeoaeuei?,
?inoeoooe?ei?), niaoe?ae?caoe??th aai ??aiai i?ioan?eiino?
(ianiaoe?ae?ciaai?, /anoeiai niaoe?ae?ciaai?, niaoe?ae?ciaai?), oe?eyie
oa no?ieaie ?iaanooaaiiy (ii?ooaeuei?, no?aoaa?/i?), noeeai iiaaae?iee
(eiina?aaoeai?, iii??eiaai?, aa?aneai?), i?e/aoi?noth aei
aaciina?aaeiuei? ?iaioe a aeoe?iia?iiio oiaa?enoa? (?inaeaea?e,
aoonaeaea?e), iaoe?iiaeueiith iaeaaei?noth (aioo??oi?, ciai?oi?).
E?eoa??yie i?ioan?eiino? noa’?eo?a-?iaanoi??a ia ?eieo aeoe?e o?aaa
aeciaoe: ?aaoey?i?noue ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iayai?noue
?iaanoeoe?eii? niaoe?ae?caoe??, ae??oaeueiee aieea ?acoeueoao?a oe???
ae?yeueiino? ia aeiiii?/ia iieiaeaiiy noa’?eoa-?iaanoi?a. Aeiiaoi?
ainiiaea?noaa, ye i?aaeei, ? iai?ioan?eieie ?iaanoi?aie ia ?eieo aeoe?e.

E??i ai?oaio?a oa ?iaanoi??a, ia ?eieo aeoe?e i?aaenoaaeai? ?inoeoooe
?io?ano?oeoo?e. ?o iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie: “ia?aeiia”
?io?ano?oeoo?a (oi?aiaoe? oe?iieie iaia?aie, oi?aiaaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?ei?
nenoaie) oa “aoi?eiia” ?io?ano?oeoo?a (aeaiiceoa???, caa??aa/?,
?a?no?aoi?e oiui).

Iaiaaaiiy iaea?aeaoe aeioiae ? iaea?eueo oeiiaei iioeaii iiyae ?iaanoi?a
ia ?eieo aeoe?e. Aeioe?eueii aecia/eoe aea? eiai oi?ie: i?yiee oa
iai?yiee. I?yi? aeioiaee – oea aeioiaee, ye? iaea?aeo? ?iaanoi?
aaciina?aaeiuei ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo (aeea?aeaiaee, i?aeaeuaiiy ?eieiai?
aa?oino? aeoe?e). Iai?yi? aeioiaee – oea aeioiaee, ye? a?i iaea?aeo?
iica iaaeaie oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. Oae, ?iaanoi? iiaea eiio?iethaaoe iaaio
a?oio i?aei?e?inoa. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?i ioe?ith? oa ?aaoeth?
a?aeaea/o a?ae onueiai eai?oaeo, a ia a?ae eiai ie?aieo aeaiaio?a. sseui
i?eaeaaiiy aeoe?e iaaiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ni?eyei i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy
aeio?aeiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy anueiai eai?oaeo, oi oea iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe naia ye iaea?aeaiiy iiina?aaeeiaaiiai aeioiaeo. ?iaanooaaiiy
iiaea iaoe ia iao? oaeiae caoeno caiuaaeaeaiue a?ae ?ioeyoe??.
Oe?a?inuee? iai?ioan?ei? ?iaanoi?e i???ioothoueny, ianaiia?aae, ia
iaea?aeaiiy aeea?aeaiaeieo aeioiae?a. I?e/eiaie oeueiai ?: o?aaeeoe?eia
aeiiii?/ia ieneaiiy, ca?aeii c yeei iaa?ae’?iiei ao?eaooii aoaeue-yeiai
?ici?uaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue iaia’yceiai iiaeiii aooe io?eiaiiy iioi/iiai
aeioiaeo; iecueeee a oe?eiio ??aaiue aeeooy aaaaoueio ethaeae a
Oe?a?i?, ui ?iaeoue ?o i???ioiaaieie eeoa ia oaea aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a,
yea iiaea i?eiineoe iioi/iee aeio?ae.

I?eaeaaiiy aeoe?e iioaioe?eii iiaea a?aeiia?aeaoe ?ioa?anai oa
iiaeeeainoyi ethaeae, ye? iathoue na?aaei? oa iaeaeu? ca ??aiai
aeioiaee. Iiyaa ia ?eieo aeoe?e aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa c iecueeeie
aeioiaeaie iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny ye iane?aeie iaeaae?o?eiaaiiai,
iiieeeiaiai oyaeaiiy i?i iiaeeeaino? ?eieo aeoe?e, eiai aieeao ia
iniaenoa aeaaiiieo//y, “i?aaeea a?e” ia iueiio aai o ?acoeueoao?
yeeoinue aeiyoeiaeo ianoaaei (iai?eeeaae, i?iaaaeaiiy “ia?iaeii?”
i?eaaoecaoe??). O/anoue a iia?aoe?yo c aeoe?yie iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy – ? ia?aaaaeii aeyaii ??aoe?iiaeueiiai noeeth aeiiii?/ii?
iiaaae?iee.

Aeaniee aeoe?e naiino?eii aecia/a? ii?yaeie aeei?enoaiiy iaeaaeieo eiio
ei?ii?aoeaieo i?aa. ?aaeueiee ianya oeeo i?aa oi?io?oueny i?ae aieeaii
noni?eueiiai oa ei?ii?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, a oaeiae naiiiaiaaeaiue.
Canoinoaaiiy ii?i oa iaiaaeaiue ia? iaai? iioeae. Oae, naiiiaiaaeaiiy
i?aa c aieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeaniee?a iiaea iaoe ia iao?: ca?eueoaiiy
aeaniiai ceneo a?ae aieiae?iiy aeoe?yie; i?aaiaiiy caoenoeoe nai?
aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane; iac?o/i?noue naii?aae?caoe?? oa a?aenooi?noue
?ioa?ano aei oeueiai.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ae?? iai?ioan?eieo noa’?eo?a ia
aoai? aoiaeo ia ?eiie aeoe?e” a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iiya? aeiiaoi?o
ainiiaea?noa ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo a ?ie? ?iaanoi??a ia?aaeo? i?eeiyooy
oeeie noa’?eoaie aeaio eeth/iaeo ??oaiue: ia?oa – i?i iaiaaeaiiy
iioi/iiai niiaeeaaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue, ae?oaa – i?i iaaeaiiy
caiuaaeaeaiiyi aeoeaii? oi?ie. ?ioa?an aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa aei
caiuaaeaeaiue ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae aieeaii iiaeeeaiai ??aaiue aeio?aeiino?
aeeaaeaiue, ?ici???a aeioiaeo, ui io?eio? a oe?eiio aeiiaoi?
ainiiaea?noai, ianyao caaaeueiiai aaaaonoaa, yeei aiii aieiae??,
oa?aeoa?o niiaeeaaoeueei? iiaaae?iee iniae, oaoi?/ieo oiia iaea?aeaiiy
aeioiaeo, iaoe caiuaaeaeaiiy. Oi?ioaaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue ia i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ?o aaoiiaoe/iiai aeeth/aiiy a nenoaio o?iainiaiai ?eieo. Aeoeaieie
caiuaaeaeaiiyie ? o? eiooe, ye? aeiiaoi? ainiiaea?noaa ni?yiiaothoue ia
o?iainiaee ?eiie c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy aeioiaeo. Ianeaieie — o?
caiuaaeaeaiiy, ye? ia aeei?enoiaothoueny ye ia’?eo i?iiiceoe?? ia
o?iainiaiio ?eieo. Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie oaeiai iiae?eo ? ??aaiue aeia??e
aei o?iainiaiai ?eieo, ?ici?? caiuaaeaeaiue, iaoa caiuaaeaeaiue. A
Oe?a?i? nooo?a? iniaeeaino? ia? ae?y oaeoi?o aeia??e ianaeaiiy aei
o?iainiaiai ?eieo.

Caiuaaeaeaiiy aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa noathoue ia’?eoii eiieo?aioe??, ui
aaaeaoueny i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo naeoi??a o?iainiaiai ?eieo. Oei
naiei o aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa c’yaeythoueny iiaeeeaino? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
aeai?o. Oaeoi?aie oaeiai aeai?o o?aaa aeciaoe: iai??e ?iaanoi?a,
aeio?aei?noue oa ??aaiue aaciaee ?iaanooaaiiy, ai?ciaee/i? ianoaaeie,
oaoi?/i? oa ?io? oiiae aeoiaeo ia ?eiie, cae/ee aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa.
I?ae aieeaii iaoe?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee ci?iththoueny cia/aiiy,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeoi??a, ianooaae oa iioaioe?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue
aeai?o oiui. A Oe?a?i? ye iniaeeaino? ae?? oaeoi??a aeai?o aeiiaoi?o
ainiiaea?noa iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai?: a) ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeeeth/ieo
ianoaaei o noaiiaeaii? ?eieo aeoe?e. Aeiaaeeia?noue iaeeaaea? na?e
a?aeaeoie ia o?eueee ia i?ioean aoiaeo ia ?eiie ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
?iaanoi??a, aea e ia iiaeaeueo? oiiae oa oa?aeoa? a?aeiinei o ?aieao
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, i?aai?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy; a) o aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao iiaeia niinoa??aaoe ia?aaaaeii aiioe?ei?, aaaaoi a /iio
aeiaaeeia? ?iaanoeoe?ei? ??oaiiy; a) i?e aecia/aii? ia’?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy
iae/ano?oa ia i?iaiaeeoueny i?aeoe/ii i?yeiai iiia?aaeiueiai aiae?co
aaciaee ?iaanooaaiiy; a) cia/ii iaioeie ? caaaeuei? iiaeeeaino?
?iaanoeoe?eiiai aeai?o, ui iia’ycaii c a?aenooi?noth aeayeeo o?iainiaeo
?ino?oiaio?a c /enea oeo, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey ?icaeiooeo ?eieiaeo nenoai;
ae) aaeeea cia/aiiy oaoi?/ieo oiia ?iaanooaaiiy. Iayai?noue
eiieo?aioe??, ?icaeoie ?eieo ca ianooaaaie ? no?oeoo?ith ia? iiceoeaia
cia/aiiy aeey ?iaanoi??a oa aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio. Iaeii/anii ca oaeeo
oiia i?aeaeuothoueny aeiiae aei ??aiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
?iaanoi??a.

Aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa ? iaeiei ?c noa’?eo?a, ye? oi?iothoue iiieo ia
caiuaaeaeaiiy. Ai?oaio ii??aith? oe?io caeo/aiiy eioo?a ?c a?aie/iith
ei?eni?noth, ui iathoue oe? a?io?. Inoaiiy aecia/a?oueny ye aeiaeaoeiaa
ei?eni?noue, yeo iiaea io?eiaoe ai?oaio a?ae caeo/aiiy aeiaeaoeiai? noie
a?ioae oeyoii ?ici?uaiiy aeoe?e. Eiaeia aeiaeaoeiaa noia a?ioae ia?
iaioo ei?eni?noue aeey niiaeeaa/a, oiio a?i caiaeai caeo/aoe aeiaeaoeia?
a?io? ca iaioeie aeanieie aeo?aoaie. Iiieo oiaa?enoaa ia a?io? ? iaaiei
iaai?ii caeaaeiinoae i?ae e?euee?noth a?ioae, ui iiaeooue aooe caeo/ai?
ai?oaioii, oa iaeneiaeueii i?eionoeieie aeo?aoaie ia caeo/aiiy iaei???
iaeeieoe? a?ioae, ye? caiaeia ianoe aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai. Oe? aeo?aoe
neeaaeathoueny c aeo?ao ia i?iaaaeaiiy ai?n?? oa iaaieo iiaeeeaeo ao?ao,
iia’ycaieo c ?iciiae?eii iaeaooiueiai i?eaooeo. Aei iaoe?iiaeo oaeoi??a
iiieoo ai?oaio?a ia caiuaaeaeaiiy o?aaa a?aeianoe: iayai?noue
iaa?oioiaaieo a?cian-i?iaeo?a aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a, a?aeiia?aeii?
eaae?o?eaoe?? oa caoe?eaaeaiino? o aeii?ioth/eo aeoe?iia??a oa / aai
iaiaaeaea??a oiaa?enoaa; o?iainiaee noai ai?oaioa, eiai ?eieia?
iiceoe??; caeiiiaeaa/? oiiae cae?eniaiiy ai?n?? (cie?aia, oiiae
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy); ??aaiue ?icaeoeo ?iaanoeoe?eii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e. O?aaa,
ia aeaeue, aeciaoe, ui a oe?eiio aeai? oaeoi?e aieeaathoue c? ciaeii
“i?ion” ia noai iiieoo oe?a?inueeeo ai?oaio?a ia ?iaanoeoe?ei? ?ano?ne.

