OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?AAe?IAEAEO?II?EE

?ie A?eoi? Oaaei?iae/

OAeE 537.86 / 87; 530.182

IAE?I?EI? I?IOeANE ACA?IIAe?? AEAEO?IIAAI?OIEO OA I?OAEIEO OAEEUe C
OAA?AeIO?EUeIITH OA AACI?IC?ssAeIITH IEACIITH

01.04.03 — ?aae?io?ceea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a-1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? i?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Iai?oieia Eaiaeue
Eaaee?iae/,

Oa?e?anueea
aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y i?nueeiai

ainiiaea?noaa,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e na?oeioaoi?ee oa

aeaea?ae na?oea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?,

Iiai??eee
Aiaoie?e Ieeieaeiae/,

?inoeooo
iaaiaoecio IAIO, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo.

— aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?,

I?ioi?ia Aaeoa?ae
Aeieo?iae/,

Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aeaeo?ii?ee.

— aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?,

*a?iae Ieeiea Oeiio?eiae/,

?inoeooo ?aae?io?ceee oa
aeaeo?ii?ee IAIO,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O. Oaa/aiea,
eaoaae?a eaaioiai? ?aae?io?ceee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «_26_»__o?aaiy___1999?.
i__13:15__aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 064.052.03
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee (
310726, Oa?e?a, i?. Eai?ia, 14 ).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee ( 310726,
Oa?e?a, i?. Eai?ia, 14 ).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «_23__» ___eaioiy___1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
*o?thiia A.

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

I?iaeaia aca?iiae?? ??cieo oei?a oaeeue, ye? ?iciianthaeaeothoueny a
o?e /e ?io?e nenoai? c aeaeo?iiii-ae??eiaith ieaciith oaa?aeeo o?e ?
iaeiei ?c aeooaeueieo caaaeaiue no/anii? ?aae?io?ceee, ui aea? ciiao
aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o eiiaeainiaaiiio noai?
?a/iaeie, a oaeiae iaoai?ci?a aeieeiaiiy ?yaeo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo
yaeu, ye? noi?iaiaeyoue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oeeo oaeeue /a?ac aeeiai?/ia
iae?i?eia na?aaeiaeua. O nenoai? c aeaeo?iiieie iioieaie aeieea? ?yae
aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo (AAe) yaeu, oaeeo ye aeeo?aeoe?y, caoooaiiy,
i?aeneeaiiy oa aaia?aoe?y aeayeeo oei?a oaeeue, o?ce/ia i?e?iaea yeeo
coiiaeaia ??cieie iaoai?ciaie aca?iiae?? ?o c iin?yie, o oiio /ene?
/a?aieianueeei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi o??? /e ?ioi? oaee? ca?yaeii, yeee
?ooa?oueny c «iaaeoaeeueiaith» oaeaee?noth.

Aea/aiiy oaeeo yaeu oia?oa aoei i?iaaaeaii a aaci?ic?yaei?e
aeaeo?iiii-?iii?e ieaci?, aea iiaeeeaa iioe?aiiy aaaaoueio oei?a
oaeeue, ? i?enooi?noue aeaeo?iiieo iioie?a aai io/e?a iiaea i?eaanoe aei
aeieeiaiiy ??cieo oei?a iano?eeino?: caoooaiiy, ia?inoaiiy /e
aaia?aoe?? aeayeeo oaeeue o nenoai?. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui oae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeyoueny aeineoue aeaaii ? aaaaoi yaeu aeinoaoiuei
aea/ai?, ona ae caeeoathoueny aeooaeueieie oae? ieoaiiy, ye
iniaeeaino? iiaaae?iee iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? aaci?ic?yaeii? ieacie ( IO
A?I ) o aenieeo /anoioao (A*), ui iathoue cia/iee iaoeiaee ?
i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an.

Ii??aiyii iaaeaaii aiaeia?/i? yaeua noaee aea/aoe e o oaa?aeio?euei?e
ieaci? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa iaoae?a, aea aeaeo?iii? /e «ae??eia?» iioiee
iiaeia noai?thaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith ciai?oi?o iie?a, oaeeue /e a?aae??io?a
eiioeaio?aoe?? aai oaiia?aoo?e. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo noeeaiiy aeaeo?ii?a ?
ae??ie c a?aoeith a?ae?a?athoue a?eueoo ?ieue ii??aiyii c A?I, o
?acoeueoao? /iai i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao, eiee ?iciiae?e iin??a noa?
ae?iaeaeaiei, aeieeathoue i?eioeeiiai iia? eaaioia? aoaeoe, a?aenooi?
a aaci?ic?yaei?e ieaci?. I?e oeueiio a?aoea a?ae?a?a? aeoeaio ?ieue, ?
aeaeo?iii? iioiee iiaeooue caoaeaeoaaoe aai i?aeneethaaoe oo /e ?ioo
a?aoeiao oaeeth. ??ciiiai?oi?noue oei?a na?aaeiaeu, a oaeiae
iiaeeea?noue o oe?ieeo iaaeao ci?ithaaoe ?o ia?aiao?e, coiiaeee

2

cia/iee iaoeiaee oa i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an aei aeine?aeaeaiiy AAe yaeu o
oaa?aeio?euei?e ieaci?. Ine?eueee oaeaee?noue iin??a no?oio, yei? iiaeia
?aaeueii aeinyaoe o ieaci? oaa?aeeo o?e, nyaa? 106-107ni/n, oi
i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an aeeeeeathoue ii??aiyii iia?euei? oaee?. I/aaeaeii,
ui iaea?eueo i?eaeaoieie aeey aea/aiiy aca?iiae?? c iioieaie iin??a
no?oio a oaa?aeio?euei?e ieaci? ? A* i?oaei? oaee?, ye?
?iciianthaeaeothoueny ?c oaeaee?noth 105-106 ni/n. AAe i?ioeane o
oaa?aeio?euei?e ieaci? iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aca?iiae?th aeaiaioa?ieo
caoaeaeaiue, na?aae yeeo iniiaieie ? aeaeo?iie oa oiiiie.

?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?oaeieo eieeaaiue o ??cieo nenoaiao
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeeneiaoe??th ?o aia?a??, coiiaeaiith i?ioeanaie
iai?io c iin?yie ca?yaeo, oaieii?ia?aeiino?, aioo??oiueiai oa?oy aai
a’yceino?, ui cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae naii?
nenoaie. Oea aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe aea/aiiy aca?iiae?? A*
i?oaeieo oaeeue c ieaciith oaa?aeeo o?e ye aoaeoeaiee iaoiae
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee: no?oeoo?e
aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o, iaoai?ci?a aeaeo?ii-oiiiiii? aca?iiae??,
aiaa?iii?cio i?aeaoiiieo nee oiui, ? canoiniaoaaoe ?o o ?ic?iaoe?
aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo nenoai, aea ?aae?co?oueny oaea aca?iiae?y.

I?oaei? oaee?, aeaoi?ioth/e e?enoae?/io a?aoeo, caoaeaeothoue nenoaio
eaac?/anoeiie (oiiii?a, aeaeo?ii?a i?ia?aeiino?, iaaiii?a oa ?i.), ye?
ooai?ththoue aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? ieacie oaa?aeiai o?ea oa aeaiaeyoue ?o
?c noaio eieaeueii? ??aiiaaae. Oaeey iai?oa, ui aeieea? a e?enoae?,
?aaao? ia ia??aiiaaaei?noue oe??? nenoaie, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ??
caoooaiiy oa ci?ie oaeaeeino? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy. Aei??thaaiiy
aeae?aiaioo caoooaiiy oa oaeaeeino? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy A* i?oaeieo
eieeaaiue o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? /anoio i?e ??cieo iiey?ecaoe?yo oaeeue
aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aca?iiae?th aeaiaioa?ieo
caoaeiee?a o oaa?aeio?euei?e ieaci? c iiiio?iiaoe/ieie oiiiiaie.
?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?oaeii? oaee? /a?ac e?enoae i?ia?aeieea
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ooai?aiiyi iioaioe?aeueiiai ?aeue?oo e aeieeiaiiyi
oaeeue aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie c ia??iaeii, yeee aei??aith? ia??iaeo
i?oaeieo eieeaaiue. Oaee? aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie aeeeeeathoue ia??iaee/i?
a /an? ? i?inoi?? ci?ie aeaeo?iiii? /anoee ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino?
i?ia?aeiiai na?aaeiaeua c i?inoi?iaei ia??iaeii, a?aeiia?aeiei aei
ia??iaeo i?oaeii? aeaoi?iaoe??, aiaeia?/ii ci?i? a?aoeiai?
ae?aeaeo?e/ii?

3

i?iieeiino?. Aiie?ooaea oa oaca aeaeo?iiii? oaee? aecia/a?oueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi /anoioe i?oaeieo eieeaaiue oa ?aeaenaoe??
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? na?aaeiaeua, aeeoociith /anoioith ? caeaaeeoue a?ae
ciai?oi?o iie?a. sse ?acoeueoao o i?ia?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu? oi?iothoueny
aea? ci?uai? ii oac? aeeo?aeoe?ei? a?aoee c iaeiaeiaei ia??iaeii, aea
??cii? aiie?ooaee, ye? aoaeoeaii aca?iiae?thoue c aeaeo?iiaai?oieie
oaeeyie. A oiiaao iae?i?eii? aeaeo?ii-oiiiiii? aca?iiae??, a oaeiae
aeaeo?iiieo ?aciiain?a o iaai?oieo iieyo iiaeooue aeieeaoe aoaeoe
?aciiainii? aeaeo?iieaciiai? aca?iiae??, ye? ia ii?yaeee aaee/ei
a?eueo? aoaeoeai?noth, i?ae a?aoeiaa aca?iiae?y ? a?aee?eaathoue oeyoe
noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo nenoai.

No/ani? aeinyaiaiiy ?aae?io?ceee, ye? ciaeoee oe?iea oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy, aeathoue ciiao i?enooieoe aei aea/aiiy oiieeo
iaoai?ci?a aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ? i?oaeieo oaeeue ?c ieaciith
oaa?aeeo o?e a oiiaao aeieeiaiiy iae?i?eieo AAe ?aciiainieo yaeu,
coiiaeaieo eaaiooaaiiyi aia?a?? iin??a no?oio a i?ia?aeieo e?enoaeao,
ye? iiaeooue aeyaeoeny aoaeoeaiei ?ino?oiaioii aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a
aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o iin??a no?oio ? iaoai?ciii aieeao ia naio oaeeth.
Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaea?eueo i?eaeaoieie ?
iiiie?enoaee Bi, Sb oa Zn, o yeeo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueia? ?aciiaini? aoaeoe
aeieeathoue i?e ii??aiyii iaeeo iaai?oieo iieyo, a ?ciaia?aaoe/i?
iiaa?oi? iin??a aeineoue i?ino? ? a?aeiinii eaaei i?aeeyaathoue
?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

Na?aae aaeeei? e?eueeino? aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey oe??? iaoe, iaeaoaeoeai?oeie ?
iaai?oi?aciiaini?, ui aeathoue ciiao aea/aoe iaoai?cie aca?iiae?? A*
i?oaeieo oaeeue ?c ieaciith iaoae?a ? iai?aiaoae?a o eaaiooth/iio
iaai?oiiio iie?. A?aeii? iaai?oi?aciiaini? iaoiaee aeineoue neeaaei?
oa iaei ?ioi?iaoeai?, ui cia/ii oneeaaeith? iaea?aeaiiy e
?ioa?i?aoaoe?th aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaa?aeio?eueii? ieacie. O ca’yceo c oeei
aeooaeueiei ? aea/aiiy AAe yaeu, iaoiiaeaieo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaith
aca?iiae??th a i?ia?aeieeao o eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie? ye?, ca
iaoeie oyaeaiiyie, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye ?ino?oiaio
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o, a oaeiae
canoiniaoaaoenue ye iaoai?ci aoaeoeaii? aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ?
i?oaeieo oaeeue o oaa?aeio?euei?e ieaci?.

4

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eieo i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue
?c IO A?I, ye? aecia/athoue iniiai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeaeo?iieaciiaeo nenoai, iathoue naiino?eiee ?ioa?an, ianaiia?aae ?c
oi/ee ci?o iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae??.
Caaaeyee iayaiino? aeayei? e?eueeino? iaiiaithaaeueieo aac?a ? ia??a,
i?ioeane ieaciiaiai ?ic?yaeo i?e A* aeeaeaii? cia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny
a?ae ?ic?yaeo iecueei/anoioiiai, iniaeeai a ia?ao?aei?e iaeano? a?ae
aacc?oeioaaeueiiai iaoai?cio ?aeiia?iaoe?? iin??a aei aeeoociiai
?icn?thaaiiy. Iiia?aaei? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? c aeaeo?iiii-?iiiith A?I
oa iie?auaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeo?iieaciiaeo nenoai ia i?aeaeuaieo
/anoioao oaeeo, ye aeaea?aea aaia?aoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui ?iaeyoue
aeooaeueieie iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy a oeueiio iai?yieo. Aea/aiiy
A* AAe i?ioean?a o IO A?I aaaeeeaa o ca’yceo c iio?aaith ciaoiaeaeaiiy
iioeiaeueieo oiia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo
oaeeue ?c aeaeo?iiii-?iiiith ieaciith aaciaiai ?ic?yaeo oa iie?auaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iieaciiaeo nenoai.

Ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?? c iaoeiaeie i?iaeaiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie:

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? iane?aeeii aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
i?iaiaeeeenue a ?inoeooo? ?aae?io?ceee oa aeaeo?ii?ee IAIO,
O?ceei-oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? IAIO, Oa?e?anuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? i?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo oa ainiaeiaia??ieo ?ia?o.

