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I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

E?EINUeEEE ?ANIOAEIEAINUeEEE IAeI OICE*IEO

IAOIAeIA EIEOAAIIss OA IAAeE*II? EEIIAOIEIAI? ii.I.I.Na/aiiaa

OAeE.612.217+612.24.656.2-05.2

AAA?EIA Na?a?e Oaaei?iae/

IAAeINOAOIINOUe EIIAeEOeIIIOTH*I? OOIEOeI? AeEOAEUeIIAI

AIA?AOO I?E EAAAIAAI-NA?OeAAEO CAOAI?THAAIIssO

(E?IOA?I?, A?AAeAOeIss, AeIAAIINOEEA, EI?AEOeIss)

14.01.27 – Ioeueiiiieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

sseoa – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o Aeiiaoeueoiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i.I.I.Ai?ueeiai I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Iaoeia? eiinoeueoaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? N?iy/aiei A.A.,
Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aini?oaeueii? oa?ai??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: i?ioani? *oo???iei Iaii?eea Aeieo???aia,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y, caa?aeoaa/ea eaoaae?ith
aioio?oi?o oa?ia c oeeeeii n?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio I?ioethe ?.A., Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, eaoaae?a ooec?ao??? c eo?nii
ioeueiiiieia??, aeioeaio;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, ss?io Ieaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/, E?einueeee
?anioae?eainueeee IAe? o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii?
ee?iaoieia?? ?i.?.I.N?/aiiaa, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a.

I?ia?aeia i?aaiecaoe?y; ?inoeooo ooec?ao??? ? ioeueiiiieia??
?i.O.A.ssiianueeiai aeaaeai?? iaaee/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie,
ee?ieei-ooieoe?iiaeueia a?aeae?eaiiy,i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 03.06.1999?. i 11-00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae53.610.01 a E?einueeiio
?anioae?eainueeiio IAe? o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii?
ee?iaoieia?? ?i.?.I.Na/aiiaa (334203, i.sseoa, aoe.Ioo?ia, 8)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeii iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? E?einnueeiai
?anioae?eainueeiai IAe? o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy oa iaaee/ii?
ee?iaoieia?? ?i.?.I.N?/aiiaa ca aae?anith 334203, i.sseoa, aoe.Ioo?ia,
8.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 29.04.1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

A/aii? ?aaee I’yieia I.O.

Aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaie. O?iii/ii ianiaoeeoi/ii caoai?thaaiiy eaaaiue
(OICE) oa na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie ana aieueoa ?iciioe?ththoueny i ?
aieiaieie a ?yaeo i?e/ei iiai?oaiiy caei?ia’y, oei/aniai?
iai?aoeacaeaoiinoi oa iiaaeiaeicaoei? (I.E.Aoeaoia,1964; A.I.*acia,1982;
I.A.Iooia, I.E.Aoeaoia,1975; I.I.TH?ai?a,1975; I.?.Aaiaeiia,1972;
I.?.Aaiaeiia oa niiaaao.,1982, Ei?eooei I.A., Iaaiia E.A.,1995; Oauaiei
TH.E. oa niiaaao.,1995). Oiio i?iaeaia oaeineiiaeaiiy i ?ic?iaee iiaeo
niiniaia aeiaaiinoeee, iiaeaeuaiiy aooaeoeaiinoi i?ioieaeoeee oa
eieoaaiiy oeeo caoai?thaaiue iaaoaa? iniaeeai? aeooaeueiinoi,
nioeiaeueiiai oa aea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy.

Ineieueee i?e oai?iaao ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii? nenoaie aei iaoieiai/iiai
i?ioeano ia?aeiii aai aoi?eiii caaaeaee caeo/a?oueny aia?ao aeeoaiiy, oi
aei ioeiiee eiai ooieoeiiiaeueiiai noaio aaeathoueny i?e ?eoaii?
aaaaoueio ee?i?/ieo caaea/. Iaeiae i?e oeueiio iaia’yceiaie ioeiioei a
eeiii/iie i?aeoeoei iiaeeyaa? eeoa niaoeeoi/ia —aaciiaiiiia ooieoeiy
aia?aoo aeeoaiiy, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui eiio i?eoaiaiii, ye oea
c’ynoaaeiny a ia?iiae inoaiiueiai aeanyoe?i//y, i ianiaoeeoi/ii ooieoei?
— iaoaaiei/ia, aa?’??ia, oa?ii?aaoeyoi?ia, nae?aoi?ia, aene?aoi?ia,
i/enia, anenia (A.I.Iieioeia, 1970; A.I. Iieioeia, Eoiaei?a TH.I. oa
niiaao., 1985; Aanooaeaaa N.A.,1988, 1995, *o/aeii A.A., Iaaaeaoeeyi
A.I. oa ii., 1985), yei, oi/a e ia aa?ooue aaciina?aaeiuei? o/anoi a
aaciiaiiii, iaeiae caaacia/othoue iaiaoiaeii oiiae aeey eiai
caeieniaiiy.

Iaeii?th ic ieo ? eiiaeeoeiiioth/a ooieoeiy aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo (EOAeA)
— eiai aeanoeainoue noaaieicoaaoe oaiia?aoo?o iiaio?y, ui iaaeoiaeeoue a
aeueaaiee, oiaoi cia?iaaoe eiai aai ioieiaeaeoaaoe iiae /an aeeoaiiy
aa?y/ei iiaio?yi aei iaaiiai, eiinoaioiiai ?iaiy 34,5 — 35,5 °N
(O.O.Aaa?eia i niiaaao.1960-1985;Aei?ioaiei I.I..,1974). I?i ?? noai, ye
i?aaeei, noaeyoue ii oaiia?aoo?i aeueaaiey?iiai iiaio?y, ui
aeaeeoa?oueny (OAIA), a a ia?iiae inoaiiio ?ieia — i ii
iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iiio iieacieeiai ?anii?aoi?ieo oaieiaeo?aoao ia
cia?iaaiiy iiaio?y, yea aaeeoa?oueny, a ia’?ii AE?E, oae caaii?
iaeneiaeueii? eaei?e/ii? ?ieinoi — IE?.