Aeiiaoi? ainiiaea?noaa aenooiathoue e o ?ie? noa’?eo?a eiieo?aioe?? –
ye iieoioe? oa i?iaeaaoe? o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a. Eiieo?aioe?y
iieoioe?a aieeaa? ia oe?iia? oiiae i?eaeaaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a,
aeeeeea? iiyao o aeayeeo ?? o/aniee?a ?ioa?ano aei ooo/iiai iaiaaeaiiy
iiaeeeainoae ?ioeo noa’?eo?a, ? iaeiei c oaeoi??a ci?i o aaia?ao??
ae?yeueiino? i?iaeaaoe?a o?iainiaeo iineoa oa oe?iieo iaia??a. Uiaei
eiieo?aioieo oiia i?iaeaaeo aeoe?e, cie?aia aeiiaoi?ie ainiiaea?noaaie,
oi aiie, yeui i?eeiyoe ca a?eueo-iaio noaa?eueio e?euee?noue
i?iaeaaoe?a, ae??oaeueiei /eiii caeaaeaoue a?ae e?eueeino? iieoioe?a oa
noaio oi?ioaaiiy eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e.

Ia ?en. 1 i?i?ethno?iaaii ia?oo ?eieiao neooaoe?th, eiee ia ?eieo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i?aeoe/ii eeoa iaeei iieoiaoeue aeoe?e. ?eieiaa
iiaaae?iea oaeiai iieoioey ia? aeaa nooo?ai ??cieo ia??iaee (aei
oi?ioaaiiy eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e (QK) oa i?ney oeueiai). Ia
ia?oiio aoai? a?i anoaiiaeth? iaaio oe?io neoiee, ca yeith caiaeai
eoioaaoe aeoe?? o an?o aaaeath/eo ?o i?iaeaoe (o ?aieao oeueiai aoaio
iieoiaoeue iiaea ia?aeoe e aei a?eueo aeniei? oe?ie i?eaeaaiiy aeoe?e).
Ia ae?oaiio aoai? a eiai ae?yo niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy ?ioa?ano aei
i?eaeaaiiy iiaeo aeoe?e — a?i ?iaeoue aai neeae oe?ie, aai caa??aa? ??
ia iiia?aaeiueiio ??ai?.

Ia ?en. 2 i?aaenoaaeaia neooaoe?y, eiee ia ?eieo ae?thoue aeae?eueea
a?eueo-iaio iino?eieo iieoioe?a aeoe?e. Ia ia?oiio aoai? iiaeia
i?eaeaaoe iaaio e?euee?noue aeoe?e ca a?aeiinii iaaenieeie oe?iaie (o
ae??aieo aeaniee?a, ianaiia?aae iai?ioan?iiae?a). I?ioa, ii/eiath/e c
iaaiiai iiiaioo, i?eaeaaiiy iiaeo aeoe?e iaooiaoo?oueny ia oe?iiaee ii??
eiieo?aio?a (aeaniee?a aaeeeeo iaeao?a), ui aeiaaa? aianaiiy nooo?aeo
ci?i aei oe?iiai? iie?oeee, a naia cia/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy oe?ie i?eaeaaiiy
aeoe?e. Aeinyaiaiiy eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ae?e,
aiaeia?/ieo oei, ui i?aaenoaaeai? o ia?o?e neooaoe??.

Ia ?en. 3 iieacaia ?eieiaa neooaoe?y, eiee i?aaenoaaeaii aaaaoi
iieoioe?a. Ooo ia? i?noea ?icieeai?noue iaeao?a aeoe?e, niinoa??aa?oueny
aaaaoi ae??aieo aeaniee?a. I?iiiceoe?y ia? aaniethoii aeanoe/iee
oa?aeoa?. Aeey noa’?eo?a iiieoo ieoaiiy i?i aeinyaiaiiy eiio?ieueiiai
iaeaoo ua ia iiaea aaciina?aaeiuei noiyoe, oiio a?ao?e iiieoo ia?
aeineoue cae/aeiee oa?aeoa?.

I?eaeaaiiy aeoe?e iai?ioan?eieie noa’?eoaie cae?enith?oueny ia
ia?aeiiiio oa iai?aai?ciaaiiio aoi?eiiiio ?eieao. Iacaeaaeii a?ae
niiniao i?eaeaaiiy aeoe?e ae?? ?iaanoi??a iia’ycai? c ?eceeii. Aea??
i??e ?eceeo ? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aniaeo?a caaaeueii? i?iaeaie
?eceeo ?iaanooaaiiy iai?ioan?eieie noa’?eoaie. I?aenaeoi?i? ii??aiyiiy
i??e ?eceeo ?iaanooaaiiy a iaaeao anueiai o?iainiaiai ?eieo
aeaeyaeathoue a?aeiinii i?ino?oith ni?aaith, i?ae na?aeiiee aea?? i??e
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eceeo o?eueee a iaaeao iaeiiai naeoi?o – ?eieo aeoe?e.
O e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo ia ?iaanoeoe?eiee aea?? aieeaathoue ??aaiue
caaaeueieo aeioiae?a ?iaanoi?a, ianya eioo?a, ui ?iaanoothoueny a
aeoe??, ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ?iaanoi?a. ?eceee ?iaanooaaiiy a aeoe??
iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe, ianaiia?aae, ca ianooaaaie, iioiaeaeaiiyi,
oaeaee?noth iaea?aeaiiy a?ioiaeo eioo?a.

Aieiaieie oaeoi?aie, ui aecia/athoue ??oaiiy iai?ioan?eiiai noa’?eoa i?i
i?eaeaaiiy (i?iaeaae) aeoe?e ?: aeiiii?/ia iieiaeaiiy noa’?eoa;
naiino?eia ioe?iea ?iaanoeoe?eii? i?eaaaeeaino? ?eieo aeoe?e acaaae? oa
eiai eiie?aoieo ia’?eo?a; neooaoe?y a aeueoa?iaoeaieo noa?ao
?iaanooaaiiy; caaaeueiee ?eieiaee iano??e; aeiiii?/i? oa oaoi?/i? oiiae
?eieiaiai ia?ao aeoe?e. Ia eiie?aoiee ?iaanoeoe?eiee aea?? aieeaa?
?aeeaia iiaeeeainoae ai?oaioa, eiai aaeocaaa oa ?aa?iiaeueia ?ici?uaiiy,
i?ea’ycea aei “naiai” i?aei?e?inoaa, aieea ioi/aiiy. ?c caaa?oaiiyi
i?eaaoecaoe?eiiai aoaio oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo aeoe?e a?aeaoaa?oueny
o?ainoi?iaoe?y i???ioe??a ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?iaanoi??a uiaei aeai?o
ia’?eo?a ?iaanooaaiiy. O caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? oa aeae?a oe?iieo
iaia??a, a ye? ?iaanoothoueny eiooe, iiaeia aeae?eeoe iiaeae?
iaeeie/iiai oa ii?ooaeueiiai (iaeiioeiiiai aai ??ciioeiiiai)
?iaanooaaiiy. Aeey ii?ooaeueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy iio??ai? iaai? oiiae:
aeinoaoi?noue o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, aeia??a aei ?eieo, ineoieia?/ia
aioiai?noue aei aeiaaio?eaaeiai ?iaanooaaiiy, ?icaeiai?noue ?eieo,
iaaiee ??aaiue eiiiaoaioiino? ?iaanoi?a.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “?aae?caoe?y aeoe?iia?ieo i?aa a oi?aae?ii?
i?aei?e?iieoeueeei oiaa?enoaii” a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iai?ioan?eiee
noa’?eo, ye aeaniee aeoe?e, anooia? o a?aeiineie c ?ioeie aeoe?iia?aie,
a oaeiae iaiaaeaea?aie oiaa?enoaa. No?oeoo?a ? i?aai?caoe?y
aeoe?iia?iiai oi?aae?iiy ? iaea?eueo neeaaeieie na?aae on?o
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oei?a i?aei?e?inoa. Aoaeoeai?noue oi?aae?iiy
aecia/a? iiaeeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a i?aaenoaaiee?a
on?o a?oi aeoe?iia??a.

Oaeoi?aie, ui aecia/athoue aeoe?iia?io iiaeaeue iaaii? e?a?ie, ?: neeaae
aeoe?iia??a, ?o iniiai? a?oie; ?iciiae?e oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e i?ae
o/anieeaie ei?ii?aoeaieo a?aeiinei; i?aaia? ii?ie, ui ?aaoeththoue
aeoe?iia?i? a?aeiineie c aieo aea?aeaae; ii?ie, i?eeiyo? aeania
aeoe?iia?aie; i?aeoeea o?aaeeoe?? aeoe?iia?iiai oi?aae?iiy. Ae?y oeeo
oaeoi??a, ?o cia/aiiy oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a eiaei?e e?a?i? i?iyaeythoueny
c iaaieie iniaeeainoyie, ui aea? i?aenoaae aecia/aoe ??ci? iiaeae?
ei?ii?aoeaieo a?aeiinei. I?ae aieeaii aaceiooiaii? i?eaaoecaoe?? ia
aaaaoueio oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao noi?ioaaeany aeoe?iia?ia iiaeaeue
?inaeaea?nueeiai oeio, a ye?e cia/ia ?ieue iaeaaeeoue aeoe?iia?ai –
i?aoe?aieeai i?aei?e?inoaa. A oiiaao aeii?ioaaiiy aioo??oi?o
aeoe?iia??a, aeoe?iia?e–aeu? iaiaaeaea?e oiaa?enoaa aieiaiei ?ioa?anii
iathoue caa?aaeaiiy nai?o iinaae, i?e oeueiio aeaeaei ia caaaeaee oea
iia’yco?oueny ?c caaacia/aiiyi aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe i?aei?e?inoaa,
iie?ioaiiyi eiai ?acoeueoao?a. Oe? noa’?eoe cia/io oaaao i?eae?eythoue
i?aai?caoe?ei?e ?iaio? c o?oaeiaei eieaeoeaii; ?? iiaeeeaeie iai?yieaie
? iaoa?iae?nonueea ae?yeuei?noue, ?ai?aneaia ae?yeuei?noue, /eiaiiy
ia?aiii a?ae/oaeaiith aeoe?e ?inaeaea?aie, i?aai?caoe?y aeiaeaoeiai?
ai?n?? aeoe?e a ?ioa?anao ?inaeaea??a. Aeoe?iia?e–?ia?oieee oiaa?enoa
aenooiathoue, nei??oa, ia’?eoii iai?ioethaaiiy.