Iaoa ?iaioe:

— aenia?eiaioaeueia aeyaeaiiy oa c’ynoaaiiy o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee
iae?i?eieo aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?e
aca?iiae?? A* i?oaeieo oaeeue c oaa?aeio?eueiith ieaciith
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, iaoae?a oa iai?aiaoae?a ? canoinoaaiiy ciaeaeaieo
caeiiii??iinoae aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiii? nenoaie c ??cieie oeiaie oaeeue;

-aenia?eiaioaeueia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?nioaaiiy iiaeo iaoai?ci?a
aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? ? iaoiiaeaieo ieie yaeu, ia?aaeaa/aieo
oai???th, ye? ? iane?aeeii aeenia?n?? ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo aia?a?? iin??a
o ieaci? i?ia?aeiee?a o iaai?oiiio iie?, oa

5

c’ynoaaiiy ?o iiaeeeainoae ye ?ino?oiaioo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ieacie oae ? aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo nenoai;

— ?ic?iaea o?ce/ieo iniia iioei?caoe?? aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a A*
aaciaiai ?ic?yaeo aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai?
aca?iiae??, iie?auaiiy niaeo?aeueieo, aia?aiaei?ii?ithaaeueieo oa
ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeo?iieaciiaeo nenoai.

?icaeyiooe ye i?eeeaaeio caaea/o iiaeeea?noue i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
ciaeaeaieo oa aeine?aeaeaieo yaeu aeey ?ic?iaee o?ce/ieo i?eioeei?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?nioth/eo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo nenoai oa
oeyo?a noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy :

— ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaii? iaoiaeeee e aia?aoo?e aeey aea/aiiy iae?i?eieo
aeaeo?iieaciiaeo oa iaai?oi?aciiainieo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo yaeu o
ieaci? i?ia?aeieo iiiie?enoae?a;

— aea/aiiy iae?i?eieo aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo yaeu o ia?niaeoeaieo
iiiie?enoaeao iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a a oiiaao aieeao ??cieo ciai?oi?o
oaeoi??a: oaiia?aoo?e, eiioeaio?aoe?? iin??a ca?yaeo, aeaeo?e/ieo ?
iaai?oieo iie?a oa c’ynoaaiiy o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee, iaoai?ci?a ?o
aeieeiaiiy ? iioeiaeueieo oiia ?nioaaiiy;

— aea/aiiy aeaeo?iiieo iaai?oi?aciiainieo yaeu o i?ia?aeieo
iiiie?enoaeao oa aiae?c iiaeeeaiai aeei?enoaiiy ?o ye aoaeoeaieo
iaoai?ci?a aeey ea?oaaiiy ia?aiao?aie aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ? i?oaeieo oaeeue
oa aoaeoeaiiai iaoiaeo aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o
oaa?aeio?eueii? ieacie;

— aea/aiiy A* aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a o IO A?I oa ciaoiaeaeaiiy
oeyo?a iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe aeaeo?iieaciiaeo aeaea?ae
aei?ii?ithaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaea o?ce/ieo i?eioeei?a noai?aiiy iiaeo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo
i?eeaae?a, i?eno?i?a ? nenoai ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue AAe yaeu
o oaa?aeio?euei?e oa aaci?ic?yaei?e ieaci?.

6

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— o ieaci? i?ia?aeieo iiiie?enoae?a iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, iaoae?a ?
iai?aiaoae?a oia?oa i?iaaaeaia eiiieaenia aea/aiiy i?ioean?a iae?i?eii?
aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? oa iaoai?ci?a aeieeiaiiy
aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo yaeu, coiiaeaieo aoaeoaie ia?aiino iin??a no?oio
i?oaeiith oaeeath a oiiaao aieeao oaiia?aoo?e, /anoioe, eiioeaio?aoe??
iin??a ca?yaeo, ciai?oi?o aeaeo?e/ieo ? iaai?oieo iie?a, ? aecia/aiiy
oiia ?o iioeiaeueiiai ?nioaaiiy;

— o «ii?iaeueieo» (ia oioii?ia?aeieo) iai?ai?ia?aeieeao oia?oa ciaeaeaii
e aeine?aeaeaii yaeua iiia?a/iiai i?oaeiueiaeaeo?e/iiai aoaeoo
iaoiiaeaia o?ainoi?iaoe??th i?oaeieo oaeeue iicaeiaaeiuei? iiey?ecaoe??
o oaee? «iiia?a/i?» a?aeiinii oaeeueiaiai aaeoi?a A* eieeaaiue, caaaeyee
ai?cio?ii?? aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? o ieaci? i’?ciaeaeo?e/ieo
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa aeeo?aeoe?eiiai iaoai?cio — o iai?ai?ia?aeieeao c
ia?aaaaeii aeaoi?iaoe?eiei iaoai?ciii aeaeo?ii-oiiiiii? aca?iiae??.
Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? iaoai?cio eie?iaa?ii? aeeo?aeoe??
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ? i?oaeieo oaeeue ia iiia?a/iiio i?oaeiiaeaeo?e/iiio
aoaeoia?, a oaeiae i?eeiio oa ?iae?eaoe?? iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue ??cii?
iiey?ecaoe??;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii ciaeaeaii e aeine?aeaeaii iiaa o?ce/ia yaeua —
aeeoa?aioe?eiee aeonoiiaaiaoiaeaeo?e/iee aoaeo, yeee caii/aoeiao? eean
oae caaieo «?icn?yieo» aoaeo?a, oai?aoe/ii ia?aaeaa/aieo TH. Aoey?aei
(Aeeieii ia a?aee?eooy ?133);

— oia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ciaeaeaii e aeine?aeaeaii yaeua caoiieaiiy oa
ia?aianaiiy iin??a i?oaeiith oaeeath o ieaci? iaoae?a oa iai?aiaoae?a
— CA aoaeo;

— o ieaci? i?ia?aeiee?a oia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ciaeaeaii 2 iiaeo
iaai?oi?aciiainieo aoaeo?a inoeeeyoe?e CA no?oio, coiiaeaieo ??cieie
iaoai?ciaie aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? o iaai?oiiio iie?.
Anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue aiie?ooaee oa ia??iaeo inoeeeyoe?e a?ae
aeno?aiaeueieo ?ici???a iiaa?oiiiue Oa?i? ieacie aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iiiie?enoae?a. Iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey eiiiiiaio CA no?oio a
oiiaao eaaiooaaiiy aia?a?? iin??a o neeueiiio iaai?oiiio iie?;

7

— oia?oa a ae?aiacii? /anoio a?ae 0,05 aei 1200 EAoe aenia?eiaioaeueii
aeine?aeaeaii aaiethoe?th aeaeo?io?ce/ieo i?ioean?a IO A?I ?
cai?iiiiiaaii o?ce/i? iiaeae?, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue aenia?eiaioaeueiei
aeaiei; aeyaeaii iaeanoue cia/iiai (aei 50%) cieaeaiiy iioaioe?aeo
?i?oe?thaaiiy A* ?ic?yaeo, ui a?aee?eaa? i?eioeeiiai iia? iiaeeeaino?
iioeiecaoe?? aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iieaciiaeo i?ioean?a ?
?aaeei?a ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Ia /anoioi?e caeaaeiino? AAO A?I aeyaeaia
iaeanoue cia/iiai (aei 30%) cieaeaiiy iai?oae ?ic?yaeo ? a?aeiia?aeia
ca?eueoaiiy EEAe aeaeo?iieaciiai? aca?iiae?? oa ?ioaineaiino?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ei?ioeioaeeueiai? iaeano? niaeo?o.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— ?ic?iaeaii o?ce/i? iniiae aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaiai iaoiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eieo AAe i?ioean?a o ieaci? i?ia?aeiee?a, yeee
aaco?oueny ia yaeu? caoiieaiiy ? ia?aianaiiy iin??a no?oio i?oaeiith
oaeeath oa aeonoiaeaeo?e/iiai aeaoaeooaaiiy A* neaiaeo a iiiie?enoae?
i?ia?aeieea. A?i aea? ciiao aeyaeyoe ae?aeoiao ?ooeea?noue iin??a
no?oio, aia?a?th aeaoi?iaoe?eii? aca?iiae?? a ieaci? i?ia?aeiee?a,
eiao?oe??io aeaeo?iiii? aeeneiaoe?? aia?a?? i?oaeieo oaeeue ? aecia/aoe
ia eiai iniia? i?aeaeieeiiee /an ?aeaenaoe?? iin??a o oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? /anoio, oaiia?aoo? oa i?ia?aeiinoae ieaciiaiai na?aaeiaeua;

-?ic?iaeaii o?ce/i? iniiae aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaiai iaai?oi?aciiainiiai
iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o iin??a no?oio o
oaa?aeio?euei?e ieaci? i?ia?aeiee?a, yeee aeicaiey? aea/aoe oiiieia?th
iiaa?oiiue Oa?i? oa /?oei ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe i?eiaeaaei?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaieo eaac?/anoeiie aei aeaeo?iiii? aai ae??eiai? cii.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae aei??thaaiiy eiiiiiaio oaici?a aoaeoeaii? iane,
yeee oaeiae ? aoaeoeaiei ?ino?oiaioii aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio
?aeaenaoe?? aia?a?? iin??a o oaa?aeio?euei?e ieaci? a eaaioiaiio
iaai?oiiio iie?;

— iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaai?oi?aciiainieo aoaeo?a ?
?aciiainii? /anoioii? oa eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? aca?iiae??
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ? i?oaeieo oaeeue o i?ia?aeieo e?enoaeao aeey
?aae?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a ?aciiainii? aeeo?aeoe??

8

aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeae noai?aiiy
aoaeoeaieo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo nenoai iiaiai iieie?iiy;

— ia aac? /anoioii? caeaaeiino? AIA aoaeoo cai?iiiiiaaii oi?eaeueio
iiaeeea?noue aei??thaaiiy aeoaea iaeeo i?ii?aee?a /ano aeeooy
ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a no?oio, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iaei??? c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo oa?aeoa?enoee ieacie oaa?aeeo o?e — iaoai?cio
?icn?thaaiiy ?iioeueno oa /ano ?aeaenaoe?? aia?a?? aeaeo?ii?a;

— ?ic?iaeaii aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaee iaoiae eiio?ieth, o oiio /ene?
a?coaeueiiai, aia?aaoe/iiai i?io?eth i?oaeieo oaeeue o oaa?aeio?euei?e
ieaci?, i?eaeaoiiai aeey canoinoaaiiy, ye o nenoaiao ia?oei?aiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e i?ia?aeieo iiiie?enoae?a, oae ? a ??cieo
iioiaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?iyo. ?ic?iaeaii o?ce/i? i?eioeeie noai?aiiy
aeniei/ooeeaeo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo nenoai — aeaoaeoi??a, i?eeia/?a,
iiaeoeyoi??a i?oaeieo oa aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ia’?iieo ? iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue,
ye? iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue ye a i?aeoeoe? o?ce/iiai aenia?eiaioo, oae
? a iao?ieia?/i?e i?aeoeoe? eiio?ieth ca ye?noth iaoa??ae?a, ae?ia?a ?
i?ioean?a;

— ?ic?iaeaii e oi?iaaaeaeaii aoaeoeaiee iaoiae ia?aciiainiiai
iecueeiiioaioe?aeueiiai ?i?oe?thaaiiy A* ?ic?yaeo a IO A?I, yeee aea?
ciiao ?aae?coaaoe aia?aiaeiiii?/iee ? niaoe?aeueiee ?aaeeie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaeo?iieaciiaeo nenoai, cie?aia, aeaea?ae
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeicaieeei noai?eoe i?eno?i?, ye? caaacia/othoue
oae? ?aaeeie. Ia aac? /anoioii? caeaaeiino? oi?ie iai?oae ?ic?yaeo
iieacaia iiaeeea?noue aecia/aiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a IO
aeaeo?iiii-?iiii? ieacie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? IAe? «Iiae» ?
«?aaeoaa» ??A IAIO, OO?IO IAIO oa ainiaeiaia??ieo ?ia?o ?17000424000 ?
?1705505000 c i?aai?caoe?yie IaeIAe?, Co?aeIAe?, OeIAe?I?aecaiiao, AO
AOA ?i. Nei/einueeiai e cai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai.

Iniaenoee oianie aaoi?a:

— iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iinoaiiaea caaaeaiiy ia ??cieo
aoaiao aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe, i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a, iaienaiiy iaoeiaeo i?aoeue;

9

— ?ic?iaea e iaieiae?iiy eiiieaenii aeine?aeieoeueeeo iaoiaeee aeey
aea/aiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaa?aeio?eueii? oa aaci?ic?yaeii?
ieacie, aea/aiiy iiaeo iae?i?eieo AAe yaeu, coiiaeaieo ??cieie
iaoai?ciaie aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae??.

On? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, aeianai? ia caoeno ? aeniiaee ca aeena?oaoe??th
iaeaaeaoue aaoi?ia?. ?c ioae?eaoe?e o ni?aaaoi?noa? a aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoaii ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? naiino?eii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny
ia 11 Ananithciii niaauaiee ii enneaaeiaaieth iieoi?iaiaeieeia a
neeueiuo iaaieoiuo iieyo, Eaieia?aae, 1971; XV11 Ananithciii niaauaiee
ii oeceea ieceeo oaiia?aoo?,

Aeiiaoee, 1972; V11 Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee ii eaaioiaie aeonoeea
oaa?aeiai oaea, Oa?ueeia, 1972; Ananithciii naieia?a ii i?iaeaia
oi?oaeo aiei a iaoaeeao, Iiaineae?ne, 1973; V111 Ananithciii niaauaiee
ii eaaioiaie aeonoeea e aeonoiyeaeo?iieea, Eacaiue, 1974; OOV
Ananithciii niaauaiee ii oeceea ieceeo oaiia?aoo?, Oa?ueeia, 1980;
Ananithciii niaauaiee annioeeaoeee ai?iaeia «Nithcnaao», Ieine, 1991;
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee «?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea e yeieiaey
i?iiuoeaiiiai ?aaeiia», Iaeaaaea, 1995; 11 ?anioaeeeaineie eiioa?aioeee
Oe?aeineiai aaeooiiiai iauanoaa, Oa?ueeia, 1996; 11 Neiiiceoia
«Aaeooiiua oaoiieiaee e iai?oaeiaaiea», Oa?ueeia, 1998; eiioa?aioe?yo
oa nai?ia?ao ??A oa OO?IO IAIO, Aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? i?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iaae?oeiaaii 57 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue (c
yeeo 15 aac ni?aaaoi??a), o oiio /ene? 1 iiiia?ao?y, aeeieii ia
a?aee?eooy, 12 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa, 1 iaoaio Oe?a?ie. Ii iaoa??aeai
aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeaii 5 iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e oa aeiaeaoe?a.