Iaeiae, ?icii aniaeoe i?iaeaie aeiaaiinoeee oa eieueeinii? ioeiiee
iaaeinoaoiinoi aeaii? ooieoei? aei ii/aoeo iaoeo aeineiaeaeaiue acaaaei
ia ?ic?iaeyeeny, a oiio aiaeiiinoi c aeaiiai ieoaiiy ae?ae iaiaaeaii.

Aiaeic i ocaaaeueiaiiy iayaieo o eioa?aoo?i iiai/ieo aeaieo i?i iiaeeeai
iaoiaaiaoe/ii ianeiaeee cieaeaiiy eiiaeeoeiiioth/eo iiaeeeainoae
aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo iieacothoue, ui oea iiaea neoaeeoe ia?oii?e/eiith
neeaaeiiai eaioethaa iaoiaaiaoe/ieo ianeiaeeia, ui ?icaeaathoueny
iineiaeiaii aai iaeii/anii.

Ii-ia?oa, iaaeia?iaaiiy aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei oa?ii/ii?
aeanoaaieicaoei? aaciaiai neeaaeo aeueaaiey?iiai iiaio?y i aei nooo?aeo
ciii a?aaei?ioo I2 oa NI2, ui iiaea ni?e/eieoe ?icaeoie aiia?eaiii?,
aiia?aaioeeyoei? oa aeeaeico (Caeioeiia A.I., 1965; Aaa?eia O.O.,
Iaiyoee A.I.,1964; Aa?ineiia A.I., Aa?iao A.ss.,1988); ii-ae?oaa, ca
?aooiie iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA aiaeaoaa?oueny iaaaeaeaaoia ioieiaeaeaiiy
neeciaeo oa iioeo no?oeoo? (oa?ii?aoeaioi?ia) aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo iinoeaaeo aaciaeeeyoaoi?ieo oa
aacieiino?eeoi?ieo ?aaeoeie i a?iioiniacio, ?aoeaeoi?ii iiaeaeuo?oueny
oiion ei?iia?ieo noaeei, noaeei aieiaiiai iiceo oa oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai
o?aeoo (Bass C.,1986; Freeman L.I.,1985; Nisam M.,1986).

Ana oea ?acii ocyoa ia iiaea ia aiaeaeaaoeny iaaaoeaii ia
i?aoeacaeaoiinoi, noaiiai caei?ia’y oa aaeaioaoeieieo iiaeeeainoyo
i?aaiicio (Aaa?eia O.O.,1982; Aiae???aa A.O.,1974) i ? iaeii?th ic
i?e/ei ui aeeeeea? caoai?thaaiiy, aai oneeaaeith? ?o ia?aaia. Oae, c
iaaeinoaoiinoth EOAeA, oiaoi c iaiaaeaiith caeaoiinoth aeeoaeueiiai
aia?aoo cia?iaaoe /e ioieiaeaeoaaoe aeeoaeueia iiaio?y aeayei aaoi?e
iia’ycothoue aino?? ?anii?aoi?ii caoai?thaaiiy (Aei?ioaiei ?.?.., 1974),
aiaiie (Iaeue/oi A.O.,1988), ?eiioe (A?eyeiaa E.A.,1988), iiaaiiii?,
a?iioioe, o?aoaia?iioioe (Aaa?eeia A.A.,1961), noaiiea?aeith oieiaeiaiai
aaiaco oa oice/iiai coneeey (Eacaaiee E.A. oa niiaaao.,1993),
a?iioiniaci oa a?iioiaeueio anoio (Godphrey,1988), aiiiene/ii oa
aiia?eaiie/ii noaie (Aaa?eia O.O., 1964), aiia?aaioeeyoeieiee neiae?ii,
anoio oice/iiai iai?oaeaiiy (MacFaden E.P.,1986), “iiiee” oa
“iaii?iaeaiiy eaaaiue” i?e aeno?aiaeueieo oaieiaeo oa oieiaeiaeo aieeaao
(Ai?enia A.A., Ea?i A.I.,1986; sseiaeaa A.I.,1990).

Iaaeinoaoiinoue EOAeA, ai?iioa, aeanoeai ?e iaoiaaiaoe/ii ianeiaeee,
iaiaaii aiaaoi a /iio aecia/athoue i neiioiiaoeeo, i ia?aaia oai?ia, ca
yeeo aiia ia? iinoea. Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, EOAeA a oe?ieie eeiii/iie oa
iieieeiii/iie i?aeoeoei acaaaei ia ioeiith?oueny i ia aa?aoueny aei
oaaae iiae /an ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo, ui iiynith?oueny aiaenooiinoth
i?eaeaoiiai aeey i?aeoeee niiniao aeyaeaiiy oa aeeoa?aioeiaeueii?
ioeiiee iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA, ?? e?eoa?ith, a?aaeaoei? (eeaneoieaoei?)
iaaeinoaoiinoi oei?? ooieoei? i iieacieeia, oiaoi ia?aeieo
caoai?thaaiue, i?e yeeo aeioeieueia aeei?enoaiiy niiniao aeey ae?ioaiiy
eeiii/ieo caaaeaiue a ea?aeiiioeueiiiieiai/iee i?aeoeoei, a aieiaia
—aiaenooiinoth niaoeiaeueii?, ui aeiocea?oueny na?ieii
iiaaiioa?iieaei?eiao?e/ii? aia?aoo?e. Ia onoiaiiy oeeo oa iioeo i?iaieia
c aeaii? i?iaeaie i ni?yiiaaia iaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: iiaeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiinoi ooieoeiiiaeueii? aeiaaiinoeee, eieoaaiiy e i?ioieaeoeee
eaaaiaai-na?oeaaeo caoai?thaaiue ca ?aooiie ?ic?iaee e?eoa?ith, niiniao
aeiaaiinoeee oa ioeiiee ae?aaeaiinoi iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA oa ??
ei?aeoei?.

Caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy:

1.?ic?iaeoe niinia aeiaaiinoeee iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA, ?? e?eoa?ie oa
a?aaeaoeith (eeaneoieaoeith) aeey iiaeeaiaeoaeueii? ioeiiee ??
ae?aaeaiinoi a oe?ieie eeiii/iie i?aeoeoei.

2.Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?ic?iaeaiee niinia, aea/eoe /anoioo i ae?aaeaiinoue
iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA na?aae oai?eo, eio?i no?aaeaeathoue ia eaaaiaai oa
na?oeaai-noaeeiii caoai?thaaiiy, i, oaeei /eiii, c’ynoaaoe eiai
aoaeoeaiinoue aeey oeeo oeieae.

3.C’ynoaaoe ?ieue ii?ooaiue aa?i- oa aaiiaeeiaiiee o oi?ioaaiii
iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA oeyoii aea/aiiy ei?aeyoeieieo aca?iiaiaeiioaiue ??
e?eoa?ith c ooieoeiiiaeueieie iieacieeaie ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii? nenoaie.

4.Ioeiieoe aoaeoeaiinoue niiniao aeiaaiinoeee iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA oa
eiai e?eoa?ith aeey ioeiiee ?acoeueoao?a eieoaaiiy eaaaiaai-na?oeaaeo
caoai?thaaiue oa ei?aeoei? EOAeA.

5.?ic?iaeoe i?eioeeiiai aeie-noaie aeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a aeey aieueo
oi/ii? ia’?eoeaii? ?a?no?aoei? iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/ieo iieacieeia oa
e?eoa?ith iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA, cieaeaiiy o?oaeiiinoeinoi i?ioeaaeo?e
aeineiaeaeaiiy i iiaeaethaaiiy EOAeA.

6.?ic?iaeoe ia caiiio oanoo PWC170 aaciaaaioaaeoaaeueiee oano aeey
eieueeinii? ioeiiee oice/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiinoi i ca eiai aeiiiiiaith
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?? noai i?e aea/aieo caoai?thaaiiyo
ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii? nenoaie. Oea caaaeaiiy aoei iinoaaeaia oaea a oiaei
aeineiaeaeaiue, ui i?iaiaeeeeny.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeany ye naiinoieii o?aaiaioe ?ic?iaethaaieo o
Aeiiaoeueeiio iaaee/iiio iinoeoooi iiae ea?iaieoeoaii i?io. Aaa?eiaa
O.O. oaeeo eiiieaenieo oai:

1.”Aea/aiiy eiiaeeoeiiioth/i? ooieoei? aia?aoo aeeoaiiy i?e
ooieoeiiiaeueii-iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo i?iaao a ii?ii i iaoieiai? aeey
?ic?iaee aieueo aoaeoeaiiai iiaaiioa?iiiao?e/iiai niiniao
ooieoeiiiaeueii? aeiaaiinoeee (aiaeiiaiaeaeueiee aeeiiaaaoeue —
e.i.i.N.O.Aaa?eia). C i?iaeaie AeEIO N 23 0012.81; nithcii? i?iaeaie-N
23.01 oa ?anioaeieainueei? N 23 ia 1981-1985 ?.?. Aea?ae?a?no?aoeiy N
81063307.

2.”?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee iiaaiioa?iieaei?iiao?e/iii ioeiiee
ooieoeiiiaeueiiai noaio ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii? nenoaie i oeyoia ??
aeei?enoaiiy iiae /an i?ioiaeyaeia i?aoeiaieeia eieiiioeaieo a?eaaae oa
a eeiii/iie i?aeoeoei” — aini-aeiaiai?ia oaia (aiaeiiaiaeaeueiee
aeeiiaaaoeue — e.i.i. Aaa?eia N.O.) c nithcii? i?iaeaie N 23-01 oa
?anioaeieainueei? N 03 ia 1980-1982 ?.?., ?a?no?aoeieiee N 80067380.