Aoonaeaea?e–o?ce/i? iniae ? iaea?eueo ianeaiith oa iai?aai?ciaaiith
a?oiith aeoe?iia??a, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue iai?ioan?eieo noa’?eo?a.
A?ae?aco i?ney i?eaeaaiiy aeoe?e aiie aeaiiino?othoue ciai?oith
aeoeai?noue, niaeaoe ?ioa?ano aei o/ano? a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaii.
I?ioa iaaeae? aiie aeyaeythoue ana a?eueoo aioiai?noue aei i?iaeaaeo
nai?o aeoe?e. Aoonaeaea?e-th?eaee/i? iniae i?aaenoaaeai? ii?ooaeueieie
oa no?aoaa?/ieie ?iaanoi?aie. O ae?yeueiino? no?aoaa?/iiai ?iaanoi?a
iiaea aeyaeoeny iioea io?eiaiiy aeioiaeo ca iaaeaie oiiaeiaiai ?eieo, ui
caeaoia i?eaanoe aei ?aii?oaaiiy ?ioa?an?a ?ioeo aeoe?iia??a. Aea?aeaaa,
ye aeoe?iia?, ia? iaai? iiaeeeaino? aieeao ia ae?yeuei?noue cia/ii?
/anoeie aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoa. Aea i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano aea?aeaaa
o oe?eiio aenooiaea ye ianeaiee aeoe?iia?. O ?yae? aeiaaee?a aea?aeaaa
iiaeiia a?aoe ia naaa ooieoe?th oi?ioaaiiy yae?a ei?ii?aoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy.

Neeaae aeoe?iia??a a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie a?aeaeaa? oie ia?ao?aeiee noai
ei?ii?aoeaieo a?aeiinei, ui neeaany ia iiiaio caaa?oaiiy ianiai?
i?eaaoecaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa a e?a?i?. A?i ia aeinoaoiueith i??ith
a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai aoaeoeaiino? aeoe?iia?iiai oi?aae?iiy, a oiio aoaea
iinooiiai ci?ithaaoeny. Oe? ci?ie ia iiaeooue ia oi?eiooeny e
iai?ioan?eieo o/aniee?a – ?o neeaae iiaeiai ci?ieoeny ye ca
e?euee?nieie, oae ? ca ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Oea ni?eyoeia
ci?oeiaiith aeoe?iia?iiai iaoai?cio caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e a oe?eiio –
a?eueo aeniea ye?noue oi?aae?iiy aeoe?iia?iei eai?oaeii i?aeaeuo?
o?iainia? ?acoeueoaoe oa ?eieiao aa?o?noue aeoe?e, ui caaaeaee iiceoeaii
aieeaa? ia iai??e ?iaanoi??a.

??oaiiy, ui i?eeiathoueny caaaeueieie cai?aie aeoe?iia??a,
a?aeaeaathoue aieth aeoe?iia?ii? a?eueoino?. Ca aoaeue-yeeo ianoaaei
iiaeia cao?enoaaoe aaniethoio aaee/eio eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e –
oaeo, ui caaacia/o? ia?aaaao a on?o aeiaaeeao (75% + 1 aeoe?y). I?ioa
aieiae?iiy oaeei iaeaoii ? ??aeeei yaeuai. Aei oiai ae, aaniethoia
aaee/eia ia a?aeia?aaea? aeinoaoi?i /eiii on??? iiaiioe oa iniaeeainoae
a?aeiinei, ui iia’ycai? c iaea?aeaiiyi oi?aae?inueeiai aea?aoo a ??cieo
neooaoe?yo. Ia i?aeoeoe? iaaaaaoi /ano?oa aeiaiaeeoueny ei?enooaaoeny
aecia/aiiyi “iioi/ii?” aaee/eie eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo. O oe?eiio,
eiio?ieueiee iaeao ? ia no?eueee o?eniaaiei cia/aiiyi, ne?eueee
ae?aiaciiii, aa?oi?e ia?aiao? yeiai ? iino?eiei (aaniethoia cia/aiiy), a
ieaei?e oi?io?oueny c i?ea’yceith aei eiie?aoiiai /ano, i?noey, ieoaiiy,
ui ?icaeyaea?oueny ia cai?ao.

Niaoeeo?ea ?iciiae?eo nee i?ae aeoe?iia?aie aecia/a? iiaeeeaino? aieeao
ia neooaoe?th a oiaa?enoa? c aieo iai?ioan?eieo noa’?eo?a. ?o caaaeueia
?ieue c?inoa?, eiee neooaoe?y c eiio?ieueiei iaeaoii aeoe?e ?
iaaecia/aiith. sse i?aaeei, oae? ianoaaeie aeieeathoue o ia??iae
i?eaaoecaoe??, aai a?ae?aco i?ney ?? caaa?oaiiy. I?ney ae oiai, ye
aecia/a?oueny aeaniee (aeanieee) eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo, ?ieue
iai?ioan?eieo noa’?eo?a oa ?ioeo ae??aieo aeoe?iia??a ??cei
ciaioo?oueny. Iaea?eueo nooo?aei iai?yieii aieeao iai?ioan?eieo
noa’?eo?a ia ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoaa caeeoa?oueny ?inaeaea?nueeee aieea
c aieo eiai iaiaaeaea??a.

I?ae noa’?eoaie aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaiee
?iciiae?e oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e, iaiao?aei?noue yeiai aeeeeeaia
iayai?noth aeineoue aaeeei? e?eueeino? ni?aaeaniee?a i?aei?e?inoaa,
cia/ieie ianooaaaie ae?yeueiino?, aeiiaith o?aooaaiiy
caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiai i?eioeeio niaoe?ae?caoe??. Aea?aeaaa oa aeoe?iia?e
oi?iothoue iaai? i?aaia? oiiae (i?aaeea) oi?aae?iiy oiaa?enoaii. I?ioa
aeoaea /anoi aeieea? ??cieoey i?ae aecia/aiiyi oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e
aea-th?a oa i?aeoeeith ?o oaeoe/iiai ?iciiae?eo. Oae, oaeoe/ia ?ieue
caaaeueieo cai??a ae??oaeueiei /eiii caeaaeeoue a?ae ?iciiae?eo aeoe?e
oa iayaiino? eiie?aoieo iaoai?ci?a o?aooaaiiy ?ioa?an?a aeoe?iia?ii?
iaioino?. Aei oaeeo iaoai?ci?a o?aaa a?aeianoe nenoaio aieinoaaiiy ia
caaaeueieo cai?ao. Iaea?eueo? iiaeeeaino? aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy ea??aieo
i?aai?a oiaa?enoaa aeoe?iia?ia iaio?noue io?eio? i?e aeei?enoaii?
eoioeyoeaii? nenoaie aieinoaaiiy (?en. 4). Ca ?? oiiaaie aeoe?iia?ia
a?eueo?noue iicaaaey?oueny iiaeeeaino? aaniethoii eiio?iethaaoe i?ioean
ia?aiiy ea??aieo i?aai?a oiaa?enoaa.

Aaaeeeaeie aeaiaioaie aioo??oi?o aca?iia?aeiinei ? oaeiae i?ioeaaeo?a
oi?ioaaiiy ii?yaeeo aeaiiiai caaaeueieo cai??a, aecia/aiiy ae?e
oiaa?enoaa, ui iio?aaothoue iaia’yceiai? ooaaee caaaeueieie cai?aie.
Aeioe?eueii ?icoe?eoe ia?ae?e ieoaiue, ye? aoiaeyoue aei aeeeth/ii?
eiiiaoaioe?? caaaeueieo cai??a, a oaeiae oeo, i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ii yeei
iio?aao? eaae?o?eiaaii? a?eueoino?. Cie?aia, oea ieoaiiy o/ano?
aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa o noaoooieo oiiaeao ?ioeo i?aei?e?inoa, aeeoio
oiaa?enoaii aeanieo aeoe?e oa ?o iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy, aioo??oi?o
iieiaeaiue oiaa?enoaa oiui. Niinoa?aaei? ?aaee a?ae?a?athoue ia
aaaaoueio i?aei?e?inoaao aeoaea iacia/io ?ieue. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?ie?
iio??aii aianoe iaai? ci?ie aei caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei ii?yaeeo ?o
oi?ioaaiiy, eiie?aoecoaaoe iiaiiaaaeaiiy ?aaee (cie?aia, anoaiiaeoe
iaia’yceiaee i?i?ioi iiaiiaaaeaiue) oa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ?? /eai?a.

A?aeaeaeaiiy aeaniee?a a?ae oi?aae?iiy aeoe?iia?iei oiaa?enoaii ?
caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th. Nooi?iue a?aeaeaeaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? eai?oaeo, ii?i ? o?aaeeoe?e o iiaoaeia? oa i?aai?caoe??
aeoe?iia?iiai oi?aae?iiy. Oi?ia aeaniino? aieeaa? ia?aaaaeii ia oa, ooi
? ye cae?enith? aeia?? aeueo iaiaaeaea??a i?aei?e?inoaa. Naia aeia?? ?
i?aai?caoe?y aoaeoeaiiai eiio?ieth ca ae?yeuei?noth iaiaaeaea??a ?
iaeieie c iaeaieiai?oeo ooieoe?e aeaniee?a oiaa?enoaa. Aeiiii?/i?
?ioa?ane iaiaaeaea??a eeoa /anoeiai ni?aiaaeathoue c ?ioa?anaie
aeoe?iia??a-aeaniee?a oiaa?enoaa. Caiia?aaiiy aai ciaioaiiy a?aeoeeaiue
o ae?yeueiino? iaiaaeaea??a a?ae aieiaieo oe?eae aeoe?iia??a iio?aao?
aeei?enoaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a aieeao ia
iiaaae?ieo iaiaaeaea??a. Oi?iaie aeiiii?/iiai aieeao iiaeooue aooe
i?ea’ycea ca?ia?oii? ieaoe (?? /anoeie) aei i?eaooeo i?aei?e?inoaa,
aeieaoa /anoeie ca?ia?oii? ieaoe aeoe?yie oiaa?enoaa, iaaeaiiy i?aaa
eoi?ae? aeoe?e oiaa?enoaa ia i?eueaiaeo oiiaao, ia?aaea/a a aeia??/a
oi?aae?iiy iaaiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e c i?aaii io?eiaiiy aeea?aeaiae?a ii
iei. Aecia/aiiy neee aieeao oiai /e ?ioiai iaoiaeo iio?aao? aeaoaeueiiai
aiae?co, aea/aiiy aaaaoueio eiie?aoieo oaeoi??a, ?ioaineaiino? ?o ae??
oa iiaeeo?eaoe?? o eiie?aoieo oiaa?enoaao.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “Ni?euei? ?iaanoeoe?ei? ae?? ia ?eieo aeoe?e”
?icaeyaea?oueny ni?eueia ?iaanooaaiiy ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo ye ii?aeiaiiy
ia iaaieo oiiaao eioo?a aaaaoueio, ia?aaaaeii ae??aieo ?iaanoi??a aeey
?o aeiaaino?ieiaiai ?ici?uaiiy a oe?ii? iaia?e. Oea ?ici?uaiiy
cae?eniththoue niaoe?aeuei? i?aei?e?iieoeuee? no?oeoo?e – ?inoeoooe
ni?eueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy (?N?). Ca niaoeeo?eith nai?? ae?yeueiino?, oe?
?inoeoooe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaeeeith ??ciiiai?oi?noth. A?eueo aeeaieiio
aea/aiith iniaeeainoae aioo??oi?o aca?iia?aeiinei o ?aieao ?N? ni?eyoeia
?o eeaneo?eaoe?y ca iaaieie iciaeaie: a) nooiaiai iino?eiino? eai?oaeo –
oiiaee c o?eniaaieie oa ea?iaaieie ii?ooaeyie. Inoaii?, a naith /a?ao,
iiae?eythoueny ia a?aee?eo? oa cae?eo?; a) iai?yieaie aeeaaeaiue –
oi?aa?naeuei? oa niaoe?ae?ciaai?. Iai?yieaie niaoe?ae?caoe?? ?N?
iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? aeaee oe?iieo iaia??a, aaeoc? (naeoi?e)
aeiiii?ee, ?aa?iie (e?a?ie); a) oe?eueiaith i???ioaoe??th. O oeueiio
aniaeo? aeioe?eueii aeae?eeoe oiiaee, ui i???ioothoueny: ia?aaaaeii ia
c?inoaiiy aa?oino? aeoea?a, ia?aaaaeii ia iaea?aeaiiy i?ioeaioiiai
(aeea?aeaiaeiiai) aeioiaeo, c?inoaiiy aa?oino? aeoea?a oa iaea?aeaiiy
iioi/iiai aeioiaeo.