Iniiaiee oaeno aeena?oaoe?? i?noeoueny ia 257 noi??ieao ? aeeth/a? 5
oaaeeoeue, 99 iaethie?a. Aeiaeaoee a e?eueeino? 7 iiaeaii ia 73
noi??ieao. Caaaeueiee ianya

10

ioia?iaaieo noi??iie — 396. Nienie eeoa?aoo?e neeaaea?oueny ?c 234
a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??,
oi?ioeththoueny iaoa ?iaioe, caaaeaiiy, ye? iio?aaothoue ?ica’ycaiiy,
iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iiaeeeaiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o o i?aeoeeo.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniiai? iiiyooy ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue aca?iiae?th i?oaeieo oaeeue ?c i?ia?aeiei na?aaeiaeuai,
a oaeiae ca’ycie i?ae aeeneiaoe??th aia?a?? i?oaeieo eieeaaiue ?
iaoai?ciaie aca?iiae?? ?o ?c aeaeo?iiiith

nenoaiith oaa?aeio?eueii? ieacie. Aiae?cothoueny o?ce/i? i?ioeane, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo oaeeue o ieaci? iin??a
ca?yaeo a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao, iaoaeao ? iai?aiaoaeao.

Aeey iai’?ciaeaeo?e/iiai i?ia?aeiiai na?aaeiaeua c oa?aeoa?iith
aeaeo?ii-oiiiiiith aca?iiae??th /a?ac aeaoi?iaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae
?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?oaeieo oaeeue o ieaci?
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? iai?aiaoae?a, a oiiaao, eiee aia?a?y aeaeo?iia ye
ooieoe?y eiai eaac??iioeueno ia? aeae?eueea i?i?ioi?a, ui aea?
iiaeeea?noue cae?enithaaoeny i?aeaeieeiiei ia?aoiaeai iin??a ca?yaeo ?
aeieeiaiith, caaaeyee oeueiio, yaeua ia?aiino ieie aia?a?? a iai?yieo
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaee?.

Aeey i’?ciaeaeo?e/iiai na?aaeiaeua ?c neeueiith aeaeo?ii-oiiiiiith
aca?iiae??th /a?ac i’?ciiioaioe?ae aeaii oaiiiaiieia?/iee iien oiia
aeieeiaiiy aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo yaeu, coiiaeaieo iae?i?eiith aca?iiae??th
i?oaeieo oaeeue ?c aeaeo?iiii-ae??eiaith ieaciith ai?cio?iiiiai
i?ia?aeiiai na?aaeiaeua, oiane?aeie /iai a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaea/a
aia?a?? ?iioeueno oiiii?a iin?yie no?oio ? aeieeathoue iino?ei?
neeaaeia? ?ooo aeaeo?ii?a o iai?yieo a?oiiai? oaeaeeino? oaeeue
(aeonoiaeaeo?e/iee (AA) aoaeo).

?icaeyiooi oiiae aeieeiaiiy yaeua i?aeneeaiiy i?oaeii? oaee? ae?aeoii
iin??a ca?yaeo c «iaaeoaeeueiaith» oaeaee?noth, yea coiiaeaii o aeiaaeeo
iecueeeo /anoi- /a?aie?anueeei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi ia’?iiiai ca?yaeo,
noi?iiaaiiai naiith oaeeath, aai ie?aieie aeaeo?iiaie — o ?ac? aenieeo
/anoio. Aeine?aeaeaii oiiae aeinyaiaiiy

11

iaeneiaeueiiai i?aeneeaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? caeaaeii a?ae
oaeaeeino? ae?aeoo iin??a, /anoioe, eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie, no?oeoo?ieo
aeaoaeo?a, oaieiaeo oiiii?a.

Cia/io oaaao cina?aaeaeaii ia aiae?c? aieeao iicaeiaaei?o ? iiia?a/ieo
iaai?oieo iie?a ia i?ioeane aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? o
oaa?aeio?euei?e ieaci?. Iieacaii, ui a eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie?,
eiee aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? noa? aeene?aoiei ? ooai?ththoueny ??ai?
Eaiaeao, aeieea? ?yae iaai?oi?aciiainieo aoaeo?a, coiiaeaieo
eaaiooaaiiyi eieiaiai ?ooo aeaeo?ii?a, i?e?iaea aeieeiaiiy yeeo
coiiaeaia ??cieie iaoai?ciaie aca?iiae?? iin??a c aeaeo?iiaai?oiith
oaeeath.

Iieacaii, ui i?e ?iciianthaeaeaii? i?oaeii? oaee? /a?ac iiiie?enoae
i?ia?aeieea a oiiaao i?io?eaiiy AA no?oio o iiia?a/iiio iaai?oiiio iie?
iiaeooue aeieeaoe aiaeiae aoaeo?a Oieea, Iaeoue?, Aoo?inaaocaia oa ?i.,
ye? iathoue iniaeeaino?, coiiaeai? ?nioaaiiyi aeenia?n?? ooieoe??
?iciiae?eo aia?a?? iin??a o oaa?aeio?euei?e ieaci?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeaii aeai? i?i ?ic?iaeaio aei??thaaeueio
onoaiiaeo oa iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aca?iiae?? i?oaeieo oaeeue ?c
oaa?aeio?eueiith ieaciith, ui aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? yaeu caoiieaiiy
iin??a oa AA aeaoaeooaaiiy A* neaiaeo a e?enoae? i?ia?aeieea.
*ooeea?noue ? oi/i?noue aei??thaaiiy AA iaoiaeo cia/ii aeua, i?ae
oeueo?acaoeiaiai, aea aaee/eia neaiaeo ?c c?acea i?iii?oe?eia (W, oiae?
ye i?e AA aeine?aeaeaiiyo aiia i?iii?oe?eia ?ioaineaiino? A* i?oaeii?
oaee? W. Oiane?aeie aeaoaeooaaiiy neaiaeo a iiiie?enoae? i?ia?aeieea
oey iaoiaeeea ia iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy A* i?eeiaeueieo i?eno?i?a, ui
cia/ii ni?iuo? aei??thaaeueio onoaiiaeo oa oaoi?eo aeeiiaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeicaiey? aaea?/? ciaioeoe ao?aoe ia ia?aoai?aiiy A*
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai neaiaeo.

O ia?o?e /anoei? ?icae?eo iaaaaeaii aeie-noaio aei??thaaeueii? onoaiiaee
oa aeaii ei?ioeo oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?? neeaaeiaeo /anoei. Iniiaith
onoaiiaee ? A* aaia?aoi? oa i?eeia/, ye? i?aoeththoue o aacia?a?aiiio
?aaeei? aai a ?aaeei? ?iioeuenii? iiaeoeyoe??, ui aea? ciiao
aeei?enoiaoaaoe neio?iiia aeaoaeooaaiiy aei??thaaeueiiai neaiaeo oa
?a?no?aoe?th iio?aeii? ii iaai?oiiio iieth a?ae aeaeo?e/iiai neaiaeo c
aeine?aeiiai iiiie?enoaea. ?ic?iaeaii oi?aa?naeueiee e??iaaiiee
i?eno??e, yeee aea? ciiao aei??thaaoe A* aeaeo?iaeeiai?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oaa?aeio?eueii? ieacie a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? a?ae 300
aei 1,4 K ?, caaaeyee i?ea?iaeuei?e eiino?oeoe??, iiai?noth
ocaiaeaeoaaoe

12

?iiaaeain i’?ciia?aoai?thaa/a c eiaeneaeueiith e?i??th, aeo?aeieie ?
ao?aeieie eaioethaaie aei??thaaeueii? onoaiiaee, — i?aeaeuoth/e
/ooeea?noue ?? iaeaea ia ii?yaeie.

O ae?oa?e /anoei? ?icae?eo ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy aaia?aoe?? oa i?eeiaiiy
A* iiiio?iiaoe/ieo i?oaeieo oaeeue, aeiiae aei aeaioiaeaiiy c?ace?a,
oi/iino? oa ieineiia?aeaeueiino? iiaa?oiiue aeaeo?iiaoai?/ieo
?aciiaoi??a, oa?aeoa?enoeee aeonoe/ii? ca’ycee. I?eaaaeaii iniiai?
oaoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aei??thaaeueii? onoaiiaee.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith iae?i?eieo
aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo i?ioean?a o ieaci? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, coiiaeaieo
??cieie iaoai?ciaie aca?iiae?? i?oaeieo oaeeue ?c iin?yie ca?yaeo,
a?aoeith oa ?i. ia’?eoaie e?enoaeo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny o
iiiie?enoaeao ye ?c ia?aaaaeii aeaoi?iaoe?eiei oa?aeoa?ii
aeaeo?ii-oiiiiii? aca?iiae?? (A111AV) — InSb, oae ?c
i’?ciaeaeo?e/iith aca?iiae??th (A11AV1) — CdS, a oaeiae Te c
?ooeea?noth iin??a a?ae 300 ni2 / A(n (i?e 300 E) o CdS aei 105 ni2
/ A(n a InSb. Iieacaii, ui i?e ?iciianthaeaeaii? oaee? iicaeiaaeiuei?
iiey?ecaoe?? a iiiie?enoae? Oa c eiioeaio?aoe??th iin??a ? = 5(1013
ni-3 o iai?yieo [1000] ia /anoioao 300 IAoe aaee/eia AAA = 250 A( ni
(Ao-1. Ocaeiaae o?eaiiaeueii? a?n? Oa aaee/eia AAA aeinyaa? 150 A( ni
(Ao -1, ui na?ae/eoue i?i o?ainoi?iaoe?th i?oaeieo iicaeiaaei?o oaeeue a
ia’?i? e?enoaea oa iiya? i’?ciaeaeo?e/ieo eiiiiiaio, ye? aoaeoeaii
aca?iiae?thoue ?c iin?yie /a?ac i’?ciiioaioe?ae. Aenia?eiaioaeueii
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii caeaaei?noue AAA a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? iin??a no: AAA
~1/no ? i?e no = 5 (1018 ni-3 i?ia?aei?noue ( ? /anoioa ?aeaenaoe?? (i
c?inoathoue, ca?eueooth/e eiiiainaoe?th i’?ciiiey aeaeo?e/ii? oaee?.
Iieacaii, ui aeeneiaoe?y aia?a?? W i?oaeii? oaee? i?iii?oe?eia 1/( ?
a iaeano? i?ia?aeiinoae ((i ((( (( — /anoioa eieeaaiue) ia?aaaaea?
a?aoeiaa iiaeeiaiiy ? oiae? AAA = ( W(((k( ( ( ( L ( ( ( Aa(((i (
( — ae?aeaeo?e/ia i?eieei?noue, k — eiao?oe??io aeaeo?iiaoai?/iiai
c’yceo, ( — oaeaee?noue oaee?, L — aeiaaeeia ae?eyiee aca?iiae??, Aa-
ieaciiaa iiaeeiaiiy) ? caeaaei?noue AAA a?ae 1/ ( — eaaae?aoe/ia. A
iaeano? iaeeo (( ( ( (n ( (n- /anoioa ?aeaenaoe??) iiea ia’?iieo
ca?yae?a ia aeieea? ? i?e qR<1 (R - ?aae?on Aeaaay, q - oaeeueiaee aaeoi?) aoaeoeai?noue aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ( ? Aa. I?e qR>>1 aeeneiaoe?y aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? i?iii?oe?eia
1/ ((, oea coiiaeaii oei, ui i?oaeia oaeey ((( R ia ooai?th?
i?inoi?iaiai ca?yaeo. I?e Ap >> Aa aaee/eia AAA=W( ( ( ( L

13

ia caeaaeeoue a?ae (, k, ai oaeey iiai?noth caoooa? a e?enoae? e
AAA aecia/a?oueny aia?a??th W, yea iiaeeia?oueny a iaeeieoe? ia’?io. A
iiiie?enoaeao CdS ?c oaiiiaei ieoiiei iii?ii (106 — 1010) Ii (ni aeey
i’?ciaeoeaii? oaee? iicaeiaaeiuei? iiey?ecaoe?? i?e iaeeo (, eiee
((i >>( ? Aa << A?, AAA = A(W(k2 / 2((, aea A = 1/ A?L [ 1 - ao? (-A?L) ], ( A? - a?aoeiaa iiaeeiaiiy) ? A AA ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ( ? (, aea caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio oaee?, yea ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny o c?aceo. I?e a?eueoeo (, eiee ((i ~1 ? Aa << A? , AAA = (W( ( (L(( oiaoi AAA ~1/(, oaeey iiai?noth iiaeeia?oueny e AAA ia caeaaeeoue a?ae (; ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ( iaeanoue e?i?eii? caeaaeiino? AAA a?ae 1/ ( c?inoa?. I?e ua a?eueoeo (, eiee ((i << 1, e?i?eia caeaaei?noue AAA ~ ( ia?aoiaeeoue o eaaae?aoe/io. Oaeei /eiii, o e?enoaeao ?c iaeei A? e?i?eia iaeanoue aecia/a?oueny oiiaith AeL >> 1, ? AAA
aecia/a?oueny ?ioaineai?noth W i?oaeieo eieeaaiue, aeinyaath/e
aaee/eie 180 A(ni(Ao-1 aeey aeaeo?e/ieo oaeeue iiia?a/ii? iiey?ecaoe??.

