1

?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?i. A.N.NEIAI?IAeE

IAOe?IIAEUeII? AEAAeAI?? IAOE OE?A?IE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

IICAIAEE ?aai Iaaeiae/

OAeE 276 : 291.1

IAIIEAOII?*IA O?AAeEOe?ss A NO?AeI?E IAO?ENOEOe?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.11 — ?ae?a??ciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?ae?a??ciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio —

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

EIEIAeIEE Aiaoie?e Ieeieaeiae/

(?inoeooo o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a
– ea??aiee A?aeae?eaiiy ?ae?a??ciaanoaa)

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

AEOOAE Aiaoie?e Noaiaiiae/

(Naaanoiiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?
aeaia?oaiaioo nioe?aeueieo ? o?einionueeeo iaoe)

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

AeOEOIAI ?aa?ao Eaeaieeiae/

(Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, i. Ee?a, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
o?einio??)

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?*EE Aaea??y Ieoaee?aia

(?inoeooo o?einio?? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo ?noi??? o?einio?? Oe?a?ie)

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y —

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a o?einio?? (i. Noie)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 18 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i13.00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.161.03 a ?inoeooo? o?einio?? ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252 001, Ee?a, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie (252 001, Ee?a, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 18 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe IAAeOIEA A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Inoaii? ?iee iaoiai noie?ooy i?ae
i?aeaiaeyoue i?aenoiie neeaaeiiio ? aaaaoiio ia iiae?? 2000-e?oiueiio
ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo o?enoeyinoaa, yea ni?aaeei iaaeoi cia/iee aieea ia ana
a?iiaaenueea e eoeueoo?ia aeeooy ethaenoaa. Ia?o ca ana oea noino?oueny
?a?iiaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??, eio?a i?ioyaii oeeo aeaio oeny/ie?oue
oi?ioaaeany ye oeea?e?caoe?y o?enoeyinueea. Caaaeyee o?enoeyinoao ? iao?
i?aaeee iaee iiaeeea?noue i?eeo/aoeny aei nea?aieoe? na?oiai? eoeueoo?e,
cae?enithaaoe iinooi o iai?yieo aei noni?euenoa, ye? aa?aioothoue
aeinoaoie ? aeaaiiieo//y. Oiio iei?, ii?yae c ?icaeoeii iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aea? ye ?aea? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, nai? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
ia?aaeeaa? ? ?ae?a?eia ?aeay. Iioya iaoeo a?iiaaeyi aei aoiai?caoe??
an?o iaeanoae aeeooy, iaiaaaiiy ooaa?aeeoe i??i?eoao
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae ni?e/eiththoue ?o i?aeaeuaiee ?ioa?an
aei o?enoeyinoaa, eiai aeoie?a oa aaiethoe??.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a
ieioeiio aoa aoiieiioan?eiee neie?aoeci, ca oiia yeiai cae?enithaaany
neioac o?enoeyinueei? ? aeio?enoeyinueei? eoeueoo?e. Oiio naia aiae?c
on?o neeaaeiaeo oeueiai neioaco oa ?o aca?iiae?? aeiiiiaaa? a?eueo
aeeaiei ona?aeiieoe ei?ai? ?a?iiaenueei? ? a?o/eciyii? aeooiaiino?, ?o
i?iaeaie ? iiaeeea? oeyoe i?enei?aiiy eoeueoo?iiai i?ia?ano.

Aeey c’ynoaaiiy ?ie? ?ae?a?? a aeooiaiiio ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa
iniaeeai? aaae iaaoaa? iio?aaa aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ii? niaaeueie no?aeieo
iooe?a oea?eae (i?aaenoaaiee?a iao?enoeee), ye? aeeee e oai?eee a
ia??iae ?aiiueiai o?enoeyinoaa. Oea coiiaeaia oei, ui, ii-ia?oa,
ia?ao?aei? aiioe c ?o eaieith canoa??eeo noa?aioei?a caaaeaee ?
neeaaeieie e aie?nieie a noni?eueiiio ?icaeoeo, caaaeyee /iio
aeeeeeathoue i?aeaeuaiee ?ioa?an aeine?aeiee?a, ii-ae?oaa, naia
no?aeia iao?enoeea ? aaaeeeaei aoaiii o aacia?a?aiiio ?icaeoeia?
ethaenueei? aeoiee i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo (a?ae noa?iaeaaiueiai aei
iiaiai /ano), ? oiio aac ia? iao? oyaeaiiy i?i o?enoeyinoai aoaeooue
iaeiia??ii ca?aeiai?. Aaeaea naia iao?enoeea caeeaea na?e iaiiaoi?iee
noeeue, naith aeanio nenoaio oe?iiinoae, caaacia/eaoe oei naiei aieea ia
aanue iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?a?iiaenueei? oeea?e?caoe??.

Naia a oai?ao no?aeieo iooe?a oea?eae aoee iaa?oioiaai?
ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iniiae o?enoeyinueeiai a/aiiy. Aaeeeo ?ieue a?aea
iao?enoeea ? a iiaeaeueo?e ?noi??? o?enoeyinoaa. Oiio caa?iaiiy aei ??
eeth/iaeo iieiaeaiue ni?eyoeia ?ice?eooth oeyo?a aaeaioaoe??
o?enoeyinoaa a aioe/iiio na?o?, c’ynoaaiith i?e/ei aeeiiaiiy iei nai??
i?n?? a aeooiaiiio, nioe?aeueiiio ? iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?.

Aea no?aeia iao?enoeea ia o?eueee caeeaea iniiae o?enoeyinueeiai
aiaineia’y, ia i?inoi aecia/eea oa?aeoa? eiai iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo.
Aiia noaea oaeiae aeoioeyoi?ii ? caniaii ia?aianaiiy ?aeae aaaaoi?
niaaeueie aioe/iino? a ianooii? aiioe. Iicaaaeaia oe??? niaaeueie,
no?aeia iao?enoeea aeyaeeany a nooith ? caeinoai?eith. Ia aeiaaeeiai a
?? no?oeoo?? iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe an? oace aioe/ieo oyaeaiue, ye?
iiaoooaaee a aeiao na?aaeiueia?//y. Inue /iio ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?
ciiao caa?iooeny aei eoeueoo?ii-o?einionueeiai iioaioe?aeo
a?aei-?einueeiai na?oo, a iaae?ao yeiai caii/aoeoaaee naaa no/ania
iaoea, th?eni?oaeaioe?y, ienoaoeoai, ii?aeue, e?oa?aoo?a oiui.

O oeueiio ca’yceo ia iiaeia ia?eoe oaaaith oaeiai i?aenoieiaiai
caeiaooeo i?ciuei? aioe/iino?, ye ciaiaieoee o?einionueeee neioac
iaiieaoii?cio, ui ocaaaeueiea e?au? aeinyaiaiiy noa?iaeaaiuei?
ioae?ino?, aea ia nueiaiaei? ua iaei aea/aiee. ? oea i?e oiio, ui aaea
a ?aiiueio?enoeyinueeiio aiaineia’? neeaeany iiooaeia iaiieaoii?/ia
o?aaeeoe?y, i?ae aieeaii yei? ia?aaoaaea a?eueo?noue no?aeieo iooe?a
oea?eae. Oi/a iaiieaoii?ci i?ioenoaaeya naaa o?enoeyinoao, i?ioa eiai
?aea? aoee oe?iei aeei?enoai? i?aaenoaaieeaie no?aeii? iao?enoeee, ye?,
aeoiaey/e c oe??? oai?aoe/ii? aace, i?aeianee nai? aiaineia’y ia
??aaiue neeaaeiiai e aaaaoia?aiiiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai a/aiiy.

Iiae?aia iaiaeiicia/i?noue uiaei caeiaooe?a ieioeiai ? caeiiii??iith
aeey iin??a aoaeue-yeiai iiaiai na?oiaeyaeo, eio?ee oi?io?oueny ia ceai?
aiio. Aiie iiaeii? ?aaeeeaeueii caia?a/oaaoe noa?a, uia noaa?aeaeoaaoe
iiaa, ? ?acii c oei caa??aaoe c iei niaaeei?iiee ca’ycie. Oiio
i?inoaaeoth/e noinoiee iaiieaoii?cio e o?einionueei-aiaineianueei?
nenoaie no?aeii? iao?enoeee, iiaeia /?oe?oa c?icoi?oe ye ci?noiaiee a?e
o?enoeyinoaa, i??o canai?iiy iei eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae, oae ? oi?io
aeiianaiiy ?o aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?.

Naia caaaeyee iao?enoeoe? ie aei nueiaiaei? a?ae/oaa?ii aieea ?aeae
aioe/iino? ? na?aaeiueia?//y, ia yeeo caiaeii caiaeeeeny /e ia an?
i?noe/i? e ?aoe?iiae?noe/i? oa/??, i?aai?/ii iia’ycai? c
o?enoeyinoaii. ? oaeee iiooe ei?ai?a oa ca’yce?a o?enoeyinoaa c
iiia?aaei?ie a/aiiyie ia i?eiaioo? eiai cia/eiino?, aea iieaco?
niaaeei?iiee oa?aeoa? aenieeo iaee?iaaiue. Aaeaea c’ynoaaiiy
?ae?a?eii-o?einionueeeo i?aeaaeei no/anii? ?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e
aeiiiiaaa? a?eueo aeeaiei inyaiooe ? ei?ai? iaoi? aeooiaiino?.

Aiae?c ?ae?a?eii-o?einionueeeo aeoie?a no/anii? ?a?iiaenueei?
eoeueoo?e aeiiiiaaa? a?eueo aeeaiei ona?aeiieoe ei?ai? iaoi?
aeooiaiino?. Nooo?a? ci?ie, ye? ca inoaii? ?iee a?aeaoeeny a on?o noa?ao
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, coiiaeee, iacaaaeath/e ia anth ?o
noia?a/eea?noue, ea?aeeiaeueii iiao neooaoe?th a aeooiaiiio aeeoo?
Oe?a?ie. Aiie iinoaaeee neeaaei? ieoaiiy ia?ainieneaiiy i?eioeei?a
aeooiaiino? a?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeaiue iaeaooiueiai, inyaiaiiy
aeeaeiieo ieano?a na?oiai? oa a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e. A noni?euenoa? ana
ae?aci?oa i?inoaaeo?oueny i?aaiaiiy aei aeeth/aiiy ieioeeo caeiaooe?a
?ae?a?eii-o?einionueei? niaaeueie a e?oaiia?a “i?aoethth/eo”
oe?iiinoae. Iaaia ??/, aoaeue-yea ?noi?e/ia eoeueoo?a ? no/aniith
o?eueee iioaioe?eii. Uia aiia noaea “no/aniith” ?aaeueii, iathoue aooe
iayaieie a?aeiia?aei? nioe?aeuei? iio?aae oa a?aeiia?aeiee iaoa??ae
aeey oniaaeeoaaiiy.

Oiio aeooaeuei?noue icia/aii? i?iaeaie coiiaeth?oueny ia eeoa iio?aaith
iiaeaeueoiai i?inoaaeaiiy ?ie? o?enoeyinoaa a ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e oa
o?einionueei? aeoiee, aea e iaiao?aei?noth iaoeiaiai ocaaaeueiaiiy
eiai aaaaoia?eiaiai aeooiaiiai aeina?aeo, iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ae?a??, ?? i?noey a i?ioean?
caaacia/aiiy aacia?a?aiino? o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe??. Ine?eueee aeooiaia
niaaeueia ieioeiai aeoioeth? /an ? nioe?aeueiee aeina?ae iiia?aaei?o
iieie?iue, ?? inai?iiy aea? ciiao aeeaoa i?ciaoe aeoiee e ci?no
eoeueoo?ieo yaeu nueiaiaeaiiy, ona?aeiieoe ia?niaeoeae caaaa/aiiy
eoeueoo?e.

Ia aeiaaeeiai ia eiaeiiio aoai? naiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoai aeae?a? c
aiae?a ?ae?a?? oa o?einio?? ianaiia?aae oa, ui oae /e ?iaeoa aeecueea
aei eiai ii/ooo?a ? aeoiie, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ? iaa?oioiao? ?o, caeaoia
i?aoethaaoe ia iaeaooi?.

Oa?aeoa? ae??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy cia/iith i??ith iaoiiaeth?oueny
aeeth/ai?noth ?ae?a?eieo ia’?aeiaiue o i?ioeane eoeueoo?ieo iai?i?a.
Aeey ian iniaeeai aaaeeeaei o oeueiio ca’yceo ? aiae?c ae?? iaoai?cio
eoeueoo?ii? niaaeei?iiino? a i?aeoeoe? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae. Oiio ?nio?
iaiao?aei?noue iiaeeaeaiiai ?ae?a??ciaa/iai oa ?noi?eei-o?einionueeiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee aiaineianueeiai i?aeoiaeo aei
eoeueoo?ii-o?einionueei? (a oiio /ene? iaiieaoii?/ii?) niaaeueie. Aei
oiai ae naia i?aaineaa’y iiaea caa?aaoeny a Oe?a?i? eeoa ca oiiae
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo ?ae?a??, ?? ?en,
oa?aeoa?ieo aeey aeiae Oe?a?inueeiai i?aaineaa’y, ?en, ye? cia/iith
i??ith oi?ioaaeeny i?ae aieeaii ?aeae noa?iaeaai?o iaiieaoii?e?a.
Inue /iio nueiaiaei? aeooaeueiei noa? caaaeaiiy eii?aeeiaoe?? coneeue
on?o ethaeae, iacaeaaeii a?ae na?oiaeyaeieo i???ioaoe?e, ii inai?iith
eoeueoo?ii-o?einionueei? niaaeueie ieioeiai.

Ia?aoo?, cacia/aia i?iaeaia ia? aeeaieee aoiai?noe/iee niene. ??
?ice?eooy aeanoue ciiao ua ?ac aiaethaaoe aei i?ia?aeieo iieiaeaiue
i?aaineaaiiai a/aiiy i?i ethaeeio, oeo iieiaeaiue, ye? noi?ioaaeeny
i?ae aieeaii i?ciueiaioe/ii? o?aaeeoe?? ? caeaoi? ni?eyoe
ooaa?aeaeaiith a noni?euenoa? aeniei? ii?ae? ? eoeueoo?e, aca?iiiiaaae
? oiea?aioiino?, ae?aeiao i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo eiioan?e a
?aieao aeoiai?/iiai i?ioeano oeyoii iiaeieaiiy oeo aiiiae?e, ye?
ni?e/eiththoue a?iiaaenueea iaii?icoi?iiy. Aa?aaeeeaa noaaeaiiy ia
o?eueee aei nai?? niaaeueie, aea e aei caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae
anana?oiuei? o?einio?? noeioeth? i?ioeane aca?iiaieeao ? aca?iiiai?io
??cieo eoeueoo?, ni?ey? ia?aai?aiith iaoe?iiaeueii? caieiooino? a
aeooiaiiio ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa.

Ioaea, caa?iaiiy a aeena?oaoe?? aei aeaeaeeo /an?a a ?noi???
?ae?a?eii-o?einionueei? aeoiee ? ia i?inoi aeneo?nii o ieioea, aea ia?
i?yiee aeo?ae ia no/ani?noue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiioaaeany a
nenoai? aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? a inoaii? ?iee i?iaiaeeoue eaoaae?a
?ae?a??ciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. O. Oaa/aiea. Cie?aia,
?iaioa iia’ycaia c ieaiiaith oaiith “O?einio?y ?ae?a?? ye o?einionueea
?ae?a??ciaanoai”, iaae yeith eieaeoea i?aoeth? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
caa?aeoth/iai eaoaae?ith i?io. Eoanueeiai A.?. Ia? aiia ca’ycie ? c oei
iaoeiaei aei?iaeii, yeee aoa iaeiie/aiee a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iniiaieo iai?yie?a o?enoeyinueei? o?einio??, caii/aoeiaaiiio i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii i?io. Eae?i?ia TH.A.

I?ioa yeui iaoeiaoe? eaoaae?e aiae?coaaee ieoaiiy aca?iica’yceo
?aeaae?noe/ii? o?einio?? ? aiaineia’y ia ??cieo aoaiao ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?ae?a?eiiai eiiieaeno ?, cie?aia, a i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?inueei?
i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, aeooiai? aeoiee no?aeii-o?enoeyinueeiai
oai?aoecoaaiiy ana ua caeeoathoueny iaeiaea/aieie. A oie aea /an
iaiao?aei?noue anaa?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeooiaii? niaaeueie ?aiiueiai
o?enoeyinoaa, c yei? o nai?e ae?yeueiino? aeoiaeyoue no/ani? i?aaineaai?
oea?eae, iniaeeai c?inoa? a iao? aei?, eiee iinoa? caaaeaiiy
i?aeaaaeaiiy i?aenoie?a ?icaeoeo o?enoeyinueei? ?aea? i?ioyaii iaeaea
2000 — e?oiueiai ia??iaeo ?? ?noi???. Aiaeii/an oea niiioea? aei
iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy o?einio?? o?enoeyinueeiai iaiieaoii?cio, ui aoea
nai???aeiei i?noeii i?e ia?aoiae? ina?/aieo yce/iee?a aei iiiioa?noe/ii?
?ae?a?eiino?. Ana oea e coiiaeei ia?aiiy aeena?oaioii oaie nai?? ?iaioe.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ? cae?eniaiiy
eiiieaeniiai ?ae?a??ciaa/iai aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eeth/iaeo iieiaeaiue
? eiioeaioe?e iaiieaoii?/iiai neioaco ia aiaineianueei-o?einionueeo
nenoaio no?aeii? iao?enoeee ye oai?aoe/ii? iniiae i?aaineaaiiai a/aiiy.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ?ica’ycaoe ianooii?
caaaeaiiy:

— i?inoaaeeoe iniiai? aoaie ? iai?yiee ?ic?iaee a aeaaiueia?aoeuee?e
o?einio?? aiaiooeaoeueei? i?iaeaiaoeee, yea aoea nenoaiaoeciaaia a
iaiieaoii?ci? e io?eiaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie o ?aiiueio?enoeyinueeiio
aiaineia’?;

— ?ice?eoe iniiai? i?eioeeie e iaoiaee nayoiiooe?anueei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
i?eioeeio niaaeei?iiino? a o?einionuee?e eoeueoo?? ia iniia? ioe?iee
?aii?i o?enoeyinoaii caeiaooe?a aee?i?noe/ii? ioae?ino?;

— aecia/eoe oeyoii ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co oa?aeoa? ?icoi?iiy ae?aeaeoeee
?icaeoeo Oi?aa?noia a iaiieaoii?ci? e iao?enoeoe?;

— ?icaeyiooe ci?no nayoiiooe?anueei? iioieia?? /a?ac aiae?c i?ioeano
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?aeae iaiieaoii?/ii? o??aaeieia?? o o?ei?oa?iiio a/aii?
?aiiueiai o?enoeyinoaa;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe niaoeeo?eo iao?enoe/iiai oeoia/aiiy i?iaeaie
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai ia/aea c? na?oii ? ethaeeiith oeyoii
i?inoaaeaiiy aieeao ia aiaineia’y ?aeae iaiieaoii?/ii? einiieia?? e
aio?iiieia??;

— c’ynoaaoe iaoai?cie ? oi?ie ae?iaeaiiy i?noe/iiai aeina?aeo,
caii/aoeiaaiiai a i?ciueiaioe/i?e o?einio??, ? ia oe?e iniia?
i?inoaaeeoe aoaie i?ioeano aiaii?ciaiiy, a?aeia?aaeaiiai o o?einio??
no?aeii? iao?enoeee.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa oa aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iniaeea?noth aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oa, ui aiii aeeiiaia ia
iaae? ?ae?a??ciaanoaa oa ?noi??? o?einio??. ? oea eia?/ii iicia/eeiny ia
eiai iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaaeao. I?e ?ica’ycaii? iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue
aeena?oaio aeoiaeea ?c i?eioeei?a ia’?eoeaiino?, na?oiaeyaeiiai
ieth?ae?cio, oieeath/e eiioan?eii? caaiaaaeiaaiino?, ui a?aee?eaaei
iiaeeea?noue iaoia?aaeaeaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeieo ?
noia?a/eeaeo aca?iia?aeiinei i?ciueiaioe/ii? ? ?aiiueio?enoeyinueei?
o?einio??, c’ynoaaiiy iniiaieo oi?i inai?iiy iaiieaoii?/ii? niaaeueie a
eiioeaiooaeueieo iiaoaeiaao no?aeieo iooe?a oea?eae, i?inoaaeaiiy
iiaeaeueoiai aieeao o?enoeyieciaaiiai iaiieaoii?cio ia i?aaineaa’y.
Aiaeii/an iio?aaa aiae?co o?einionueeeo oa aiaineianueeeo oaeno?a
niiioeaea aei aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a aiae?co e neioaco, aiaeia?e,
nenoaiaoecaoe?? e ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Aiaethth/e aei ?noi??? aeaaiueia?aoeueei? o?einio??, aeena?oaio na?aeiii
iaiaaeoaaany aiae?cii ?? i?iaeai /a?ac i?ecio o?aaeeoe?? aiaiooeaiiy.
I?e oeueiio aeena?oaoe?y aoaeoaaeany ia eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiio iaoa??ae?,
ui coiiaethaaei ?icaeyae ?ae?a?eieo yaeu o ?o ?icaeoeo oa aca?iica’yceo
c ?ioeie yaeuaie. Aeena?oaio e?eoe/ii ni?eeiaa i?aoe? ?aaeyinueeeo
aaoi??a, aeey yeeo /anii aoa oa?aeoa?iee ca?aeaieia?ciaaiee i?aeo?ae aei
?ae?a?? oa ?aeaae?noe/ii? o?einio??. Aeieath/e aeiaiaoe/i? onoaiiaee
ieioeiai, aeena?oaio aaeaany aei aiae?co ?ae?a?eii? o?einio?? ia iniia?
oe?ieiai aoiai?noe/iiai iiaeyaeo.