?ieue ?N? iae/ano?oa ?icaeyaea?oueny aai ia ??ai? o?iainiaiai ?eieo,
aai aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio. O oie aea /an, oe? ?inoeoooe, ca iaaieo oiia,
iiaeooue aeeiioaaoe aaaeeea? ooieoe?? e ia ??ai? i?aei?e?inoaa.
I?ioan?ei? i?aeoiaee ?N? aei o/ano? a aeoe?iia?iiio oi?aae?ii?, ?o iaaia
a?aeaeaeai?noue a?ae aeaniee?a eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo oa i?aai?a iioi/iiai
oi?aae?iiy, a?aenooi?noue i?aoaic?e ia ae??oaeueiee eiio?ieue ca
ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?e?inoaa ooai?ththoue a?eueo aoaeoeaio nenoaio
a?aeiinei o oiaa?enoa?, aeiaeaoeia? ia?aaeoiiae aeey eiino?oeoeaiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo a?oi — o/aniee?a ei?ii?aoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy. Iiaeeeaino? ?N? ye noa’?eo?a ei?ii?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoee
iaaeinoaoiuei aeei?enoai? a ia??iae i?eaaoecaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa a
Oe?a?i?.

Iniaeeainoyie ae?yeueiino? ?N? a Oe?a?i? ?: ?o iiyaa iia’ycaia,
ianaiia?aae, ?c coneeeyie aea?aeaae ii noai?aiith ?io?ano?oeoo?e
i?eaaoecaoe??; iaoith noai?aiiy oiiae?a aoea o/anoue o i?eaaoecaoe??
i?aei?e?inoa; iioaioe?ae oiiae?a (o?iainiaee, eaae?iaee) ? a oe?eiio
iaaenieei; a e?a?i? ae?thoue aieiaiei /eiii oiiaee cae?eoiai oeio, ye? ?
iaio i?eaaaeeaeie aeey ?iaanoi??a, i?ae a?aee?eo?.

I?e?iaea ?N? aecia/a?oueny iayai?noth ?yaeo i?iaeai, ye? aeieeathoue i?e
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ?iaanooaaii?. Ii-ia?oa, iai?ioan?eiei noa’?eoai
aeoaea neeaaeii c?iaeoe a?eueo-iaio aoaeoeaiee aea?? ia’?eoo
?iaanooaaiiy. Oae, ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai iieooaaiiy c’ynoaaeiny,
ui 51% ?aniiiaeaio?a aaaaeathoue, ui aiie ia caeaoi? naiino?eii aeae?aoe
aeoe?? aeia?eo i?aei?e?inoa, a ua 36,5% aeyaeee iaaeinoaoith
aiaaiai?noue o nai?o iiaeeeainoyo. Ii-ae?oaa, ie?ai? i?eaaaeea?
o?iainia? ?ino?oiaioe iiaeooue aooe i?aeoe/ii iaaeinooiieie aeey
ae??aieo ?iaanoi??a (ia?aiiie iiaeooue iaoe o?iainiaee, oaoi?/iee oa
i?aaiaee oa?aeoa?). Ii-o?ao?, ?iaeea?aeoaeueia ?iaanooaaiiy ia? a
oe?eiio aeoaea iecueeee iioaioe?ae aeey oi?ioaaiiy aeeaa?neo?eiaaiiai
ii?ooaey ?iaanoeoe?e. Ii-/aoaa?oa, aeaeaei ia an? oe?ii? iaia?e
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeinoaoiuei i?eeiyoiei aeey ?iaanoi?a ??aiai
e?ea?aeiino?.

Cacia/ai? i?iaeaie naiino?eiiai ?iaanooaaiiy a?eueo?noue iai?ioan?eieo
noa’?eo?a ona?aeiieth? o e?auiio aeiaaeeo eeoa /anoeiai. Aieiaiith
?aaeueiith neeith, ui niiioea? ia?aaaaeio ?o /anoeio aei i?eaeaaiiy
oe?iieo iaia??a ?N? ? ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaanooaaiiy ca ??cieie
eiai aa??aioaie. I?e oeueiio, iaea?eueo aeinooiiei i???ioe?ii aeey
ii??aiyiiy aenooiathoue noaaee i?ioeaio?a ca aeeaaeaie. Oiio aeey oiai,
uia iai?ioan?ei? ?iaanoi?e a?aeaeaee ia?aaaao ?iaanooaaiith a oe?ii?
iaia?e ?N?, inoaii? iiaeii? aai nai?th ae?yeuei?noth oaeoe/ii
i?iaeaiiino?oaaoe a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue aeio?aeiino?, aai ia?aeiiaoe
?iaanoi??a o nai?o aenieeo iiaeeeainoyo ai??i??.

Ia noaae?? noai?aiiy ?N? iaeaaaeeea?oa cia/aiiy iathoue ieoaiiy
?ioi?ioaaiiy ?iaanoi?a i?i oiiae ae?yeueiino? oiiaeo oa aecia/aiiy
noaoono ?iaanoi?a a nenoai? aioo??oiuei?inoeooonueeeo a?aeiinei. I?e
aeai?? ?N? ?iaanoi?o iaiao?aeii ioe?ieoe eiai iioaioe?ae oa
a?aeiia?aei?noue ?iaanoeoe?eii? i???ioaoe?? noa’?eoa, oiia aca?iiae?? c
oiiaeii. I?e oeueiio a ioe?ioe? iioaioe?aeo ?N? cia/io ?ieue iiaea
a?ae?a?aoe ?ici?? oa no?oeoo?a noaoooiiai oiiaeo, neeaae eiai
caniiaiee?a. A Oe?a?i? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?eioeeie aeia??/i? ia?aaea/?
eioo?a (?iaanoi? ia? noaoon o/anieea) oa ei?ii?aoeaiiai aieiae?iiy oa
oi?aae?iiy eiooaie (noaoon aeoe?iia?a). Aeey ae??aieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
?iaanoi??a i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae aioo??oi?o
a?aeiinei ia ? ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii nooiaiy ?o ?ioa?ano aei
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c ?N?, aiie oe?eeii iiaeooue ni?eeiaoe e aeia??/ee
i?eioeei. Aaaeeeai, aae eiooe eaae?o?eiaaii oa aeia?inia?nii
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny, caaacia/oaaee aeioiae.

Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie aioo??oi?ie ieoaiiyie ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiiaeo ?:
i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy; aecia/aiiy oa ii?eethaeiaiiy iniiaieo
?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? oiiaeo; cae?eniaiiy aoaeoeaiiai eiio?ieth ca
ae?yeuei?noth ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ea?oth/iai oa iaiaaeaea??a; i?aenoaae oa
iaoai?ci ciai?oiueiai ao?o/aiiy a ae?yeuei?noue oiiaeo.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei aeey o/anieea ?N? iieacieeii eiai ae?yeueiino? ?
aa?o?noue /enoeo aeoea?a o ?ic?aooieo ia iaeei oe?iiee iai?? oiiaeo.
Naia oeae iieaciee aecia/a? e?ea?aeio aa?o?noue oe?iieo iaia??a ?N? –
iioi/io aai e?ioeaao. Eiai o?aaa aeei?enoiaoaaoe e aeey aecia/aiiy
aeiaai?iaee ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ea?oth/iai. I?ioa ?ic?aooiee oeueiai
iieacieea a Oe?a?i? ia a?aecia/athoueny aeinoaoi?i nooiaiai
aeinoia??iino?. Iia’ycaii oea c oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi aaeainiai?
aa?oino? i?e aecia/aii? aa?oino? aeoea?a ?N? ia iaaiee ia??iae /ano.
Ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie iio?aao? ca?eueoaiiy a aeoeaao ?N? /anoee
oe?iieo iaia??a, ye? i?aaenoaaeai? ia i?aai?caoe?eii-ioi?ieaieo
oiiaeiaeo ?eieao, ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a oe?ieiaeinooiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? uiaei
oeeaaeaieo oaiae c oe?iieie iaia?aie, aaaaeaiiy aei ioae?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? e?eueeio aa??aio?a ?ic?aooieo aa?oino? /enoeo aeoea?a.

?iaanoi? aeey i?eeiyooy aeaaaeaieo ??oaiue iiaeiai iaoe aeinoia??io oa
ci?noiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th. Aea?aeaaa aecia/a? ii?iaoeae ioae?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe??, cie?aia uiaei ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? ?N?. I?iaaaeaiee
aiae?c na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?? nooo?aiai aaeineiiaeaiiy. C
iaeiiai aieo, o?aaa aeeeth/eoe c? neeaaeo iaia’yceiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
iieacieee, ye? eeoa ia?aiaoyaeothoue ca?oi?noue. C ?ioiai, aei ??
neeaaeo o?aaa aeeth/eoe, cie?aia, aa?o?noue /enoeo aeoea?a o ?ic?aooieo
ia iaeei oe?iiee iai?? ?N?, iieacieee aeio?aeiino?, ?ici??e aeieao
?iaanoeoe?eiiio ea?oth/iio oa caaaeuei? aeo?aoe oiiaeo.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? “Iaiaaeai?noue ?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, i?iaeaie
?iaanoi??a oa niiniae ?o ae??oaiiy” a?aecia/a?oueny, ui a no/anieo
aeiiii?/ieo nenoaiao ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei, iia’ycaieo c aeioneii oa
ia?aii aeoe?e, a?aeaoaa?oueny, ianaiia?aae, ca aeiiiiiaith ?eieiaiai
iaoai?cio. Iiieo, i?iiiceoe?y, a?eueia oe?ia, eiieo?aioe?y neeaaeathoue
iniiai? aeaiaioe ?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy cacia/aieo a?aeiinei. I?ioa eeoa
?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? iaaeinoaoiuei aeey caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiiai oa
aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeoe?iia?iiai iaoai?cio. ?eieiaa
?aaoethaaiiy ia ae??oo? ?yaeo i?iaeai, ye? aeieeathoue i?e aca?iiae??
?iaanoi??a, ianaiia?aae, iai?ioan?eieo, c ?ioeie o/anieeaie a?aeiinei c
i?eaiaeo aeioneo oa ia?ao aeoe?e. Aei oaeeo o?aaa a?aeianoe:

1. Caoeno ?iaanoi??a a?ae iaiaio, iaaeia?inia?nieo ae?e c aieo ?ioeo
noa’?eo?a, ooeneo ?o i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a. Niaoeeo?ea iieiaeaiiy
iai?ioan?eiiai ?iaanoi?a ia ?eieo aeoe?e iieyaa? a oiio, ui, ia a?aei?io
a?ae aoaeue-yeiai ?ioiai iieoioey, a?i iaea?aeo? ia oiaa?, a iaai?
i?aaa. I?e oeueiio ye?noue, eiie?aoia iaiiaiaiiy, ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino?
?aae?caoe?? oeeo i?aa ae??oaeueiei /eiii caeaaeaoue a?ae ae?e ?ioeo
o/aniee?a aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. Ni?yioaaiiy iiaaae?iee inoaii?o o
“i?aaeeueia” ?onei ?eiie iiaea caaacia/eoe eeoa a iaai?e i???.
Iaaeia?inia?nia iiaaae?iea ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?iaanoi?a iiaea
aeyaeoeny: a) i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ai?n?? aeoe?e (o ?iaio?
aecia/athoueny oi?ie iaaeia?inia?nieo ai?n?e — “aaaioth?ia”,
“?iiaioe/ia”, “eoeoa?ia”, “einiaoe/ia” – oa ?o aieea ia iai?ioan?eieo
?iaanoi??a); a) a oi?aae?ii? aeoe?iia?iei oiaa?enoaii, ye ?acoeueoao
aeene?ei?iaoe?eii? iie?oeee aeaniee?a eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo aai
aeeiiaa/eo no?oeoo? oiaa?enoaa. Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie oi?iaie oaei?
iie?oeee ?: iiaia eai?oae?caoe?y i?eaooeo, ye iane?aeie iaaaaeaiiy
aeoe?iia?ii? a?eueoino? “iiae?eeoeny” i?eaooeii c iaio?noth; ooo/ia
iaiaaeaiiy i?eaooeo iaiaaeaea?aie; iai?ioethaaiiy /a?aia?noth aeieaoe
aeea?aeaiae?a; i?iaaaeaiiy aeene?ei?iaoe?eii? ?ai?aai?caoe??
i?aei?e?inoaa (noai?aiiy iiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, cie?aia, aei/??i?o, iiae?e
oiaa?enoaa, ceeooy). Iniaeeai? iioe?aiino? iaaoea i?aeoeea
?ai?aai?caoe?? aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa. Iaiao?aei?noue o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeoe?iia?iiai eai?oaeo a Oe?a?i? ia? iaai? ia’?eoeai? i?e/eie. O oie aea
/an, i?aeoeea cae?eniaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?e a aaaaoueio oiaa?enoaao
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aiie iaaeathoue iaai? oaine aeanieeai eiio?ieueieo
iaeao?a, caeaoi? iie?auaoe noaiiaeua iaaieo a?oi i?aoe?aiee?a
i?aei?e?inoa, i?ioa, c ?ioiai aieo, aiie oaeoe/ii iicaaaeythoue yeeoinue
iaae?e on?o ?ioeo aeoe?iia??a. Oaeee noai a?aeiinei i?ae ?iaanoi?aie, ?o
aoeueaa?ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ia iiaeooue aooe aeciai? ye ii?iaeueia
yaeua; a) o iaei?aeoi?e iiaaae?ioe? ea??aiee?a-?inaeaea??a (aeei?enoaiiy
oiaa?enoaa aeey i?aai?caoe?? aeeoio aeoe?e aeey naaa, i?iaaaeaiiy
?inaeaea?nueeeo niaeoeyoeaieo “?ai?” c aeoe?yie); a) i?e ei?enooaaii?
iineoaaie ?inoeooo?a ?io?ano?oeoo?e (oeeaaeaiiy aeene?ei?iaoe?eieo oaiae
ia aeia??/a oi?aae?iiy oe?iieie iaia?aie, iaaoaeoeaia oa iaaeia?inia?nia
?iaioa iaiaaeaea??a ?N? oiui).

2. Iai?ioethaaiiy ?eieiaeie oe?iaie aeoe?e. Aiii ? ae?yie iaaieo
o/aniee?a ?eieo aeoe?e, ui ni?yiiaai? ia ooo/ia i?aeaeuaiiy, cieuaiiy
aai noaa?e?caoe?th oe?i ia aeoe??. ?nioaaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie iia’ycaia,
ianaiia?aae, c i?enooi?noth ia ?eieo niaeoeyio?a. C iaeiiai aieo, aiie
i?aeo?eiothoue e?ea?aei?noue ?eieo, ui ? aaaeeeaei aeey ?iaanoi??a oa
ai?oaio?a, c ?ioiai, ?o eai?oae ? iaaeoi ?ooeeaei, /ooeeaei aei ??cieo
oaeoi??a, ui caeaoia noai?thaaoe aoaeo ianiaeo ae?e ia ?eieo, o oiio
/ene? ooo/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Oae? oe?iia? “?a?e” aeaci???ioothoue
ia?an?/iiai ?iaanoi?a, i?ecaiaeyoue aei iaaieo ao?ao, iineaaeaiiy
?ioa?ano aei aeoe?e. Iai?ioethaaiiy ?eieiaeie oe?iaie iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny
e i?ae /an oi?ioaaiiy noaoooieo oiiae?a i?aei?e?inoa oe?iieie iaia?aie.

3. Iaiaaeaiiy aai onoiaiiy eiieo?aioe??. O a?aeiineiao c ai?oaioaie,
i?iaeaaoeyie aeoe?e, iai?ioan?ei? o/anieee ia a?ae/oaathoue naaa
noa’?eoaie, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae yeeiinue iniaeeaei aieeaii
eiio?aaaio?a. O ?iaanoi?a caaaeaee ? aea??, i?ioa a?i caaaeaee ?
iaiaaeaiei – ?ioi?iaoe?eieie oa aaia?ao?/ieie oaeoi?aie. Aea?? ?iaanoi?a
– oea aea?? o ?aieao o??? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace, yeith a?i aieiae??.
Iai?ioan?eiee ?iaanoi? ia caeaoiee io?eiaoe iiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
aeoe??, ui i?iiiiothoueny ia i?iaeaae, a oaeiae noa’?eo?a, ye?
aenooiathoue o ?ie? ?o i?iaeaaoe?a. Neea aieeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaiaaeaiue
caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy ?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo aeoe?e. Ca
iei?oiueiai noaio ?icaeoeo ?eieo aeoe?e a Oe?a?i?, iiaeeeaino? aeai?o, a
oiiaao iayaii? eiieo?aioe?? na?aae i?iaeaaoe?a, o iai?ioan?eieo
?iaanoi??a aeoaea iaiaaeai?. ?eieiaa ?io?ano?oeoo?a, ui neeaeany, ?
iaaeinoaoiueith aeey ooai?aiiy a?eueo nooo?aeo iiaeeeainoae aeai?o. E??i
oiai, iineoae ?a?no?aoi?a – oea iineoae ii noo? /enoi? iiiiiie??. Oiio
ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy ei?aeoii? iiaaae?iee iiiiiieueieo no?oeoo? oa
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy eiieo?aioe?? ia ?eieo ? aaaeeeaeie oaeoi?aie
?iaanoeoe?eii? aeoeaiino?.

Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo oa ?ioeo a?aeiinei ia ?eieo
aeoe?e iiaeiii ni?eyoe ae??oaiith oeo i?iaeai, ye? ia iiaeooue ae??oai?
ca aeiiiiiaith eeoa ?eieiaiai naii?aaoethaaiiy. Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie iaaeia?inia?nieo ai?n?e iiaea aooe anoaiiaeaiiy
iaiaaeaiue ia i?aai i?iaaaeaiiy ioae?/ii? i?aeienee ia aeoe??.
Aeioe?eueii o caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo cao?enoaaoe iaai? oiiae
aeei?enoaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? oa i?yii? iiaeaeae noai?aiiy a?aee?eoeo
aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa. Iaiao?aeii aianoe iaai? ci?ie aei noaiaea?oo
ioae?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeione aeoe?e, cie?aia, a?eueo /?oei aecia/aoe
iaoo caeo/aiiy eioo?a, iai?yiee ?o aeei?enoaiiy. sse iaaia ia?aoeiaea
iaaeia?inia?niei ai?n?yi aeoe?e iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny aiaea??aeoeia.
Iio??aii aianoe iaai? ci?ie aei caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei caaacia/aiiy i?aa
aeoe?iia??a ia i?eaeaaiiy aeoe?e aeiaeaoeiai? ai?n??. Aeene?ei?iaoe?eia
iie?oeea uiaei ?iciiae?eo i?eaooeo, o/ano? o noaoooieo oiiaeao ?ioeo
i?aei?e?inoa iiaeiia iiia?aaeaeaoeny iaaeaiiyi i?aaa aeoe?iia?ai
aeiaaaoe ca iaaieo oiia a?ae aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa aeeoio ?o aeoe?e.
I?iaeaia iai?ioethaaiiy c /a?aia?noth aeieaoe aeea?aeaiae?a iiaeiia
ae??ooaaoeny oeyoii aeaoaeueii? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? oeueiai i?ioeano o
a?aeiia?aeieo caeiiiaeaa/eo ii?iao. Caiia?aaiith o/ano?
ea??aiee?a-?inaeaea??a o niaeoeyoeaieo “?a?ao” c aeoe?yie aeaniiai
i?aei?e?inoaa aoaea ni?eyoe anoaiiaeaiiy iaaieo caeiiiaeaa/eo iaiaaeaiue
uiaei iiaeeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e a?ae/oaeaiiy aeoe?e oaeeie
noa’?eoaie. Iai?ioethaaiiy iiaea aooe iaiaaeaia ca ?aooiie anoaiiaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueieo aeiia uiaei iiaeeeaino? oa oiia aianaiiy aei noaoooieo
oiiae?a i?aei?e?inoa oe?iieo iaia??a, cie?aia aeoe?e. Aea?aeaaa iiaeiia
anoaiiaethaaoe ?a?no?aoi?ai iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? oa?eo?a ia ?o iineoae.

AENIIAEE

Aeione aeoe?e ? oaeei niiniaii caeo/aiiy eioo?a, yeee iaaea?
iiaeeea?noue ia o?eueee aeeth/eoe o oeae i?ioean oe?iea eiei ?iaanoi??a,
aea e aeinyaoe oeueiai iaeaeaoaaoei, o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie iaoai?ciaie
iia?e?caoe?? eioo?a o iaaeao o?iainiaiai ?eieo, /eiii. ?eiie aeoe?e
aenooia? ye nenoaia aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, iia’ycaieo c io?eiaiiyi,
aeei?enoaiiyi oa a?ae/oaeaiiyi i?aa iaeiai? o/ano? o eai?oae?
i?aei?e?inoaa iaaiiai i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai oeio – aeoe?iia?iiio
oiaa?enoa?. Aeoe?y ? oi?iith iaeiai? iaeeieoe?, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a
aeoe?iia?iiio oiaa?enoa?. Iniiaieie iieacieeaie aieeao ?eieo aeoe?e ia
iaoe?iiaeueio aeiiii?eo ? ianyae ?ici?uaieo ai?n?e oa ??aaiue
eai?oae?caoe??. A ianyaao ai?n??, oiiaao ?? i?iaaaeaiiy oa oeo
eiie?aoieo aeanoeainoyo, yeeie iaae?eythoueny aeoe??, a?aeaeaathoueny
iaai? aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane, oi?iothoueny oiiae ianooiieo a?aeiinei.

Aei iiaeeeaeo oe?eae ai?n?? o?aaa a?aeianoe: i?eaaoecaoe?th
i?aei?e?inoa, caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e, aeeiiaiiy iaaieo ii?iaoea?a,
onoaiiaeaieo aea?aeaaith, ia?a?iciiae?e aeaaee a aeoe?iia?iiio
oiaa?enoa?. ?iaanoi??a iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe: ca noaoonii, ca
niaoe?ae?caoe??th (??aiai i?ioan?eiino?), ca oe?eyie oa no?ieaie
?iaanooaaiiy, ca noeeai iiaaae?iee ia ?eieo aeoe?e, ca iaoe?iiaeueiith
i?eiaeaaei?noth. A?oio iai?ioan?eieo ?iaanoi??a ?eieo aeoe?e oi?iothoue
ia?aaaaeii aeiiaoi? ainiiaea?noaa. Noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo aeoe?e
?, ianaiia?aae, ?acoeueoaoii ianiai? i?eaaoecaoe?? i?aei?e?inoa. Iaeiei
c ?? iane?aee?a noaea iiyaa aaeeei? e?eueeino? o?ce/ieo in?a — aeaniee?a
ae??aieo iaeao?a aeoe?e.