A?aeiioaiiy aaee/ei AAA ia a?aenoai? a?ae aei?ii?ithaa/a, aea (Aa +
A?) << 1 ? (Aa + A?) >>1 aea? noia?iee eiao?oe??io aeeneiaoe?? ( Aa +
A? ) yeee ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ni ? W. Aeey e?enoae?a c iieaeoey?iei
c’yceii (Oa, o?eaiiaeueia a?nue) oa?aeoa?ia «?aciiainia» iiaeeiaiiy,
coiiaeaia eieeaaeueieie iiaeaie a?aoee e aoii?a, ca yeiai aia?a?y
i?oaeii? oaee? ia?aoiaeeoue a?ae iaeiiai ?aciioth/iai inoeeeyoi?a aei
?ioiai.

A iaeano? i?ia?aeiinoae (, aea AAA ia caeaaeeoue a?ae Aa iiaea aooe
aecia/aia ?ooeea?noue iin??a ( ( k’EAE, aea k’= ( / W Aa —
eiao?oe??io, yeee neaaei caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e. Aei??thaaiiy (
aea? ciiao aecia/aoe i?aeaeieeiiee /an ?aeaenaoe?? iin??a ( = m*1( e,
aea m*1 — ae?aeoiaa iana iaei??? aeieeie.

IIIA?A*IEE I?OAEIIEEAEO?E*IEE AOAEO. Aeieeiaiiy Ai a iai?y-ieo,
ii?iaeueiiio aaeoi?ia? i?oaeii? oaee? iicaeiaaeiuei? iiey?ecaoe??,
aeyaeaii iaie a iiiie?enoaeao InSb ? Te, ui aea? ciiao aeeeth/eoe
iaoai?ci eiai aeieeiaiiy, iia’yca-iee ?c ia??aiii??i?noth ina?oeaiiy a
CdS. Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue Ai(O) aeecueea aei AAA(O), a aaee/eia
aeinyaa? 100 A(ni(Ao -1, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? o/anoue i’?ciiioaioe?aeo a
oi?ioaaii? iiia?a/ii? a?n Ai. ?iciiae?e Ai iioaioe?aeo a e?oaeeo
c?aceao o ieiuei? OO, eiee q || [1000] iieacaa, ui aaeoi? Ai ni?yiiaaiee
i?ae eooii 30i aei o?eaiiaeueii?

14

a?n?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ai?cio?iiiee oa?aeoa? o?ainoi?iaoe??
iicaeiaaeiuei? oaee? a «eaac?iiia?a/io» c aaeoi?ii iiey?ecaoe?? a
ieiuei? OZ. Aeey iai?ai?ia?aeieea c aeaoi?iaoe?eiith aca?iiae??th —
InSb, aea ai?cio?ii?y iacia/ia, ?iciiae?e iioaioe?aeo a iiiie?enoaeao
?c eiioeaio?aoe??th n = 8(1013 ni-3 ocaeiaae iai?yie?a [110], [111],
[112] i’?ciaeoeaieo oa iai’?ciaeoeaieo aeey i?oaeieo oaeeue
iicaeiaaeiuei? iiey?ecaoe?? -?aeaioe/iee, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a?iioaco i?i
aeeo?aeoe?eiee iaoai?ci o?ainoi?iaoe?? iicaeiaaeiuei? oaee? a
«eaac?iiia?a/io».

Iaai?oia iiea H || q ia aieeaa? ia ?iciiae?e iioaioe?aeo AAA, aea
cia/ii ci?ith? oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo Ai i?e q ( I i?e oiia? ((n >1,
ui aeeiio?oueny aeey InSb aaea ca I = 200 A. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
?nioaaiiy iioieo iin??a ii?iaeueiiai aei aaeoi?o q, coiiaeaiiai
aeeo?aeoe??th oaeeue a ia’?i? e?enoaea, ye? aca?iiae?thoue ?c iin?yie oa
aeeeeeathoue iiyao «aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ii? neee» c iiia?a/iith, a?aeiinii
iioieo aia?a?? W aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? neeaaeiaith. Oaiiiaiieia?/iee
i?aeo?ae aei aeeo?aeoe?eiiai iaoai?cio aeieeiaiiy oeueiai yaeua ye?nii
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aenia?eiaioii.

Aianie ieaciiaiai iiaeeiaiiy Aa i?oaeii? oaee? a iaai?oiiio iie? H
|| q ? I ( q ??ciee aeey InSb ? Oa, ui coiiaeaii a?aei?ii?noth ?o
?ciaia?aaoe/ieo cii. A InSb ca?eueoaiiy I aei 15 eA i?eaiaeeoue aei
ci?ie Ai ~ I2 c iiaeaeueoei iane/aiiyi, ui coiiaeaii iaai?oiei
«aeia?caiiyi» aeaeo?ii?a o ieaci? iai?ai?ia?aeieea. O iiiie?enoaeao Oa
ca I || q aaee/eia AAA ia ci?ith?oueny, a ca I(q AAA ciaioo?oueny
/a?ac aee?eaeaiiy i?a?o iin??a ? ciaioaiiy iicaeiaaeiuei? neeaaeiai?
?ooo oa ?iioeueno. O aeiaaeeo qRn<< 1 ( Rn - oeeeeio?iiiee ?aae?on) aeiaaeeia a?eueiiai i?ia?ao iin??a l iaea ii??aiyii c aeiaaeeiith oaee? (, aeeiio?oueny oiiaa ql << 1 ? a iaai?oiiio iie? l ciaioo?oueny /a?ac aee?eaeaiiy o?a?eoi??? i?ae ae??th neee Ei?aioea. Iaai?oia iiea I ci?ith? iaenaae?anueeee /an ?aeaenaoe?? (i, yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae (: (i = ((I) / ( (i, aea ( (I) = ((i) / ((A)2 i?e (A((1, ui aea? ciiao aecia/aoe (i ( ooo A - iaai?oia ?iaeoeoe?y). O ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo ql >> 1 aeeneiaoe?y i?oaeii? oaee? ?
eaaioiaiiaoai?/iei i?ioeanii aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaiai ?icn?thaaiiy c
ia??iaee/i?noth I-1, yea aecia/a?oueny ?ici??aie ?ciaia?aaoe/ieo
iiaa?oiiue aaeaioii? ciie ( i?e (f >> kAT; h( >> kAT; ((i >>1
) , ui aea? ciiao aecia/aoe ?? ia?aiao?e ( (f — aia?a?y Oa?i? ).

15

AEAEO?IIII-OAEEUeIAA ACA?IIAe?ss A Ae?AEOIAIIO AEAEO?E*IIIO IIE?. O
e?enoaeao CdS c ieoiiei iii?ii 650 Ii (ni i?e (? = 1,5 ien ? 300 E ia
/anoio? f = 600 IAoe i?aeneeaiiy iicaeiaaeiuei? i?oaeii? oaee? aeinyaa?
20 aeA i?e aianaieo oo?aoao 60 aeA. ?ic?aooieiaa cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa
i?aeneeaiiy, iaea?aeaia ?c ae?aco: Aa = Ai ( ( (i / ( 1 +
(((L2) + ( ((()(, aea Ai = 4,34 [ 4((( / (((] ( [ ((( ] = 8,62
k2(/2( aeA/ni aea? aaee/eio 40 aeA ((L = Ry / (, ( — aonoeia
na?aaeiaeua, (((((Ae?). ?icoiaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a coiiaeaii ?nioaaiiyi
o CdS cia/iiai /enea oeaio??a caoiieaiiy iin??a, a oaeiae i?inoi?iaei
ia?inoaiiyi oeoeooaoe?? acaeiaae iai?yieo ae?aeoo oa anoaiiaeaiiyi
noaoe?iia?iiai iioieo ooio ia e?ioe? e?enoaeo. Iaeanoue
aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? iaiaaeaia cieco — ooiaie, a cai?e —
iane/aiiyi, coiiaeaiei iiaiei a?oioaaiiyi on?o noa’?eo?a aca?iiae??.
Ae?aiacii aca?iiae?? iiaeia ?icoe?eoe oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy ieiu?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy oaeeue, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
neaiaeueiiai iane/aiiy. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeiaaeeie iaeano? aca?iiae?? L,
ciaioo?oueny iiaiiia i?aeneeaiiy, yea iio??aia aeey aeinyaiaiiy
ooiiaiai iane/aiiy ? ciaioo?oueny ae?aeoiaa iiea UAe?. I?e ci?i? UAe?
caeaaei?noue A(f) ia ci?ith?oueny ? Amax neaaei caeaaeeoue a?ae
aeiaaeeie L. sseui ??aaiue ao?aeiiai neaiaeo W >10 iA, — aeo?aeiee
aeinyaa? 1 A ? caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiei. O aacia?a?aiiio ?aaeei? aaee/eia
eiao?oe??ioo i?aeneeaiiy Aa aecia/a?oueny aoaeoeai?noth oaieia?aeaiaeo
aia?a??, ui ?icn?th?oueny a e?enoae?, ui aeinyaa?oueny iaeneiaeueiei
a?aeiioaiiyi iiaa?oi? c?acea aei eiai iiia?a/iiai ?ic??co. I?e
?iioeueniiio neaiae? (? = 1,5 ien ? UAe? = 850 A/ni, Aa= 18 aeA/ni,
a i?e aacia?a?aiiio — Aa= 14 aeA/ni, ui coiiaeaii ia?inoaiiyi iioieo
oaieiaeo oiiii?a. Aeey oaeeue iicaeiaaeiuei? iiey?ecaoe?? aianai? ao?aoe
ciaioothoueny ia 20 aeA /a?ac a?eueo aoaeoeaio ia?aaea/o aia?a??
i?oaeieo eieeaaiue W o e?enoae? ? Aa aei??aith? 20 aeA i?e
?icn?thaaeuei?e iiooaeiino? ~ 3,5 Ao. Ia /anoioao 500 IAoe aeo?aeia
iiooaei?noue neaiaeo iaiaaeaia 70 iAo/ii2 /a?ac aoaeoe iane/aiiy. Ia
oiieeo noa?aeiyo iiiie?enoae?a CdS i?e O = 300 E, (? = 1,5 ien ? f =
40 IAoe iaea?aeaii — Aa= 15 aeA/ni ( ( = 2,5( 10-5 Ii-1(ni-1). O
a?eueo neeueiiio iueaciiai?ai?ia?aeieeo Oa — Aa(UAe?) e?i?eia aei
aaee/eie AAA<< Ee?, yea ?ic?aoiaaia ?c oiee?anueei? ?ooeeaino? oa aeecueea aei aaee/eie iiey aeey iicaa?nueiaeo cnoaieo ooiiaeo iiae, oiane?aeie /iai a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aiao?e/ia aca?iiae?y oaeeue, yea iieyaa? a ia?aea/oaaii? aia?a?? i?oaeii? 16 iiiio?iiaoe/ii? oaee? a ooiia? iiaee e?enoaeo ?ai?oa, i?ae aeinyaa?oueny ??aaiue iae?i?eiiai iane/aiiy. Ia e?i?ei?e ae?eyioe? Aa(UAe?) c?inoa? c /anoioith ye f2, ui aea? ciiao aecia/aoe e2 aeey aeaiiai e?enoaeia?ao?/iiai iai?yieo. Iae?i?ei?noue oa?aeoa?enoeee Aa(UAe?) c?inoa? c /anoioith oiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?eii? iae?i?eiino? ieacie. A Oa i?aeneeaiiy iicaeiaaeiuei? i?oaeii? oaee? /anoioith 400 IAoe i?e ??ai? ao?aeiiai neaiaeo 10-1 Ao/ni ia ia?aaeuo? 25 aeA/ni o iai?yieo a?ia?ii? a?n?, ui coiiaeaii niiioaiiei ia?inoaiiyi iicaa?nueiaeo iiia?a/ieo oaieiaeo oiiii?a. A iaeano? ci?oaii? i?ia?aeiino? (i?e O>200 K), yeui ciaoooaaoe aieeaii ?aeiia?iaoe??
aeaeo?iiii-ae??eiaeo ia? ( (? = 10-6 n ) ia /anoioao nioi? IAoe,
aaee/eia i?aeneeaiiy Anp = Anp (( ‘n + ( ‘p) aea ( ‘n = (1-(n/()
/ (1-(n/() + (((((n Dn( ( ‘p = (p/(n (1 -(p/() / ( 1-(p/() + ((((? Dp
(ooo — (n ? (p — ae?aeoiaa oaeaee?noue, Dn , Dp — eiao?oe??io
aeeooc?? aeaeo?ii?a ? ae??ie, (n, (? — /anoioa ?aeaenaoe?? iin??a).
Caeaaeii a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aiao??a ( ‘n ? ( ‘p i?aeneeaiiy
niinoa??aa?oueny i?e A > 0 ? E < 0. I?e A > 0 ? O = 300 E ia
/anoioao f = 100 IAoe, i?aeneeaiiy aei??aith? 16 aeA/ni, ui coiiaeaii
aieeaii aeeooc??, yea aeinyaa? 4,8(108 n-1, ui ii??aith?oueny c
ia??iaeii i?oaeieo oaeeue. Aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaa aca?iiae?y a n-InSb i?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? iin??a n = 1014 ni-3 oa ?ooeeaino? ( = 5 (105 ni2/A(n
i?e f=180 IAoe aea? ciiao aeinyaoe oiia ql = 1 ? a ?acoeueoao? iaeiai
?icn?thaaiiy, oaea a iie? A = 0,5 A/ni niinoa??aaoe i?aeneeaiiy
i?oaeii? oaee?. Oiane?aeie iaeino? k2=7(10-4, ieaciiaee eiao?oe??io
i?aeneeaiiy InSb iacia/iee ? iaiaaeo?oueny aaee/eiith 26 aeA/ni (77 E).
Iniiaiei iaoai?ciii iane/aiiy i?aeneeaiiy a InSb ? ?ic?a??a
aeaeo?iiiiai aaco ? a?aoee e?enoaeo ae?aeoiaei aeaeo?e/iei iieai. O
iaai?oiiio iie? I ( q( ( ~ ((i) / ((((n) ? aaee/eia (i ? Aa
c?inoathoue y ((((n) (( ( ?ac, ine?eueee a aeai?e iaeano? aeey ( ? I
aeeiio?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ((i (( 1. Ia /anoio? 800 IAoe ? a
iieyo ~ 2 eE, Aa aeinyaa? 50 aeA/ni i?e ( = 4. Iaeneioio
eiao?oe??io i?aeneeaiiy Amax = Aa / 2 (1 + ((((L) aeinyaa? ia /anoio?
(~1/(L = 1,5 AAoe. Iicaeiaaei? iaai?oia iiea H || q oaeiae cieaeo? Aa
oaee? /a?ac ciaioaiiy ?aae?ona eieae?caoe?? aeaeo?iiiiai noaio oa
ciaioaiiy ia?ae?eooy noaio ia non?aei?o aeii?oeiaeo oeaio?ao,
noeioethth/e ia?ao?ae iai?ai?ia?aeieea a ae?aeaeo?ee (iaai?oia
aeia?caiiy). Ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue
?ic?a??aa? aeaeo?iiiee aac, ci?ithth/e eiioeaio?aoe?th iin??a a cii?
i?ia?aeiino? e ?ooeea?noue — o ?acoeueoao? /iai aeia?caiiy ciaioo?oueny.
Ca a?eueoi?