3.”Oaeineaiaeaiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaee/ieo iniia iiaaiieaei?eiao?i?
aeey oeieae aeni?an-aeiaaiinoeee iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA i?e ?aaiaoe/ieo
caoai?thaaiiyo oa OICE, ioeiiea i i?iaiicoaaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi
aieeioa?iaeioa?aii? (aiaeiiaiaeaeueiee aeeiiaaaoeue — e.i.i.
N.O.Aaa?eia), iiaeoaia eiiieaenii? oaie “Aaeaioeaii ?aaeoei? i?aaiicio
oa ?o ?ieue a oa?aiii ?aaiaoi?aeiiai a?o?eoo” (ea?iaiee i?io.
A.A.Neiy/aiei), ui ?ic?iaeyeany ca eiiieaeniei ieaiii IIC O?N? ia
1986-1990 ?.?. A.I. 2502.86:25.03 ?aaiaoeci.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeany c 1980 ii 1985 ?. ia eaoaae?i ii?iaeueii?
oiciieiai? (caa.— i?io.A.I.Eacaeia) oa iaeaniie eeiiioei
i?iocaoai?thaaiue (aieiaiee eiea?ue — I.Ae. Oaooai), c 1986 ii 1998 ?.
ia eeiii/iie aaci ( iinueea ioeueiiiieiai/ia aiaeaeieaiiy— caa. A.O.
A?a/ei) eaoaae?e aini?oaeueii? oa?ai?? (caa. — i?io.A.O.Aaooo?i).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy
iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA ye ?aciiaeaeiinoi iaoieiai?, nooue yei? iieyaa? a
iaiaaeaiii ooieoeiiiaeueieo (oaieiaaiieo i oieiaeiaaiieo) iiaeeeainoae
aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo (AeA) ye aiieiai/iiai eiiaeeoeiiia?a, ui
i?iyaey?oueny iaaeia?iaaiiyi aeaeeooaaiiai iiaio?y oa nei?i/aiiyi
?anii?aoi?ieo oaieiaeo?ao ia cia?iaaiiy aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y a ia’?ii
aeeoo?ai? ?ieino? eaaai?a (AE?E), i iaceaa?oueny iaeneiaeueiith
eaei?e/iith ?ieinoth (IE?) aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo.

Aeey aeiaaiinoeee iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA cai?iiiiiaaii i?eaiiaeueiee
niaoeeoi/iee e?eoa?ie — iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee iiaeaen (IEI), yeee yaey?
niaith aiaeiioaiiy ?icieoei iiae oaeoe/iith i iaiaoiaeiith aaee/eiith
IE? e iaiaoiaeiie aaee/eii, a %%, i aiaeia?aaea? nooiiiue iaaeinoaoiinoi
EOAeA o %.

Aia?oa onoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoeieii aca?iica’ycee iiae e?eoa?i?i
iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA — IEI oa ?icieie nii?iiao?e/ieie, aaiiaeeiaii/ieie
i a?aiiao?e/ieie iieacieeaie oice/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiinoi (OI) oai?eo,
?ic?iaeaii aaciaaaioaaeoaaeueiee, iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee niinia
eieueeinii? ioeiiee OI.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Ia iiaenoaai ocaaaeueiaiiy eioa?aoo?ieo i
aeanieo aeaieo noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA i
iiaeeeainoue ?? aeieeiaiiy i?e eaaaiaai-na?oeaaeo caoai?thaaiiyo oa ??
iaoiaaiaoe/ii ianeiaeee.

Onoaiiaeaii caeaaeiinoue iaaeinoaoiinoi aeaii? ooieoei? aiae noaio aa?i
—oa aaiiaeeiaiiee i, cia/eoue, aaeaeaaoiinoue ?? e?eoa?ith ye
iioaa?aoeaiiai iieacieea ooieoeiiiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae
ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii? nenoaie a oeieiio.

Iaa?oioiaaia i?e/aiiinoue aei eiiaeeoeiioaaiiy aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y ia
oieueee aeeoaeueieo oeyoia, ye oea aoei i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe ?aiioa, a e
a?iioiiei-aeueaaiey?iiai aiaeaeieo.

I?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue ?iaioe. C iaoith aeei?enoaiiy a oe?ieie eeiii/iie
i?aeoeoei ?ic?iaeaii i?eaiiaeueiee iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee niinia
aeiaaiinoeee oa eieueeinii? ioeiiee o?ueio nooiaiia iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA
c ia?inoath/ith ?? ae?aaeaiinoth — I1, I2, I3 oa aiaenooiinoi ?? I0.

Aia?oa i?aaenoaaeaii ii?iaiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA
o oai?eo ia neeieic, aio?aeic, aio?aeineeieic, o?iii/iee a?iioio,
a?iioiaeueio anoio, iioa?eo iiiea?aea, ?aaiiea?aeeo oa aiia?oiii/io
oai?iao. Iieacaii iiaeeeainoue ei?aeoei? iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeia eieoaaiiy, yei canoiniaothoueny a eeiii/iie
i?aeoeoei, oa i?yio caeaaeiinoue ae?aaeaiinoi aiaeoai?aiiy iieacieeia
aiae ?acoeueoaoeaiinoi eieoaaiiy.

Aeey ?aaeicaoei? niiniao ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeiiao noaio
iiaaiioa?iieaei?eiao?e/ii? aeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e, aoaeiao iiaeaei
aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo aeey aeaiiino?aoei? iaoaiicio eiiaeeoeiiioaaiiy
aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y e ?iei a oeueiio eaaaiaai? aaiiaeeiaiiee, iaoiaeeeo
oa aeai?eoi iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iiai ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo c i?ia?aiith eiai
eiii’thoa?iiai caaacia/aiiy.

Aeey aeei?enoaiiy a iaaee/iie i?aeoeoei ?ic?iaeaii e aeaeaii o
niiaaaoi?noai:

1.Iaoiaee/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? uiaei iiaaiioa?iieaei?eiao?e/ii? ioeiiee
eiiaeeoeiiioth/ith ooieoei? aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo.-Aeiiaoeuee, 1982.-21
n.

2. Iiaaiioa?iieaei?eiao?e/iee niinia aeeoa?aioeiaeueii? ioeiiee eii
aeeoeiiioth/i? ooieoei? aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo: Iaoiae.
?aeiiaiaeaoei?.-Aeiiaoeuee, 1985.-8 n.