Oe?eyie ?iaanoi??a iiaeia aeciaoe iaea?aeaiiy aeioiaeo a iaaeao
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo, caoeno caiuaaeaeaiue, i?eaeaaiiy i?aa eiio?ieth ca
ae?yeuei?noth oiaa?enoaa aeey io?eiaiiy aeioiae?a iica iaaeaie
oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. Iiaaae?iea oe?a?inueeeo iai?ioan?eieo ?iaanoi??a
aecia/a?oueny, ianaiia?aae, i???ioaoe??th ia iaea?aeaiiy aeea?aeaiaeieo
aeioiae?a. Ia’?eoeaii i?eaeaaiiy aeoe?e iioaioe?eii iiaea a?aeiia?aeaoe
?ioa?anai oa iiaeeeainoyi ethaeae, ye? iathoue na?aaei? oa iaeaeu? ca
??aiai aeioiaee.

Ia noeeuei?noue aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa aei caiuaaeaeaiue aieeaa? ??aaiue
aeio?aeiino? aeeaaeaiue, ?ici??e aeioiaeo, ui io?eio? a oe?eiio aeiiaoi?
ainiiaea?noai, ?ici?? caaaeueiiai aaaaonoaa, yeei aiii aieiae??,
oa?aeoa? niiaeeaaoeueei? iiaaae?iee iniae, oaoi?/i? oiiae iaea?aeaiiy
aeioiaeo, iaoa caiuaaeaeaiiy. Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie iiae?eo caiuaaeaeaiue
ia aeoeai? oa ianeai? ? ??aaiue aeia??e aei o?iainiaiai ?eieo, ?ici?? oa
iaoa caiuaaeaeaiue.

Oaeoi?aie ?iaanoeoe?eiiai aeai?o aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa ?: iai??e
?iaanoi?a, aeio?aei?noue oa ??aaiue aaciaee ?iaanooaaiiy, ai?ciaee/i?,
aeiaaeeia? ianoaaeie, oaoi?/i? oa ?io? oiiae aeoiaeo ia ?eiie, cae/ee
aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa. A Oe?a?i? ye iniaeeaino? ae?? oaeoi??a aeai?o
iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai?: ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeeeth/ieo ianoaaei;
iania? i?iyae ia?aaaaeii aiioe?eiiai, aaaaoi a /iio aeiaaeeiaiai aeai?o;
a?aenooi?noue, ye i?aaeei, iiia?aaeiueiai aiae?co aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee
?iaanooaaiiy; iaiaaeai?noue caaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
aeai?o; cia/iee aieea oaoi?/ieo oiia ?iaanooaaiiy. ?aaeuei? i?aaa
aeanieea aeoe?e oi?iothoueny i?ae aieeaii noni?eueieo oa ei?ii?aoeaieo
iaiaaeaiue, a oaeiae naiiiaiaaeaiue, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo ia? iaai? iioeae.

Ai?oaio, ye noa’?eo iiieoo ia caiuaaeaeaiiy, ii??aith? oe?io caeo/aiiy
eioo?a ?c a?aie/iith ei?eni?noth, ui iathoue oe? a?io?. Eiaeia
aeiaeaoeiaa noia a?ioae ia? iaioo ei?eni?noue aeey iueiai, oiio a?i
caiaeai caeo/aoe aeiaeaoeia? a?io? ca iaioeie aeanieie aeo?aoaie. Iiieo
ai?oaioa ? iaaiei iaai?ii caeaaeiinoae i?ae e?euee?noth a?ioae, ui
iiaeooue aooe iei caeo/ai?, oa iaeneiaeueii i?eionoeieie aeo?aoaie ia
caeo/aiiy iaei??? iaeeieoe? a?ioae, ye? caiaeia ianoe oiaa?enoai
(aeo?aoe ia i?iaaaeaiiy ai?n??, iiaeeea? ao?aoe, iia’ycai? c
?iciiae?eii iaeaooiueiai i?eaooeo). ?nio? oaeiae a?oia iaoe?iiaeo
oaeoi??a iiieoo ai?oaio?a ia caiuaaeaeaiiy.

O oe?eiio, yeui i?eeiyoe ca a?eueo-iaio noaa?eueio e?euee?noue
i?iaeaaoe?a, oi oiae? ?eieia? oiiae iiieoo ia aeoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
e?eueeino? iieoioe?a oa noaio oi?ioaaiiy eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e,
iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o?ueiia iiaeaeyie: ?eieiaa iiiiinii?y; ia ?eieo
i?aaenoaaeai? aeae?eueea a?eueo-iaio iino?eieo iieoioe?a; ?eiie, ia
yeiio i?aaenoaaeaii aaaaoi iieoioe?a.

?ecee ?iaanooaaiiy a aeoe?? – oea iiaeeea?noue ao?aoe eioo?a aai
iaea?aeaiiy aeioiaeo iaioiai, i?ae i/?eoaaeiny. Aea?? i??e
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ?eceeo iai?ioan?eiei noa’?eoii ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae
aieeaii ae??, ianaiia?aae, oaeeo oaeoi??a, ye ??aaiue caaaeueieo
aeioiae?a ?iaanoi?a, ianya eioo?a, ui ?iaanoothoueny a aeoe??,
ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ?iaanoi?a. ?eceee ?iaanooaaiiy a aeoe?? iiaeia
eeaneo?eoaaoe ca oaeeie iciaeaie: ca iane?aeeaie; ca iioiaeaeaiiyi; ca
oaeaee?noth io?eiaiiy a?ioiaeo eioo?a.

Aeiiii?/ia iieiaeaiiy ?iaanoi?a, eiai ioe?iee ?iaanoeoe?eii?
i?eaaaeeaino?, ia?niaeoeaiino? aeoe?e, neooaoe?? a aeueoa?iaoeaieo
noa?ao ?iaanooaaiiy, caaaeueiee ?eieiaee iano??e, aeiiii?/i? oa oaoi?/i?
oiiae ?eieiaiai ia?ao aeoe?e aecia/athoue ??oaiiy iai?ioan?eiiai
noa’?eoa i?i i?eaeaaiiy (i?iaeaae) aeoe?e. O caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino?
oa aeae?a oe?iieo iaia??a, a ye? ?iaanoothoueny eiooe, iiaeia aeae?eeoe
iiaeae? iaeeie/iiai oa ii?ooaeueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy.

Aoaeoeai?noue i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy oiaa?enoaii ? ae??oaeueiith
ia?aaeoiiaith ?aae?caoe?? ?ioa?an?a aeanieea aeoe?e. Iaeiei c
?acoeueoao?a ianiai? i?eaaoecaoe?? noaei oi?ioaaiiy ia aaaaoueio
oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao aeoe?iia?ii? iiaeae? ?inaeaea?nueeiai oeio.
O i?e cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue aeoe?iia?e – i?aoe?aieee i?aei?e?inoaa.

Caaaeueia ?ieue iai?ioan?eieo noa’?eo?a a oi?aae?ii? oiaa?enoaii
c?inoa?, eiee eiio?ieueiee iaeao aeoe?e ciaoiaeeoueny o?eueee o noaae??
oi?ioaaiiy. I?ney oiai, ye eiio?ieueiee iaeao aeoe?e ? oaeoe/ii
noi?iiaaiei, ?ieue iai?ioan?eieo noa’?eo?a oa ?ioeo ae??aieo aeoe?iia??a
??cei ciaioo?oueny. O oe?eiio, eiio?ieueiee iaeao ? ia no?eueee
o?eniaaiei cia/aiiyi, ne?eueee ae?aiaciiii, aa?oi?e ia?aiao? yeiai ?
iino?eiei (aaniethoia cia/aiiy), a ieaei?e oi?io?oueny c i?ea’yceith aei
eiie?aoiiai /ano, i?noey, ieoaiiy, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny ia cai?ao. Neeaae
aeoe?iia??a aieeaa? ia iniaeeaino? a?aeiinei i?ae ??cieie o/anieeaie
aeoe?iia?iiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, aoaeoeai?noue oi?aae?iiy, o?iainiao oa
?iaanoeoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoaa, eiai no?aoaa?/i? i???ioe?e oa
iiaeeeaino?.

A aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoaao a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaiee ?iciiae?e ooieoe?e
i?ae i?aaiaie oi?aae?iiy. Oaeoe/ia ?ieue caaaeueieo cai??a ae??oaeueiei
/eiii caeaaeeoue a?ae ?iciiae?eo aeoe?e oa iayaiino? eiie?aoieo
?ino?oiaio?a o?aooaaiiy ?ioa?an?a aeoe?iia?ii? iaioino?. Iaea?eueo?
iiaeeeaino? aieeao aeoe?iia?ia iaio?noue io?eio? i?e aeei?enoaii?
eoioeyoeaii? nenoaie aieinoaaiiy aeey ia?aiiy ea??aieo i?aai?a
oiaa?enoaa.

Aeu? iaiaaeaea?e oiaa?enoaa ? naiino?eiith ? aeineoue cia/iith neeith.
?o aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane /anoeiai ni?aiaaeathoue, a /anoeiai ?icoiaeyoueny
c ?ioa?anaie aeoe?iia??a-aeaniee?a oiaa?enoaa. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
caiia?aaiiy aai ciaioaiiy a?aeoeeaiue o ae?yeueiino? iaiaaeaea??a a?ae
aieiaieo oe?eae aeoe?iia??a iiaea aooe iia’ycaii c aeei?enoaiiyi
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a aieeao. Aei inoaii?o o?aaa
a?aeianoe i?ea’yceo ca?ia?oii? ieaoe (?? /anoeie) aei i?eaooeo
oiaa?enoaa, aeieaoo /anoeie ca?ia?oii? ieaoe aeoe?yie oiaa?enoaa,
iaaeaiiy i?aaa eoi?ae? aeoe?e oiaa?enoaa ia i?eueaiaeo oiiaao, ia?aaea/o
a aeia??/a oi?aae?iiy iaaiiai iaeaoo aeoe?e c i?aaii io?eiaiiy
aeea?aeaiae?a ii iei. Ni?eueia ?iaanooaaiiy iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye
aeiiiaiaiiy aai aeueoa?iaoeaa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio. Iniiaieie iciaeaie
?inoeooo?a ni?eueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy ? ii?aeiaiiy eioo?a aaaaoueio,
ia?aaaaeii ae??aieo ?iaanoi??a, cae?eniaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e o oe?ii? iaia?e,
a?aenooi?noue ?ioi? ae?yeueiino?. ?ioa?an ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?iaanoi??a
aei ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?inoeooo?a iia’ycaiee c ?o caeaoi?noth ae??oeoe o?
i?iaeaie, ui aeieeathoue i?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ?iaanooaaii?, a naia:
aeai?o ia’?eoo, iaiaaeaii? aeinooiiino? aai iaaeinooiiino? aei ?yaeo
o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a, iecueeeo iiaeeeainoae aeeaa?neo?eaoe??
ii?ooaey, e?ea?aeiino? ?yaeo oe?iieo iaia??a. Aieiaiei aea iioeaii
i?eaeaaiiy oe?iieo iaia??a oiiae?a ? ia?aeiiaiiy ?iaanoi??a a ?o
iiaeeeaino? caaacia/eoe a?eueo aenie? ?acoeueoaoe o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie
aa??aioaie ?iaanooaaiiy.