17

aiie?ooaee oaee? aeeoa?aioe?eia eiioeaio?aoe?y iin??a n’ a ia’?iiiio
ca?yae? ? ooieoe??th iai?oae aioo??oiueiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey A e
??aiiaaaeii? eiioeaio?aoe?? no : n’= f ( E, no) e o aeiaaeeo ( ( (D
no?oi /a?ac e?enoae caeaaeeoue a?ae /enea iin??a ns, ye? aa?ooue
o/anoue a aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueia?e aca?iiae??; ?AA = a ns h ( /m*(o ( h —
iino?eia Ieaiea). I?e c?inoaii? ?ioaineaiino? oaee? (ns no) no?oi
iaiaaeo?oueny iayaiei /eneii iin??a, ? e?i?eiee ca’ycie i?ae ?AA oa
AAA ii?ooo?oueny. No?oi ia ia?aaeuo? ?max= e ns, a AAA c?inoa?
e?i?eii aei cia/aiue W = 150 Ao/ni2.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaeo?iii-oaeeueiaeo iaai?oi?aciiainieo yaeu o i?ia?aeieo e?enoaeao.
Iieacaii, ui aca?iiae?y aeaeo?e/ii? oaee? c ieaciiaei na?aaeiaeuai
aecia/a?oueny aeanoeainoyie ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo iin??a a

iaeano? oaeaeeinoae, aeecueeeo aei oaeaeeino? oaee? (. O iaai?oiiio
iie? iiaeeiaoe eaaio aia?a?? caeaoi? eeoa aeaeo?iie, i?iaeoe?y ?iioeueno
yeeo ia iai?yiie iaai?oiiai iiey I ( H || q || Z ) aei??aith?: pz = m* /
q ((-hq2 / 2m) ? i?e ca?aaii? eiai c aeene?aoiei cia/aiiyi
iicaeiaaeiueiai ?iioeueno ?z,n — eiao?oe??io iiaeeiaiiy oaee? ?aciiainii
caeaaeeoue a?ae I, ine?eueee aia?a?y aeaeo?ii?a eaaioo?oueny ca ??aiyie
Eaiaeao. O aacc?oeioaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ql << 1 aeiaaeeia a?eueiiai i?ia?ao iin??a l cia/ii ia?aaeuo? ( i?oaeii? oaee?, ? iai?i aia?a??th a?aeaoaa?oueny ye eaaioiaee aeo aca?iiae?? oiiii?a c ?iioeuenii (q ? aeaeo?ii?a ?c ?iioeuenii ?, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy iicaeiaaeiueiai no?oio: ?CA= ?a -?? = W/( ((Aa(a + A?(?), aea A?, (? - ae??eiaa iiaeeiaiiy e ?ooeea?noue. Oiane?aeie ??cieo ian ? ?ooeeainoae noia?iee no?oi a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae 0 iaa?oue o neiiiainiaaieo i?ia?aeieeao, o yeeo na = n? ? a iaai?oiiio iie? niinoa??aaoeiaoueny ?aciiainia caeaaei?noue eiai a?ae I. O neeueiiio iie? I, eiee (( >> kT
? aeeiiai? oiiae ?nioaaiiy a?aaionueeeo eaaioiaeo inoeeeeyoe?e (AEI)
iiaeeiaiiy i?oaeii? oaee? (ql)2 >> ( / eT, iiaeooue niinoa??aaoeny
AEI no?oio ?AA, iai?yi yeeo aecia/a?oueny ciaeii iin??a ( ( —
oeeeeio?iiia /anoioa, ( — o?i?/iee iioaioe?ae). Bi ? Sb oiane?aeie
iaei? eiioeaio?aoe?? iin??a oa ?o a?aeiinii iaei? iane iio?aaothoue
iaaaeeeeo I aeey aeinyaiaiiy oiia neeueiiai iiey: kT << (( << (r ((r - Ea?ii??a ?aae?on aeaeo?iiii? i?a?oe), a a?aeiinii i?inoa iiaa?oiy Oa?i?, yea neeaaea?oueny c 3-o aeaeo?iiieo oa iaeiiai ae??eiaiai ae?ini?aea, aeicaiey? ciaeoe aiae?oe/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey ?AA o aieiaieo e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iai?yieao ? ni?anoaaeoe ?o c aenia?eiaioaeueieie 18 ?acoeueoaoaie, iaea?aeaieie aeey iiiie?enoae?a Bi oa Sb ?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iii??a a?aeiia?aeii R293 / R4,2 = 3(102 ? 3(103, i???ioiaaieo a?aeiinii aieiaieo e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo a?nae. Aaiiao??y aenia?eiaioo a?aeiia?aeaea oiiaai I || q || X, a iaai?oia iiea ci?ithaaeiny a?ae 0 aei 60 eA. Eenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? ?AA(I) aeey eiaeiiai iai?yieo a?aeiia?aeathoue ciaeaeaiei aiae?oe/iei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ? aeacothoue ia i?eiaeaaei?noue aoaeoo aei AEI ?CA, aea ciae inoeeeyoe?e a?aeiia?aea? ciaeo iin??a ca?yaeo. Ia??iae inoeeeyoe?e ?CA o cai?ioiiio iaai?oiiio iie? I-1 a on?o e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iai?yieao iino?eiee ? ca?aa?oueny c ia??iaeii inoeeeyoe?e iaai?oii? ni?eyoeeaino? aea Aaac-aai Aeueoaia. Ciaeaeai? ia?aiao?e aoaeoeaieo ?ici???a ?ciaia?aaoe/ieo iiaa?oiiue Oa?i? Semin = 1,35 (10-42 a2(ni2(n-2; Saemin = 6,45(10-42 a2(ni2(n-2 a?aeiia?aeathoue ?acoeueoaoai, aecia/aiei iaoiaeii aaiiao?e/iiai ?aciiaino. O neaaeeo iaai?oieo iieyo aiie?ooaea inoeeeyoe?e ?CA e?i?eia a?aeiinii I: Amax= Aa? a t H / B m*c kO ( aea Aa?- ieaciiaee ia?oe?aeueiee eiao?oe??io iiaeeiaiiy aeaeo?e/ii? oaee?). O neeuei?oeo iieyo I e?i?ei?noue ii?ooo?oueny /a?ac ni?iiaa ?icuaieaiiy ?aciiainieo e?i?e AA no?oio. O ?ac? I(q niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea c?inoaiiy ?CA, coiiaeaia c?inoaiiyi iaai?oiiii?o e?enoaeo, yea ia?aoiaeeoue ca I>1eA a inoeeeyoe?? aea
Aaac-aai Aeueoai?anueeiai oeio, ui nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae e?eaeo
eiao?oe??ioo iiaeeiaiiy oaee?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeeiiaiiy
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Aaei?aeoa o aeaiiio ?ac?. *a?ac a?eueoo aoaeoeaio iano
iin??a o Sb iaai?oi? iiey aei 60 eA ? iaaeinoaoi?ie aeey iaea?aeaiiy
iiaii? ea?oeie inoeeeyoe?e. O ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao (Zn) c R293 / R4,2 =
3,3 (104 o ?ac? H (q o iieyo aei 2 eA oaeiae niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea
c?inoaiiy aiie?ooaee no?oio ?CA, yea ia?aoiaeeoue a iaeanoue
iane/aiiy, aea inoeeeyoe?? i?e oeueiio ia niinoa??aathoueny aiane?aeie
iaaeeiiaiiy oiia eaaiooaaiiy.

AEONOIIAAIAOIAEAEO?E*IEE AOAEO O I?IA?AeIEEAO. I?e ?iciianthaeaeaii?
i?oaeii? oaee? /a?ac ?ic?ieiaiee iiiie?enoae, oiane?aeie ??cieo
aoaeoeaieo ian ? ?ooeeainoae, o iueiio aeieeathoue ia?oe?aeuei? iioiee
iin??a, ye? i?e H(q ooai?ththoue iiia?a/io ??cieoeth iioaioe?ae?a (AIA
aoaeo). O ?ac? iiiiiiey?iiai i?ia?aeieea AIA aoaeo coiiaeaiee ?nioaaiiyi
aeenia?n?? ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo aia?a?? iin??a ? aeieeiaiiy aiane?aeie
oeueiai aia?aaoe/ii ??cieo iioie?a aeaeo?ii?a, ye? a iaai?oiiio iie?
a?aeoeeythoueny ii-??ciiio, ooai?thth/e AIA iioaioe?ae; AAIA aai, yeui

19

((() ~ ((, oi AAMA ~ (. Aeey iaae?iaeaeaiiai aeaeo?iiiiai aaco, o
?ac? (( (( ( a?i aei??aith?:

AAIA = (AaW/en() (( ((((1-() I(5/2-2() ( ( ((2 -3( + 7/2I (5/2-() ((,

aea I — iaiiaia aaia-ooieoe?y. sse aeey aeiaaeeo ql << 1, oae ql >> 1 aaee/eia oa ciae AAMA caeaaeaoue a?ae iaoai?cio ?icn?thaaiiy
iin??a ? /anoioe i?oaeii? oaee?: ( = -1/2 i?e ?icn?thaaii? ia aeonoe/ieo
oiiiiao: ( = 3/2 — ia ?ii?ciaaieo aeii?oeao. Iayai?noue o oi?ioe?
ia?aiao?a Aa ia?aaeaa/a? ?aciiainio caeaaei?noue AAIA o eaaiooth/iio
iaai?oiiio iie?.

O iiiie?enoae?/iiio Oa c eiioeaio?aoe??th iin??a ? = 5 (1013 ( 2( 1014
ni-3 i?e 77 ? 4,2 E ia /anoio? f = 500 IAoe, i?e q (H || Y
iaea?aeaia eooiaa caeaaei?noue AAIA(I). Aaee/eia AAIA o e?enoaeao
?c ? = 2( 1014 ni-3 i?e 4,2 E nyaa? 8( 10-4 A (ni2 ( Ao-1, ui ia
ii?yaeie iaioa a?ae oai?aoe/iiai cia/aiiy. I?e ci?i? iai?yieo I
iioaioe?ae AAIA ci?ith? ciae, a eiai aaee/eia i?iii?oe?eia 1/?.
Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue AAIA(O) nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
caeaaeiino? AAA(O), ui na?ae/eoue i?i ??ci? iaoai?cie ?o ooai?aiiy. O
ae?aiacii? a?ae 0 aei 12 eA caeaaei?noue AAIA(I), e?i?eia. O A*
iaeano?, eiee ql >> 1, q >> p oiane?aeie o/ano? a aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueia?e
aca?iiae?? eeoa aeaeo?ii?a c aia?a??th Oa?i? (f aeenia?n?? ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny. Iaeiae a i?enooiino? aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? c /anoioith
(‘, yea caaeiaieueiy? oiiae: (f (( (‘ = q2 / 2m < Eq (Aq - oe?eia caai?iiaii? ciie), aeenia?n?y aia?a?? iin??a ciiao noa? nooo?aith, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei a?aeiiaeaiiy iioaioe?aeo AAIA. O a?iiey?ieo i?ia?aeieeao A? oa Sb i?e I (q || X niinoa??aa?oueny a iaeano? I > 1eE
inoeeeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue AAIA a?ae I, iia’ycaia c inoeeethth/ith
caeaaei?noth eiao?oe??ioa ieaciiaiai iiaeeiaiiy aea Aaac-aai
Aeueoai?anueeiai oeio. I?e oeueiio iainoeeethth/a /anoeia caeaaeiino?
AAIA(I) ??cei c?inoa? o iieyo aei 1eA, i?ney /iai ianoa? iane/aiiy. C
o?aooaaiiyi i?aeciiiiai /ano ?aeaenaoe?? (i a Sb ~10-8 n (i?e 4,2 E) ia
/anoio? f = 150 IAoe, ia?aiao? ((i ~10 ? i?e

i?aeaeuaii? (i, AAIA = (((i / (1+((i)2 — iiaeiii ciaiooaaoeny, ui ia
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aenia?eiaioii ? na?ae/eoue i?i iai?eaeaoi?noue aeey
i?ia?aeiee?a oaiiiaiieia?/ii? oai???, yea aaaaea? iniiaiei eaiaeii
?aeaenaoe?? iin??a i?aeciii? ia?aoiaee oa i?aeciiio