3.Niiniae ioeiiee eiiaeeoeiiioth/i? ooieoei? aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo:
Iaoiae. ?aeiiaiaeaoei?.-Aeiiaoeuee, 1985.-3 n.

4.Iaoiaee/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? uiaei iiaeaethaaiiy oa ioeiiee
eiiaeeoeiiioth/i? ooieoei? aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioeani
(Aeey aeeeaaea/ia).-Ee?a: ?IE IIC O?N?.-1987.-12 n.

5.Eiii’thoa?ia aeiaaiinoeea oaeoi?ia ?eceeo o?iii/ieo ianiaoeeoi/ieo
caoai?thaaiue eaaaiue: Iioi?iaoeieiee eeno.-Aeiiaoeuee, 1995.-1 n.

6.Iiaeaeue aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo aeey iiaeaethaaiiy eiiaeeoeiiioth/i?
ooieoei? aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo a iaoeiaiio oa iaa/aeueiiio i?ioeani
iaaee/ieo iinoeoooia oa oiiaa?neoaoia (A.N. N 1358932. Ioe?uoey e
ecia?aoaiey NNN?.-1987, N 46).

7.I?eeaae aeey ?a?no?aoei? eaei?eiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?ia aeeoaiiy (A.N. N
1223064. Ioe?uoey e ecia?aoaiey NNN?.-1986,N 13).

8.I?eeaae aeey aeii?thaaiiy oa?iiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?ia aeeoaiiy (A.N.
N 1052217. Ioe?uoey e ecia?aoaiey NNN?.-1986, N 41).

Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1.Iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee niinia aeiaaiinoeee oa aeeoa?aioeieii? ioeiiee
eieueeiniiai ae?aaeaiiy iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA aeeth/a? ?? e?eoa?ie —
iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee iiaeaen (IEI) e a?aaeaoeith iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA.

2.Caoeuaiee o?ueiia aaoi?nueeeie iinaiae/aiiyie ia aeiaoiaee, oaeee, ui
ia ia? aiaeiaia, iiaaiieaei?eiao? oa eiii’thoa?ia i?ia?aia iiaaiieaei
?eiao?e/iiai ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo caaacia/othoue ?ic?aooiie oaeoe/ieo oa
iaeaaeieo iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?ia aeeoaiiy, ?o o?eaaea
aeaeo?iiia caa?iaaiiy, aeaea/o caeeth/aiiy i?i nooiiiue ae?aaeaiinoi
iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA a ?aaeueiiio ianooaao /ano.

3.Iaaeinoaoiinoue aeeoaiiy oa e?iaiaiao a?athoue nooo?ao ?ieue a
eiiaeeoeiiioaaiii aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y, ui i?iyaey?oueny a oiniie
ei?aeyoei? oa niieo/aiinoi IEI c iniiaieie ooieoeiiiaeueieie iieacieeaie
ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii? nenoaie, nooiaiai eaaaiaai? oa na?oeaai?
iaaeinoaoiinoi, a cieaeaiii eiiaeeoeiiioth/eo iiaeeeainoae aeeoaeueiiai
aia?aoo i?e ii?ooaiii aa?i- oa aaiiaeeiaiiee a iiaeaeueieo
aeineiaeaeaiiyo i?e aiii- e aiia?aieai?? a aenia?eiaioi ia oaa?eiao.

4.Aeyaeaii aenieo /anoioo iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA i?e oai?iaao i?aaiia
aeeoaiiy (iiaaiieiiiice oaooa?ia, o?iii/iee a?iioio, a?iioiaeueia anoia)
oa e?iaiaiao (ION, ?aaiiea?aeeo, aiia?oiii/ia oai?iaa), a ??
ae?aaeaiinoue aecia/a?oueny iicieiai?th, iniaeeainoyie ia?aaiao,
noaaei?th caoai?thaaiiy.

5.Iiaaieaei?eiao?e/iee niinia aoaeoeaiee ia eeoa aeey aeyaeaiiy oa
aeeoa?aioeieii? ioeiiee ae?aaeaiinoi iaaeinoaoiino? EOAeA (IEOAeA ), a e
aeey iiia?aaeiuei? ioeiiee ooieoeiiiaeueiiai noaio oa iiaeeeainoae
ea?aeii?acii?aoi?ii? nenoaie a oeieiio: aeey ioeiiee ?acoeueoaoia
eieoaaiiy oai?eo i ei?aeoei? EOAeA, a oaeiae eieueeinii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaeneiaeueii? oice/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiinoi o oai?eo aaciaaaioaaeoaaeueiei
niiniaii.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iia?aeiieyeeny ia 13 c’?caeao oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa?iaeaie aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii 39 ?ia?o: 10
iaeiiin?aieo ?ia?o a iaoeiai-iaaee/ieo aeo?iaeao Oe?a?ie, 1 — ?inn?? ? 6
— o ni?aaoi?noa?, 3 aeiao?aee.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny ic anooio,
aeaae iaeyaeo eioa?aoo?e, iaoiaee/ii? aeaae, 6 aeaa aeanieo
aeineiaeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy oa ca-aaeueieo aeniiaeia, iieaae/eea
aeei?enoaieo eioa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, na?aae yeeo 244 aio/eciyieo oa 70
iiicaiieo aaoi?ia. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 272 noi?iieao ae?oeiaaiiai
oaenoo, iinoeoue 46 oaaeeoeue, 29 iaethieia i aeiaeaoei.