Nooo?aei eiioeaiooaeueiei i?aea?oioyi aeena?oaoe?? neoaoaaee oai?aoe/i?
?ic?iaee, ye? c iiceoe?e no/aniiai ?ae?a??ciaanoaa cae?eniai? a i?aoeyo
A. Aiiaea?aiea, A. Aeooaea, ?.Aeoeoiaia, A. Eieiaeiiai, I.
E?eaeai?anueeiai, A. Eiaiaeea, A. Eoanueeiai, A. I?/ee, I. ?eaa/oea, A.
Oai/a?a, I. ss?ioeueeiai oa ?ioeo, ? a yeeo ianoiththoueny iia?
i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee ?ae?a?? ye iaa?ae’?iiiai aeaiaioo aeooiaiino?.
Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aaoi?ia? iaiao?aeii aoei oaeiae
caa?iooenue aei i?aoeue ?in?enueeeo (I. Caiae??aa, I. Ao?aae/a, I.
Ai?ae??iea, I. Ein?aa, I. Einueeiai) oa cao?aeieo (I. Aiiaia, Ae.
Aaoinoa?ea, E. E?oiaaoa?a, ?. Iaeia, A. ?annaea, O. Oa??a?a, E.
Ooaeia?a) aeine?aeiee?a, ye? iathoue nooo?aa cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy
caeiiii??iinoae noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ?aiiueiai o?enoeyinoaa ?
?ae?a?eii-o?einionueeeo a/aiue o neeaaeio aiioo ?aiiueiai
na?aaeiueia?//y. A ?iaio? aaoi? iie?aany ia aeniiaee oa aeai? ?noi???,
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, aoeee, anoaoeee.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa a?oioo?oueny ia?aaeon?i ia oaeeo aeaea?aeao, ye
o?einionuee? oa aiaineianuee? oai?e, ye? noaee iniiaiei ia’?eoii
iaoeiaiai ?icaeyaeo, cie?aia i?aoe? aeaaiueia?aoeueeeo ieneeoae?a (a?ae
i?o?e?a aei iaiieaoii?e?a aeeth/ii) c iioieia?/ii?, aio?iiieia?/ii? oa
aiinaieia?/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee, niaaeei?iiino? a ?icaeoeo o?einio?? ?
noaaeaiiy aei o?einionueei? niaaeueie ieioeiai. I?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee eiioeaioe?? iaiieaoiiee?a, ia?ainieneai? a oai?ao
no?aeieo iooe?a oea?eae (I?eaaia, A?eai??y I?nueeiai, Aanee?y Aaeeeiai,
Inaaaei-Ae?ii?n?y A?aiiaa?oa, Iaeneia Niia?aeieea, ?iaia Aeaiane?ia,
?ioeo).

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii a ?ic?iaoe? oaie aeena?oaoe?? aoee oaeiae i?aoe?
oe?a?inueeeo aiaineia?a (?ea??iia, Eeeiaioa Niieyoe/a, ?neoano?a,
iieai?no?a, ae?y/?a Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? aeaaeai??, i?aaenoaaiee?a
aeaaeai?/ii? o?einio??), a oaeiae ie?ai? aeaeaiiy oa no/ania ia??iaee/ia
oea?eiaia e?oa?aoo?a (“Aiaineianeea o?oaeu”, “AEo?iae Iineianeie
Iao?ea?oee”, “I?aaineaaiee a?niee”, ?io?), a yeeo a?aeia?aaeaia
noaaeaiiy oea?eae aei aioe/ii? niaaeueie. Aeena?oaio iie?aany ia oai?e
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo ieneeoae?a ieioeiai oa no/anieo aaoi??a, ui
?ice?eaathoue ?ieue ?ae?a?eiiai oaeoi?o a ?noi??? noni?euenoaa e ?noi???
eoeueoo?e, i?noea i?aaineaaieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e o?einionueeeo i?iaeai a
i?ioean? ae??oaiiy aeooaeueieo caaaeaiue oeea?e?caoe??, i?aeo?ae aei
?ie? ?ae?a?? oa oea?eae a aeooiaiiio aeeoo? noni?euenoaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaiieaoii?/ia o?aaeeoe?y a no?aei?e
iao?enoeoe? — oea noeoii?noue ?aeae, i?eioeei?a, iaoiae?a oa ?ioeo
aeya?a aee?i?noe/ii? o?einio??, i?aaenoaaeaieo a inoaiiueiio aioe/iiio
neioac? ? inai?ieo oa ia?aianaieo c iueiai a ?aii? o?enoeyinoai
i?aaenoaaieeaie aiaineianueei? aeoiee. Caaaeyee oeueiio iaa?oioiaaia
iaiieaoii?eaie – “oaieiaaie” eiioeaioe?y iiiioa?noe/ii? ?ae?a?eiino?
aoea aaeaioiaaia c oai?aoe/iiai ??aiy aei ??aiy iianyeaeaiii?
na?aeiiino?, a ?acoeueoao? /iai ae?oa?ia a/aiiy noaei aeinooiia oe?ieei
ianai ianaeaiiy. Oea icia/aei, c iaeiiai aieo, iaaia ni?iuaiiy ?
aoeueaa?ecaoe?th o?einionueei? niaeoeyoe??, a c ?ioiai, — iaaeaiiy
“ia?ici??eiaoth/?e” a??? aeaeyaeo a??e io?einionoaoaaii?,
?ioaeaeooae?ciaaii?. Oiio oi?aeanoai no?aeii? iao?enoeee iaae a?aoeueeei
iaiieaoii?ciii iinoaaaei ia ye ?ic?ea eoeueoo?ii-o?einionueei?
o?aaeeoe??, a ye oaea caia?a/aiiy yce/ieoeueei? aeooiaiino?, eio?a
ia?aaeaa/aei ia?ainieneaiiy ? aea??eiaa canai?iiy o?enoeyinoaii
oe?iiinoae eeane/ii? o?einio??, ye? nooo?ai aieeioee ia aio?iiieia?/iee
? eoeueoo?ieia?/iee aniaeoe ?ae?a?? iaee?iaaiiy, coiiaeee o a?aeiiiio
niene? ?? ieth?ae?ci, ia?aoai?eee o?enoeyinoai ia aeeiai?/io eiioan?th,
ni?eeiyoeeao aeey aoaeue-yeiai eoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa?oioiaai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, ye?
a?aecia/athoueny iaoeiaith iiaeciith:

— ca?iaeeaoenue o i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy noia?a/iinoae i?ae aii??e/iei
ciaiiyi ? i?oieia??th oeyoii caia?a/aiiy inoaiiuei?, aeaaiueia?aoeueea
o?einio?y iaaeae? aenooia? ye oai?aoe/ia i?aea?oioy ?aoi?iaoe?eieo
oaiaeaioe?e, ui caii/aoeoaaeeny a iaae?ao yce/ieoeoaa o aeaeyae?
i?noeoeecio ye nai???aeiiai ae?aaeaiiy i?iaoaeaeaiiai
?ae?a?eii-ii?aeueiiai ii/oooy. Oiio o?einionueea aeoiea Aeeaaee
caaacia/oaaea iaa?oiooaaiiy aiaiooeaoeueei? o?aaeeoe?? ye aeyao
i?aaiaiiy aeaaiueia?aoeueeeo ieneeoae?a aei i/euaiiy i?oieia?/ieo oi?i.
Caeiiii??iei aoei ?oi? noiaeaeaiiy a?ae a?eici?cio /a?ac iaioa?ci ?
aea?ci aei oa?cio, caaaeyee /iio aiie aenooiathoue ii-noo? ye i?aaeoa/?
?aea? iiiioa?noe/ii? ?ae?a?eiino?. A ?acoeueoao? ?noi??y aioe/ii?
o?einio?? o iaaiiio niene? iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye ?noi??y ooeaiiy
?aeeiiai Aiaa;

— a ia?ao?aeio aiioo a?ae aioe/iino? aei na?aaeiueia?//y i?inoaaeo?oueny
ni?aaaei?e i?noe/iee aoi, yeee aeoea?co? i?ioeane aeeoa?aioe?aoe??,
oaie?an?? oa oeaio?ae?caoe?? eoeueo?a ye ia?aaeoiiao iiaeaeueoi?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?oieia?/ieo oyaeaiue a nenoaio ?ae?a?eiiai neie?aoecio,
noai?th? i?aea?oioy aeey oi?aeanoaa ?aea? iiiioa?cio. Caii/aoeoaaaoe
naaa ca oiia iiae?aieo aeooiaieo iiooe?a, aaee/ia nenoaia iaiieaoii?cio
a?aeia?aceea oaiaeaioe?th ia?aoiaeo aee?i?noe/ii? aeoiee a?ae
aiaiooeaiiy aei nae?ae?caoe??. Oea aoei ?aae?ciaaia /a?ac neioac
iaeaaaii?oeo aeniiae?a on?o iiia?aaei?o ?aeaae?noe/ieo a/aiue ?
iaa?oiooaaiiy i?ia?aie ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aei-?einueeiai iie?oa?cio ia
canaaeao ?aeaae?noe/ii? o?einio??, eeth/ia? iieiaeaiiy yei? caiaeii aoee
caiice/ai?, ia?ainieneai? ? aeei?enoai? i?aaenoaaieeaie iao?enoeee
ca?aeii iio?aa aeanii? ?ae?a??;

— noaaeaiiy ?aiiueio?enoeyinueeeo aiaineia?a aei ?acoeueoao?a aeooiaiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aioe/iino? aeaoa?i?ioaaeiny aino?eie nioe?aeueieie
eie?c?yie aeiae oi?ioaaiiy no?aeii? iao?enoeee. Oiio ii?yae c i?iyaaie
eoeueoo?iiai “iaaaoea?cio”, iaoiiaeaieie iani?eeiyooyi iooeyie
na?oiaeyaeieo i???ioe??a aee?i?cio, i?inoaaeo?oueny oniaaeeoaaiiy ieie
iiia?aaei?o o?einionueeeo ?aeae, oi/a /anii ? a ni?iuaiiio aeaeyae?. I?e
oeueiio iooe? oea?eae i???iooaaeeny ia aea??eiaa aeei?enoaiiy caeiaooe?a
aioe/ii?, ianaiia?aae iaiieaoii?/ii? ioae?ino?, ui ?icaeyaeaeany ye
can?a i?aeaioiaee o?enoeyinoaa a iao?enoeyinueeiio na?aaeiaeu?;

— aeieeioaoe a iaei?e ? o?e aea aeooiai?e aoiinoa??, a iaeieo ? oeo aea
eoeueoo?ieo oeaio?ao Na?aaecaiiiii?’y, iaiieaoii?ci ? iao?enoeea oi/a e
?ic??ciyeeny a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo oa ?aeaeii-aeiaiaoe/ieo canaaeao,
i?ioa iinoaaaee ye iaieio/? ?acoeueoaoe aaaaoia?eiaeo oeoai?/ieo iiooe?a
ethaenoaii oeyo?a, ui aaaeooue aei aeooiaii? naiaiaee, aei
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?, iineaaeaiiy caeaaeiino? aeoo? a?ae
/ooo?aiai e iaoa??aeueiiai. Oiio iaa?oue ca oiia i?ioeai?noaa
aee?i?noe/ia o?einio?y ? o?enoeyinueea aiaineia’y ?oee iacono??/ iaeia
iaeiiio, aeyaii /iai noaee i?ioeane oaieia?coaaiiy i?ciueiaioe/ii?
o?einionueei? niaeoeyoe?? ? io?einionoaoaaiiy ?aiiueio?enoeyinueei?
oaieia??. Ia iniia? caiice/aiiy i?aaenoaaieeaie iao?enoeee
?aeaeii-iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa eia?ei-eiioeaiooaeueiiai aia?aoo
yce/ieoeueei? o?einio?? oi?io?oueny o?enoeyi?ciaaiee iaiieaoii?ci ye
can?a caaacia/aiiy aacia?a?aiino? o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe??;

— a iaiieaoii?ci? e iao?enoeoe? i?inoaaeothoueny oioiaei? aa??aioe
?icaeoeo Oi?aa?noia, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny noiae?noth iaiieaoii?/ii?
o??aaee (?aeeia-Oi-Aeooa) ? o?enoeyinueei? O??eoe? (Ioaoeue-Nei-Aeoo),
yeei i?aeeyaathoue ?io? aeooiai? ?noioe (aeaiiie a ieaoii?ci? ? aiaaee a
o?enoeyinoa?). ? oi/a oey oioiaei?noue ia ? aaniethoiith, ine?eueee
o?enoeyinoai caeeoa?oueny oa?ciii, a iaiieaoii?ci ia ii?eaa? c
iaioa?ciii, cae?enithaaia a i?ciueiaioe/i?e o?einio?? aeai?oieia?caoe?y
oa aeacaio?iiiii?o?caoe?y Aiaa ca?eueiyea eiai a?ae caiieo aeanoeainoae.
Iaaeae?, aoaeoth/e ni?acao/i? o?enoeyinueeei iiaeyaeai eiioeaioe??
“ia?aaoaaiiy” Aiaa-a-nia?, “noiaeaeaiiy” aeooiaiiai aei iaoa??aeueiiai
oa “i?aeianaiiy” aeoo? aei Ia?oi?aeeiiai, iaiieaoii?ee a?aee?eaaee
iooeyi oea?eae oeyo aei o?einionueeiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ae?a??
iaee?iaaiiy. Aea, iaaeaaoe aioe/iiio iie?oa?cio caniae nenoaiaoecaoe??
oa ?aoi?ioaaiiy eiai iieiaeaiue, iaiieaoii?ci iinooieany o?enoeyinoao,
yea oi/ ? aiaethaaei aei eiai oai?aoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo, i?ioa ciiaei
e?aua caaeia?eueieoe ?ae?a?ei? iio?aae ian;

— aeoiaey/e a nai?o iniiaiiieiaeieo eiioeaioe?yo ?c a??e a aaniethoio
?aaeuei?noue (ia?aaoaaiiy) Iiiaaenouiai ye ia?aeiii? iniiae aoooy,
aeaaa, ethaia? ? e?ane, iaiieaoii?ee e iooe? oea?eae ii-noo? ia
?icoiaeeeeny a nai?o oe?ii?nieo canaaeao. Oiio, iacaaaeath/e ia
a?aei?iiino? a aeiaiaoe/i?e /anoei? ?o nenoai (iioieia??, eiaieia??,
iiaaiaoieia??), a?aeia?aaeaia a ?aiiueio?enoeyinuee?e o?einio?? ?aeay
iniaeno?niiai Eiaina (Aiaa-Neia) aeaaaea ciiao ia o?eueee eaaei aeaanoe
c Ia?oi?aeeiiai an? aeaee aoooy, yea ca iaiieaoii?/iith noaiith
?icai?oa?oueny a?ae aeuiai aei ieae/iai, aea e ia?a?iaeoe
noai?aeeiaoe?ii?ci a eii?aeeiaoe?ii?ci, a iaioa?ci – a oa?ci, ui
caeeaaeaei iniiae iaiieaoii?/ii? o?aaeeoe?? a o?einio?? iao?enoeee;

— i?ioenoaaeaiiy iaaaniiai e caiiiai, ai??oiueiai ? aeie?oiueiai
i?eaiaeeei yce/ieoeueeeo o?einio?a ? o?enoeyinueeeo aiaineia?a aei
?icoi?iiy na?oo ye ?acoeueoaoo “noiaeaeaiiy” aeooiaiiai aei
iaoa??aeueiiai ? ni?eeiyooy inoaiiueiai ye ae?aei? eii?? ?aeaaeueiiai.
Iie?ath/enue ia i?eioeeie iaiieaoii?/ii? einiieia?? e aio?iiieia??,
iooe? oea?eae iaaeaaaee nieneo iinaea?/iiio ?nioaaiith ye i?ioeano
aa?iii?caoe?? an?o aeae?a aoooy, ui ia?aaeaa/aei ?o e?ioeaao ?aei?noue.
? oi/a, aeoiaey/e c iiceoe?e niiaoieia?? oa ineoieia??, oai?aoeee iaio
nenoai ?icaeyaeaee ethaeeio ye ?noioo, a eio??e aeooa /a?ac
a??oiiaae?iiy aeyaeeany oa’yciaiith a oaiaoao ieio?, ana ae aiie aaa/aee
caiia iieeeeaiiy ethaeeie a i/euaii? aacnia?oii? aeoo?, a iaaieiiiio
ni?yioaaii? ?? aei nii??aeiaiiai iaaei?e?iaeiiai ia/aea;

— aaaaeath/e, ui iaiaeaiiy ye ?acoeueoao “i?aeianaiiy”, cai?ioiiai ?ooo
aeoo? aei nai?? ia?a?nii? ?aeiino?, iiaeeeaa eeoa caaaeyee
aiaii?ciaiith, iaiieaoii?ee caeeaee iniiae ?icaeiooiai caiaeii o
no?aei?e iao?enoeoe? eaoaoaoe/iiai e aiioaoe/iiai aiaineia’y.
Aeiioneath/e i?e oeueiio iiaeeea?noue inyaiaiiy eeoa ciai?oi?o i?iya?a
(aia?a?e) Aiaeanoaa, a ia eiai iacaaaiaiii? nooiino? (i?e?iaee),
o?einioe e aiaineiae iaaeae? aiaethaaee aei i?noe/iiai aeina?aeo, ui
ia?aaeaa/aa oioiaei? aoaie naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, i?ina?oeaiiy ? ceeooy
aeoo? c Aiaii, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny a ethaia? ye aenoaoe/iiio iiiaio?
aiaii?ciaiiy. Ine?eueee oeae i?ioean ia?aaeaa/aa aeo?ae o
aace?ia/i?noue, a?aeooeaiiy Aiaa a naiiio nia?, ? iaiieaoii?ee, ? iooe?
oea?eae ona?aeiiethaaee eiai ye iino?eiee ? iaaieiiee iioya aeoo? aei
iiaiioe aoooy a o?ainoeaiaeaioiiio.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eyei aaaaeaiith a iaoeiaee ia?a a?o/eciyieo
oa ?iicaiieo ?ae?a?eii-o?einionueeeo aeaea?ae, ye? aein? ia aoee
i?aaeiaoii a?oioiaiiai ?ae?a??ciaa/iai aiae?co ? ciaeiinoai c yeeie, ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, aeoea?co? coneeey iaoeiaoe?a, ni?yiiaai? ia anaa?/ia
aea/aiiy aeoie?a ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo iaoi? aeooiaiino?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? ianaiia?aae o oiio, ui
i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? ciiao a?aeoai?eoe oe?e?ni?noue
i?aai?/iiai eoeueoo?ii-o?einionueeiai ca’yceo aioe/iino? ?
na?aaeiueia?//y ia ceai? neeaaeii? ? noia?a/eeai? ia?ao?aeii? aiioe,
inieneeoe cia/aiiy iaiieaoii?/ii? niaaeueie aeey aeooiaiiai aeeooy
ianooiieo iieie?iue. Ocaaaeueiaiiy ? iaeaaaeeea?o? iieiaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoe?ththoue iaoiaeieia?/io aaco aeey iiaeaeueoeo
?ae?a??ciaa/eo oa ?noi?eei-o?einionueeeo iiooe?a o oea?ei? aca?iica’yceo
eoeueoo? ? ?ae?a?e ??cieo ia?iae?a, iniaeeai a eiioaeno? oi?ioaaiiy
?aiiueio?enoeyinueeiai aiaineia’y, iniiai? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy
yeiai aoei ?ic?iaeaii i?ae aieeaii i?ciueiaioe/ii? o?einio?? a
e?oa?aoo?? no?aeii? iao?enoeee.

Aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eyoeiooue onoiaiith iayaieo
a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo iaaeaeaeiai ieioeiai ia?aein?a ? iaeiia?/ieo
iiaeyae?a ia noaoon o?enoeyinoaa, aeiiiiiaeooue inieneeoe eiai ye aaaaoo
aeooiaio ?aaeuei?noue. Oiio i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c, c iaeiiai aieo, aea?
ciiao caiiaieoe oie aaeooi, yeee ooai?eany a aaeoc? ?ae?a??ciaanoaa
uiaei iaeiaeine?aeaeaieo ieoaiue aca?iiaieeao iaiieaoii?cio ?
o?enoeyinoaa, a c ?ioiai, aenooia? iniiaith aeey iiaeieaiiy
?aeaieia?/ii? caaiaaaeiaaiino? i?e a?aeoai?aii? oe?e?nii? ?noi???
?aiiueiai o?enoeyinoaa, eiai noaaeaiiy aei aioe/iiai ieanoo
o?einionueei? eoeueoo?e.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? ? a oiio, ui ??
?acoeueoaoe aoaeooue ni?eyoe iiaeeaeaiith iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue i?i
iniaeeaino? i?aeoiaeo o?enoeyinueeeo aiaineia?a aei eoeueoo?ii?
niaaeueie ieioeiai, ?iaeyoue aiae?c i?aaineaaiiai a/aiiy a?eueo
i?aaeiaoiei ? a?aoiaioiaaiei, ui aea? ciiao aecia/eoe oeyoe a?eueo
aeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oe??? niaaeueie c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aeooiaieo
iio?aa iaoiai ia?iaeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?? iieiaeaiiy
iiaeooue ni?eyoe aiae?co i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a o?enoeyinoa?,
aeiiiiiaoe aeyaeoe ? ona?aeiieoe aeaye? i?e/eie aioo??oiuei? e?ece o
a?o/eciyiiio i?aaineaa’?, eio?a coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue a?eueo
aeoeaiiai caa?iaiiy aei oeo eiai aeooiaieo aeaea?ae, ui caeeaaeaeeny i?e
a?ae/ooiiio aieeaia? iaiieaoii?/ii? o?aaeeoe??. Oiio aei aeniiae?a
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aaeaoeny aiaineiae e nayuaiiineoaeeoae? a nai?e
ae?yeueiino?, ni?yiiaai?e ia iiaeieaiiy aeooiaieo iaaa?acae?a o
noni?euenoa?. Aiaeii/an aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue ni?eyoe
iiaeeaeaiiio ?icoi?iith iaiao?aeiino? aca?iiae?? oea?eiaieo ? na?onueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e c iaoith oai?/iai canoinoaaiiy aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo
o?enoeyinoaa ca oiia eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
Oe?a?i?. ?o iiaeia oaeiae aeei?enoaoe i?e aeeeaaeaii? aoc?anueeeo eo?n?a
?ae?a??ciaanoaa ? eoeueoo?ieia??, o ina?oyinuee?e ?iaio?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ii?eethaeiai? aaoi?ii o aeiiia?aeyo ? iia?aeiieaiiyo ia 35 iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, e?oaeeo noieao, cie?aia: i?aeia?iaeieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo “Aeooiaia ae?yeuei?noue ? ?? niaoeeo?ea”
(Caii??aeaey, 1993), “Ii/a?anueeee iiianoe? a eiioaeno? ?noi??? oa
aeooiaiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo” (Oa?iii?eue, 1995), “?ae?a?y a
eiioaeno? noni?eueieo ? aeooiaieo ?aae?e nueiaiaeaiiy” (Ee?a, 1993),
“Eoeueoo?i? ia?aaeeaie ia?ao?aeieo aiio: niaaeei?ii?noue ? iiaecia”
(Iaeana, 1996); I-II Anaoe?a?inueeeo eiia?anao o?einio?a (Ee?a, 1991,
1995); anaoe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo “Oe?a?iiciaanoai ? aoiai?caoe?y
ina?oe” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1993), “Aeoo, aeooa, ethaeeia: aeoiee ?
iiooee” (Noie, 1993), “Ethaeeia: aeoo, aeooa, o?ei” (Noie, 1996),
“A?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae” (E??iaia?aae, 1993),
“Ae?aeia eoeueoo? ? aeooiaiee ?icaeoie ethaeeie” (Ee?a, 1995), iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo “Oe?a?inueea i?aaineaa’y: iniaeeaino?, ?noi??y,
no/ani?noue” (Ee?a, 1992), “Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay ? oea?eaa”
(Ee?a, 1993), “?ae?a?y ? oea?eaa a aeooiaiiio ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio
a?ae?iaeaeaii? Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a, 1993); oai?aoe/iiio nai?ia?? “Na?oiaeyae
? iaoeiaa i?ciaiiy” (Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1991); ethaeeiiciaa/eo
o?einionueeeo /eoaiiyo (Ae?iaiae/, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996,
1997); neiai?iaeei?anueeeo /eoaiiyo (Oa?e?a, 1994); e?oaeiio noie?
“?noi??y ?ae?a?e a Oe?a?i?” (Ee?a, 1995) oa ?ioeo.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e ?ae?a??ciaanoaa
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny a oi?i?
iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e aaoi?a – ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e iiiia?ao?? “Iaiieaoii?ci
? o?enoeyinoai” (13,02 ae?.a?.), a 14 noaooyo, aeae?oeoaaieo o aeo?iaeao
? iaoeiaeo ca??eao, ioae?eaoe?yo o “?ae?a??ciaa/iio neiaieeo” oiui.
Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii i?e ?ic?iaoe? eo?n?a
“?ae?a??ciaanoaa” oa “Oe?a?inueei? ? ca?oa?aeii? eoeueoo?e”, i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? ?iai/i? “I?ia?aie eo?no “?noi??y na?oiai? ? a?o/eciyii?
eoeueoo?e” (Noie, 1993; 2,5 ae?. a?.), ieai?a nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue c
aeaiiai eo?no (Noie, 1991; 1 ae?. a?.). Iniiai? ?aea? aeena?oaoe??
ciaeoee ao?eaiiy i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e aeey nooaeaio?a Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? O. Oaa/aiea ? Noinueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i.
A.N.Iaea?aiea. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeeeaaeai? a
caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? (ioae?eaoe?yo a aacaoao, aenooiao ia ?aae?i
? oaeaaa/aii?), ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, ui i?iaiaeeeeny ii
e?i?? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? ? iine?aeiai?noue aeeeaaeaiiy iaoa??aeo coiiaeai?
eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie, iinoaaeaiith iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie.
Aiie coiiaeee caa?iaiiy o ia?oiio ?icae?e? aei i?iaeaie a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? aca?iia?aeiinei iaiieaoii?cio ? no?aeii? iao?enoeee.
O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?aea?
?aeeiiai Aiaa a aeaaiueia?aoeuee?e o?einionuee?e aeoioe? ia?ao?aeii?
aiioe a?ae aioe/iino? aei na?aaeiueia?//y, ianaiia?aae a iaiieaoii?/iiio
neioac?, ia yeee o nai?o oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaeao iie?aeeny i?aaenoaaieee
no?aeii? iao?enoeee. Iaaeae?, a I??-V ?icae?eao /a?ac ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c i?ioeano ?icaeoeo Oi?aa?noia a ieaoii?ci? ? o?enoeyinoa?
?ice?eaa?oueny aieea iaiieaoii?cio ia ?aiiueio?enoeyinueeo o?einio?th.
Oae, o o?aoueiio ?icae?e? oeae aieea i?inoaaeo?oueny noiniaii iioieia??
(naii?icaeoie aeuiai aoooy-a-nia?), a /aoaa?oiio – uiaei einiieia?? ?
aio?iiieia?? (noiaeaeaiiy iaae/ooo?aiai a /ooo?aee na?o), ? a
inoaiiueiio, i’yoiio, – ii a?aeiioaiith aei aiinaieia?? (iiaa?iaiiy
aeooiaiiai ia/aea aei nai?? ia?a?nii? ?aeiino?).

Oaeei /eiii, aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii?
oaie, oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeaco?oueny ia oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ?iaioe, aecia/aii iaoeiao
iiaecio, oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieacaii
ai?iaaoe?th eiai iniiaieo iieiaeaiue, iaa?oioiaaii no?oeoo?o i?aoe?.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? – “I?iaeaia ca’yceo iaiieaoii?cio
? no?aeii? iao?enoeee a eiioaeno? ?? aena?oeaiiy a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??”
– ?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiino? aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee a
?ae?a??ciaanoa? e ?noi??? o?einio??. Cacia/a?oueny, ui aaaaoia?aii?noue
i?iaeaie coiiaeea ? aaaaoianiaeoi?noue ?? aiae?co, caa?iaiiy aei iueiai
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo aaeocae iaoee.

Aaea ?aiiueio?enoeyinuee? aiaineiae (i?aaenoaaieee
Aeaenaiae??enueei?, Aio?io?enueei?, Eaiiaaeie?enueei? oe?e,
Inaaaei-Ae?ii?n?e A?aiiaa?o, ?io?) a?aeia?aaeaee a nai?o eiioeaioe?yo
aieiai? ?ene iaiieaoii?/ii? o?einio??. A oie aea /an o aeena?oaoe??
i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aeey oeueiai i?aeoiaeo iae/ano?oa aoee aeanoea?
noa’?eoea?ci ? oaiaeaioe?ei?noue. Caaino?ai? noia?a/iino? aiioe,
iai?oaeaia ai?ioueaa c ??anyie oa yce/ieoeueeeie a??oaaiiyie ia aeaee
ciiae iooeyi oea?eae aaeaeaaoii ioe?ieoe aieea aee?i?noe/ii? aeoiee ia
?icaeoie o?enoeyinueei? o?einio??, a aiaeii/an, – ? aecia/eoe
cia/ei?noue aeanieo coneeeue, caaaeyee yeei aeooiai? iaaeaaiiy
aioe/iino? noaee caeiaooeii ianooiieo aiio.

A iiaeaeueoiio cia/iiai iioe?aiiy iaaoaathoue ia?aeeaaee iai’yoie
aioe/ii? ? nayoiiooe?anueei? niaaeueie, ni?iae eiiaiooaaiiy iayaii? a
ieo iaiieaoii?/ii? o?aaeeoe??. Nooo?aee iiooiao i?ioeano inai?iiy
iaiieaoii?cio aoa iaaeaiee aeeneon??th iii?iae?no?a ? ?aae?no?a uiaei
i?e?iaee caaaeueieo iiiyoue, i?eaiaeii aeey yei? noaei aeneiaethaaiiy
iaiieaoii?ea Ii?oe??y. O A?caio?? ae aei iaiieaoii?/ii? niaaeueie
aiaethaaee ye i?ae /an ?neoanonueeeo noia?a/ie O?V no., oae ? a
iicaoea?eiaieo eieao (Inaee, ?oae, Ie?oii).

Iaaoaoe cae?i/aiiai aeaeyaeo a A?caio??, a/aiiy no?aeieo iooe?a
ia?aeoei ia ?onue-Oe?a?io iaaaeiac? i?ney ?? o?auaiiy. O I?eaei?i?ia’?
ii/eiathoue eii?thaaoenue i?iiecai? ?aeayie iaiieaoii?cio
i?aaeaiii-neia’yinuee? ia?aeeaaee ?aiiueio?enoeyinueeeo aaoi??a,
noai?ththoueny ca??ieee-caaaeaiiy aioe/ii? ? nayoiiooe?anueei? aeoiee.
Aaeeeo ?ieue o i?eeo/aii? Oe?a?inueei? oea?eae aei o?einionueeeo ?aeae
iaiieaoii?cio a?ae?a?aee aieaa?nuee? ?neoanoe (E?i??ai, Oeaiaeae, ?io?)
oa a?o/eciyi? ieneeoae? – aiaineiae ?ea??ii, Eeeiaio, Ee?eei
Oo??anueeee. Ia aeaeue, aeaaiuei?onuee? aaoi?e ua ia i?iieeaeeny
i?aaiaiiyi ae/eaieoe a iao?enoe/i?e niaaeuei? oa, ui iaeaaeaei aioe/i?e
o?einio??, c oei, uia iio?i ?aeiino?othaaoe ?aea? noa?iaeaai?o
ieneeoae?a.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aeaea?aeueii? aace a aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie, ui a?eueo a?oioiaia aea/aiiy ? inai?iiy i?ciueiaioe/ii?
niaaeueie ii/eia?oueny c ia??iaeo A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, eiee iaiieaoii?ci noaa
o?einionueeith iniiaith ?aianainiiai na?oiaeyaeo. Cia/iith i??ith oea
aoei coiiaeaia aeine?aeieoeueeith ?iaioith ?oae?enuee?o
aoiai?no?a–ieaoii?e?a (I.O?/?ii, I. aeaeea I??aiaeiea, E.Eaiae?ii,
A.Iie?oe?aii, ?io?) a iaeano? aioe/ii? niaaeueie, ?o iaiaaaiiyie
ocaiaeeoe na?oiaeyae aiioe c o?enoeyinueeei na?oi?icoi?iiyi.

A Oe?a?i? a aeiao iaoe?iiaeueiiai “?aianaino” iaiieaoii?/ia
niaaeueia noaea nooo?aei caniaii ?aeaeii? ai?ioueae ca naiicaa?aaeaiiy ?
eoeueoo?io naiiaooi?noue ia?iaeo. Aei ie?aieo iaiieaoii?/ieo ?aeae
caa?oaeeny i?aaineaai? iieai?noe (Ee??ee Ino?icueeee, O?enoioi? O?eaeao,
Caoa??y Eiienoainueeee, ?aai Aeoainueeee, ?io?), i?ioani?e
Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? aeaaeai?? (Oaioai I?ieiiiae/, Noaoai ssai?nueeee,
A?eai??e Eiienueeee), ae?y/? “ae?oaiai /a?ia/iai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy” (
Ia?n?e Aaee/e?anueeee).

O ia??iae iiaiai /ano ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie na?onueei? ?
aiaineianueei? iaoee aeeeeeaa oaeeth iiaeo na?eicieo aeine?aeaeaiue ,
aaoi?e yeeo aeneiaeee iaiaei oe?eaaeo aeoiie uiaei cia/eiino? aioe/ii?
niaaeueie aeey ae?iaeaiiy i?ia?aeieo o?enoeyinueeeo eiioeaioe?e. Ia
iaiieaoii?/i? ?aea? iie?aany a nai?io “Oaono?” E.-A.Aaoa. Ia?oei
?noi?eeii o?einio??, yeee ia’?eoeaii ioe?iea o/aiiy iaiieaoii?e?a, noaa
A.A.O.Aaaaeue, eio?ee iaa?oue naith nenoaio aeaoaeoaaa i?ae aieeaii
iaiieaoii?/ii? o??aaeieia??. ?noi?eei-o?einionuee?e nenoai? Aaaaey
iane?aeoaaa A.Oeaea?, yeee aeaa nenoaiaoeciaaiee, oi/a e ei?ioeee
iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c aioe/iiai iaiieaoii?cio. Iaeyae iao?enoe/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e iiaeathoue oae? aaoi?e, ye I.A?ao, A.A?iaeaeueaaiae,
O.Oa??a?. I?aaaea, ?o ?ic?iaee cae?enithaaeeny a caaaeueiiio aeeeaae?
?noi??? aioe/ii? o?einio?? /e ?aiiueio?enoeyinueeeo aeieo?ei, oiio ia
iiaee a?aecia/aoeny iiaiioith aiae?co.

A ?in?? a aeiaeiaoiaa? /ane aeeoea o?eueee iaeia iiiia?ao?y,
i?enay/aia ?aiiueiio iaiieaoii?cio – a?aoiaioiaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
I.Aeaaeeneaae?aa “O?einio?y Ieio?ia, caniiaieea iiaiieaoii?anueei?
oeiee”. Aeaeaii oaeiae ?aeeia nenoaiaoeciaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi???
iao?enoeee – i?aoey O?ea?aoa ( Aoi?eaanueeiai) “?noi?e/ia a/aiiy iooe?a
oea?eae”. I?ae ?ioei, o OO no. aeeoei o?eueee aea? iiiia?ao??,
i?enay/ai? ooiaeaoi?ia? iaiieaoii?cio – “O?einio?y Ieio?ia”
I.Aeiinueeiai ? “Ae?aeaeoeea /enea o Ieio?ia” I.Ein?aa.

I?aaaea, ?yae aaoi??a (Ae.Aca?aae/, ss.Aio?iiia, I. A?ee?aioia,
I.A?ey?ia, A.Aeieo???anueeee, A.Aey/aiei, N.?i?oaiiae/, I.Io?aoia,
I.Iiaeoeueeee, A.Ieioi?eia, I.Nianueeee oa ?i.) caa?oaeeny aei iniiaieo
iaiieaoii?/ieo ? iao?enoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e, iaiaaaeeny ?ice?eoe i?ia?aei?
oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo i?ciueiaioe/ii? o?einio??. ?io? aeine?aeieee (
I.Aa?auaoeueeee, I.Aeaaeeie?nueeee, A.Iie?naaeia, ?.*enoiae/) i?aaioee
aecia/eoe o? iiiaioe o?einio?? iaiieaoii?cio, ye? aoee aeecueeeie aei
iao?enoe/iiai aa/aiiy na?oo. Aea, ia aeaeue, aeoiaey/e c oaeoo
eiio?iioaoe?? i?aaenoaaiee?a i?ciueiai ieaoii?cio ? ?aiiueiai
o?enoeyinoaa, oe? aaoi?e iae/ano?oa aeoeaiooaaee oaaao ia ?icoiaeaeaiiyo
i?ae aeaiia na?oiaeyaeieie nenoaiaie, iaiaaaeeny iieacaoe
iaaeineiiae?noue yce/ieoeueei? o?einio?? ia oii? o?enoeyinueeiai a/aiiy
, yea ni?eeiaeiny ye naiiaeinoaoi?.