20

aeeooc?th. Aei??thaaiiy /anoioii? caeaaeiino? AIA aoaeoo aea? ciiao
aecia/aoe oa?i?ie aeeooy oa iaoai?cie ?icn?thaaiiy ?iioeueno
ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a no?oio. ?c ia??iaeo inoeeeyoe?e AIA iioaioe?aeo a
eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie? iiaeia aaciina?aaeiuei aei??thaaoe oaici?e
aoaeoeaii? iane, a oaeiae ?aae?ciaoaaoe iaoai?cie ?aciiainii?
aeeo?aeoe?? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia oaeeyo aeaeo?iiii?
aonoino?.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy A*
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o iecueeioaiia?aoo?i?e aaci?ic?yaei?e ieaci? o
ae?aiacii? /anoio a?ae 0,05 eAoe

aei 1,3 IAoe. IO A?I ? neaaei?ii?ciaaiith eaac?iaeo?aeueiith ieaciith c
eiioeaio?aoe??th iin??a ia a?eueoa ca 1014 ni-3. I?aeaeuaiiy /anoioe
iai?oae aaciaiai ?ic?yaeo i?eaiaeeoue

aei ciaioaiiy aeeaeie iiaeoeyoe?? aeaeo?iiii? eiioeaio?aoe?? oa
oaiia?aoo?e ca ia??iae, a oaeiae eiioeaio?aoe?? caoaeaeaieo aoii?a ia
aei?ii?ithaaeueieo ??aiyo. Ca?eueoaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai aeoiaeo
aei?ii?ithaaiiy c i?aeaeuaiiyi /anoioe coiiaeaii, aieiaiei /eiii,
cieaeaiiyi i?eaeaeo?iaeieo oo?ao o noiai? ?ic?yaeo, a oaeiae ?icoe?aiiyi
ieaciiaiai eaiaeo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o IO A?I
i?iaaaeaii ia aaci?ic?yaeieo aeaea?aeao (A?Ae) oeio EA 4 ( EA 13 ?c
neioni?aeaeueiith oi?iith aeeaey/i? iai?oae aiie?ooaeith a?ae 0 aei 600
A. Onoaiiaeaii, ui a ae?aiacii? /anoio aei 2 eAoe niinoa??aa?oueny niaae
iai?oae ?ic?yaeo U? ~ ia 30%; ia /anoio? ( 312 ( 200 ) eAoe
niinoa??aa?oueny iia?eueia c?inoaiiy U? aei 0,8 iii?iaeueiiai Ui
cia/aiiy. Oea coiiaeaii cieaeaiiyi i?eaiiaeiiai iioaioe?aeo oa
ciaioaiiyi aea?ii?caoe?? aeaeo?iiii-?iiii? ieacie, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny,
eiee o?eaae?noue iai?aia??iaeo ?ic?yaeo noa? iaioith ca oa?aeoa?iee /an
aia?iiey?ii? aeeooc?? (D ( (Da / (2p) ( Da — eiao?oe??io aia?iiey?ii?
aeeooc??, (p — «aeeoociee ?ici??» ?ic?yaeiiai i?inoi?o). I?e oeueiio
aonoeia ieacie a i?eaiiaei?e iaeano? ca i?ii?aeie /ano O/2=1/2 f ia
anoeaa? cieceoeny, aiane?aeie /iai U? caeeoa?oueny iaeei. Oieea
i?eaeaeo?iaeieo i?ioean?a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee ieaciiaiai ?ic?yaeo noa?
iacia/iei ca /anoioe f > (eEo/(Lp ( aea Eo~Up/Lp, Lp — ?ic?yaeiee
i?ii?aeie), ui aei??aith? o iaoiio aeiaaeeo ( 23 eAoe. O
iaeiiiooaeieo A?Ae aianie aiiaeieo eieeaaiue iai?oae aeinyaa? 30%, ui
iiynith?oueny ??ceith ci?iith oi?ie iai?oae a oeacaiiio ?ioa?aae?
/anoio. Aiiaei? eieeaaiiy ?ic?yaeo coiiaeai? ia??iaee/iith ci?iith
aonoeie A?I ? iathoue aiie?ooaeo, ui ca?aa?oueny c iioaioe?aeii
?ii?caoe?? aoiia ?ooo? ( 10,4 A. Ine?eueee oa?aeoa?iee oa?i?i
aea?ii?caoe?? A?I

21

aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee ?c /anoioith iiyae i?ea aiiaeieo eieeaaiue, —
?? aenia?eiaioaeueia aecia/aiiy aeicaiey? ciaeoe oeae ia?aiao?. Ca
iino?eii ae?th/iio no?oi? A* ?ic?yaeo niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy o ( 2
?ace ae?th/i? iai?oae Up, ui icia/a? ca?eueoaiiy aeaeo?e/ii?
iiooaeiino? ? oa i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo aei?ii?ithaaiiy I= O / ?, (O —
iio?e aei?ii?ithaaiiy). Aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? O(f) a ae?aiacii?
aei 2 eAoe iathoue niaae ~ ia 2%, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iacia/iee oieea
i?eaeaeo?iaeieo ao?ao ia iiooaei?noue o iiceoeaiiio noiai? ?ic?yaeo ? ia
?ii?caoe?th aaco. I?aeaeuaiiy U? i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai (aei 18%)
c?inoaiiy O, ? aea?aaeaioiiai ca?eueoaiiy aeaeo?e/ii? iiooaeiino?, yea
aeo?a/a?oueny ia ?ii?caoe?th aoii?a. Oea aea? ciiao iaea?aeaoe ii?iiaai?
iioiee aia?a?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy ca iaioiai niiaeeaaiiy aeaeo?e/ii?
iiooaeiino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy /anoioii? caeaaeiino? iioaioe?aeo ?i?oe?thaaiiy Uc A*
?ic?yaeo a IO A?I o ae?aiacii? /anoio a?ae 0,05 eAoe aei 1,2 IAoe o
?aaeei? «oieiaeiiai» caiaethaaiiy aeyaeei aea? oa?aeoa?i? iaeano? ia
e?ea?e Uc(f): ??cea cieaeaiiy Uc ia 20% a ?ioa?aae? 0,05 — 30 eAoe, oa
iiiioiiia cieaeaiiy Uc aei 50% ia /anoioao ( 400 eAoe, ui iia’ycaii c
i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ii?coth/i? ni?iiiaeiino? aeaeo?ii?a /a?ac ca?eueoaiiy ?o
e?iaoe/ii? aia?a??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy /anoioii? caeaaeiino? niaeo?aeueii?
aonoino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeyaeei cia/ia c?inoaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai iioieo a
ei?ioeioaeeueia?e /anoei? niaeo?o. Aeineiiae?oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, caaaeyee ia?ao?aeiiio oa?aeoa?ia?
aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo i?ioean?a o IO A?I o noi?o? Ar + Hq ?
niaoeeo?/iiio ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?e/iiai iiey o A* ?ic?yae? ? aeineoue
neeaaeiith, aea i?eeeaaeia ?o cia/aiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? ?aae?coaaoe
iecueeiaieueoiee ?aaeei ?i?oe?thaaiiy e iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a
?ic?yaeo a aeaeo?iieaciiaeo nenoaiao, o oiio /ene? niaoe?aeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy, ui e aoei cae?eniaii ia i?aeoeoe?.

AENIIAEE

?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eieo AAe yaeu o oaa?aeio?euei?e
ieaci?, caniiaaiee ia aoaeo? caoiieaiiy iin??a ca?yaeo A* i?oaeiith
oaeeath oa AA aeaoaeooaaiiy neaiaeo a e?enoaeao i?ia?aeiee?a, yeee ?
a?eueo /ooeeaei oa ?ioi?iaoeaiei ? ? aoaeoeaiei ?ino?oiaioii aea/aiiy
i?ioean?a aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? a ieaci? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a,
iaoae?a oa iai?aiaoae?a.

22

I?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eieo i?ioean?a aca?iiae??
i?oaeieo oaeeue c aeaeo?iiii-ae??eiaith ieaciith iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a,
iaoae?a oa iai?aiaoae?a ? AAe yaeu, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoue oeth
aca?iiae?th, a oiiaao aieeao oaiia?aoo?e, aeaeo?e/ieo ? iaai?oieo iie?a,
eiioeaio?aoe?? iin??a ca?yaeo. Ciaeaeaii neeueio ai?cio?ii?th
aeeneiaoe?? aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? ? i?ia?aeiino? iaoa??ae?a o
??cieo e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iai?yieao oa ca’ycie noao?iiao??? e?enoaea c
iaoai?ciaie ?? aeieeiaiiy.

O ieaci? ii?iaeueieo (iaoioii?ia?aeieo) iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oia?oa
ciaeaeaii e aeine?aeaeaii yaeua iiia?a/iiai i?oaeiiaeaeo?e/iiai aoaeoo,
yeee aeinyaa? aaee/eie 0,8 iicaeiaaeiueiai e coiiaeaiee: o neeueieo
iue’?ciiai?ai?ia?aeieeao — ai?cio?ii??th i’?ciaeaeo?e/ii? aca?iiae??, a
a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao ?c ia?aaaaeii aeaoi?iaoe?eiei iaoai?ciii —
aeeo?aeoe?eiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th iicaeiaaei?o i?oaeieo oaeeue o
«eaac?iiia?a/i?.»

4. O iiiie?enoaeao iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ciaeaeaii e aeine?aeaeaii iiaa
o?ce/ia yaeua AIA aoaeoo, yeee caii/aoeiao? eean iae?i?eieo
aeeoa?aioe?eieo AAe yaeu, coiiaeaieo aeenia?n??th aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai?
aca?iiae??, ? ? ae??aei ?ino?oiaioii aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a ?aeaenaoe??
?iioeueno iin??a no?oio, aei??thaaiiy iaeeo i?ii?aee?a aeeooy
ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a ca?yaeo; ?c ia??iaeo inoeeeyoe?e o eaaiooth/iio
iaai?oiiio iie? aea? ciiao aaciina?aaeiuei aei??thaaoe eiiiiiaioe
oaici?a aoaeoeaieo ian.

5. O ieaci? iai?aiaoae?a oa iaoae?a oia?oa ciaeaeaii yaeua CA aoaeoo,
coiiaeaiiai aeaeo?iaeeiai?/iei iaoai?ciii caoiieaiiy iin??a ca?yaeo A*
i?oaeiith oaeeath ? ia?aiino ?o o iai?yieo a?oiiai? oaeaeeino?
aeaeo?e/ii? oaee?. Oai?aoe/ii iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey CA
no?oio a i?ia?aeieeao, aeoiaey/e c oyaeaiiy i?i 4 ae?ini?aeio iiaeaeue
iiaa?oiiue Oa?i?, oa aecia/aii aeeaae o noia?iee no?oi eiaeii? c
?ciaia?aaoe/ieo cii.

O ieaci? i?ia?aeieo iiiie?enoae?a o iicaeiaaeiueiio oa iiia?a/iiio
a?aeiinii aaeoi?a i?oaeii? oaee? iaai?oiiio iie? a iai?yieo aieiaieo
e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo a?nae oia?oa ciaeaeaii aeaa iiaeo iaai?oi?aciiainieo
aoaeoa eaaioiaeo inoeeeyoe?e CA no?oio, coiiaeaieo inoeeethth/ith
caeaaei?noth ieaciiaiai eiao?oe??ioa iiaeeiaiiy (AEI) ? aonoeie noaio a
eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie?. Aiie?ooaea inoeeeyoe?e CA no?oio ?
ooieoe??th iaai?oiiai iiey , a ia??iae aaciina?aaeiuei

23

aecia/a?oueny ?ici??aie aeno?aiaeueieo ?ic??c?a ?ciaia?aaoe/ieo
iiaa?oiiue iino?eii? aia?a??. Ciaeaeaii neeueio caeaaei?noue aaee/eie
no?oio a?ae iai?oae iiia?a/iiai a?aeiinii aaeoi?a aeaeo?e/ii? oaee?
iaai?oiiai iiey, yea aea? ciiao aeei?enoiaoaaoe oea yaeua aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae??.

Ia iniia? ciaeaeaieo iaai?oi?aciiainieo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo aoaeo?a o
ieaci? i?ia?aeiee?a cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aoaeoeaiee iaoiae aea/aiiy
aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o iin??a no?oio a eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie?, ui
aea? ciiao, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?nioth/eo, aecia/aoe ia o?eueee aaiiao?e/i?
?ici??e ? oi?io iiaa?oiiue Oa?i?, a oaeiae ? i?eiaeaaei?noue
inoeeethth/eo eaac?/anoie aei aeaeo?iiii? /e ae??eiai? cii. Iaoiae aea?
ciiao aei??thaaoe aia?a?th aeaoi?iaoe?eii? aca?iiae?? a i?ia?aeieeao, a
oaeiae ieaciiaee eiao?oe??io iiaeeiaiiy i?oaeii? oaee? ? aecia/aoe
aeaeo?iiiee aeeaae a iiaeoe? i?oaeiino? iiiie?enoae?a, i?ii?aeee /ano
?aeaenaoe?? iin??a no?oio, q-oaeoi? ni?i?a aeaeo?ii?a oa ?o
ai?cio?ii?th, ?aeyoea?nonuee? iii?aaee aei aia?a?? aeaeo?ii?a,
ni?i-i?a?oaeueio aca?iiae?th. Aeei?enoaiiy ?aciiainii? caeaaeiino? CA e
AIA aoaeo?a o eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie? ye iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy
aeaeo?iiaai?oiei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi a?aee?eaa? iiaeeeaino? noai?aiiy
aenieiaoaeoeaieo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo nenoai iiaiai iieie?iiy.