Iai?ioan?eiiio ?iaanoi?o i?e cae?eniaii? aeai?o aeioe?eueii aiae?coaaoe
?N? ca oaeeie ia?aiao?aie: ioe?iea iioaioe?aeo oiiaeo; ioe?iea eiai
i?eaaaeeaino? c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee ?iaanoeoe?eii? i???ioaoe??
noa’?eoa; ioe?iea c?o/iino? aca?iiae?? c oiiaeii, aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c
oeei i?ioeanii. Noaoooiee oiiae ?N? aeeiio? oae? ooieoe??:
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai ioi?ieaiiy noa?oiaiai eai?oaeo oiaa?enoaa,
?iaeeeaoeaio oa caoenio. Eiai ?ici?? oa iaiiaiaiiy ? iaaiei na?ae/aiiyi
nooiaiy a?oioiaiino? i?aeoiae?a caniiaiee?a aei ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Aeey ?iaanoi?a iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei iieacieeii ae?yeueiino? oiiaeo ?
aa?o?noue eiai /enoeo aeoea?a o ?ic?aooieo ia iaeei oe?iiee iai??
oiiaeo. Aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeinoia??iino?
oeueiai iieacieea o?aaa ca?eueoeoe a aeoeaao ?N? /anoeo oe?iieo iaia??a,
ye? i?aaenoaaeai? ia i?aai?caoe?eii-ioi?ieaieo ?eieao, ca?eueoeoe ianya
?ioi?iaoe??, ui aeoioeth?oueny oa ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny a?aeiinii
oeeaaeaieo oaiae c oe?iieie iaia?aie, i?aaenoaaeyoe a ioae?/i?e
?ioi?iaoe?? e?eueea aa??aio?a ?ic?aooieo cacia/aiiai iieacieea.

Aecia/ai? a Oe?a?i? ii?iaoeae ioae?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia a iiai?e i???
caaacia/othoue iaaeaiiy ?iaanoi?o aeinoia??ii? oa ci?noiaii?
?ioi?iaoe??. Oae, cie?aia, aei neeaaeo ii?iaoeaii? ioae?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??
ia aeeth/athoueny iieaciee aa?oino? /enoeo aeoea?a o ?ic?aooieo ia iaeei
oe?iiee iai?? oiiaeo, iieacieee aeio?aeiino?, ia aecia/athoueny
aeeiai?ea iniiaieo iieaciee?a, ?ici??e aeiaai?iaee oa aeo?aoe
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ea?oth/iai oiui. Iaeii/anii, ii?iaoeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y
i?noeoue aeaye? iieacieee, ye? ia iathoue na?eicii? oe?iiino? aeey
?iaanoi??a.

?eiie ia? cia/iee iioaioe?ae aeey eii?aeeiaoe?? i?ioean?a, iia’ycaieo c
?iaanooaaiiyi a aeoe??. O oie aea /an, ?eieiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeyaey?
iaiaaeai? iiaeeeaino? uiaei ae??oaiiy oaeeo i?iaeai, ye iaaeia?inia?nia
iiaaae?iea iaaieo noa’?eo?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei ae??aieo ?iaanoi??a,
ooene ?o i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a, iai?ioethaaiiy ?eieiaeie oe?iaie aeoe?e,
iaiaaeaiiy eiieo?aioe??. Aeey ?o ae??oaiiy iaiao?aeia iaaia aea?aeaaia
ao?o/aiiy.

I?iaeaia aeene?ei?iaoe?? aeoe?iia?ii? iaioino?, cie?aia o ieoaiiyo
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeoe?iia?iiai eai?oaeo, ?iciiae?eo i?eaooeo, iiaea
ae??ooaaoeny ca ?aooiie iaaeaiiy i?aaa iaaiei aeoe?iia?ai aeiaaaoe a?ae
oiaa?enoaa aeeoio ?o aeoe?e, a?eueo aeeaiei? caeiiiaeaa/i?
?aaeaiaioaoe?? ii?yaeeo aeieaoe aeea?aeaiae?a oa ?ici?uaiiy aeoe?e
aeiaeaoeiaeo ai?n?e, aaaaeaiiy a ia?a cai?ioieo aeoe?e. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? oa iaiaaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy i?yii? oi?ie
noai?aiiy a?aee?eoeo aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoa, aianaiiy iaaieo ci?i aei
ii?iaoea?a ioae?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? caoiaeaie caiia?aaiiy i?iaaaeaiith
iaaeia?inia?nieo ai?n?e. Aea?aeaaa iiaeiia oaeiae anoaiiaeoe iaai?
iaiaaeaiiy uiaei iniaenoeo iia?aoe?e iinaaeiaeo in?a oiaa?enoaa c eiai
aeoe?yie oa ?aae?coaaoe ?yae ?ioeo caoiae?a i?aeo?eiee aeoe?iia?iiai
iaoai?cio ?iaanooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iao?oiy TH.?. Iai?ioan?ei? noa’?eoe ?eieo aeoe?e Oe?a?ie. – E.: O-ai
“Ciaiiy”, EII, 1999. – 262 n.

2. Caaeiy A.A., Iao?oiy TH.A. Iniiau yeiiiieee: O/aa. iiniaea. – E.:
Aeua oe. – Ciaiiy, 1998. – 478 n.

3. Caaeiy A.A., Iao?oiy TH.A. Iniiau yeiiiieee: Iee?iyeiiiieea. O/aaiia
iiniaea aeey nooaeaioia aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. – Aeiai?iiao?iane,
AeAOAI, 1995. — 160 n.

4. Caaeiy A.A., Iao?oiy TH.A. Iniiau yeiiiieee: Iae?iyeiiiieea. O/aaiia
iiniaea aeey nooaeaioia aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. – Aeiai?iiao?iane,
AeAOAI, 1995. — 158 n.

5. Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???: Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee aeey aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a eieaaeae?a, oaoi?eoi?a ? o/eeeu / Aao. eie.: A.I.Caaeiy,
N.A.Ca??/iee, I.I.Ee?e?iei, TH.?.Iao?oiy. – E., I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo nenoaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue ina?oe, 1994. – 144 n.

6. Caaeiy A.A., Iao?oiy TH.A. Iniiau yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee. Eo?n
eaeoeee. — Aeiai?iiao?iane, AeAAA, 1996. — 180 n.

7. Caaeiy A.A., Iao?oiy TH.A. Iniiau yeiiiieee: iee?io?iaaiue / O/aaiia
iiniaea aeey aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. 2-a ecae., ia?a?aa. e aeii. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane, AeAOAI, 1997. — 160 n.

8. Caaeiy A.A., Iao?oiy TH.A., Aeeaeue E.I. Aeoeeiie?iaaiea oaieueiuo
iauaaeeiaiee: aiaeec aa?eaioia // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. – 1994. — ?4. – N.
25-28.

9. Iao?oiy TH.A. I?eaaoecaoeey i?aaei?eyoee a Oe?aeia: ioeaiea yooaeoa
// Aeaaeaie/aneia iaic?aiea. — 1996. — ?1-2. — N. 12-15.

10. Iao?oiy TH.A. Noauaeou ?uiea aeoeee a Oe?aeia // Aeaaeai?/iee
iaeyae. — 1997. — ?1-2. – N. 21-28.

11. Oiiaeiaue ?uiie Oe?aeiu: io aia?oee e ii?yaeeo (“e?oaeue noie” a
?aaeaeoeee aeo?iaea) // Aeaaeai?/iee iaeyae. — 1997. — ?1-2. — N. 8-9,
15-16.

12. Iao?oiy TH.A. Oiiaeiaue ?uiie Oe?aeiu: o/anoieee e iioeau eo
iiaaaeaiey // I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, oicyenoai e i?aai. — 1998 — ?4. —
N. 34-38.

13. Iao?oiy TH.?. I?iaeaie ei?ii?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy a aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie // Aeaaeai?/iee iaeyae. — 1998. — ?1. — N. 53-59.

14. Iao?oiy TH.?. ?inaeaea?e oa aoonaeaea?e a ei?ii?aoeai?e iiaeae?
Oe?a?ie // Aaie?anueea ni?aaa. – 1998. — ?4. – N. 42-46.

15. Iao?oiy TH.?. Aeoe?y ye ia’?eo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei //
Aeaaeai?/iee iaeyae. – 1998. — ?2. – N. 5-13.

16. Iao?oiy TH.?. Aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa a Oe?a?i?: aioo??oi? oaeoi?e
aoaeoeaiino? // XXI noieaoea – i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau inaiaiey
ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo: Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu. ?
3, Oii. 7. – Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu, 1998. — N. 174-177.

17. Iao?oiy TH.?. Iaaeia?inia?ni? ai?n?? aeoe?e: eeaneo?eaoe?y,
i?e/eie, ?aaoethaaiiy // I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, oicyenoai e i?aai. –
1999. — ?3. – N. 7-11.

18. Iao?oiy TH.?. ?eceee ?iaanooaaiiy ia ?eieo aeoe?e // Aeaaeai?/iee
iaeyae. – 1999. — ?1. – N. 24-30.

19. Iao?oiy TH.A. ?ieue nenoaiu aieiniaaiey a oi?aaeaiee aeoeeiia?iui
iauanoaii // Ia?niiae. – 1999. — ?3. – N. 80-84.

20. Iao?oiy TH.?. Aecia/aiiy aeoe?? // I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, oicyenoai
e i?aai. – 1999. — ?4. – N. 16-18.

21. Iao?oiy TH.?. ?iaanoeoe?eiee aea?? aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa ia
o?iainiaiio ?eieo // I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie
a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??: Na.: Aeiiii?/iee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie, o.1. – Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: ?EE IAA Oe?a?ie,
1999. – N. 4-8.

22. Iao?oiy TH.?., Inaoeueeee A.E. Aca?iia?aeiineie aeaniee?a ?
iaiaaeaea??a a aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoaao // Aeiiii?ea AIE. – 1999. – ?4.
— N. 19-22.

23. Iao?oiy TH.?. ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ?iaanoi?e ia ?eieo aeoe?e Oe?a?ie:
iioeae ae?yeueiino? // O?iaine Oe?a?ie. – 1999. — ?5. – N. 11-17.

24. Iao?oiy TH.?. O?ainoi?iaoe?y aeoe?iia?iiai eai?oaeo oa ?ioa?ane
?iaanoi??a // Aeiiii?no. – 1999. — ?5. – N. 39-41.

25. Iao?oiy TH.A. ?acoeueoaou niaianoiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey //
I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, oicyenoai e i?aai. – 1999. — ?5. – N. 40-43.

26. Iao?oiy TH.?. Oi?ie aeene?ei?iaoe?? aeoe?iia?ii? iaioino? //
Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. – 1999. — ?6. – N. 53-57.

27. Iao?oiy TH.?. Ooieoe?? noaoooiiai oiiaeo ?inoeoooo ni?eueiiai
?iaanooaaiiy // O?iaine Oe?a?ie. – 1999. — ?7. – N. 29-33.

28. Iao?oiy TH.?., Inaoeueeee A.E., Aaa?eeyea A.A. O?iainia? aeaea?aea
?ano?niiai caaacia/aiiy i?aei?e?inoaa // Ia?niiae. – 1999. — ?3
(I?eeiaeaiea). – N. 107-108.