CI?NO ?IAIOECI?NO ?IAIOE

Caaaeueia iaoiaeieia?y ?iaioe, iaoa??aee, caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
e?eoaaiiy. 1.EOAeA ioeiithaaeany iiaaiioa?iieaei?eiao?e/ii — ca
oaiia?aoo?ith aeaeeooaaiiai aeueaaiey?iiai iiaio?y (OAAI), ui
oa?aeoa?eco? eiioeaaee ?acoeueoao eiiaeeoeiiioaaiiy aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y
i ca IE? (iaeneiaeueiith eaei?e/iith ?ieinoth), oiaoi ca eieueeinoth
?anii?aoi?ieo oaieiaeo?ao ia cia?iaaiiy aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y a ia’?ii
AE?E, ui aiaeaeaa? aia?aaoe/io (oiciieiai/io) aa?oinoue
eiiaeeoeiiioaaiiy aeaiiai ia’?io iiaio?y. IE? anoaiiaethaaeany ca a?aeii
i?yiiai niiniao ?? ?a?no?aoei? ?ic?aooieiaei niiniaii ca oi?ioeith:
IE?=1,3*0,24*AE?E*?O (1), aea IE? —eieueeinoue oaiea, a eae; 1,3 — aaaa
1 e iiaio?y, a a; 0,24 — na?aaeiy ieoiia oaiei?ieinoue iiaio?y, a
eae/a*a?aae; AE?E — aeeoo?aa ?ieinoue eaaaiue, a e; ?O — nooiiiue
cia?iaaiiy aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y, ui ae?aaea?oueny ?icieoeath iiae OAAI i
oaiia?aoo?ith aaeeooaaiiai iiaio?y (iiaio?yiiai na?aaeiaeua).

Oa?iiiao?e/ii ia?aiao?e (OAAI, oaiia?aoo?a aaeeooaaiiai iiaio?y)
oa AE?E aecia/aeeny ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai niaoeiaeueii aeey oeeo
oeieae iiaaiioa?iinii?iiao?a (Aaa?eia O.O., Aaa?eia N.O., 1986),
iniauaiiai oa?iinoi?iaei “Aeao/eeii Aaa?eiaa aeey aeii?thaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e aeaeeooaaiiai aeueaaiey?iiai iiaio?y” (A.N. N974998.
Ioe?uoey e ecia?aoaiey NNN?.-1982, N 43).

Iiaaiioa?iieaei?eiao?e/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy caaaeaee i?iaiaeeeiny a
iaeei i oie aea /an i?ioyaii aeiae (a?aioei), iaoua, a iaeiiio i oiio
ae iieiaeaiii oiea (noiy/e), iiney iiia?aaeiueiai iino?oeoaaeo, ui
aeeth/aa i iaa/aiiy ianoaaeoaaiiai iini-?ioiaiio aeeoaiith oa
i?euaieaiiy iaae/ie uieueii ioiiethaaoe iaaiae ioiaeoooea oa?iiaeao/eea
aoaaie c iaoith aeeeth/aiiy iiaenenaiiy iiaio?y iiae /an aaeeoaiiy /a?ac
iin. ?a?no?aoeiy OAAI i?iaiaeeeany iaeii/anii c ?a?no?aoei?th AE?E,
oiaoi ia aenioi iaeneiaeueiiai aeaeeoaiiy.

Iaea?aeaii oaeei /eiii iiaaiioa?iieaei?eiao?e/ii iieacieee
niianoaaeyeeny c ?o iaeaaeieie ci cia/aiiyie, i?eioeeie anoaiiaeaiiy
yeeo aoee ?ic?iaeaii iaie a iiia?aaeiie ?iaioi (N.O.Aaa?eia,1979).
Iaeaaeii cia/aiiy IE? (AeIE?) ?ic?aoiaoaaeeny iiaeeaiaeoaeueii aeey
eiaeii? inoaaeoaaii? iniae ca oi?ioeith AeIE?=AeAE?E*?O*0,31, (2), aea
AeIE? — iaeaaeia iaeneiaeueia eaei?e/ia ?ieinoue, a eae; AeAE?E —
iaeaaeia aeeoo?aa ?ieinoue eaaaiue,a e;??O — ?icieoey iiae iaeaaeiith
aaee/eiith oaiia?aoo?e aeaeeooaaiiai aeueaaiey?iiai iiaio?y oa
iaaeieeoiueith oaiia?aoo?ith, a ?N; 0,31 — eiaoioei?io, ui
aiaeiia?aaea? ieoiio oaiei?ieinoue iiaio?y, a eae/*a*a?aae.

IAE?E a nenoaii AO?S ?ic?aoiaoaaeany ca oi?ioeith Ananithciiai IAeI
ioeueiiiieiai?: IAE?E=0.052*P-0.029*B-3.2 aeey /ieiaieia;

IAE?E=0.049*P-0.19*B-3.9 (3) aeey aeiiie, aea ?— c?ino
ianoaaeoaaiiai,ni; A — aie, a ?ieao. Niianoaaeaiiy oaeoe/ieo cia/aiue
OAAI oa IE? c io iaeaaeieie aaee/eiaie aeaaaei iiaeeeainoue noaeeoe
i?i noai EOAeA eiie?aoii o ianoaaeoaaii? iniae.