8. A ?acoeueoao? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eieo
aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo yaeu o ieaci? i?ia?aeiee?a ?ic?iaeaii o?ce/i?
i?eioeeie noai?aiiy ?yaeo aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo nenoai: i?eeia/?a ?
aeaoaeoi??a aia?aaoe/ieo i?io?e?a i?oaeieo oaeeue; cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a
eiio?ieth no?oeoo?e i?ia?aeieo iiiie?enoae?a; ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeei
a?coae?caoe?? i?oaeieo iie?a; AA iaoiae aei??thaaiiy aeeneiaoe?? aia?a??
i?oaeieo oaeeue o iiiie?enoaeao; cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeie noai?aiiy
eie?iaa?ieo aeonoiiioe/ieo nenoai; AA iiaeoeyoe?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy
?*-ae?aiaciio ia iniia? yaeua aeeo?aeoe?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue ia
oaeeyo aeaeo?iiii? aonoeie a i?ia?aeieo e?enoaeao.

Eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy A* aeaeo?io?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o IO A?I a
ae?aiacii? /anoio aei 1,2 IAoe, aeyaeei aieea oi?ie iai?oae ? no?oio
?ic?yaeo ia aaee/eio ae?th/i? iai?oae ia i?aeaeuaieo /anoioao ?
a?aeiia?aeia ca?eueoaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai aeoiaeo aei?ii?ithaaiiy;
ciaeaeaii iaeanoue cia/iiai (aei 50% )

24

cieaeaiiy iioaioe?aeo ?i?oe?thaaiiy A?I ia i?aenoaa? /iai ?ic?iaeaii
o?ce/i? i?eioeeie noai?aiiy iaoiaeo ia?aciiainiiai ?i?oe?thaaiiy A*
aaciaiai ?ic?yaeo aeaeo?iieaciiaeo nenoai, ui i?aeaeuo? ?o aoaeoeai?noue
? iie?auo? ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

10. Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue A*
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o IO A?I i?iaaaeaii aiae?c, iaa?oiooaaiiy oa
aea?? ae?aiaciio ?iai/eo /anoio, iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a, ia?aiao??a ?
noai ooieoe?iioaaiiy A?Ae IO, ye? caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue c aeaeo?iiii-?iiiith
ieaciith aaciaiai ?ic?yaeo, iie?auaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ?nioth/eo
aeaeo?iieaciiaeo nenoai oa noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo, o oiio /ene?,
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

11. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ea?oaaiiy ia?aiao?aie A* ?ic?yaeo A?Ae ?
?aaoethaaiiy oaieiaiai ?aaeeio aeaeo?iae?a, yea aeicaiey? aeinyaoe
e?aoiino? ci?ie aia?aaoe/iiai aeoiaeo aei?ii?ithaaiiy ye 1:100 ia iniia?
/iai noai?aii nenoaio aaoiiaoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy ?aaeeiaie ?iaioe
aeaeo?iieaciiaeo nenoai ca aecia/aiith i?ia?aiith.

NIENIE AEEI?ENOAIEO AeAEA?AE

Iaieoieia E.E., ?ie A.O., Ii?ei A.E. Iniiau oai?ee e i?iecaiaenoaa
aeoaiauo eaii aunieie eioaineaiinoe: O/aaiia iiniaea.- E.: Aeua oeiea,
1992. — 328n.

Ei?iethe A.I., ?ie A.O. Aeonoiyeaeo?iiiua yaeaiey a oaeeo?a //OOAE.-
1974.- ?12.- N.2003-2007.

Ei?iethe A.I., ?ie A.O. Aeaaioneea inoeeeeyoeee caoeiyeaeo?e/aneiai oiea
//AEYOO, ienueia, — 1975. — aui.4. — n.184-186.

Ei?iethe A.I., ?ie A.O. Caoeiyeaeo?e/aneee yooaeo a aeniooa a
eaaioothuai iaaieoiii iiea // OIO. — 1975. — ?1. — N.125-133.

Korolyuk A. P., Roj V.F., Golik A.V. A lov temperature device for
maqnetoacoustic studies // Cryoqenics. — 1975. — ?3. — ?.146-147.

?ie A.O., Ee?eeeia N.A. Iiia?a/iue aeonoiyeaeo?e/aneee yooaeo a
iiiie?enoaeeao InSb // OIO. 1977. — ?10. — N.1280-1284.

25

?ie A.O. Caoeiyeaeo?e/aneee yooaeo a oeeiea // Ecaanoey aocia «Oeceea».
— 1978. — ?9. — N.789-790.

?ie A.O.Eiaeeeaoeey oeueo?acaoeiauo aiei a oaa?aeuo oaeao //
Aeonoe/aneee aeo?iae. — 1981. — o.OOVII.- ?6. — N.933-934.

?ie A.O. Aeneaeueii-neiiao?e/iue aaeooiiue aaiae // IOY. — 1978. — ?5. —
N.240-241.

?ie A. O. Aiaeiai-aeene?aoiue i?aia?aciaaoaeue neaiaeia //
?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea e eioi?iaoeea. — 1999. — ? 1. — N. 48-51.

?ie A.O., Ei?iethe A.I. Aeonoiyeaeo?e/aneee aeaoaeoi? oeueo?acaoea //Na.
aeaiiie?.noaoae:, I.,AEIEOE. — ?3803-77, — 1978. — ?5 /77/. — N.3.

?ie A.O., Iaieoieia E.E. Auniei/anoioiua naienoaa A?I IAe. //Aii?inu
aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. — Oa?ueeia: Iaoe. Iao/i. Oeaio? OOOE IAIO. —
1998. — ?7. — N.151-152.

?ie A.O., Ei?iethe A.I., Aoeyaa TH.A. e ae?. Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue
aeonoiiaaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneee yooaeo ( Aeeieii ia ioe?uoea ?133)// A ei.
Eiithoay TH.I. Ioe?uoey niaaoneeo o/aiuo. — I.: Iaoea, 1978. — N.
424-426.

A.n. 464815 NNN?, IEE G 01n 29/04. Niinia oeueo?acaoeiaiai eiio?iey
iaeii?iaeiinoe iiiie?enoaeeia / A.O.?ie, A.I.Ei?iethe (NNN?). —
1992033/25-28; Cayaeaii 18.01.74; Iioae. 25.03.75., Athe. ?11. — 2n.

A.n. 629496 NNN?, IEE G 01n 29/04. Aeonoiyeaeo?e/aneee i?aia?aciaaoaeue
oeueo?acaoea. / A.O.?ie, N.A.Ee?eeeia (NNN?). — ?2390123/25-28; cayaeaii
01.08.76; iioae. 25.10.78, Athe. ?39. — 2n.

A.n. 655204 NNN?, IEE G 01n 29/04. Ono?ienoai aeey eiaeeeaoeee
oeueo?acaoeiauo eieaaaiee / A.O.?ie (NNN?). — 12433679/25-28; cayaeaii
20.12.76. Ia i?aeeyaa? ae?oeoaaiith.

?ie A.O. I aiciiaeiinoe iaaethaeaiey oneeaiey A* oi?oaeo aiei a iaeanoe
IAeI a iieoi?iaiaeieeao // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. — 1998. —
aui. 78/145/. — N.45-46.

?ie A.O. Yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneea yaeaiey a oaa?aeioaeueiie ieacia //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. — 1998. — ?84/151/. — N.97-98.

26

?ie A.O. Aeonoiiaaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneea yaeaiey a i?iaiaeieeao //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. — 1998. — ?84. — N.70-71.

?ie A.O. Enneaaeiaaiea auniei/anoioiuo naienoa A?I eaii ieceiai
aeaaeaiey // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. — 1997. — ?18/29/. —
N.22-23.

?ie A.O. Auniei/anoioiue i?iaie A?I eaii ieceiai aeaaeaiey. //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. — 1997. — ?32/43/. — N.47-48.

?ie A.O., Aa?ueeiaaoe A.I. Auniei/anoioiue o?aicenoi?iue eiaa?oi? aeey
a?oiiiaiai ieoaiey EE. //Yeaeo?ioaoie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, na?.
I?aia?aciaaoaeueiay oaoieea. — 1984. — ?7(165). — N.19-21.

Aa?ueeaaaoe A.I., ?ie A.O. Enneaaeiaaiea ?aaiou iaeiiiuiuo EE ia
iiauoaiiuo /anoioao // Naaoioaoieea. -1983.- ?10. — N.10-11.

Ao?ia I.A., Iaieoieia E.E., ?ie A.O. Caaeeaaiea EE i?e auniei/anoioiii
ieoaiee //Naaoioaoieea.- 1990.- ?2. — N.3-4.

Aaa?eeia I.A., ?ie A.O. Ono?ienoai aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey y?einoe EE. //
Naaoioaoieea. — 1985. — ?8. — N.11-12.

?ie A.O., Ia/eiieeia N.N. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea inaaoeoaeueiuo onoaiiaie. //
Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe e iaaeaaeiinoe nenoai ai?iaeneiai oicyenoaa. Na.
iao/iuo o?oaeia. — E.: 1995. — N.70-73.

A.n. 581821, IEE A 06 A 1/00. Oeueo?acaoeiaie ciiae / A.O.?ie,
A.I.Ei?iethe (NNN?). — ?23880006/18-10; Cayaeaii 12.07.76; Ia i?aeeyaa?
ae?oeoaaiith.

A.n. 936474 NNN?, IEE I 05 A 41/392. Ono?ienoai aeey ieoaiey
aaci?ac?yaeiuo eaii. // I.A.Aaa?eeia,A.O.?ie, I.A.Ao?ia (NNN?). —
2929427/24-07; cayaeaii 26.05.80; iioae. 15.06.82, Athe. ?22. — 4n.

A.n. 944172 NNN?, IEE I 05 A 41/392. Ono?ienoai ?aaoee?iaaiey
iai?yaeaiey iaeaea EE. / I.A.Ao?ia, A.O.?ie e I.A.Aaa?eeia (NNN?). —
?30008512/24-07; cayaeaii 27.11.80; iioae. 15.07.82, Athe. ?26. — 3n.

A.n. 1292211 NNN?, IEE I 05 A 41/23. Iiiaieaiiiaia inaaoeoaeueiia
ono?ienoai / A.O.?ie, I.A.Aaa?eeia (NNN?). — ?3379988/24-07; cayaeaii
7.11.82; iioae. 23.02.87, Athe. ?7. — 3n.

27

A.n. 397837 NNN?, IEE G 01n 29/04. Ono?ienoai aeey niaeaniaaiey
oeueo?acaoeiaiai i?aia?aciaaoaey n eiaeneaeueiie eeieae // A.I.Ei?iethe,
A.O.?ie (NNN?) ?1635848/25-28; Cayaeaii 29.03.71; Iioae. 17.09.73.
Athe.?37. — 2n.

A.n. 1227820 NNN?, IEE A 21 F 9/00. Ono?ienoai aeey ene?icaueou
yeaeo?e/aneeo oeaiae ?oaeie/iiai yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey. /A.I.Eiioeeia,
C.I.Eioaeuenia, A.O.?ie, e ae?. (NNN?). — ?3771122/22-03; cayaeaii
12.07.84; iioae. 30.04.87, Athe. ?16. — 3n.

A.n.1320456 NNN?, IEE A 21 F 9/00, I 02 I 7/00 Ono?ienoai ac?uaicaueou
yeaiaioia ?oaeie/iiai yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey. / A. I. Eiioeeia,
C.I.Eioaeuenia, A.O.?ie,(NNN?) — ?4021453/22-03; cayaeaii 10.02.86;
iioae. 30.06.87, Athe. ?24. — 3n.

A.n. 1469182 NNN?, IEE A 21 F 9/00. A?oiiiaie enoi/iee n
ene?iaaciianiuie auoiaeaie /A.O.?ie, I.A.Ao?ia, C.I.Eioaeuenii(NNN?). —
?4182730/23-03; cayaeaii 14.01.87; iioae. 30.03.89, Athe. ?12.- 4n.

A.n. 1490299 NNN?, IEE A 21 F 9/00. A?oiiiaie enoi/iee ieoaiey n
ene?iaaciianiuie auoiaeaie / A.O.?ie, I.A.Ao?ia, E.E.Iaieoieia,
C.I.Eioaeuenii (NNN?). — ?41822177/23-03; cayaeaii 14.01.87;
iioae.30.06.89, Athe. ?24. — 6n.

Iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae 21645 A IEE I 05 A 41/392. I?eno??e aeey
aeeaeaiiy ?ic?yaeieo eaii / A.O.?ie, TH.A.?ie (Oe?a?ia). ?96124993;
cayaeaii 30.12.96; iioae.06.01.98. — 2n.

.?ie A.O. Eieeeiaa?iia aeonoiiioe/aneia ono?ienoai //EOA.- ?anioae.
iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1998. — ?16. — N.127-128.

?ie A.O. Yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneee aeaoaeoi? A* oi?oaeo aiei // EOA. —
?anioae. iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1998. — ?15. — N.117-119.

?ie A.O. Auniei/oanoaeoaeueiue eiaeeeaoi? A* oi?oaeo aiei // EOA. —
?anioae. iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1998. — ?15. — N.135-137.

?ie A.O. Aeonoiyeaeo?e/aneee iiaeoeyoi? naaoa // EOA. — ?anioae.
iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1998. — ?16. — N.134-136

?ie A.O. Iiauoaiea EIAe eiaa?oi?ia inaaoeoaeueiuo onoaiiaie. // EOA. —
?anioae. iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1997. — ?11. — N.111-113.

28

?ie A.O. I?eiaiaiea auniei/anoioiiai inaauaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiiauaiee. // EOA. — ?anioae. iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1997. —
?10. — N.110-111.

?ie A.O., Ia/eiieeia N.N. Yooaeoeaiinoue inaaoeoaeueiuo onoaiiaie n
iueacio?ainoi?iaoi?aie.// EOA. — ?anioae. iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea,
1996. — ?5. — N.83-85.

?ie A.O. Yeaeo?iiiia ionei?aaoee?othuaa ono?ienoai aeey eaii aunieiai
aeaaeaiey. // EOA. — ?anioae. iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1997. — ?9.
— N.85-86

?ie A.O. Enoi/iee A* ieoaiey aaci?ac?yaeiuo eaii. // EOA. — ?anioae.
iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1997. — ?9. — N.83-84.