E?eca neiiaeaeueii? oea?eae a ?in?? ni?eyea ?icaeoeo e?aa?aeueieo
?aeae a iicaoea?eiaieo eieao, i?aaenoaaieee yeeo (A.Nieiaeia,
I.Aa?aey?a, N.Aoeaaeia ,N.O?aie, I.Oei?ainueeee, ?i.) i?aeoiieee ?
?icaeioee ?yae ?aeae iaiieaoiiee?a, cie?aia, i?i Nio?th, oao?a?th oiui.
I?ioa iaiieaoii?ci oe?eaaea ?o ianaiia?aae ye ?ino?oiaio ae?iaeaiiy
aeanii? “iao?enoeee iiiaeaiiy”.

C ii/aoeo OO no. ia Caoiae? c?inea e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie a
iaeano? iaiieaoii?cio (I.Aaei, A.Aa?iae, E.I?aooa?, A.?annae, ?i.),
/iio ni?eyee iia? ia?aeeaaee oai??a Ieio?ia ia o?aioeocueeo ,
aiae?enueeo , i?iaoeueeo, ?oae?enueeo, ?niainueeo, a?aoeueeo oa ?io?
iiae. I?aaaea, oea aeinyaaeiny ca ?aooiie caoaeaiiy i?iaeaiaoeee
aeine?aeaeaiiue. Ui ae noino?oueny ia?aeeaae?a “Aiiaaae” ia ?in?enueeo
iiao, oi aei nueiaiaei? ia?aeeaaeaii eeoa 60 a?aenioe?a niaaeueie
aai?aeueiiai ieneeoaey, oiae? ye a iaeano? ia?aeeaae?a Ii?oe??y ,
ssiae?oa, THe?aia , I?ieea ?acoeueoaoe ua ne?iii?o?.

O ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? aea/aiiy iaiieaoii?cio ? iao?enoeee
cae?enithaaeiny iae/ano?oa a caaaeueiiio ?one? ?noi??? o?einio??. Naia
ae i?iaeaia ca’yceo o?einio?? iaiieaoii?cio e o?enoeyinoaa ia i?eaa?oaea
aeinoaoiuei? oaaae i? ?ae?a??ciaaoe?a, i? ?noi?ee?a o?einio??. Oiio
?icaeoie oeo ?aeae iaiieaoii?cio, ye? io?eiaee i?iaeiaaeaiiy a no?aei?e
iao?enoeoe? , caeeoa?oueny iaeiaea/aiei. ? oi/a a?o/eciyi? iaae??a?noe
(A.I?/ee, ?.Iineaanueeee, A.Iaooe, ?i.) oe?eaaeeeny i?iaeaiaie
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a?ae aioe/iino? aei na?aaeiueia?//y, i?noeai
o?enoeyi?ciaaiiai iaiieaoii?cio a ieioeiio aeooiaiiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie,
i?ioa aieea inoaiiueiai aioe/iiai neioaco ia no?aeio iao?enoeeo
caeeoa?oueny iaeic’yniaaiei. Iae/ano?oa ?aaeyinuee? a/ai? oi?eaeeny
?icaeyaeoaaii? i?iaeaie eeoa a o?e i???, a ye?e aiie aaaaeaee ca
iaiao?aeia aeey ?ice?eooy aeanieo oai.

Ie??i oiai, ?iaioe, aeae?oeoaai? a cano?ei? ?iee, iaee on? aaaee,
i?eoaiaii? oeueiio ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo iaoee ? oeaoaaee ia aeiaiaoeci?,
oaiaeaioe?eiino? ? noa’?eoea?ci?. Aiae?coth/e aeooiai? i?ioeane e??cue
i?ecio iaioth/eo eiioeaioe?e “ iaiioeoiino?” ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeiai
a/aiiy oa “?aaeoe?eii?” ?ie? ?ae?a?? e ?aeaae?noe/ii? o?einio??,
?aaeyinuee? ?ae?a??ciaaoe? e ?noi?eee o?einio?? /anii iaoiaeeee aino??
eooe ? aaeaaaeeny aei ni?iuaieo aeniiae?a. Ca oiia aeooiaii? aeeeoaoo?e
eiiia?o?? iaa?oue o na?aaeiaeu? ?IOe i?inoaaeothoueny eeoa ai?ciaee/i?
caa?iaiiy aiaineia?a aei oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai iao?enoeee ? ua ??aeoa –
iaiieaoii?cio.

Oaeei /eiii, o aeena?oaoe?? aeae?ey?oueny i’youe ia??iae?a
ae?iaeaiiy i?aeoiae?a aei aea/aiiy icia/aii? i?iaeaie: a/ iao?enoe/iee
(???-V??? no.) ; a/ noieanoe/iee (?O – O?V no.); a/ aoiai?noe/ii –
i?ina?oieoeueeee (OV- OV??? no.); a/ ia??iae iiaiai /ano (O?O – ii/.OO
no.); ae/ no/aniee ( c 20 –o ??. OO no).

A?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia oai?aoe/i?e ? i?aeoe/i?e cia/eiino?
i?i?iaeaiiai uiaei ?icaeyaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, ana ae ne?ae cacia/eoe , ui
?yae aaaeeeaeo ?? iaeanoae aeiaaa? a?eueo aeeaieiai ? nenoaiiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cie?aia, a ?ae?a??ciaa/?e e?oa?aoo?? iaei ?icaeyaeaeeny
aaiaca e aaiethoe?y iaiieaoii?/ieo ?aeae. *a?ac iacaaeia?euei? oaiie
ia?aeeaaeo i?ciueiaioe/ieo iai’yoie aeania ia noaaeeiny caaaeaiiy
?ic?iaee ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c iaiieaoii?cio ? iao?enoeee, ia
eaaeo/e aaea i?i ni?iae ae/eaiaiiy e aiae?co aee?i?noe/ii? o?einionueei?
o?aaeeoe?? o ?aiiueio?enoeyinueeiio a/aii?. Ine?eueee iniiai? iai?yiee ?
noa?e niaaeei?iiino? i?ae iaiieaoii?ciii ? no?aeiith iao?enoeeith ia
ciaeoee naiai aena?oeaiiy a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??, ia noaa ia’?eoii
iaeaaeiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aieea i?ciueiaioe/ii? aeoiee ia
?aiiueio?enoeyinueeo. Ana oea aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
i?iaeaia ca’yceo iaiieaoii?cio ? no?aeii? iao?enoeee nueiaiaei? iio?aao?
naiai anaa?/iiai ? ia’?eoeaiiai aea/aiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?ae?a?eii-o?einionueeiai
?icaeoeo a ia?ao?aeio aiioo a?ae aioe/iino? aei na?aaeiueia?//y” –
aeine?aeaeo?oueny noia?a/eeaee i?ioean aaiethoe?? oa ca’yceo ?ae?a?eieo
a??oaaiue c ?aeaae?noe/ieie oa/?yie cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo.
Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea i?i oa, ui i?ciueiaioe/iee iie?oa?ci iinooiiai
o?ainoi?ioaaa o a?e iiiioa?cio, na?ae/aiiyi /iai noaee yaeua
aeeoa?aioe?aoe??, oaie?an?? oa oeaio?ae?caoe??, ye? iinoaaaee ia oe?
oi?ioaaiiy ?iia?aoi?nueeiai eoeueoo, ?icea?oo i?noeoeecio, ian?ainueeeo,
anoaoieia?/ieo, o?e?anoe/ieo oa ?ioeo ?aeae a ?aieao yce/ieoeueeiai
neie?aoecio. I?ioa aeaoe iiaeeaeaia oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy aino?eo
i?iaeai noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo iiaea eeoa o?einio?y, a ia io?oe?eia
?ae?a?y.

Ia?oee ia?aa?ao – “O?aaeeoe?? aiaiooeaiiy a aeaaiueia?aoeuee?e
o?einio??” – i?inoaaeo? niaoeeo?eo aaaaoia?eiaiai i?ioeano iaa?oiooaaiiy
?aea? ?aeeiiaiaeaey a o?einionuee?e aeoioe? Aeeaaee a?ae i?o?e?a aei
iaii?oaai?aeoe?a aeeth/ii. A?aeii/eoaaaoenue a?ae i?oieia??, aioe/ia
o?einio?y ua aeiaai iia?oaaea ?? ?aeayie ?, ?aaaoth/e ia aeiiae /ano,
noaea aieiaiei ae?acieeii oaiaeaioe?? aiaiooeaiiy. Iniaeeai iii?oio
?ieue a “i/euaii?” ?ae?a?eieo oi?i a?ae?a?aa i?noeoeeci, eiioe?eo yeiai
c ?aoe?iiae?ciii aoa a?aeia?aaeaiiyi eiioe?eoo noa?eo ? iiaeo aia?a.

*e ia aia?oa i?iaeaia iaa?oiooaaiiy aiaineianueeeo ieoaiue (i?i i?e?iaeo
aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea, i?i aeieth na?oo, i?i a?aeiioaiiy aeooo aei
Aiaeanoaa oiui) i?aei?ia?oueny a acioa?e/iiio a/aii? i?o?cio,
aiaineianueea nenoaia yeiai c ?? i???ioaoe??th ia ?aeiaiiy ethaeeie c
aiaeanoaaiiei ia/aeii iaaoea iiiioa?noe/iiai oa?aeoa?o. A aeena?oaoe??
cacia/a?oueny, ui ia a?aoeueeiio a?oio? i?o?ci noaa ia?oith ?ae?a??th
niieooe ?, aiaeii/an, — i?ia?aeiith oi?iith ia?aaeo?einio??.

A ?iaio? i?inoaaeothoueny o?e ia??iaee ?icaeoeo aiaiooeaoeueei?
oaiaeaioe?? a ?noi??? aioe/ii? o?einio?? aeiieio?i?anueei? aeiae: a/
niiaeyaeaeueiee (a?ae i?eaooe?a aei Aiaenaai?a); a/ aiae?oe/iee (Nie?ao,
Ieaoii, A??noioaeue); a/ aeiaiaoe/iee (a?ae noi?e?a aei
iaii?oaai?aeoe?a). Oaea a ia?oee ia??iae, cina?aaeaeoth/enue ia
i?iaeaiao einiieia??, o?einioe oe?eaaeeeny ieoaiiyie iniia aoooy
(Aaniethoiiai aoooy), yeei ? Aia. Oeae ?ioa?an iaieio/a iaa i?eaanoe ?o
o eiioaeo c aiaineianueeei ieneaiiyi. Oiio a?aoeuee? o?einioe e iaaeae?
/a?iaee ieoaiiy oa a?aeiia?ae? ia ieo ?c noa?e ?ae?a??. Aaoi? iieaco?
aaci?aenoaai?noue io?oe?eii? a ieioeiio oace i?i
aoa?noe/ii-iaoa??ae?noe/iee oa?aeoa? ?aiiuei? a?aoeueei? o?einio??, yea
iani?aaae?, c iiceoe?e c?inoath/iai i?noeoeecio, aoea noo?aiaaia
iiooeaie noanoaioe?? an?o ?a/ae.

Ia iniia? aiae?co o?einionueeeo aeaea?ae o ?iaio? c’yniao?oueny aianie
i?aaenoaaiee?a aioe/ii? o?einio?? a iaa?oiooaaiiy iiiioa?noe/ii?
oaiaeaioe??. Aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia aeniiaeao, ye? noaee nai???aeiei
ia?aaea?ae/oooyi o?enoeyinueeiai aiaineia’y: aacnia?oy aeoo? e ?aeay
niieooe (i?o?ee, i?eaooe?, I?oaai?), oao?a?y (i?eaooe?), ?aeeiiaiaeaey
(Enaiioai, Ia?iai?ae), Eiain (Aa?aee?o) oiui. A?aeia?aaeaiiyi iiooe?a
ieneeoaeyie noanoaioe?? an?o ?a/ae noaee “Aiaiaiaea” Oaeana,
“Aiaiaeiain” Aa?aee?oa, “?a/i/enei” I?oaai?a, “Einiiaia” Enaiioaia oiui.

I?ney nie?ao?anueeiai iiai?ioo o?einio?y “caiaeeoueny” c iaaa ia caieth
? caa?oa?oueny aei ethaeeie, ?? noinoie?a c Aiaii. C oeueiai /ano a i?e
aeii?io? o?einionueeee iiiioa?ci, oiio ?? ?oo o a?e iiiioa?noe/ii?
?ae?a?eiino? i?enei?th?oueny. Iniaeeai cia/iee aianie o ?ic?iaeo oeeo
i?iaeai c?iaea Ieaoii (a/aiiy i?i aeoae?ci ?aeaaeueiiai ? o?eaniiai,
ia?aaea?ae/oooy iaiieaoii?anueei? o??aaee, a??oiiaae?iiy aeoo? ? ??
i/euaiiy /a?ac A?in ye noai iniaeeaiai i?noe/iiai aiooc?acio, c?a/aiiy
naaa ? i?aaiaiiy aei aacnia?oy). Naia ieaoii?anueea o?einio?y noaea
iniiaiei i?aeaioia/ei nooiaiai aei o?enoeyinoaa. O oeueiio ieai?
aano?aeoiee iiiioa?ci A??noioaey c eiai oieiaeiei ? aaeaeoaeei Aiaii
icia/aa eeoa i?e/aoi?noue ethaeeie aei aacnia?oy ? noaa aeiiiaiaiiyi aei
“oaieia??” Ieaoiia.

A aeiao aee?i?cio a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?a?iaea ? i?enoinoaaiiy aei iiaeo
oiia oniaaeeiaaiiai caiano ciaiue. *a?ac aoeeo noi?oeecio o?einio?y
iaaoaa? ?ae?a?eiiai iaoino, iaaeeaea?oueny aei ?ae?a??, naia noa?
“?noeiiith” ?ae?a??th. I?ioa iaaeae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueia aoeea
iinooia?oueny ?ae?a?eiiio iano?ith, oiio aecia/aeueiith ?enith
?aeaae?noe/ii? o?einio?? i?ciuei? aioe/iino? noa? nae?ae?caoe?y,
aeii?ioaaiiy ?ae?a?eieo ?ioa?an?a.

Iniiaiei cia?yaeaeyi nae?ae?caoe?? aenooia? ieaoii?ci, ?aea? yeiai
i?iyaeythoueny o a/aii? aee?i?ciaaiiai ?oaea?cio (O?eii) oa
iaii?oaai?a?cio. Ia oeueiio aoai? aioe/ia aeoiea cae?enith?
iaa?oiooaaiiy iiiyoue o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai e ?iaiaioiiai Aiaeanoaa,
aenoaco e aiaiaoe??, Ia?oi?aeeiiai e aeoae?cio Aiaa oa iaoa??? oiui.
O?einio?y oaia? iinoa? ye a?aeiia?aeue ia iio?aae ian o aaoi?eoao? e
aeiai? ? ana a?eueoa aiaaea? a i?noeeo. Oiio oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
?aea? iiiioa?cio ae?acieeaie aiaiooeaoeueei? oaiaeaioe?? aoei
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iiaeaeueoeo ?ae?a?eii-o?einionueeeo iiooe?a ieney/ei
aeooii aioe/iino?.

Iaeyne?aa?oiai aeyao oey oaiaeaioe?y iaaoaa? a iaiieaoii?/iiio
oi?aa?nae?ci?, aiae?co yeiai i?enay/aiee ae?oaee ia?aa?ao —
“Iaiieaoii?/iee aoai nae?ae?caoe?? i?ciueiaioe/ii? o?einio??”. A
aeena?oaoe?? iieaco?oueny, ui, ca oiia iineeaiiy i?noeoeecio, iinoaiiy
ciaiaieoiai aioe/iiai neioaco, yeee aenooiea inoaoi/iei caaaeaiiyi
a?aoeueei? ioae?ino?, aoei caeiiii??iei. Ia aeiaaeeiai a?i
caii/aoeoaaany naia a Aeaenaiae???, aea ia?an?eaeeny any eoeueoo?i?
aieeae aioe/iino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaieioo?, ui, neioacoth/e iiia?aaei? oiiaeyaei? a/aiiy
Aeeaaee e Noiaeo, iaiieaoii?ci aeoiaeea ?c aaaaoia?eiai? aiaiooeaoeueei?
o?aaeeoe?? a aioe/i?e o?einio??. Eiai aeaea?aeaie iiaeia aaaaeaoe a/aiiy
i?o?e?a ? i?oaai?aeoe?a, o?einio?th Ia?iai?aea e Aiaenaai?a, ?aea?
Ieaoiia e A??noioaey, nenoaie noi?e?a ? O?eiia, no?aei? eoeueoe e
aa?iaoe/i? oaenoe oiui. A ?iaio? aena?oeth?oueny aaiethoe?y oaiiiaio
iaiieaoii?cio, ?icaeyaea?oueny aianie eiai iaeaeaeaoi?oeo
i?aaenoaaiee?a, aiae?co?oueny eiai aioeo?enoeyinueea iieai?ea ? i?e/eie
ii?acee.

sse aeaeii c? ci?noo aeena?oaoe??, aieiaiee aianie o ?ic?iaeo
iaiieaoii?cio ai?n eiai ooiaeaoi? Ieio?i ?c E?eiiiey. Aa?o/e aeaeaei ia
anueiai Ieaoiia, a?i i?aeaea? eiai aeineoue neeaaei?e oai?aoe/i?e
ia?iaoe? e ?aeiino?oeoe??. Aiaeii/an aeo?aeiith oi/eith aeey Ieio?ia
noaea ?aeay Aeaaa /e Aeia?a (?aeeiiai), aei yei? Ieaoii o?eueee
iaaeeceany. Nenoaia e?eiiie?oaioey, a ye?e aeeneo/a i?eie?ai?
noia?a/iino? i?noeei-?aeaae?noe/ii? ? eia?ei-?aoe?iiae?noe/ii? iiaoaeia,
?c naiiai ii/aoeo iinoa? ye nae?ae?ciaaia o?einio?y /e, oaeaeoa,
oainio?y. Uia ia ??aieo ai?ioeny c o?enoeyinoaii, iaiieaoii?ci nai iaa
noaoe ?ae?a??th. Oiio o?einio?y ooo iaeo?ni?oa ceeaa?oueny c oaieia??th
?, oaeei /eiii, oaieia?co?oueny.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ii/aoeii anueiai ?nioth/iai Ieio?i aaaaeaa ia?oo
“?iinoanue” – i?inoa Ia?oiia/aei, ?aeeia (Ai), aiii ae – Aia. Ieneeoaeue
aeiaiaeeoue aei e?aei?o iaae aeoieo i?i eiai o?ainoeaiaeaioi?noue ?
iiiaaena?oia?noue. Oey caieiooa a nia? naiiaeinoaoiy ?aei?noue, ui
iaaeinooiia aeey ?icoio e i?ciaiiy, ? iiceoeaia “i?ui”, ia ia? iacae ?,
ye Aia, aeiaaea? c aeoiee. ? ana ae, iaiaaath/enue aecia/eoe ?aeeia,
Ieio?i iaa?oioiao? eaoaoaoe/ia e aiioaoe/ia aiaineia’y.