2.Ioeiiea ciaiioiueiai aeeoaiiy caeienithaaeany ca aeiiiiiaith
nii?ia?aoa Iaoaoano-1 . I?e oeueiio aecia/aeeny AE?E i ?? eiiiiiaioe —
AeI, ?Iaeae, CIE (caeeoeiaee ia’?i eaaaiue), C?E (caaaeueia ?ieinoue
eaaaiue) oa AEI — aeeoo?aee iieaciee, a oaeiae IAe, *Ae i ?aca?a
aeeoaiiy (IAE-OIAe), oano Oiooii, IOaeae, IOaae, ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie
iaoiaeeeaie (A.N. Aio/ae, I.A.Iaaacaiee, 1965; I.A.Aeaaoy?ueia, A.Ae.
Oanin, 1970; A.A. Aeaiai, O.I. Oaieaeoe, 1975; I.A. Ee?thoii, 1979; I.I.
Eaia?a, 1975). Nooiiiue ?ano?eeoeaieo ii?ooaiue aecia/aany ca
niiaaiaeiioaiiyi AE?E/IAE?E, a iano?oeoeaieo — IOaeae/AE?E, ui aea?
iiaeeeainoue ca niaoeiaeueiith aeiaa?aiith aecia/aoe iayaiinoue,
oi?io i nooiiiue aaioeeyoeieii? iaaeinoaoiinoi (A.I.Iaaaeaoeeyi, A.
Ia?ii, 1977; E.Oee oa ii.,1980; I.A. ?onae,A.I. *a?ieoeueeee,1970).

3.Na?oeaai-noaeeiia nenoaia ioeiithaaeany aeaeo?iea?aeiia?aoi/ii o
niiei? i i?e aaeia?aiiao?e/iiio iaaaioaaeaiii ia aaeia?aiiao?i
Ee?anueeiai caaiaeo iaaeoaoiiee c /anoioith iaaeaethaaiiy 60/oa
i?ioyaii 5 oaeeei i?e caaaeueiie iiooaeiinoi ?iaioe, yea aeeiio?oueny,
100 ao. Oeaio?aeueia aaiiaeeiaiiea — iaoiaeii oao?aiiey?ii? ?aia?oi?
ca aeiiiiiaith ?aiieaoeciia?aoa ?IA-2-02 oa 4-o eaiaeueiiai
aeaeo?iea?aeiia?aoa ca Eoai/aeii o iiaeeoieaoei? Iooea?y
(TH.O.Iooea?,A.I.Aieueoia oa ii., 1977) c aecia/aiiyi oaea?iiai (OI) oa
oaeeeiiiai ia’?io e?iai (OIE), a ie, c iiaaethaaiiyi iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo
eieeaaiue, coiiaeaieo ?icaiaeiinoyie a c?inoi oa iani oiea, oeyoii
aecia/aiiy na?oeaaiai iiaeaeno — NI (I.A. Aoiaea??a,
TH.O.Iooea?,1983). Ie?ii oeueiai, ia?aeaeueii c ?a?no?aoei?th /anoioe
ioeueno (*I), a?oa?iaeueiiai oeneo (AO) oa OAAI i?iaiaeeeeny eeiii/ii
i?iae — i?oinoaoe/ia, eeiiinoaoe/ia, c cao?eieith aeeoaiiy ia aaeini, c
oice/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi, caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie a eeiii/iie i?aeoeoei
iaoiaeaie i i?iaith c aaeeoaiiyi oieiaeiiai iiaio?y.

4.Aeineiaeaeaiiyie ioiieaii caaaeii 776 oai?eo c iaoieiai?th i?aaiia
aeeoaiiy oa e?iaiiaiao. Aeiaaiic onoaiiaethaaany ia iiaenoaai
eeiii/ieo, ?aioaaiieiai/ieo oa eaai?aoi?ieo aeaieo, a oaeiae
niaoeiaeueieo ooieoeiiiaeueieo oa iino?oiaioaeueieo iaoiaeia
aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Eiio?ieai neoaeeea a?oia ic 346 i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo inia aiaeiai/iiai
aieo (aiae 20 aei 50 ?ieia), yei iiae /an i?ioiaeyaeo i a aeaiue
ianoaaeaiiy ia aeneiaethaaee iiyeeo nea?a i aaaaeaee naaa caei?iaeie
ethaeueie.

A?oia oai?eo ia iiaaiieiiiic neeaaeaeany ic 318 inia. Aeiaaiic
iiaaiieiiiica oa eiai ?iciiaeaee onoaiiaethaaany c a?aooaaiiyi
i?ioia?o?ooo, aeaieo ia’?eoeaiiai ianoaaeaiiy, a oaeiae eaai?aoi?ieo,
ooieoeiiiaeueieo iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiiy c iaia’yceiaith
?aioaaiia?aoi?th, a ca iaiaoiaeiinoth — i oiiia?aoi?th.

I?e onoaiiaeaiii aoiiiaoiaaiaoe/ieo ?iciiaeaeiinoae iiaaiieiiiico
—neeieico, aio?aeico oa aio?aei-neeieico aeei?enoiaoaaeany
caaaeueiii?eeiyoa “Eeaneoieaoeiy iiaaiieiiiicia” (1971). Aiaeiai/iei
/eiii onoaiiaethaaany aeiaaiic o?iii/iiai a?iioioo o 63 oai?eo.

A?oia oai?eo ia a?iioiaeueio anoio neeaaeaeany ic 52 inia c oeiiaei
ia?aaiaii caoai?thaaiiy. Oai?i c noiooiiie caiaeueieie caoai?thaaiiyie
(iiaaiiii?, a?iioiaeoace, aanoeane) aeeeth/aeeny c iaaeyaeo. O
ia?aaaaeii? aieueoinoi oai?eo — 86 % aiaeii/aeany
iioaeoeieii-aea?ai/ia, o 14 %— aoiii/ia oi?ia a?iioiaeueii? anoie.
O?eaaeinoue caoai?thaaiiy eieeaaeany aiae 3 iinyoeia aei 20 ?ieia.