?ie A.O. Ac?uaiaaciianiia ionei?aaoee?othuaa ono?ienoai. // EOA. —
?anioae. iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1998. — ?13. — N.100-102.

?ie A.O. Ac?uaiaaciianiue ethieianoeaioiue naaoeeueiee. // EOA. —
?anioae. iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1998. — ?13. — N.93-94.

?ie A.O., Ia/eiieeia N.N. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe iaeo/aoaeueiuo
onoaiiaie. // EOA. — ?anioae. iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1997. — ?7.
— N.42-43.

?ie A.O. Ac?uaiaaciianiay inaaoeoaeueiay onoaiiaea. // EOA. — ?anioae.
iao/ii-oaoi.na. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1997. — ?12. — N. 116-118.

?ie A.O., ?ie TH.A. Aeeiaie/aneia inaauaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee
// EOA . — ?anioae. iao/ii-oaoie/. Na. 1996. — ?6. — N. 81-83.

?ie A.O. Ac?uaiaaciianiue enoi/iee ieoaiey ethieianoeaioiuo
naaoeeueieeia // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. — 1997. — ?10. N. 44-45.

Enneaaeiaaiea iaeeiaeiuo yaeaiee a oaa?aeioaeueiie ieacia. Io/ao i IE?
«?aaeoaa» E?Y IAIO. — Aeai.a AEIEOE ?74046166. — Oa?ueeia., 1976. -69n.

?ac?aaioaoue ac?uaiaaciianioth nenoaio inaauaiey n A?E IAe aeey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee. Io/ao i IE? / OAAAO. — ? ain. ?aaeno?aoeee
?01830005894; Eia.?0288-0014859. — Oa?ueeia., 1985.-50n.

?ie A.O., Ao?ia I.A., Aacoaeue I.A. Caoeiyeaeo?e/aneee yooaeo a aeniooa
// O?oaeu OO1 Ananithciiai niaauaiey ii oeceea ieceeo oaiia?aoo?. Oii 3.
— Oa?ueeia: OOEIO AI ONN?. — 1980. — N. 167-168.

29

?ie A.O., Ia/eiieeia N.N. Iiauoaiea yia?aiyeiiiie/iinoe inaaoeoaeueiuo
onoaiiaie // O?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee «?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea
e yeieiaey i?iiuoeaiiiai ?aaeiia». — Oii 1. — Iaeaaaea: — 1995. — N.
64-65.

Aooa?ei N.E., ?ie A.O. Iaianaiea e eiio?ieue naaoioaoie/aneeo iie?uoee
// O?oaeu Oe?aeineiai aaeooiiiai iauanoaa. — Oii 1. — Eeaa: — 1995. —
N. 289-291.

?ie A.O., Iaieoieia E.E. Auniei/anoioiua naienoaa aaci?ac?yaeiie ieaciu
ieceiai aeaaeaiey // O?oaeu 2-ai iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneiai neiiiceoia
«Aaeooiiua oaoiieiaee e iai?oaeiaaiea». — Oii 2. — Oa?ueeia: OOOE IAIO
— 1998. — N. 151-152.

AIIOAOe?ss

?ie A.O. Iae?i?ei? i?ioeane aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oa i?oaeieo
oaeeue c oaa?aeio?eueiith oa aaci?ic?yaeiith ieaciith. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.03 — ?aae?io?ceea. Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee, Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia iae?i?eiei aeaeo?iaeeiai?/iei i?ioeanai, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoue aca?iiae?th i?oaeieo oa aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue c
iin?yie ca?yaeo. O ieaci? i?ia?aeieo iiiie?enoae?a oa aaci?ic?yaei?e
ieaci? ciaeaeaii e aea/aii ?yae aeaeo?iaeeiai?/ieo aoaeo?a, ia iniia?
yeeo ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeai? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy

ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiai? aca?iiae??, aeaeo?ie?iaoe/ieo
eiao?oe??io?a, no?oeoo?e aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o aeaeo?iiii? i?aenenoaie.
Anoaiiaeaii oiiae oa iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaoai?ci?a
ia?aiao?e/ii? aca?iiae?? ??cieo oei?a oaeeue ?c ieaciith iin??a ca?yaeo,
ui a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeae noai?aiiy aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaeo nenoai iiaiai
iieie?iiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?iiii-oaeeueiaa aca?iiae?y, aeaeo?iaeeiai?/i?
yaeua, iaai?oieaaioia? inoeeeyoe??, ??ai? Eaiaeao, aaci?ic?yaeia ieacia,
aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? iin??a.

30

AIIIOAOeEss

?ie A.O. Iaeeiaeiua i?ioeannu acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo e oi?oaeo
aiei a oaa?aeioaeueiie e aaci?ac?yaeiie ieacia.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.03 — ?aaeeioeceea. Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee, Oa?ueeia,
1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia yenia?eiaioaeueiiio enneaaeiaaieth iaeeiaeiuo
yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneeo i?ioeannia, nii?iaiaeaeathueo acaeiiaeaenoaea
oi?oaeo e yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei n iineoaeyie ca?yaea a ieacia
iieoi?iaiaeieeia, iieoiaoaeeia e iaoaeeia, a oaeaea ieceioaiia?aoo?iie
aaci?ac?yaeiie ieacia. A ieacia oaa?aeuo oae i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniia
enneaaeiaaiea iaoaieciia yeaeo?iiii-aieiiaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey a oneiaeyo
aicaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo oaeoi?ia: oaiia?aoo?u,
eiioeaio?aoeee iineoaeae ca?yaea, yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo iieae e
ii?aaeaeaiu oneiaey iioeiaeueiiai iaiaia yia?aeae iaaeaeo aieiie e
yeaeo?iiiie iiaenenoaiie. Iaia?oaeai e eco/ai ?yae iiauo oece/aneeo
yooaeoia: iiia?a/iue oi?oaiyeaeo?e/aneee yooaeo a ii?iaeueiuo
(iaoioii?iaiaeyueo) iieoi?iaiaeieeao, aeonoiiaaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneee yooaeo
a iiiiiiey?iuo iieoi?iaiaeieeao, yaeaiea oaea/aieyy iineoaeae a iaoaeeao
e iieoiaoaeeao, 2 oeia iaaieoiaeonoe/aneeo inoeeeeyoeee
caoeiyeaeo?e/aneiai oiea a eaaioothuai iaaieoiii iiea. Yenia?eiaioaeueii
iieacaii, /oi aicieeiiaaiea iiia?a/iiai iioaioeeaea a ieacia
iueaciyeaeo?e/aneeo iieoi?iaiaeieeia iaoneiaeaii aiecio?iieae
iueaciyeaeo?e/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, a a ieacia iieoi?iaiaeieeia n
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeaoi?iaoeeiiiui iaoaieciii yeaeo?ii-oiiiiiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey — aeeo?aeoeeiiiui iaoaieciii o?ainoi?iaoeee i?iaeieueiuo
oi?oaeo aiei a «iiia?a/iua», ioiineoaeueii aaeoi?a aaiaeeiie aieiu.
ssaeaiea aeonoiiaaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneiai yooaeoa ioe?uaaao iiaue eeann
«?aca?iniauo» yooaeoia, iaoneiaeaiiuo aeenia?neae ooieoeee
?ani?aaeaeaiey iineoaeae ii yia?aeyi e iicaieyao eco/aoue iaoaieciu
?annayiey eiioeuena e a?aiaia ?aeaenaoeee yeaeo?iiia, a ii aaee/eia e
ciaeo iioaioeeaea iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeyoue i?aaaee?othuee iaoaieci
?annayiey iineoaeae oiea a i?iaiaeieeao e oieeaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue
ecia?youe iaeua a?aiaia aeecie ia?aaiiaaniuo iineoaeae oiea.

31

Iaia?oaeaiiua a i?iaeieueiii e iiia?a/iii iaaieoiii iiea ioiineoaeueii
aaeoi?a aaiaeeiie oi?oaie aieiu a iai?aaeaiee aeaaiuo
e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneeo inae aeaa oeia eaaioiauo inoeeeeyoeee
caoeiyeaeo?e/aneiai oiea, iaoneiaeaiu inoeeeee?othuae caaeneiinoueth
ieaciaiiiai eiyooeoeeaioa iiaeiuaiey aieiu (Aeaaioneea eaaioiaua
inoeeeeyoeee) e ieioiinoe ninoiyiey a eaaioothuai iaaieoiii iiea.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aiieeooaea yenia?eiaioaeueii iaaethaeaaiuo inoeeeeyoeee
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia aaee/eia iiey, a ia?eiae iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ii?aaeaeyaony ?acia?aie yeno?aiaeueiuo na/aiee eciyia?aaoe/aneeo
iiaa?oiinoae iineoaeae oiea, /oi iicaieeei i?aaeeiaeeoue iiaue iaoiae
eco/aiey yia?aaoe/aneiai niaeo?a iineoaeae a ieacia i?iaiaeieeia,
iicaieythuee ii?aaeaeyoue ia oieueei aaiiao?e/aneea ?acia?u e oi?io
iiaa?oiinoae Oa?ie, ii e i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue inoeeeee?othueo eaace/anoeoe
e yeaeo?iiiie eeai aeu?i/iie ciiai.

Iieo/aiiua aiaeeoe/aneea au?aaeaiey aeey oiea oaea/aiey iineoaeae a
aeaaiuo e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneeo iai?aaeaieyo enoiaey ec i?aaenoaaeaiey i
4-o yeeeinieaeiie iiaeaee Oa?ie-iiaa?oiinoe i?iaiaeieea, iicaieytho
ii?aaeaeyoue aeeaae a ?acoeueoe?othuee oie eaaeaeie ec eciyia?aaoe/aneeo
cii, ecia?youe yia?aeth aeaoi?iaoeeiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, eiyooeoeeaio
ieaciaiiiai iiaeiuaiey aiei a ionoonoaea iaaieoiiai iiey, iaoiaeeoue
yeaeo?iiiue aeeaae a iiaeoee oi?oainoe iiiie?enoaeea, q-oaeoi? nieiia
yeaeo?iiia e eo aiecio?iieth, ?aeyoeaenoneea iii?aaee e yia?aee
yeaeo?iiia, niei-i?aeoaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea.

Ia iniiaa ?acoeueoaoia eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey iaeeiaeiuo
yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneeo yaeaiee a ieacia i?iaiaeyueo e?enoaeeia,
?ac?aaioaiu oece/aneea i?eioeeiu nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiuo
yeaeo?iiii-aieiiauo nenoai: oe?ieiiieiniuo aeao/eeia, i?e?iieeia e
aeaoaeoi?ia yia?aaoe/aneeo i?ioeeae oi?oaeo aiei; i?aaeeiaeai iaoiae
eiio?iey no?oeoo?u iiiie?enoaeeia, ?ac?aaioaiu i?eioeeiu aecoaeecaoeee
oi?oaeo aiei a oaa?aeuo oaeao, ecia?aiey aeenneiaoeee yia?aee oi?oaeo
aiei a iiiie?enoaeeao; ?anniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey eieeeiaa?iuo
aeonoiiioe/aneeo ono?ienoa, iiaeoeyoi?ia eceo/aiey EE-aeeaiaciia.

A ?acoeueoaoa eco/aiey A* yeaeo?ioece/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
ieceioaiia?aoo?iie aaci?ac?yaeiie ieaciu onoaiiaeaii aeeyiea /anoiou,
oi?iu

32

iai?yaeaiey e oiea ?ac?yaea ia iniiaiua yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee yeaeo?iieaciaiiuo nenoai. Ii?aaeaeaiu iioeiaeueiua
?aaeeiu e ia?aiao?u, iaania/eaathuea iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei n yeaeo?iiii-eiiiie ieaciie
aaciaiai ?ac?yaea, oeo/oaiea aia?aaoe/aneeo e niaeo?aeueiuo ia?aiao?ia
yeaeo?iieaciaiiuo i?eai?ia. ?ac?aaioaia e aiaae?aia na?ey
yia?aiyeiiiie/iuo A* nenoai, iaania/eaathueo iioeiaeueiua ?aaeeiu
ieaciaiiiai ?ac?yaea aeey ?acee/iuo iaa?ocie e oa?aeoa?a ieoathuaai
iai?yaeaiey n ?acee/iui o?iaiai ooieoeeiiaeueiie e yenieoaoaoeeiiiie
caueuaiiinoe e i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey ?acee/iuo oneiaee yenieoaoaoeee,
aeeth/ay ac?uaiiianiua.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?iiii-aieiiaia acaeiiaeaenoaea,
yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneea yaeaiey, iaaieoieaaioiaua inoeeeeyoeee, o?iaie
Eaiaeao, aaci?ac?yaeiay ieacia, yia?aaoe/aneee niaeo? iineoaeae.

ABSTRACT

Roy V. F. Nonlinear processes of interactions between electromaqnetic
and elastic waves in the solid-state and breakdown plasmas. —
Manuscript.

The disssseertation for the obtain of a science deqree of the doctor of
sciences on speciality 01.03.04 — radiophysical, Kharkov State Technical
University, Kharkov, 1998.

The dissertation is dedicated to the nonlinear electrodynamics processes
that accompany interactions electromaqnetic and elastic waves with
charqe carriers. Was detected

and learned some electrodynamical effects in the plasma of conductionq
monocrystals. These effects were conditioned by different mechanisms of
electrons-phonon interactions. Based on

this were developed efficient methods of the countinq parameters of
electrons-phonon interactions, electro-kinetical coefficient and the
structure of energetic spectrum of wave

subsystem. Also was found methods and conditions to increase
effectiveness mechanism of parametrical interactions of different wave
types with charqe carriers in plasma. This opens new opportunity to
develop electronic-wave systems of the new qeneration.

Key words: electronic-wave interactions, electrodynamics processes,
quantum magnetical oscillation, Landau levels, plasma, energetic
spectrum of charqe carriers.

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