29. Iao?oiy TH.?., Inaoeueeee A.E. I?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy i?aa ?iaanoi??a
oa na?oiaee aeina?ae ?o ae??oaiiy // Ca??iee i?aoeue a/aieo. Aei. 21. –
Ee?a: ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie,
1999. — N. 5-9. 30. Iao?oiy TH.?. Aea?? ?inoeoooo ni?eueiiai
?iaanooaaiiy iai?ioan?eiei ?iaanoi?ii // Oai??? i?e?i-iae?iaeiiii?ee.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E., 1999. – N. 19-24.

31. Iao?oiy TH.?. Aeiiaoi? ainiiaea?noaa ye noa’?eoe ni?eueiiai
?iaanooaaiiy // O?iaine Oe?a?ie. – 1999. — ?8. – N.29-33.

32. Iao?oiy TH.?., Inaoeueeee A.E. I?iaeaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeoe?iia?iiai iaoai?cio caeo/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?e a Oe?a?i? // A?niee IAO. –
1999. — ?8. – N. 58-60.

33. Iao?oiy TH.?. Aiae?c iai?ioan?eiei ?iaanoi?ii iiaeeeainoae
?iaanoeoe?eieo ?inoeooo?a // ?ieue o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie o
noeioethaaii? aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy a Oe?a?i?: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. —
Eooeuee: ?aae.-aeae. a?ae. «Aaaea», Aieeiueaea?aeoi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Ean?Oe?a?iee, 1999. — N. 208-211.

34. Iao?oiy TH.?. Iiieo oa i?iiiceoe?y aeoe?e: ?eieia? iiaeae? Oe?a?ie
// Aaie?anueea ni?aaa. – 1999. — ?4. – N. 48-491 Iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a aei i?aoeue, iioae?eiaaieo ?c ni?aaaoi?aie, iieyaa? o
ianooiiiio: [2] – aeaae 1, 3.1, 3.2, 4, 5, 9-12, 13.1, 14.3, 15.3, 16.3,
17-19, 22-24; [3] – aeaae 1, 3.1, 3.2, 4, 5, 9.1, 9.2, 10-12, 14.3; [4]
– aeaae 15.3, 16.3, 17-19, 22-24; [5] – ?icae?e II; [6] – aeaae 1, 3.1,
3.2, 4, 5, 9-12, 14.3, 15.2, 16.3, 22-24; [7] — aeaae 1, 3.1, 3.2, 4, 5,
9.1, 9.2, 10-12, 14.3; [8] – aecia/aiiy iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a
aeoe?iioaaiiy aoa?eueieo ia’?aeiaiue, iaa?oiooaaiiy iaea?eueo
i?eeiyoiiai c ieo; [22] – noa?e ca?aaiiy oa iaca?aaiiy ?ioa?an?a
iaiaaeaea??a oa aeaniee?a, iaoiaee aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo iaiaaeaea??a;
[28], [32] – i?e/eie iecueei? aoaeoeaiino? aeoe?iia?iiai iaoai?cio a
Oe?a?i?, i?iaeaie, ui aaeueiothoue eiai ?icaeoie; [29] – i?iaeaie
aeoe?iia?ieo a?aeiinei oa niiniae ?o ae??oaiiy.

.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iao?oiy TH.?. Iai?ioan?ei? noa’?eoe ?eieo aeoe?e Oe?a?ie. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01 – aeiiii?/ia oai??y. — Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai ae?yeueiino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
?iaanoi??a a i?ioean? io?eiaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? noaoono aeanieea iaeiaiai
aeoe?iia?iiai eai?oaeo. O ?iaio? aecia/aii iioeae, oi?ie, caeiiii??iino?
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ? eieaeoeaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo ae?e iai?ioan?eieo
noa’?eo?a ia ?eieo aeoe?e Oe?a?ie. Anoaiiaeai? ianoaaeie, ui
iaiaaeothoue iiaeeeaino? aoaeoeaiiai ?eieiaiai naii?aaoethaaiiy
oiiaeiaeo a?aeiinei, o/anieeaie yeeo ? iai?ioan?ei? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
?iaanoi?e. Iaa?oioiaaii oeyoe iiaeieaiiy iaiaaeaiino? ?eieiaiai
naii?aaoethaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy caoenoo i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a ae??aieo
?iaanoi??a, oaeineiiaeaiiy aeoe?iia?iiai iaoai?cio caeo/aiiy oa
aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee nai?
aeei?enoaiiy a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a caeiiiaeaa/i? oa aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee,
?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa, a o/aiaiio i?ioean?. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeoe?y,
?iaanoi?, ai?n?y, ?eiie aeoe?e, aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai, ?inoeoooe
ni?eueiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, oi?aae?iiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iao?oiy TH.A. Iai?ioanneiiaeueiua noauaeou ?uiea aeoeee Oe?aeiu. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 – yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. – Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai aeayoaeueiinoe eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
eiaanoi?ia a i?ioeanna iieo/aiey e ?aaeecaoeee noaoona aeaaeaeueoea
iaaaiai aeoeeiia?iiai eaieoaea a oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu.

A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe auai?a aeiiaoieie oicyenoaaie
iauaeoia eiaanoe?iaaiey, oeaiiaua e iaoeaiiaua oaeoi?u ni?ina yieoaioia
aeoeee ia oeiainiaua ?ano?nu, ?ac?aaioaiu eiieo?aioiua ?uii/iua iiaeaee,
yaeythueany iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuie aeey nia?aiaiiuo oneiaee oe?aeineie
yeiiiieee. A nenoaio aiciiaeiuo oeaeae yiennee aeeth/aii
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeanoe a oicyenoaaiiii iauanoaa, a eiaanoe?iaaiey –
iieo/aiea iai?yiiai aeioiaea. Aeoeey ?anniao?eaaaony eae iniaay oi?ia
iay a eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeaiiie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie
oi?iu, i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia eioi?ue oaeinoiaa?yaony iooai ioi?ieaiey
niaoeeaeueiiai aeieoiaioa eee / e aaaeaieai niaoeeaeueiiai ?aano?a.
Onoaiiaeaiea ia?aiao?ia yiennee aeoeee yaeyaony i?iaiice?iaaieai e
iiaeaee?iaaieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, aeaeueiaeoeo
oneiaee ia?auaiey aeoeee.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu e?eoa?ee aeaeaiey eiaanoi?ia ia ?uiea
aeoeee ia i?ioanneiiaeueiuo e iai?ioanneiiaeueiuo. Aeaia eo oeiecaoeey
ii ineoieiae/aneiio i?eciaeo, auyaeaia noaiaiue eioa?ana ii?aaeaeaiiuo
a?oii aeiiaoieo oicyenoa e aeoeeyi. Ii?aaeaeaia nenoaia ia?aie/aiee i?aa
aeaaeaeueoea aeoeee, aeeth/athuay iauanoaaiiua e ei?ii?aoeaiua
ii?iaoeau, a oaeaea naiiia?aie/aiey. ?ane?uou iioeau e oi?iu
naiiia?aie/aiee. Inouanoaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey ?eneia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
eiaanoi?a: ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth, iineaaenoaeyi, a?aiaie aica?aoa
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa; ii?aaeaeaiu oaeoi?u auai?a ia?u ?enea e oeiainiauo
eino?oiaioia, i?aaeaea anaai aeoeee.

Ii?aaeaeaiu oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey, iniaaiiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania e
caeiiiia?iinoe iiaaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia a aeoeeiia?iie iiaeaee
einaeaea?neiai oeia, eo aiciiaeiinoe e ia?niaeoeau. Cia/aiea
eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee i?aaeeaaaaony ?anniao?eaaoue eae aeeaiacii
oeeo?: n iinoiyiiui aa?oiei ia?aiao?ii (aaniethoiia cia/aiea) e
ia?aiaiiui – ieaeiei (oaeouaa cia/aiea).

Onoaiiaeaiu i?e/eiu ia?aie/aiiuo aiciiaeiinoae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
eiaanoe?iaaiey, i?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaeeea aiaeeca iai?ioanneiiaeueiuie
noauaeoaie aiciiaeiinoae eiaanoeoeeiiiuo einoeoooia ia yoaia eo auai?a,
nenoaia iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia, iooe iiauoaiey aeinoiaa?iinoe iieacaoaeae,
niaa?oainoaiaaiey ii?iaoeaiie ioaee/iie eioi?iaoeee i ?acoeueoaoao eo
aeayoaeueiinoe.

E i?iaeaiai oiiaeiauo ioiioaiee, eioi?ua ia ?aoathony n iiiiuueth
?uii/iiai naii?aaoee?iaaiey ioianaiu: caueoa eiaanoi?ia io iaiaia,
ouaieaiey eo i?aa; iaieioee?iaaiea ?uii/iuie oeaiaie; ia?aie/aiea eee
ono?aiaiea eiieo?aioeee. Ii?aaeaeaiu oaeea oi?iu iaaeia?iniaanoiiai
iiaaaeaiey ii ioiioaieth e eiaanoi?ai, eae iaaeia?iniaanoiua yiennee,
aeene?eieiaoeey aeoeeiia?iiai iaiueoeinoaa a oi?aaeaiee i?aaei?eyoeai,
iaei??aeoiia iiaaaeaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae-einaeaea?ia, iaaeia?iniaanoiua
aeaenoaey einoeoooia eio?ano?oeoo?u.

Iainiiaaiu iooe i?aiaeieaiey ia?aie/aiiinoe ?uii/iiai naii?aaoee?iaaiey
e iiauoaiey o?iaiy caueou iaeeeo eiaanoi?ia, a /anoiinoe: aaaaeaiea
eoioeyoeaiie nenoaiu aieiniaaiey; eniieueciaaiea o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiie
iiaeaee nicaeaiey ioe?uouo aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa; i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaeeei
eiaanoi?ai aa?aioe?iaaiiiai i?aaa aueoia eo aeoeee i?e iiyaeaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaee; onoaiiaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo o?aaiaaiee
ioiineoaeueii ii?yaeea auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia, inouanoaeaiey aunoeie
aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie i?aaei?eyoee ee/iuo iia?aoeee n aeoeeyie aeaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey e ae?oaea.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iaoee naia i?eiaiaiea a
aeayoaeueiinoe ?yaea i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiia caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, a o/aaiii i?ioeanna.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeoeey, eiaanoi?, yienney, ?uiie aeoeee, aeoeeiia?iia
iauanoai, einoeooou niaianoiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey, oi?aaeaiea.

THE SUMMARY

Petrunya Y.E. The unprofessional subjects of the Ukrainian stock market.
The manuscript.

The thesis for winning of the Doctor degree in the field of economic
science. The speciality code is 08.01.01. (economic theory). Kyiv
University named after Taras Shevchenco, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to problems of individual investors’ activity in
getting the status of joint-stock capital owner and its realization. In
the thesis the

causes, forms and appropriateness of individual and joint investment
actions of non-professional subjects at the Ukrainian stock market are
determined.

The circumstances limiting possibilities of effective market
self-regulation of the share relationship, which unprofessional
investors acting as participants are determined.

The ways of overcoming of limitation of market self-regulation,
increasing the defending level of small-sized investors’ rights and
interests, improving of the joint-stock gear of attraction and draft on
funds are reasonable. The main results of research have found their
application in activities of legislative and executive authorities, at
some enterprises and in the study process. Key words: stock, investor,
issue, stock market, joint-stock company, institutes of joint
investment, management.

IAO?OIss TH??e ?aaaiiae/

Iai?ioan?ei? noa’?eoe ?eieo aeoe?e Oe?a?ie

(Aaoi?aoa?ao)

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 31.08.99 ?. Oi?iao 30o43/4.
Iai??

Polspeed. ?ecia?ao?y. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 2,0.Iae-

aeaeaai. a?e. 2,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ?981.

Aaceiooiaii.

?AE IAA Oe?a?ie

320600, AeNI, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 27, i?. E.Ia?ena, 19

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