Aaoi? “Aiiaaae” ?icaeaa? aeoieo i?i aiaiaoe?th (“aei?ii?ithaaiiy”) c
?aeeiiai iaaeeeoeo eiai aeineiiaei? iiaiioe. Iaaieioo?oueny, ui
aaciina?aaei?i oai??iiyi Ai iinoa? ae?oaa “?iinoanue” – /enoee Oi (Ion)
ye a?/ia aeoiea a?/iiai Aiaa. A?ath/e ?ieue Eiaina (?icoio)
o?eii?anueei? oa o?enoeyinueei? o?einio??, Ion eeoa oai?aoe/ii ?
neeaaeiei. Oiio, ye aeineiiaeee, a?i aiaio? o?aoth “?iinoanue” – Aeooa
(Inthoa), yea niiaeyaea? eiai oae naii, ye a?i – ?aeeia. Iaeaaea/e
aiaeii/an aei aiaeanoaaiiiai e /ooo?ai-i?ciaaaiiai na?o?a, Aeooa
ieae/ith /anoeiith “aeeeaa?oueny” ia iiiaeeii?noue ie?aieo aeoo ?, oaeei
/eiii, oai?eoue aeaeeiee na?o ca ia?acii ? iiaeiaith ?aeae (oi?i)
oiiniiaeyaeaeueiiai na?oo, oiaoi “oi?io?” iaoa??th.

Iaeieae/ei oa?ii aoooy /e iaaoooyi ? iaaecia/aia ? aac’ye?nia iaoa??y,
aea na?oei, iineaaethth/enue, aoaeoueny a oai?ya?. Aei ia? Ieio?i
caiaeeoue ona cei, a?oiooth/e ia iaaaoeaieo aecia/aiiyo iaoa??? naith
oaiae?oeath. Cacia/a?oueny, ui ia iniia? iiia?aaeiuei? o?einionueei?
o?aaeeoe?? Ieio?i ?ic?iaey? i?noe/io oai??th na?oioai?aiiy ye i?ioeano
iaae?iiy aeoo. A?i iaaieioo?, ui aeua Aeooa aei naiai “oeyoo aiec”
(aiaiaoe??) niiaeyaeaea Iona e Ia?oi?noioo, aeiee ca iaiao?aei?noth ?,
aiaeii/an, /a?ac aeanio ai?ae?noue ia nionoeeany a o?ei.

Caoiieaia ieae/eie neeaie, aeooa aiaea a iaaoooy ? ia?aaoaa? a o?e? ye o
a’ycieoe?, i?ioa ni?aaaeiueith nooi?noth ethaeeie ? aeua Aeooa, yea
i?e/aoia aei aiaeanoaaiiiai na?oo. Oiio Ieio?i aaaaeaa ca iaiao?aeia
c?oeioaaoe ca’ycie aeoo? c o?eii, uia iiaa?iooe ?e ao?a/aio naiaiaeo e
/enoioo. Oeae aoeei-?ae?a?eiee “oeyo oai?o” (?aeaae?caoe?y) i?iaiaeeoue
aeooo /a?ac on? noa?e a ii?yaeeo, i?ioeeaaeiiio aiaiaoe??.

Ia oeyoo aeoo? aei Aiaa Ieio?i aeae?ey? o?e noaae??: eaoa?nen, oai??y ?
aenoac. A?aeiiny/e aenoac aei iaeano? i?noe/iiai acioa?ecio, Ieio?i
i?iaiaeeoue aeoieo, ui caaeey aeinyaiaiiy ?noeie iaiao?aeii
a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae ieneaiiy. Oiio, eeoa iicaoaoenue i?eno?anoae ?
c??eoenue naaa, aeooa aeinyaa? aiaioiiae?aiaiiy ? iaiaeaiiy, ceeaa?oueny
a ethaia? c Ia?oi?aeeiei. Iaaieioo?oueny, ui ia’?eoa i?aaiaiiy ethaeeie
Ieio?i aaa/aa ia iica iath, a a i?e nai?e, oiae eiaeai i?a a?aeooeaoe
eiai. Oea icia/aei, ui i?ciaiiy Aiaa aaaaeaeiny oioiaeiei naiii?ciaiith.
Ine?eueee ae inoaoi/ia ?aeiaiiy c Aiaii iiaeeeaa eeoa i?ney nia?o?,
inoaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ia ye cei, a ye ca?eueiaiiy a?ae cea, ye aeaai.

A aeine?aeaeaii? a?aecia/a?oueny aianie iine?aeiaiee?a Ieio?ia a
?ic?iaeo iaiieaoii?cio: ?ae?a?eii-aoe/i? ianoaiiae, aneaoeea, caaaeuei?
iiiyooy, i/euaia “o?einionueea” ?ae?a?y (Ii?oe??e), ?aoi?ia eiiaioa?y,
oneeaaeiaiiy ???a?o??, oai??y oao?a??, ii?aeiaiiy i?noeee c
iaoaiaoe/ieie “noanoaioe?yie” (ssiae?o), “iaeooioai?aiiy” ?ae?a??
i?noeeith, niey?ia oaieia?y, i?eioeeie aecaaace (THe?ai), ii?aeiaiiy
i?noeee c eia?eith, nenoaiaoecaoe?y a/aiiy, o??aaee/ia nenoaia (I?iee)
oiui. I?aeaiaeeoueny aeoiea, ui iiaea?i?coaaaoe a??o, iaiieaoii?ee
i?eeoee aei ona?aeiieaiiy /eneaiieo aia?a ye i?iya?a ?aeeiiai
anaeainueeiai Aiaa.

Ia noi??ieao aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaea?oueny ae?aiaoeci ai?ioueae
iaiieaoii?e?a i?ioe “ia?oiai ai?iaa” aioe/ii? eoeueoo?e – o?enoeyinoaa.
A oie aea /an iaaieioo?oueny, ui i?ioenoiyiiy ia?a?inei a “ae?aeia”
aeaio nenoai, ye? ?aeiaea noiae?noue a aeiaiaoeei-?ae?a?eieo ia/aeao,
ni?euei?noue iaoe (iiaa?iaiiy ethaeeie aei Aiaeanoaa) ? o.i. Caaaeyee
oeueiio iaiieaoii?ci noaa i?noeii, /a?ac yeee ina?/ai? yce/ieee ia?aeoee
a o?enoeyinoai. ? oi/a aioe/i? ioae?aoe? ia i?aeiyeeny aei
o?enoeyinueeiai ?icoi?ii? Aiaa, i?ioa, ocaaaeueieaoe ?acoeueoaoe ?o
aeooiaieo iiooe?a, iaiieaoii?ci ae?iaea nenoaio cania?a o?einionueeiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy oaieia?? iiiioa?cio, yeith ciiaei nei?enoaoeny
o?enoeyinoai.

O?ao?e ia?aa?ao – “No?aeia iao?enoeea ye oaeoi? caaacia/aiiy
eoeueoo?ii-o?einionueei? niaaeei?iiino?” – ia? ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
oie aniaeo ?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy e aaiethoe?? a/aiiy no?aeieo iooe?a
oea?eae, a yeiio iaa?oioiaothoueny i?eioeeie noaaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa aei
o?einionueei? niaaeueie aioe/iino?.

A aeine?aeaeaii? c’yniaothoueny ci?no ? nooi?noue iiiyooy “iao?enoeea”,
iaa?oioiao?oueny niaoeeo?ea ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia Noiae?, aeae?eythoueny
o?e ia??iaee ?? ?icaeoeo (?aii?e, eeane/iee, i?ci?e), aecia/athoueny
a?aei?iiino? i?ae ieie. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aaea a ia?oee ia??iae
aiaineiaaie (aiieiaaoe, ??an?ieiae, eaoao?caoi?e) aoei aecia/aia eiei
i?iaeai, iaae yeeie e iaaeae? i?aoethaaea nayoiiooe?anueea aeoiea.
I?e/iio, iacaaaeath/e ia anth naith iaiine?aeiai?noue, i?aaenoaaieee
iao?enoeee oae /e ?iaeoa aiaethaaee aei aioe/ii? ioae?ino?, iie?aeeny ia
?? iieiaeaiiy i?e iaa?oiooaaii? aiaineianueeeo eiioeaioe?e.

Aiaeii/an o aeena?oaoe?? aeae?ey?oueny e?eueea iai?yie?a iao?enoeee, ui
??cieeeny i??ith oniaaeeoaaiiy o?einionueeeo ?aeae. Ine?eueee ae oea
coiiaethaaeiny iioiaeaeaiiyi oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iith i???ioaoe??th
iooe?a, i?eo?ae o o?enoeyinoai ina?/aieo a?ae?a (aeaenaiae??eoe?,
eaiiaaeie?eoe?, aio?io?eoe?) aeoea?coaaa i?ioean io?einionoaoaaiiy
aiaineia’y. A iaeni?eeiyoi?oith aeey iooe?a o?einionueeith oa/??th, ye
oea iieacaii a ?iaio?, aeyaeany iaiieaoii?ci, caaaeyee ?aeayi yeiai
iinooiiai aaeineiiaethaaeany nii?oaea iao?enoe/iiai a/aiiy. E?eca
aioe/iiai ?aoe?iiae?cio ni?eyea ?icaeoeo iao?enoeee, yea /a?iaea
aia?a?th a i?noeoe?.

Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth? i?aaiaiiy iooe?a ?icaeyaeaoe aioe/io o?einio?th
ye ioae??noue ieae/iai ii?yaeeo, ii??aiyii c o?enoeyinoaii. I?ioa yeui
iiiceoe?ei? ieaaaenuee? eiea ia oe?e iniia? ae?aaeaee oia?aaeaeai?noue ?
eoeueoo?iee iaaaoea?ci, o na?aaeiaeu? iii??eiaaii? ciao?
iaa?oioiao?oueny niaaeei?iia e?i?y i?ae ?ae?a?eii-o?einionueeei a/aiiyi
aee?i?cio e o?enoeyinoaii, ui a?aoiaiooaaeiny e?iaa?iith eiioeaioe??th
/ano a inoaiiueiio. sse ae?oe aioe/iiai noni?euenoaa, iooe? eeane/iiai
ia??iaeo ia iiaee a nai?o coneeeyo, ni?yiiaaieo ia eiai
o?enoeyi?caoe?th, ia nei?enoaoeny aeuei aeinyaiaiiyi aioe/iino? –
iaiieaoii?/iith o?einio??th.

Iaeaeoeai?oa oe??? iiceoe?? aeio?eioaaeenue I?eaai, Aanee?e Aaeeeee,
A?eai??e I?nueeee, A?eai??e Aiaineia, Inaaaei-Ae?ii?n?e A?aiiaa?o oa
eiai i?ci?o? eiiaioaoi?e. Caaaeyee oeueiio i?aaenoaaieee i?ia?aeieo
oaieia?/ieo oe?e (ianaiia?aae Aeaenaiae??enueei?) ciiaee ioiieoe
o?enoeyinueea a/aiiy a oi?io o?einionueei? nenoaie, aeeeanoe ?noeie
iaee?iaaiiy iiaith, ciaeiiith aeeoaeyi Na?aaecaiiiii?’y, ui ni?eyei eiai
iiaeaeueoiio i?eeiyooth ina?/aiith /anoeiith yce/ieoeueeiai na?oo.

Ia noaaeaiiy iooe?a aei o?einio?? nooo?ai aieeioa aneaoeci, yeee coiiaea
?o aiaeyoe?th aei iaiieai?/ii? i?noeee (a/aiiy i?i aiaiaoe?th, aenoac,
i?noe/ia inyaiaiiy aiaeanoaaiieo nooiinoae ? o.i.). A i?ioean? inai?iiy
iaiieaoii?/ii? niaaeueie aeae?ey?oueny iniaeeaa ?ieue “A?aiiaa?oee”.
Ia?aoo?, a aeiao i?ciuei? iao?enoeee ca aeiiiiiaith iaiieaoii?/ii?
o?einio?? iooe? nenoaiaoecoaaee e aeoeoia/eee oea?eiaia a/aiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? iieaco?oueny, ui a i?aeoiaeao iooe?a aei o?einionueei?
niaaeueie /anii i?iyaey?oueny noaiaoeci ? i?aaiaoeci, ni?iuaiiy ?
aoeueaa?ecaoe?y, aea naia no?aeia iao?enoeea iaaeaea o?enoeyinoao
caeaoi?noue aei oai?aoe/ieo iiaoaeia. A oie aea /an o?einio?y iiai?
?ae?a?? neeaeany a oe?e?nio nenoaio caaaeyee iaiieaoii?cio, yeee
neiioeaio?oaaa o nia? ana iaeoe?ii?oa, ui aoei ae?iaeaia
a?aei-?einueeith aeooiai?noth, ? c aeae?eaiiyi yeiai c iao?enoeee
inoaiiy a i?inoi ?iciaeany.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Iaiieaoii?/ia o??aaeieia?y ? o?ei?oa?ia a/aiiy a
?aiiueiio o?enoeyinoa?” – cae?enith?oueny ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iniiaieo
aniaeo?a iioieia?/iiai a/aiiy a i?ciueiaioe/iiio neioac? e no?aei?e
iao?enoeoe?. Ine?eueee iaea?eueo ina?/ai? ? aeaeaeiaeyaei? aiaineiae
ia?oeie c?icoi?ee iaiao?aei?noue iaieiae?iiy an?i a?naiaeii
yce/ieoeueei? eoeueoo?e, a iao?enoe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? /anii
niinoa??aa?oueny iaaecae/aeia ia?aieao?iiy noa?i? oi?ie c iiaei ci?noii.
Ianaiia?aae oea noino?oueny a/aiiy i?i aoooy Aiaa-a-nia? (oiaoi
o?i?/iiai Aiaeanoaa).

Ia?oee ia?aa?ao – “Aaniethoia Ia?oiia/aei ? aacia/aeueiee Aia-Ioaoeue” –
i?enay/aiee ?ice?eooth ci?noo no?aeiiiao?enoe/iiai a/aiiy i?i Aiaa oa
c’ynoaaiith i??e aieeao ia iueiai iaiieaoii?/iiai iiiyooy ?aeeiiai. A
aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui oi/a iaiieaoii?ee e iooe? iaeiaeiai
aeciathoue oaeo ?aeiino? Aiaeanoaa, o?e ?iinoan? ?ic??ciythoueny ca
aeanoeainoyie, yeinoyie, ooieoe?yie oa i?iyaaie (cae/aeii, ?o
?icae?eaiiy ? oiiaiei ? aeiionea?oueny caaeey i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy).

A ?iaio? i?inoaaeothoueny iiiyooy iaeeie/iino? ? o?ainoeaiaeaioiino?
Aiaa, eiai ?aeiino? ? i?inoioe, iaci?iiino? ? a?/iino?, aeooiaii?,
na?oeiai?, oai?/i? ? aeaai? “i?e?iaee”, aeineiiaeino? ? iaiiae?eueiino?
oiui. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui naia a o?einionueei-iaiieaoii?/ieo oa?i?iao
no?aei? iooe? ciaoiaeeee aiaeia?/i? oi?ie aeey naiai i?aeianaiiai
oyaeaiiy i?i Aiaa. Ioieo ca ioieoii o ?iaio? a?aeaoaa?oueny
ni?anoaaeaiiy iiaeyae?a o?einio?a ? oaieia?a c aeaiiai ieoaiiy, ? oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui oaieiae noaaeueii ni?eeiaee iaiieaoii?/i? ?aea?
i?i iaaenoua Aiaeanoai. ?iiae? iooe? a?aeoai?thaaee iaa?oue
oi?ioethaaiiy o?einio?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? iieacothoueny e a?aei?iiino? a iiaeyaeao iaiieaoii?e?a ?
iooe?a oea?eae ia i?e?iaeo Aiaeanoaa: a/ noai?aeeiaoe?ii?cio
iaiieaoii?e?a i?ioenoiya eii?aeeiaoe?ii?ci iooe?a; a/ caieiooa a nia?
?aeeia ia oioiaeia Aiaia?, ui oi?aaey? na?oii; a/ iaoao?ce/ia
Ia?oiia/aei ? aano?aeoiei Aiaeanoaii, oiae? ye o?enoeyinueeee Aia –
aeeaa naiiona?aeiiethth/a iniaeno?noue; a/ aiaiaoe?y a o/aii? Ieio?ia
??cieoueny a?ae ?aea? oai??iiy a iooe?a; ae/ iaiieaoii?/iee Aia
aaeaeoaeee aei na?oo, oiae? ye o?enoeyinueeee Aia – oea ianaiia?aae
Ethaia.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, a aeine?aeaeaii? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea, ui a
iniia? aeaio nenoai aoea aiaeanoaaiia ?noioa c aeecueeeie aeanoeainoyie
e iciaeaie, caaaeyee /iio iaiieaoii?ee noeeyeeny a?ae iaioa?cio aei
oa?cio, a iiceoe?y Ieio?ia eaaei iiaea aooe aeoeoia/aia ye ?ae?a?eiee
iiiioa?ci. Aei oiai ae, ? ooo, ? oai ia?oa ?noioa ia?iaeaeo? ae?oao.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao – “Ia?oa eiei aiaiaoe?? ? ao?eaiee Eiain” – ia?
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy na?oeaaeio o?ei?oa?iiai a/aiiy a iao?enoeoe? –
a/aiiy i?i ae?oao ?iinoanue Aiaa-Neia. Caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia oa, ui
einiieia?/ia iiiyooy i?i Eiaina (Aa?aee?o, Nie?ao, noi?ee, O?eii) aaea
aiieiaaoe ia?aianee c o?einio?? a aiaineia’y, ?icaeioaoe a/aiiy i?i
O?enoa ye ao?eaia Neiai. I?ioa oyaeaiiy ia?oeo iooe?a i?i Neia aoee ua
ia/?oe? e noia?a/eea?.

Eeoa Ieio?i caaacia/ea o/aiiy i?i Oi ye iina?aaeieea an??th iaiao?aeiith
a?aoiaioaoe??th. Ia aeiaaeeiai a oeoia/aii? Eiaina I?eaaiii iii?oia eiai
a?aaeath/a caeaaei?noue a?ae e?eiiie?oaioey (aeaa?noue, a?/i?noue,
noai?aeeiaoe?ii?ci oiui). I/aaeaeia iane?aeoaaiiy I?eaaia Ieio?io ? a
ioieoao a?/iiai ?iinoaniiai ii?iaeaeaiiy Neia ye aeooae?caoe?? aia?a??
Iooey, oai?aiiy /a?ac iueiai Aiaii na?oo. ? oi/a aeaye? ?aea? I?eaaia
caiaeii a?aeeeioo? oea?eaith, aea a?i iaa aaeeeee aieea ia no?aeieo
iooe?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui a ia??iae o?ei?oa?ieo ?
o?enoieia?/ieo noia?a/ie ia ??ci? aniaeoe a/aiiy I?eaaia (a cia/eoue, ?
inai?iiai iei iaiieaoii?cio) iie?aeeny ? i?aaineaai?, ? ??aoeee. Oae,
Aoaian?e ? A??e ?ic?eoeeny a “eio?”, yea a?aeia?aaeaea a?aei?iiino? ia
a?aoeuee?e iia? iiiyoue “?aeeiinooi?noue” ? “iiaeiainooi?noue”. Eiioe?eo
eaiiaaeie?eoe?a c ?aiii??i oaae aoa coiiaeaiee ?ica?aeiinoyie a
oeoia/aii? o?ei?oa?ii? oainio?? Ieio?ia, ?icoi?iiy iei ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
?iinoanae. A?aeeeaeath/e ??an?, iooe? aeei?enoiaoaaee iaiieaoii?/iee
iaoai?ci, iaiiaithth/e, oaeei /eiii, o?enoeyinueea aiaineia’y
o?einionueeei ci?noii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaieioo?, ui e aeeneon?y uiaei iiaeeeaino? cia?aaeaiiy
O?enoa caniaaie ienoaoeoaa oaae a?oiooaaeany ia iaiieaoii?/i?e
a?aoiaioaoe??. Naia ia aeniiaee Ii?oe??y, ssiae?oa ? THe?aia i?i
cia?aaeaiiy ia ?eii? ye ia?oiia?ac, c yeiai ci?ia?oueny ia?ac, iie?aeeny
Inaaaei-Ae?ii?n?e, o?enoeyinueea ?eiiia?ao?y ? i?ea?/ieee
?eiiioaioaaiiy. Ia?aoo?, o?einionueei-iaiieaoii?/iee ci?no iinyoue
i??eoaaiiy i?i Neia o Iaeneia Niia?aeieea e ?iaia Aeaiane?ia.

A aeine?aeaeaii? a?aecia/athoueny e a?aei?iiino? i?ae iaiieaoii?eaie e
iooeyie a oeoia/aii? ae?oai? ?iinoan?: a/ iaia?aaeaecia/aia ?aeeiei
aoooy Oia noia?a/eoue i?inoio? ?aeeiiai, oiae? ye o O??eoe? – eiie?aoia
?aei?noue ?c ?aeeiith i?e?iaeith; a/ o Ieio?ia ae?oaa ?iinoanue
ia??aii/ania ia?o?e, a o?enoeyinoa? ae iaia? i? iaioiai, i? a?eueoiai;
a/ eia?/ia neeaaei?noue Oia iani?anoaaethaaia c iiaea?eiith i?e?iaeith
Neia; a/ aano?aeoe?? a iaiieaoii?ci? i?ioenoi?oue Nei o o?enoeyinoa? –
eiie?aoia aiaeanoaaiia iniaeno?noue; ae/ ia a?aei?io a?ae Neia Oi cia?
o?eueee ?aeaaeueiee na?o.

? ana ae, iii’yeooth/e iaaeeoo?aee oa?aeoa? iaiieaoii?/ii? eiaieia??,
iooe? i?enoinoaaee ?? ?aeaae?noe/i? eiino?oeoe?? aeey nai?o oea?eiaieo
oe?eae. Oea iieaaooaaeiny oei, ui iaeaea? nenoaie ia?aaeaa/aee oioiaeiee
aeo?ae aei ianooiii? ?iinoan?.

O?ao?e ia?aa?ao – “Na?oiaa Aeooa ? Aeoo Nayoee” – iiaea? ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c iaiieaoii?/iiai ? no?aeii-iao?enoe/iiai i?aeoiae?a aei o?aouei?
aiaeanoaaiii? ?iinoan?. C ieaoii?cio, aea aiia aoea iaeiiai?oa
iaa?oioiaaia a ia??iae aioe/iino?, ?aeay aeooiaii? noanoaioe?? i?iieeea
a aiieiaaoeeo. I?aaaea, ieoaiiy noiaeaeaiiy Aeooa oa eiai aeaaiaeao? a
no?aeiiio o?enoeyinoa? ?ic?iaeyeiny iaio aeoeaii, i?ae o?enoieia?/ia
i?iaeaiaoeea.

Ii/eiath/e c I?eaaia, a?ae/ooiee aieea ia nayoiiooe?anueea a/aiiy i?i
Nayoiai Aeooa ni?aaey? iaiieaoii?/ia eiioeaioe?y Na?oiai? Aeoo? (?aea?
aiaeanoaaiii? i?e?iaee ? o/ano? a oai??ii?, iiaeaiiy aeeooy ? ia?aaea/?
aeaaiaeao? oiui). Ia iniia? iaiieaoii?cio ae?iaey?oueny i?eaai?anueeee
noai?aeeiaoe?ii?ci, yeiai /anii aeio?eioaaany A?eai??e I?nueeee. Iaeaea
aeine?aii oeeoo? aecia/aiiy ooieoe?e Aeoo? Aanee?e Aaeeeee. Aiae?c
cana?ae/o?, ui a IV no. iaiieaoii?/i? e iao?enoe/i? ?aea? oae o?nii
ia?aie?oaeeny, ui /anii aaaeei aoei ?ic??cieoe o?einionueeo niaeoeyoe?th
? ?ae?a?th.

Aaoi? oaeiae a?aecia/a? ?icoiaeaeaiiy aeaio nenoai: a/ i?ae neeaaeiaeie
o??aaee, ia a?aei?io a?ae O??eoe?, iaia? ??aiino?; a/ Aeoo o?ni?oa
ii?aeiaiee c O??eoeath, i?ae Aeooa c o??aaeith; a/ aeanoeaino? Aeoo? e
Aeooa iaiaeiaeia?; a/ ??cia ?o noaaeaiiy aei na?oo; ae/ Aia o
o?enoeyinoa? o?i?/iee ca i?e?iaeith, a ia a neeo iaiao?aeiino?
a?aee?eaaoe naaa na?oo.

Cae/aeii, aaniethoii? oioiaeiino? e ia iiaei aooe, ?iaeoa iaiieaoii?ci
noaa ae o?enoeyinoaii. I?ioa ?ic?iaethaaia Ieio?iii a/aiiy i?i o??aaeo
?, cie?aia, aeooo, aoei iano?eueee ni?acao/ia o?enoeyinuee?e aeieo?ei?
O??eoe?, ui eiai noai?aeeiaoe?ii?ci eaaei i?a aooe ia?a?iaeaiee a
eii?aeeiaoe?ii?ci. Aa?oi aoei aiaeanoaaiia a?aeie?aieoe a?ae na?oo, yeee
aiii i?iieea?, ? iinoaaaa oa?ci, ?aeeiee Aia o o?enoeyinueeiio ?icoi?ii?
?aeeiiaiaeaey. I?e oeueiio iioieia?y a?ae?eaaeany a?ae einiieia?? ?
caiaeeeany aei /enoi? oaieia??. Ia aenoa/aei o?eueee inieneaiiy ?aea?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Aaniethoa c? na?oii.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Iaa?oiooaaiiy einiieia?? oa aio?iiieia?? a
iaiieaoii?ci? ? iao?enoe/i?e o?einio??” – ?ice?eaa?oueny i?iaeaia
oeoia/aiiy iooeyie oea?eae ?aeaaeueiiai ? /ooo?aiai na?o?a ? ?ieue o
oeueiio i?ioean? cania?a iaiieaoii?/ii? o?einio??. Aiae?co?oueny
iao?enoe/ia einiieia?y e aio?iiieia?y, iiaeyae aiaineia?a ia i?e?iaeo
iaaa, caie? e ethaeeie, aea iaa?oue o aeaoaeyo i?inoaaeo?oueny
caeaaei?noue o?enoeyinueei? o?einio?? a?ae iaiieaoii?/ii?.

Ia?oee ia?aa?ao — “Aoooy ? iaaoooy” – c’yniao? ?aeath ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
“iaaania – caiia” ? noiaeaeaiiy a?ae aeooiaiiai aei iaoa??aeueiiai (?oo
aeooiaiiai ia/aea aiec), yea aoea ni?eueiith aeey einiieia??
iaiieaoii?cio oa iao?enoeee. Cacia/a?oueny, ui iooe? aeoiaeeee c ?aea?
oai??iiy Aiaii ?aeaaeueiiai ? /ooo?aiai na?o?a c “i?/iai”, a
iaiieaoii?ee – c “iaoa???”, yea oi/a e a?/ia, aea oioiaeia “iaaoooth”.
I?aaaea, ia aeoieo iooe?a, Aia (=aoooy) nii/aoeo oai?eoue “i?ui”
(=?iiaoooy), a iio?i c oeueiai “i?ui” oai?eoue iaoa??th ?acii ?c
oi?iith.

I?ae aieeaii iaiieaoii?cio I?eaai o nai?e “eini?/i?e” eiioeaioe??
?icaeaa? ?aea? iaeooioai?aiino? iaaanieo na?oee, na?oiaeo oeeee?a,
aaaaoi/enaeueieo na?o?a ? o.i. Aee?i?coth/e o?enoeyinoai, a?i aiineoue o
iao?enoe/io o?einio?th a?aeo?iie yce/ieoeoaa. Iaaeae? anei?eyoe?th
iaiieaoii?cio cae?enith? A?eai??e I?nueeee, yeee ii?aeio? i?eaai?anueeo
?aeath a?/iino? na?oo c anoaoieia?/ieie e o?e?anoe/ieie oaiaeaioe?yie.
I?iaiaeeoueny aeoiea, ui, iaiaaath/enue ocaiaeeoe i?iaeaio aiaei?
aeaaino? ? iioiaeaeaiiy cea a na?o?, iooe? iie?aeeny ia aea? ?aea?
Ieio?ia: a/ cei ? ianoua; a/ cei ? iaaeinoaoi?noue aeia?a. Iiae?eyth/e
aeoieo i?i ianoanoaioe?ei?noue cea, o?einioe e iooe? iia’ycoaaee eiai c
iaoa???th (=eaeaeaie aeooa). Oiio a iicaaaeaii? aeia?a aeii? nai?
ethaee, Aia aea iaionea? cei ca?aaee aeaaa.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui a aeon? ieaoii?cio iooe? naia aiaeanoaaii?e
aeaaino? i?eienoaaee oai??iiy na?oo (=aiaiaoe?y a iaiieaoii?ci?). I?e
oeueiio aiie ia o?eueee aeoeaii caiice/oaaee ieio?i?anuee? oa?i?ie
(“aeo?eaiiy”, “aei?ii?ithaaiiy”, “aeaaiooaiiy” oiui), aea oae naii
aaeeaaee ?o o iaoaoi?e/iiio cia/aii?. Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea, ui
o?enoeyinueeiio a/aiith i?i noai?aiiy Aiaii na?oo c i?/iai ia noia?a/eei
iaiieaoii?/ia a/aiiy i?i aiaiaoe?th na?oo c ?aeeiiai, yeui i?ae
“oai??iiyi c i?/iai” ?icoi?oe aiaiaoe?th iaoa??? c ?aeeiiai.

Iie?ath/enue ia iaiieaoii?anueeo ???a?o?th aoooy, nenoaiaoeciaaio
ssiae?oii ? Naeethno??i, iooe? caaaa/othoue a/aiiy i?i iaaanio ?
oea?eiaio ???a?o?th. A Inaaaei-Ae?ii?n?e, a?aeoai?thth/e nenoaio I?ieea,
ia?aiineoue o o?enoeyinoai o??aaeieia?/iee i?eioeei. Oae, caaaeyee
?aeayi iaiieaoii?cio, caeeaaeaany o?einionueei-na?oiaeyaeiee ooiaeaiaio
o?enoeyinueei? ?ae?a??. I?e oeueiio a aio?iiieia?? noaa?aeeeany aeoiea,
ui caaaeyee i?iiecaiiino? Aeooii (Aeooath) o?ei ethaeeie ? i?ae?aniei ?
ia? aeania aeeooy.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao – “Ineo?/ia aio?iiieia?y” – ?icaeyaea? aeooiaia ia/aei
a ethaeei? c oi/ee ci?o no?aeieo iooe?a oea?eae. Cacia/a?oueny, ui
i?ia?aeieie ooo ? ?aea? aacnia?oy ? iaeaooiuei? aeie? ethaenoaa.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aia?oa ia aioe/iiio a?oio? i?i iioiea?/ia aeeooy
aieinii caaiai?eee i?o?ee. Iaeaea o?enoeyinuee? oyaeaiiy i?i aacnia?oy
aeoo? oa?aeoa?i? aeey iaiieaoii?cio, ia ni??eooae?ci? yeiai aoaeoaaee
nai? oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee iooe? oea?eae. Ia iniia? iaiieaoii?/iiai a/aiiy
i?i ia?aae?nioaaiiy aeoo ?ic?iaeythoue ?aea? i?i ?o a?/iee e?oaiai?io oa
aeina?oiaa iaae?iiy I?eaai, ?aaa??e ? Ae?ae?i. Ia?oee, ye ? Ieio?i,
aaaaea?, ui ?aeiaiiy c aeuith ?noioith aeiaaaei iaeneiaeueiiai
iai?oaeaiiy, ia yea aeooe aeyaeeenue iacaeaoieie, oiio i?e ineaaeaii?
oeueiai iai?oaeaiiy aiie a?aeiaee a?ae Aiaa, a?aeaeaeeeeny a?ae
aiaeanoaaiiiai niiaeyaeaiiy, caa?ioeeny aei a??oiai ? noaee aeooaie.
E?eoeeoth/e i?eaai?ci, Iaenei Niia?aeiee noaa?aeaeo? ni?a?nioaaiiy aeoo?
e o?ea, i?ioa nai a?i ia oiee ieaoii?anueeeo ooee?a (?aeay “eiain?a”).

I?ciueiaioe/i? o?einioe ?icaeyaeaee caiia aeeooy ye oei/aniaa, ye
aei?iaoaaiiy aeey aeoo?, oa’yciaii? a o?e?. A iniia? ?o iiaeyae?a c
oeueiai ieoaiiy eaaeaoue aeecuee? aei o?enoeyinueeeo ?aea? iaae?iiy ?
a??oiaiino?, ye? i?ae aieeaii Ieio?ia iaa?oioiaothoue I?eaai oa
eaiiaaeie?eoe?. *a?ac a??oiiaae?iiy cae?enieeiny cei, aeooa
a?aeaeaeeeany a?ae Aiaa, aaaaeaee iooe?. I?e oeueiio iaiieaoii?/iee
iiaeyae ia i?e?iaeo ? neeaae ethaenueei? aeoo? noaa iaeaaaeeea?oith
ia?aaeoiiaith ineo?/ii? aio?iiieia?? a iao?enoeoe?. Naia i?ae aieeaii
Ieio?ia aiaineiae ?iciaaeiaothoue aeuo e ieae/o aeooo, i?eno?ano?,
aaaaeath/e, ui inoaii? oeiaeyoue ae?yeueiino? ?icoio.

Nooo?aee aianie o o?enoeyinueeo aio?iiieia?th ?iaeyoue i?ae aieeaii
iaiieaoii?cio Iaian?e Aianueeee (iaiieaoii?/ia ?icoi?iiy i?eno?anoae ?
aiao??), ?naae N???i (aioaaii?ci aeoo? e o?ea). A o?einionoaoth/ee
I?eaai iaa?oue ?icaeaa? a?aeeeioo? oea?eaith ?aea? aiaiianeno ?
iaoaiin?oico. Oiio ?aeay a?aeieaoe i?ney nia?o? ?icaeaa?oueny a
iaiieaoii?ci? e o?enoeyinoa?, oi/a aiia e ii-??ciiio ona?aeiiethaaeany.

O?ao?e ia?aa?ao – “Niiaoe/ia aio?iiieia?y” – ?icaeyaea? i?iaeaio
nayoiiooe?anueeiai oeoia/aiiy o?eanii? i?e?iaee ethaeeie.
Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea, ui an? eeth/ia? iieiaeaiiy “niiaoe/ii?”
aio?iiieia?? a no?aei?e iao?enoeoe? ianooue ia nia? a?ae/ooi? ne?aee
aieeao i?ciueiaioe/ii? (ianaiia?aae iaiieaoii?/ii?) o?aaeeoe??.

Aaea o a/aii? I?eaaia i?i o?e/aniee neeaae ethaeeie (aeoo, aeooa, o?ei)
i?inoaaeothoueny iaiieaoii?/i? ?aea?. O nai?io o?aeoao? “I?i i?e?iaeo
ethaeeie” oe?iea ciaeiinoai c iaiieaoii?/iith o?einio??th aeyaey?
Iaian?e Aianueeee, yeee aa?a c o?einio?? ana oa, ui ciaoiaeeoue ca?aeiei
c o?enoeyinoaii. Aaeeeee iioya aei iaiieaoii?/ieo ooee?a I?eaaia aeyaey?
A?eai??e I?nueeee, na?oeaaeio o?einio?? yeiai neeaaea? aio?iiieia?y.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui eeth/iaeie aeey iao?enoe/ii? aio?iiieia?? aoee ?aea?
noai?aiiy ethaeeie Aiaii, ui neiaie?coaaei i?eiao aeooo iaae iaoa???th,
a??oiiaae?iiy, ui aoei coiiaeaia ia?icoiiei aeai?ii ethaeeie,
a?aeiaaeaiiy inoaiiuei? a?ae aiaeanoaaiii? aeaaiaeao? ? aoiaeaeaiiy a
cei, a oaeiae niieoooaaiiy o?ea ye oiiae aeey iaiaeaiiy oiui. Iniaeeai
aaeeeee aianie o iao?enoe/io aio?iiieia?th ?iaeyoue “A?aiiaa?oeee”, a
yeeo o?enoieia?y ii?aeio?oueny c iaioa?noe/iei na?oiaeyaeii I?ieea. Ui
ae noino?oueny iinia?oii? aeie? ethaeeie, oi, ca/?iath/e ??, A?eai??e
I?nueeee oa Iaian?e Aianueeee ?ici??eiaothoue iaae iaiieaoii?/iei
a/aiiyi i?i “yeino?”.

Oaaaa aei iaiieaoii?cio iineeth?oueny na?aae ??cieo oa/?e o o?enoeyinoa?
a ia??iae aeeneon?e aiaineia?a c ianoi??aiaie, iiiio?ceoaie oa
iiiioae?oaie, ye? c ??cieo aie?a i?ioyaoaaee a o?enoeyinoai
iaiieaoii?/io oi?io. Oe?eaai, ui a nai?o coneeeyo, ni?yiiaaieo ia
io?einionoaoaaiiy o?enoeyinoaa, iooe? aeei?enoiaoaaee iaa?oue
ieaoii?anuee? aeaai??? (“e??a”, “oe??yiee iaeya”, “eaa??eio”, “ia/a?a”
oiui). I?e oeueiio ? yce/ieee, ? o?enoeyie iiaiaeaeoaaeenue, ui caaeey
oni?oiiai inyaiaiiy ?noeie iaiao?aeii ca?eueieoe aeooo a?ae o?ea,
i/enoeoe ?? a?ae /ooo?aiai. Aaaaeaeiny, ui oea iiaeeeaa ca oiiae
iiaa?iaiiy aeoo? aei Aiaa, i?ciaiiy eiai iath.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? – “Aieea iaiieaoii?/ii? i?noeee ia nayoiiooe?anueea
a/aiiy i?i aiaii?ciaiiy” – aeine?aeaeo?oueny oai??y i?ciaiiy a no?aei?e
iao?enoeoe? oa cia/aiiy iaiieaoii?/ii? o?einio?? aeey ?? ?ic?iaee.
I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui naia o?einionueei-o?enoeyinueea aiinaieia?y
caiaeeoueny aei aiaii?ciaiiy, iiae?aii oiio, ye e?ioeaao iaoo aeeooy
ethaeeie o?einioe ? aiaineiae aaa/aee o a?aeiiaeaii? ao?a/aii? iath
?aeiino? c Aiaii, o iiaa?iaii? aeoo? aei iueiai ? ceeoo? c iei. I?ioa
caaeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aeooa ia? i?ieoe neeaaeiee ? oa?ienoee
oeyo (“oeyo oai?o”).

Ia?oee ia?aa?ao – “Eaoaoaoe/iee iaoiae” – aiae?co? oie niin?a
aiaii?ciaiiy, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia i?aeianaii? (ni?anoaaeaii?, aiaeia??)
c Aiaii on?o aecia/aiue, ye? i?eeeaaeathoueny aei oai??iiy. I?e oeueiio
i?inoaaeothoueny iaa?oioiaai? iooeyie aeaa niiniae naiia?aee?eooy
(iaee?iaaiiy) Aiaa a oai??ii? ? i?iiene?: a/ i?e?iaeia; a/
iaaei?e?iaeia. C’yniao?oueny, ui naia c aiae?co eiai oai??iiy (na?oo ?
ethaeeie) iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? ?nioaaiiy ? aeaye? i?iyae (aia?a??,
ae??) aiaeanoaaiiiai (aeaa?noue, ?aei?noue, ethaia, iaeeie/i?noue,
i?inoioa oiui). I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aiaeii/an iooe? iiae?eyee oaco
Ieio?ia i?i iaaeinooii?noue nooiino? (i?e?iaee) Aiaa.

Oaeo aeoieo i?aeoiieth? aaea I?eaai, aea iniaeeai a?oioiaii ?? ianoaaeo?
Inaaaei-Ae?ii?n?e, yeee ?ic??ciy? a Aiaia? “?aeiaiiy” (?aeeio nooi?noue)
? “?icae?eaiiy” (/eneaii? aia?a??, neee), ui “aeeeaathoueny”
(“aei?ii?iththoueny”) c nooiino? ? aeayeei /eiii ?ice?eaathoue ia?ac
Aiaa. Oiaoi, oea eeoa aeaa niiniae aoooy Aiaa. Eiee iooe? aiai?eee, ui
“?” Aia, aiie aiai?eee i?i eiai aia?a??, eiee ae aiai?eee, ui a?i “ia ?”
– iaaeeaeaeeny aei nooiino?. Ne?aeii ca iaiieaoii?eaie aiie cacia/aee,
ui Aia noiaeeoue aei ethaeeie o nai?o aia?a?yo, ye? eiai c’yaeythoue,
ethaeeia ae i?aeiineoueny aei iueiai a “c’?aeiaiiyo”, o yeeo a?i ?
iai?ciaaaiei.

Eaoaoaoe/ia aiaineia’y, ia aeoieo no?aeieo iooe?a, aeeth/a? a?aee?eooy
Aiaa /a?ac noiae? ia?ace, ?aea?, eiaine, ?iaia oa ?io? iiceoeai?
i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua iaoa??aeueiiai na?oo, caaaeyee yeei oaiia noa? c?eiei.
Cie?aia, A?eai??e I?nueeee a iieai?oe? c ?aiii??i ?icaeaa? ia iniia?
iaiieaoii?cio oe?ea a/aiiy i?i ?iaia Aiae? ye aiaeia??, acyo? c oaa?iiai
na?oo. Oe?eeii oiiai?, aiie ?ice?eaathoue iioaioe?? Aiaa, caeeoath/e
ia?iaiiaaiith eiai i?e?iaeo (nooi?noue, ?noai). Iaiieaoii?/ia
eiioeaioe?y iiceoeaieo ?iai iiaeeaeaia Inaaaei-Ae?ii?n??i, yeee
i?aee?anethaaa, ui no?aeoe? iiceoeaiiai aiaineia’y caaacia/othoue eeoa
ia?aaei?ciaiiy Aiaa. A?eueo aoaeoeaiei ? oeyo caia?a/aiiy a Aiaia?
iaaeanoeaeo eiio ooieoe?e.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao – “Aiioaoe/iee iaoiae” – ia? ia iao? ?ice?eooy
iaa?oioiaaiiai iooeyie i?aaiaiiy ethaeeie caaaiooe e iienaoe Aiaa /a?ac
??cea i?ioenoaaeaiiy eiai na?oo, oiaoi /a?ac caia?a/aiiy a Aiaia?
aecia/aiue, iaeaaeieo oai??iith. Iieaco?oueny, ui ine?eueee aiioaoe/ia
oaieia?y caaacia/o? oiiae aeey ia?aoiaeo aei ??aiy iaaeciaiiy, aiia
iaieio/a iinoa? ia?aae aeoieith, yea i?aeiineoueny aei Aiaa. A
o?einionueeei ci?noii aiioaoeea iaiiaith?oueny a iaiieaoii?ci?.

Aeoiaey/e c aeoiee i?i iaiiaeeea?noue i?ciaiiy Aiaa oeyoii eia?/iiai
ieneaiiy, iooe? ?icaeyaeaee iaaaoeaia aiaineia’y ye can?a, ui ia?aaeo?
i?noe/iiio c’?aeiaiith c iei. *a?iath/e oeth ?aeath a o?einio??, iooe?
i?ae aeeaathoue uaae?o iaiieaoii?/io e?ia o aaie o?enoeyinueeiai
aiaineia’y. ? oi/a i?e oeueiio cai?noue ciainiaeaiiai Aiaeanoaa
?icoi?eany iniaenoa i?enooi?noue Aiaa, aiioaoe/iee iaoiae e?eiiie?oaioey
caiice/oaaee I?eaai ? ?anaa?e Eana??enueeee, Aoaian?e Aeaenaiae??enueeee
? ?aaa??e Iiio?enueeee, ?io?.

Ua aeoeai?oa aei iaiieaoii?cio aiaeththoue eaiiaaeie?eoe?, ye? a ?aieao
aiioaoeee ?icaeaathoue ?aea? iacaaaiaiiino? Aiaa ca nooi?noth,
iaaeinooiiino? eiai aecia/aiith, aacia/aeueiino?, aaco?eaniino?,
iaaeaeeiino?, iaa?ae/ooiino?, iaia?iaeaeoaaiino? oiui, a?aenoith/e ?o o
iieai?oe? c a??aiaie ? ?aiii?aiaie, ianoi??aiaie ? iiiio?ceoaie.
Eeane/iiai aeaeyaeo iaaaoeaia oaieia?y iaaoea a “Ei?ion? A?aiiaa?oee”.
Ia?aiiny/e a iao?enoeeo iaoiaeeeo, ?ic?iaeaio Ieio?iii, Ae?ii?n?e
aeiaiaeeoue ia?aaaao aiioaoe/ii? oaieia?? iaae eaoaoaoe/iith ? aenoaa?
oe?eee iaa?? caia?a/aiue ao?eaoo?a Aiaa. Aeae?ey?oueny aeoiea Ae?ii?n?y
i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?aeeeiaiiy anueiai, ui ieae/a ca Aiaa, caaeey
iaaeeaeaiiy aei iaa?aeiiiai a ii?ioe? iiaiiai iaciaiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny, ui i?aeaioia/eie caniaaie aei
iaae/ooo?aiai ? iaae?icoiiiai ?aeiaiiy c Aiaii Ae?ii?n?e ?icaeyaeaa
ciaeiai-neiaie?/io i?e?iaeo ianoiaeeo ia?ac?a, ye? aieeaaee ia
i?aena?aeiio iaeanoue ineo?ee. ? ye o eaoaoaoe/iiio aiaineia’? ia?ace
iia’ycai? c ?iaiaie aiaeeie, oae o aiioaoeoe? – c eiai aac?iaii?noth. Ia
oe?e i?aenoaa? an? i??eoaaiiy i?i Aiaa iaieioothoueny a?iioaoe/ieie.

Ioaea, caniiaaia ia i?eioeei? aioeiii?cio, nenoaia iicia/aiue o
Ae?ii?n?y aaea aei aeniiaeo, ui Aia ia ? i?yea “ui”, a?i ? “i?ui”.
I?aaaea, oi/a i?noe/ia aiaineia’y ? iaei ia’?eoii Aiaa iai?ciaaaiiai,
oea ia icia/aei aaiinoeoeecio. Ea?oth/enue iaiieaoii?/iith
iaoiaeieia??th, iooe? ni?yiiaoaaee i?ciaiiy ia oie oeyo, yeee
ia?aaeaa/aa iaiaeaiiy.

O?ao?e ia?aa?ao – “Oeyo aei iaiaeaiiy” – iiaea? iaii?aio i?noe/iiai ?ooo
aeoo? a iai?yieo aei aiaioiiae?aiaiiy ? ?aeiaiiy c Aiaii. Caeeoath/enue
iacaaaiaiiei aeey ethaenueeiai ?icoio (?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?ciaiiy), Aia
“a?ae/oaa?oueny” a i?ioean? oa?iie/iai “aeioeeaiiy” aei iueiai, a
?ioo?oeaiiio (i?noe/iiio) eiai inyaiaii?. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aieiaia
oaiaeaioe?y i?noe/iiai aeina?aeo iieyaa? a oyae?ii? ethaenueeiai aeooo
aei aaciina?aaeiueiai ni?eeoaaiiy ? ?aeiaiiy c Aiaii, yeee noai?th?
ia’?eoeai? oiiae aeey ?aeiino?, oiae? ye noa’?eoeaiee a?e oeueiai
?aeiaiiy ? ? oeyoii aei iaiaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?ey? o?e aieiai? iai?yiee i?noe/iiai aeina?aeo a
no?aei?e iao?enoeoe?: a/ aano?aeoii-niaeoeyoeaiee (Eeeiaio
Aeaenaiae??enueeee, Ae?ii?n?e A?aiiaa?o); a/ ii?aeueii-i?aeoe/iee
(I?eaai, Iaea??e Aaeeeee oa ?io? ?aeiaonuee? iiaeaeaeieee); a/
aoeei-aiinaieia?/iee (eaiiaaeie?eoe?, ?naae N???i, Iaenei Niia?aeiee). O
ia?oiio oaaaa aeoeaioo?oueny ia ae?aeaeoeei-eia?/iiio ?ooia? ciaiiy,
e?ioeaaith iaoith (aiioaicii) yeiai ? aeinyaiaiiy a “?icoiiaiio”
aenoac? Aiaa. Ae?oaee iniiaith i?noe/iiai aeeooy ia?aaeaa/aa ii/oooy
ethaia? aei Aiaa ? aaa/aa o “/ooo?aiio” aenoac? iieoi’yia ??
aeyaeaiiy. Ia?aoo?, o?ao?e iai?yiie ii?aeio? ? iinooiiai i?eie?th?
aiinen ? ethaia. Aiaeii/an cacia/a?oueny. ui oeae aeina?ae
caaaeaee ia? ni?euei? ?ene. Ine?eueee i?ecia/aiiyi caiiiai aeeooy
o?enoeyie, ye ? iaiieaoii?ee, aaaaeaee niieoooaaiiy a??oa. ?aeeiee can?a
oeueiai nian?iiy, c iaeiiai aieo, aaa/aany a oia?oae?ii? o?ea /a?ac
oo?eiaiiy ? iiaeaeaeieoeoai, a c ae?oaiai, a i?aeianaii? naii? aeoo? aei
?aeeiiai, /a?ac niiaeyaeaiiy ? caoiieaiiy, ca?aaee iaeo?ni?oiai
?aeiaiiy c iei. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue nayoiiooe?anuee?e oaieia??
caiice/eoe a iaiieaoii?ci? iaa?oue iniiai? aoaie i?noe/iiai iiaa?iaiiy
aeoo? aei Aiaa (eaoa?nen, oio?niin, oai??y /e oaeaeinen). Aiie
oa?i/oaaeeny i?iieeiaiiyi o oa?iieoeth aiaeanoaaiiiai aeeooy, yea
cae?enithaaeinue /a?ac aenoac (c?a/aiiy naiai “y”, nai??
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, ?ic/eiaiiy niiaeyaeath/iai a oiio, ui
niiaeyaea?oueny).

Ia oeyoo aei niieooe aeooa ia? i?ieoe i?ioean i/euaiiy a?ae /ooo?aeo
i?eno?anoae, oiaoi iicaooeny aieeao o?ea. Aaea ieaoii?ee i?iiaaoaaee
i?ace?noai aei o?ea, aaeaeoae?noue aei aeeooy ? an?o ciai?oi?o aeaa,
iae??ciiiai?oi?o? iii??eiaaiino?. Iaaeae? ? Ieio?i, ? iooe? aaaaeaee, ui
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii aneace ? aeoiaaiiy
aeia?i/aniinoae. Ca?eueieaoenue a?ae oaa?iiai, aeooa i?eeo/a?oueny aei
iaoaa?iiai. Aeae? eaea ca?eueiaiiy oia oeyoii eiai i?ina?oeaiiy
aiinenii, oiaoi na?oeii aiaeanoaaiieo ?noei. Caniaaie ni?iuaiiy oia ?
nie?aiiiioae??noue, iieeoaa, niiaeyaeaiiy iaaanii? E?ane, caoiieaiiy
Ethaia’th oiui. A no?aei?e iao?enoeoe?, ye ? a ieaoii?ci?, oe? aia?a??
aei?ii?iththoueny a ???a?o?th, /a?ac yeo ? a?aee?eaa?oueny Aia.
I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui i?ia?aeiith ?aea?th no?aeii? iao?enoeee noaea
iaa?oioiaaia iaiieaoii?eaie ?aeay i?aeianaiiy ethaeeie aei a?oaoeio e
?noeie ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aca. Ua cia/i?oei ? aieea Ieio?ia ia
nayoiiooe?anuee? i??eoaaiiy i?i Ethaia ye aiinaieia?/iee i?eioeei, ui ?
ae?acii i?aaiaiiy aeoo? aei aiaioiiae?aiaiiy.

Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea, ui ?icaeoie iooe?a i?i i?e?iaeo aiaii?ciaiiy ?
o?enoeyi?ciaaiith aaeaioaoe??th ?aeae I?ieea. Ni?acao/iee
?aiiueio?enoeyinueeei oyaeaiiyi, aiein ?ae?a?eii iaeaooiaaii? aeoo?,
yeee cao/eoue a “Aiiaaaeao”, ciaeoia iaiaei a?aeaoe?a o iao?enoe/i?e
e?oa?aoo??. Cie?aia, iaiieaoii?/i? i??eoaaiiy aoee i?ae eiiiaiae?oiii, c
yeei iooe? oea?eae ocaiaeaeoaaee nai? noaeaeaiiy noiniaii iieeoae,
aaaaeath/e, ui a noai? iieeoiaiiai aenoaco ethaeei? a?aee?eaa?oueny
?aaeuei?noue iaeaooiueiai aeeooy.

No?aei? iooe? iiae?eyee aeoieo Ieio?ia, ui, ine?eueee o?ao?e aoai
aiaioiiae?aiaiiy (oai??y) ia i?aeaea?oueny ?aoe?iiaeueiiio inieneaiith,
i?ioean i?ciaiiy ne?ae ia?aaanoe o noa?o iaae/ooo?aiai ? iaae?icoiiiai
aeina?aeo. I?e oeueiio aaaaeaeiny, ui iacaaaiaiia ?aeiaiiy c Aiaii
iiaeeeaa oiae?, eiee na?oei iaeii/anii ? ? oai?yaith. Ia oeeo aenioao
aano?aeoe?? oi caaie?a? a oa?iie/?e aaciiaiino? ? ii/eia?
aaciina?aaeiuei inyaaoe Aiaeanoai. Ooo i?ae aieeaii iaiieaoii?/ii?
oainio?? iao?enoe/ia aiinaieia?y iaieio/a i?eoiaeeoue aei naiai
eia?/iiai caaa?oaiiy: aeua ciaiiy aeinyaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith a?aeiiae
a?ae aoaeue-yeiai ciaiiy, a noaa?aeaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny /a?ac
caia?a/aiiy.

Aiaioiiae?aiaiiy ? ?aeiaiiy c Aiaii caaacia/othoue iaiaeaiiy, eio?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny a noai? iaae?icoiiiai aenoaco, a/aiiy i?i yeee iooe? a
aeaoaeyo caiice/eee o Ieio?ia. Iien o ieo aenoaoe/ieo noai?a eii?th?
iaiieaoii?/i? oyaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio, iaaieiooth/e ia aace?ia/iino?
i?ioeano iaiaeaiiy, yeee i?iaeiaaeo?oueny a iioiea?/iiio aeeoo?, iooe?
?icoi?ee “iaaanio” iaiae??aeo aeoo? ye iaiae??aeo “aioo??oith”. Oiio a
?one? iaiieaoii?/iiai a/aiiy i?i iaeaooith o/anoue aeoo? aiie ? nia?oue
?icaeyaeaee ye aeaai, ii/aoie a?/iiai aeeooy, c yeei iia’ycoaaeiny
a/aiiy i?i aiieaoanoanen (I?eaai, A?eai??e I?nueeee) oiui.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny, ui aeecuee?noue ?ae?a?eiiai iaoino
iaiieaoii?cio iiaeyaeai o?enoeyinueeeo i?noee?a (i?e iayaieo
a?aei?iiinoyo o ci?no? a/aiue) coiiaeee iinooiiaa caeeaeaiiy iiceoe?e
yce/ieoeueeeo o?einio?a ? o?enoeyinueeeo aiaineia?a. Iniiaieie ioieoaie
?o ia?an?eaiiy noaee a/aiiy i?i aeaoooaaiiy Anana?oo, aiaeanoaaiiee
i?iienae, aiaiaoe?th, iaae/ooo?aee ? /ooo?aee na?o, aacnia?oy aeoo?,
a?aeieaoo a iioiea?/iiio na?o?, aiaii?ciaiiy oiui. I?e/iio, iaea i?noea
ia i?inoi aaeaioaoe?y aioe/ii? o?einio?? aei o?enoeyinueeiai
na?aaeiaeua, a ?? ia?a?iaea (o?enoeyi?caoe?y), cae?enithaaia coneeeyie
iooe?a oea?eae. Noa?iaeaaiy ioae??noue a inia? iaiieaoii?cio aoea
iieiiaia o?enoeyinoaii ? oei caaa?oeea naith ?noi?e/io i?n?th. Naia a
oaeiio aeaeyae? o?enoeyinoai aoei i?iianaia ii ieaiao?.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ie?aneththoueny ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoi? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee cacia/aii?
i?iaeaoeee, i?iiiiothoueny i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, aeathoueny
a?aeiia?aei? ioe?iee.

Ia iniia? aiae?co i?ioeano aca?iiae?? iaiieaoii?cio e no?aeii?
iao?enoeee anoaiiaeaii, ui naia caaaeyee inai?iith iniiaieo i?eioeei?a,
?aeae ? iaoiae?a i?ciueiaioe/iiai neioaco iooe? oea?eae ciiaee i?aeiyoe
aiaineia’y aei ??aiy no?oiei?, o?einionueee a?aoiaioiaaii? nenoaie. Oea
inai?iiy noaei iiaeeeaei, oiio ui iaiieaoii?/ia o?einio?y, ye
caeiiii??iee i?aenoiie aaaaoia?eiaiai aioe/iiai o?einionoaoaaiiy,
nae?ae?coaaeany ? ai?eooe iaaeeceeany aei aeiaiaoeee iiiioa?noe/ii?
?ae?a??. Iieaco?oueny, ui iaiieaoii?e?a oa iooe?a oea?eae ii?aeioaaea
noiae?noue aieiaieo iieiaeaiue ?o a/aiue, ia?aeiiai?noue o oiio, ui
aeuith iaoith aeeooy ? iiaa?iaiiy ethaeeie aei Aiaa, ceeooy ?
ia?aaoaaiiy c iei.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui aeii?ioth/ith ?enith ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a?ae
aioe/iino? aei na?aaeiueia?//y aoea ia eiio?iioaoe?y “aioaaii?noe/ieo”
?ae?a?? ? o?einio??, a ?o iinooiiaee ?oo a iai?yieo aei ae?aeiao.
Eiinoaoo?oueny, ui na?ae/aiiyi caeeaeaiiy iaiieaoii?cio e o?enoeyinoaa
noaee i?ioeane oaieia?coaaiiy i?ciueiaioe/ii? aeoiee ? io?einionoaoaaiiy
?ae?a?? iaee?iaaiiy, ui ni?e/eieee aei oi?ioaaiiy o?enoeyi?ciaaiiai
iaiieaoii?cio. Ia Noiae? aia?oa a iiai?e i??? oea i?iyaeeiny a oai?/ino?
eaiiaaeie?eoe?a, aaoi?a “A?aiiaa?oee” ? Iaeneia Niia?aeieea.

A ?acoeueoao? o?enoeyinoai aeyaeeiny caeaoiei aaeaiooaaoeny aei
aoaeue-yeiai na?aaeiaeua, a aioe/i?oue noaea o??th “cieioith eaieith”,
yea ii?aeiaea an? ianooii? iieie?iiy. Ine?eueee oey aioe/i?noue naia a
o?enoeyi?ciaaiiio aeaeyae? oa?eoea a iiaeaeueoo eoeueoo?o, ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie, ui ooaa?aeaeaiiy a Na?aaecaiiiii?’? o?enoeyinoaa noaei
iaei??th c iaea?eueoeo na?oiaeyaeieo ?aaiethoe?e a ?noi??? ethaenoaa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? ciiao iiaeeaeoe aiae?c i?aaineaaiiai a/aiiy,
aeei?enoaiiy aiaineiaaie o?einionueei? a?aoiaioaoe??, ui ni?eyoeia
iiaeaeueoiio aea/aiith eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? i?n?? o?enoeyinoaa.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iicaiaee ?.I. Iaiieaoii?ci ? o?enoeyinoai: Iiiia?ao?y.- Noie: Aeae-ai
“Eicaoeueeee aae”, 1997.- 216 n.

2. Iicaiaee ?.I. Ianoi eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey i?ioeiai a
?aeeaeicii-eaeaaeenoe/aneie i?ia?aiia “aeooiaiiai aic?iaeaeaiey” ?innee
(O?O- ia/aei OO a.) //I?iaeaiu ?aeeaee e aoaecia: Aui.27. — E.:
Eea?aeue, 1991.-N.106-112.

3. Iicaiaee ?.I. “Iiiioa?noe/ia” oaiaeaioe?y a i?ciueiaioe/iiio
yce/ieoeoa? // Oe?a?inueea ?ae?a??ciaanoai. — ? 4. — Ee?a, 1996. —
N.56-61.

4. Iicaiaee ?.I. O?einio ia o?ii? // Ethaeeia ? na?o. — 1997. — ?1. —
N.16-19.

5. Iicaiaee ?.I. Aeaenaiae??enueea ioca // Ethaeeia ? na?o. — 1997. —
?4. – N.29-32.

6. Iicaiaee ?.I. Aca?iiae?y ?ae?a?eiiai /eiieea oa iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e
ca oiia ci?oeiaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie // O?yaeo Oe?a?ie. I?aceaeaioo,
caeiiiaeaa/?e, aeeiiaa/?e aeaae?. Iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a oa iie?oe/i?
ia?o?? Oe?a?ie: Aiae?oe/i? ?ic?iaee, i?iiiceoe?? iaoeiaeo oa i?aeoe/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a. — O.6. — E., 1997. — N.117-121.

7. Iicaiaee ?.I. ?neoanonueea ?aaeaeoe?y iaiieaoii?cio ia Oe?a?i?
(O?V-OV no.) // O?einionuee? iiooee. – Aei.O. Ethaeeia oa ??
ae?eni?noue: o?einionueei-aio?iiieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. —
Euea?a-Iaeana: Cogito-Oeaio? ?a?iie ,1997.- N.133-138.

8. Iicaiaee ?.I. I?iaeaia eoeueoo?iiai neioaco a iaio?enoeyinoa? //
Oai?/?noue ?ai?y Naaa?yi?ia a eiioaeno? eoeueoo?e n??aiiai a?eo. – *.1.
“N??aiee a?e” ye yaeua eoeueoo?e (o?einio?y, eoeueoo?ieia?y,
ienoaoeoaiciaanoai). — Ae?iaiae/, 1997. — N.37-42.

9. Iicaiaee ?.I. Oainio?y Ieio?ia ye ia?aaeaeaiue o?enoeyinueei?
o?einio?? // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Na??y
“O?einio?y.Iie?oieia?y “.- Aei. 26.-E.: Ee?a.oi-o ?i.O.Oaa/aiea, 1997.
— N.64-74.

10. Iicaiaee ?.I. I?aaineaa’y ? o?einionueea aeoiea ia Oe?a?i? aeiae
eica//eie (OV?? no.) // Caii?icueea eicaoeoai a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi???,
eoeueoo?? oa iaoe?iiaeuei?e naiina?aeiiino?. — Ee?a-Caii??aeaey, 1997.
— N.217-226.

11. Iicaiaee ?.I. Ethaia ye ii?aeueii-aiinaieia?/iee i?eioeei o a/aii?
iaiieaoii?e?a ? iooe?a oea?eae // Aoiai?ci ? ii?aeuei?noue:
Aecenoaioe?ei? aei??e.- Euea?a: E?ae , 1997. — N.91-97.

12. Iicaiaee ?.I. Aiioaoe/iee iaoiae aiaii?ciaiiy a ieaoii?ci? ?
?aiiueio?enoeyinuee?e o?einio?? // E?iaai-o?einionuee? aniaeoe
aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe.- Noie: ?aae.-aeae. a?aeae?e NAeI?, 1998. –
N.92-99.

13. Iicaiaee ?.I. Aaiaca oa aaiethoe?y anoaoe/ieo ?aeae o ?aiiueiio
o?enoeyinoa? // Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe: Iaoeia?
caienee AeAeI?. – Ae?iaiae/, 1998. — N.45-55.

14. Iicaiaee ?.I. Oi?ioaaiiy ? iioe?aiiy ia Oe?a?i? ?neoanonueei?
?aaeaeoe?? iaiieaoii?cio (O?V-XVI? no.) //Ethaeeia ? oai?/?noue :
aoiai?noe/i? aeyae.- Aei.VI.- Ae?iaiae/: Aei??, 1998. – N.296-306.

15. Iicaiaee ?. Eoeueoo?ieia?/ia i?iaeaiaoeea ? aioe/ia niaaeueia a
oai?/ino? oe?a?inueeeo iieai?no?a //O?eieia?/i? iaoee: Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue. – Noie: ?aae.-aeae. a?aeae?e NAeI?, 1998. – N.103-108.

16. Iicaiaee ?. A?aoeueeee iaioaii // ?ae?a??ciaa/ee neiaiee/ Ca ?aae.
A.Eieiaeiiai ? A.Eiaiaeea.- E.: *aoaa?oa oaeey, 1996. — N.80.

17. Iicaiaee ?. I?o // Oai naii. — N.197.

18. Iicaiaee ?. I?oieia?y // Oai naii. — N.198.

19. Iicaiaee ?. Iiiioae?onoai // Oai naii. – N.203.

20. Iicaiaee ?. Iiiio?ceonoai // Oai naii. – N.203.

21. Iicaiaee ?. I?eaai // Oai naii. – N.225.

22. Iicaiaee ?. Oa?oa? // Oai naii. – N.330.

23. Iicaiaee ?. Oa?ooee?ai Ea?io Naio?i?e Oei?ain // Oai naii. –
N.337.

24. Iicaiaie E.I. I?iaeaia oai?/aneie naiaiaeu a ?aiiai o?enoeainoaa //
Aoiai?ci. Ethaeeia. Naiaiaea. — Ae?iaiae/, 1991. — N.116-118.

25. Iicaiaie E.I. *aeiaae a oeeinioee Ieioeia e I?eaaia // Aoiai?ci.
Ethaeeia. Eoeueoo?a. — Ae?iaiae/, 1992. — N.192-193.

26. Iicaiaie E.I. Oeeinioneay “iiaeaioiaea” o?enoeainoaa: Ieioei i
aeooa // Aeoo, aeooa, /aeiaae : Enoiee e iienee. – *.?. – Noiu, 1993. —
N.54-55.

27. Iicaiaie E.I. Aa?iiiey aa?u e ciaiey eae eaeay aeaenaiae?eeoeaa //
Aeooiaia ae?yeuei?noue oa ?? niaoeeo?ea. — *.?. — Caii??aeaey, 1993. —
N.37-38.

28. Iicaiaee ?.I. Iaiieaoii?/iee neioac ? a?o/eciyia o?einio?y //
Oe?a?iiciaanoai ? aoiai?caoe?y ina?oe. — *.2. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee:
AeAeO, 1993. — N.122-123.

29. Iicaiaee ?.I. I?iaeaia aeooiaiino? ethaeeie a oai?/ino? ?aaia
Aeoainueeiai // A?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie ?
ia?niaeoeae.-E??iaia?aae, 1993. — N.76-79.

30. Iicaiaee ?.I. Caoa??y Eiienoainueeee ? o?aaeeoe?y aioe/ii?
aeooiaiino? ia Oe?a?i? // Iaoe?iiaeueia o?einio?y : no/ania, ieioea oa
ia?niaeoeae. -Oa?e?a: OAeO ,1993. — N.179-181.

31. Iicaiaee ?.I. O?enoeyinoai ? aioe/ia eoeueoo?a: /a?ac
eiio?iioaoe?th aei ae?aeiao // Ae?aeia eoeueoo? ? aeooiaiee ?icaeoie
ethaeeie. — E., 1995. — N.160-163.

32. Iicaiaee ?. Ii/a?anueeee iiianoe? ye i?ina?oieoeueeee oeaio? (XVI?
no.) // Ii/a?anueeee iiianoe? a eiioaeno? ?noi??? oa aeooiaiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. — Oa?iii?eue, 1995. — N.55-58.

33. Iicaiaee ?. Iao?enoe/ia niaaeueia a oai?/?e ae?yeueiino?
ino?icueeeo eieaeiee?a // ?noi??y ?ae?a?e a Oe?a?i?. — *.3. —
Ee?a-Euea?a, 1995. — N.281-284.

34. Iicaiaie E.I. Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey oeeinioee iicaeiae aioe/iinoe :
io aeeaie o?aaeeoeee e ianeaaeeth // Eoeueoo?iua ia?aaeeaiu ia?aoiaeiuo
yiio .- Iaeanna: IAIO, 1996. – N.64-67.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iicaiaee ?.I. Iaiieaoii?/ia o?aaeeoe?y a no?aei?e iao?enoeoe?. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.11 – ?ae?a??ciaanoai. – ?inoeooo
o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aiae?co?oueny i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
?aiiueio?enoeyinueeiai aiaineia’y oa eiai o?einionueeiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
i?aaenoaaieeaie no?aeii? iao?enoeee ca aeiiiiiaith cania?a
?aeaeii-iaoiaeieia?/iiai ? eia?ei-eiioeaiooaeueiiai aia?aoo
iaiieaoii?cio. A?aoiaioo?oueny aeoiea i?i aeeeth/ia cia/aiiy
iaiieaoii?/ii? o?aaeeoe?? aeey ia?aoai?aiiy o?enoeyinoaa a aeeiai?/io
eiioan?th ? aeniei?ioaeaeooaeueia a/aiiy. Oeae aieea i?inoaaeo?oueny
oeyoii ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co eeth/iaeo aoai?a ?icaeoeo Oi?aa?noia a
nae?ae?ciaai?e i?ciueiaioe/i?e o?einio?? ? o?einionueei-aiaineianuee?e
nenoai? no?aeii? iao?enoeee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aiiueio?enoeyinueea aiaineia’y, no?aeia
iao?enoeea, iaiieaoii?ci, iaiieaoii?/ia o?aaeeoe?y, Oi?aa?noi,
nae?ae?ciaaia i?ciueiaioe/ia o?einio?y, o?einionueei-aiaineianueea
nenoaia no?aeii? iao?enoeee, i?noe/iee aeina?ae, iooe? oea?eae.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iicaiaie E.I. Iaiieaoiie/aneay o?aaeeoeey a ainoi/iie iao?enoeea. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeinioneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.11 – ?aeeaeaaaaeaiea. – Einoeooo oeeinioee IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999 .

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?oaony i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey
?aiiao?enoeaineiai aiaineiaey e aai oeeinioneiai iainiiaaiey
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ainoi/iie iao?enoeee i?e iiiiue n?aaenoa
eaeaeii-iaoiaeieiae/aneiai e eiaeei-eiioeaiooaeueiiai aiia?aoa
iaiieaoiiecia.

Oa?aeoa? ?aoaiey aeaiiie i?iaeaiu ?anniao?eaaaony ia oiia i?ioeannia
ca?iaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey eaeae aaeeiiai Aiaa a ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee
ia?aoiaeiie yiioe io aioe/iinoe e n?aaeiaaaeiaueth. Enneaaeothony
ienoe/aneea oa/aiey oeacaiiiai ia?eiaea, eioi?ua aeoeaece?iaaee
i?ioeannu aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, oaie?anee e oeaio?aeecaoeee eoeueoia eae
i?aaeiinueeo o?ainoi?iaoeee ieoieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee a nenoaio
?aeeaeiciiai neie?aoecia e nicaeaee oneiaey aeey oi?aeanoaa eaeae
iiiioaecia. Iainiiauaaaony iuneue, /oi a ecaanoiii niunea enoi?eth
ae?aaiae oeeinioee iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae enoi?eth eneaiee aaeeiiai
Aiaa.

Aaee/anoaaiiay nenoaia iaiieaoiiecia, ca?iaeeaoayny a oneiaeyo iiaeiaiuo
aeooiaiuo eneaiee, ecia?aaeaaony eae yaeaiea, io?aceaoaa oaiaeaioeeth
ia?aoiaea yeeeienoe/aneie iunee io aiaieneaiey e nae?aeecaoeee.
Aeieacuaaaony, /oi yoi auei ?aaeeciaaii /a?ac neioac aaaeiaeoeo eoiaia
anao i?aaeuaeoueo eaeaaeenoe/aneeo o/aiee e iainiiaaiea i?ia?aiiu
?aoi?ie?iaaiey a?aei-?eineiai iieeoaecia n iiiiuueth aioe/iie oeeinioee,
eeth/aaua iieiaeaiey eioi?ie auee caeinoaiaaiu, ia?ainiuneaiu e
eniieueciaaiu i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ainoi/iie iao?enoeee niaeanii
iio?aaiinoae nianoaaiiie ?aeeaee.

A?aoiaioe?oaony iuneue ia eneeth/eoaeueiii cia/aiee iaiieaoiie/aneie
o?aaeeoeee aeey i?aa?auaiey o?enoeainoaa a aeeiaie/aneoth eiioanneth e
aunieieioaeeaeooaeueiia o/aiea. Yoi noaei aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y oiio,
/oi iaiieaoiieee e iooeu oea?eae ii-nouanoao ia ?anoiaeeeenue a naieo
oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeeyo. A yoie nayce iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi, ianiio?y ia
ioee/ey a aeiaiaoe/aneie /anoe eo nenoai (iioieiaee, eiaieiaee,
iiaaiaoieiaee), io?aaeaiiay a ?aiiao?enoeaineie oeeinioee eaeay
ee/iinoiiai Eiaina (Aiaa-Nuia) iicaieyea ia oieueei eaaei auaanoe n
Ia?aiaaeeiiai ana aeaeu auoey, eioi?ia niaeanii, iaiieaoiie/aneie noaia,
?acai?a/eaaaony io aunoaai e iecoaio, ii e ia?aaeaeaoue
noai?aeeiaoeeiieci a eii?aeeiaoeeiieci, a iaioaeci – a oaeci.
Aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oii, /oi iiaeiaiia caeinoaiaaiea iooeaie
i?aaeuaeoueo oeeinioneeo eaeae inouanoaeyeinue, ianiio?y ia iai?eyoea
eie ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo i?eaioe?ia yeeeiecia.

Iainiiauaaaony iuneue, /oi aeaaea a oneiaeyo i?ioeaiai?noaa
yeeeienoe/aneay oeeinioey e o?enoeaineia aiaineiaea oee iaano?a/o ae?oa
ae?oao, ?acoeueoaoii /aai noaee i?ioeannu oaieiaece?iaaiey
iicaeiaaioe/iie oeeinioneie niaeoeyoeee e ioeeinionoaiaaiea
?aiiao?enoeaineie oaieiaee. Ec enneaaeiaaiey aeaeii, /oi ia iniiaa
caeinoaiaaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ainoi/iie iao?enoeee eaeae, iaoiaeia,
iiiyoee iaiieaoiiecia oi?ie?oaony o?enoeaiece?iaaiiue iaiieaoiieci eae
n?aaenoai iaania/aiey iai?a?uaiinoe oeeinioneie o?aaeeoeee.

Aeeyiea iaiieaoiiecia i?ineaaeeaaaony ioo?i n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca
eeth/aauo yoaiia ?acaeoey Oieaa?noia a na?eaeece?iaaiiie iicaeiaaioe/iie
oeeinioee e oeeinionei-aiaineianeie nenoaiu ainoi/iie iao?enoeee. A
aeenna?oaoeee iieacuaaaony, /oi, ?ac?aaioaa nicao/iua o?enoeaineei
acaeyaeai eiioeaioeee “i?aauaaiey” (auoey), “ainoiaeaeaiey” (yiaiaoeee)
e “aica?auaiey” n eiiauoey, iaiieaoiieee ioe?uee ainoi/iui iooeai iooue
e oeeinioneiio iainiiaaieth ?aeeaee iaee?iaaiey. I?e/ai, oiaeaeanoai
iaaethaeaaony oaea i?e n?aaiaiee iaiieaoiie/aneie o?eaaeu
(Aaeeiia-Oi-Aeooa) e o?enoeaineie O?ieoeu (Ioaoe-Nui-Aeoo).

I?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea iaaaniiai e caiiiai i?eaiaeeei ycu/aneeo oeeinioia e
o?enoeaineeo aiaineiaia e iiieiaieth ie?a eae ?acoeueoaoo aeaeaeaiey
aeooiaiiai e iaoa?eaeueiiio. Iie?aynue ia i?eioeeiu iaiieaoiie/aneie
einiieiaee e aio?iiieiaee, iooeu oea?eae i?eaeaaaee niune caiiiio
nouanoaiaaieth eae ?acoeueoaoo aa?iiiecaoeee anao aeaeia auoey.
Iaiieaoiieee oaeaea caeiaeeee iniiau aei?aaioaiiiai a o?enoeainoaa
eaoaoaoe/aneiai e aiioaoe/aneiai aiaineiaey, iainiiaaee eiioeaioeeth
iaiaeaiey eae ?acoeueoaoa aicianaiey aeooe a iai?aaeaiee e
ia?aiia/aeueiiio aaeeinoao. A eoiaa a aiaineiaee neiaeeeanue ianoieueei
iiuiay iaiieaoiie/aneay o?aaeeoeey, /oi naieo iooeia, eioi?ua
niinianoaiaaee aa ooaa?aeaeaieth, iiaeii a ecaanoiii niunea iacaaoue
“ieaoiieeaie”.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aiiao?enoeaineia aiaineiaea, ainoi/iay iao?enoeea,
iaiieaoiieci, iaiieaoiie/aneay o?aaeeoeey, Oieaa?noi, nae?aeece?iaaiiay
iicaeiaaioe/iay oeeinioey, oeeinionei-aiaineianeay nenoaia ainoi/iie
iao?enoeee, ienoe/aneee iiuo, iooeu oea?eae.

SUMMARY

Mozgovy Ivan. The Neoplatonic Tradition in the Oriental
Patristics.- Manuscript.

Thesis for the Doctor’s Degree in Philosophy , specialization
09.00.11 – the religious study. – The Institute of Philosophy of
National Academy of Science of Ukraine , Kyiv, 1999.

In the thesis the analysis of the process of the early Christian
theology’s formation and its philosophic graund by the representatives
of the Oriental patristics by means of the ideological-methodological
and logico-conceptual apparatus of Neoplatonism is carried out. The
author motivates the idea of the exceptional significance of the
Neoplatonic tradition for the transformation of Christianity into the
dinamic confession and highly intellectual doctrine. This influence is
traced with the help of the comparative analysis of the key stages of
the Universe’s development in the sacral late antique philosophy and in
the philosophic-theological system of the Oriental patristics. The
patricular attention is given to the mystical experience, the pagan
ground of which was got off by the paters of church.

Key words: early Christian theology, Oriental patristics,
Neoplatonism, Neoplatonic tradition, Universe, sacral late antique
philosophy, philosophic-theological system of the Oriental patristics,
mystical experience, paters of church.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 15.04.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o90 / 16.

Oi.-ae?oe. a?e. 2,2. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 2,2.

Iaeeaae 100. Cai. 132.

__________________________________________________________

Noinueea iaeania ae?oea?iy

244021, i. Noie, aoe. E??iaa, 215, oae.:27-76-89, 27-77-54.

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