Oai?eo ia ION ianoaaeaii 170 inia aieii aiae 40 aei 70 ?ieia. O 42 inia
a i?ioeani eeiii/iiai (aeeth/ath/e iieoiee ?ioca) oa iino?oiaioaeueiiai
(aaeia?aiiao?e/iiai) ianoaaeaiue aoei aeyaeaii noaiiea?aeith iai?oaeaiiy
I-II ooieoeiiiaeueiiai eeano. O 41—iioa?eo iiiea?aea a aino?iio
ia?iiaei, o 43—a iiaeaino?iio, o 44—iioa?eo iiiea?aea a ia?iiaei
?oaoethaaiiy.

Oai?i ia ?aaiiea?aeeo neeaaeaee a?oio ic 71 iniae c?ieiai aieo, ic ieo
30 % aeiiie oa 70 % /ieiaieia. Aeiaaiic onoaiiaethaaany oaeiae ia
iiaenoaai eaai?aoi?ieo eeiii/ieo, ?aioaaiieiai/ieo,
aeaeo?iea?aeeia?aoi/ieo oa eaai?aoi?ieo aeineiaeaeaiue.

Ia iiaenoaai iaea?aeaieo aeaieo a onio oai?eo aoei aeiaaiinoiaaii
a?eiaee ?aaiiea?aeeo I ? II nooiaiy aeoeaiino? c ??cieie ii?ieaie
eeaiaiia. Iaeiae i?e aiaeici oaeoe/iiai iaoa?iaeo ?iciiaeaeiinoi
ii?ieia ia a?aoiaoaaeeny, ineieueee oaeiai ?iaeo aeineiaeaeaiiy ?aiioa
aaea i?iaiaeeeeny (Aei?ioaiei I.I., 1973 ).

Iiae iaaeyaeii ia?aaoaaee 82 oai?eo ia aiia?oiii/io oai?iao I-II
noaaeie, ic ieo 60 % aeiiie, 40 % /ieiaieia c?ieiai aieo. Aeiaaiic
onoaiiaethaaany ia iiaenoaai caaaeueii-i?eeiyoeo iaoiaeia
aeineiaeaeaiiy. Oni oai?i iiaaiioa?iieaei?eiao?i/iiio ianoaaeaiith
iiaeeyaaee ia iaioa 2 ?acia — ia iiiaio iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei eeiiiee oa
iiae /an aeienee, ui neeaei aeecueei 3104 /eneiaeo cia/aiue OAAI, IE?,
IEI. C a?aooaaiiyi iioeo ooieoeiiiaeueieo iieacieeia
ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii? nenoaie caaaeii iaoaiaoe/ii ia?iaeaii iiiaae 20000
oeeo?iaeo aaee/ei.

Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae noaoenoe/ii ia?iaeyany c ae/eneaiiyi na?aaei?o
a??oiaoe/ieo aaee/ei oa ?o iiieeie, ai?iaiaeiinoi ?icaiaeiinoae ca
eiaoioei?ioii t Nouethaeaioa, iaia?aiao?e/iiai e?eoa?ith iioi?iaoeaiinoi
Eoeueaaea, a /anoeio eiai iiaeaeaii ei?aeyoeieii-?aa?aneaiiio aiaeico.
?ic?aooiie ?iaeany ca aeiiiiiaith IAI- niieueiiai eiii’thoa?a,
oi?ioaaeany aaca aeaieo oeio dbf, iiaeoei oeio aoa eiiiieithaaeeny ca
aeiiiiiaith iiae Clipper Summer 87″ (I.I.Nooia,1994).

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

1.Iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee niinia aeiaaiinoeee iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA
1.Iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee niinia aeiaaiinoeee iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA

?ic?iaea niiniao aacoaaeany ia aea/aiii oa ioeiioei oaiei- i
oieiaeiaaiieo aeanoeainoae aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo, ui aecia/aee eiai
eiiaeeoeiiioth/i iiaeeeainoi ca ?icieo oiia oa noaiia.

Ca e?eoa?ie iaaeinoaoiinoi aoei ia?aii oae caaiee iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee
iiaeaen IEI. Ia?aeiieie iieacieeaie EOAeA i?e onoaiiaeaiii eiai aaee/eie
neoaeeee cia/aiiy AE?E, yei o ianoaaeoaaieo oai?eo oa?aeoa?ecoaaee
?ieinii iiaeeeainoi aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo, oiaoi ia’?i iaa?iaath/iai
iiaio?y oa nooiiiue eiai cia?iaaiiy ?OAAI, ui aiaeaeaa? oaieiaaiii
iiaeeeainoi aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo. C ?o aeei?enoaiiyi ca oi?ioeith (1)
aecia/aeany iaeneiaeueia eiei?e/ia ?ieinoue IE?. C iaoith aeeeth/aiiy
aieeao ia ia? aio?iiiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?ia — noaoi, aieo, iane oiea
ianoaaeoaaieo inia onoaiiaethaaeany ?? iaeaaeia aaee/eia IE?.

A i?ioeani aeei?enoaiiy ciaeaeaieo ?o cia/aiue onoaiiaethaaany
iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee iiaeaen IEI ca oi?ioeith:
IEI=(IE?-IIE?)*100/IIE? (4). Ia aiaeiiio aiae IE?,yea oa?aeoa?eco?
iaeneiaeueii eiiaeeoeiiioth/i iiaeeeainoi aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo, IEI
aiaeia?aaea? nooiiiue (a % %) ae?aaeaiinoi iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA.

Ineieueee nooiinoue i i?ecia/aiiy aeaii? ooieoei? caiaeeoueny aei
noaaieicaoei? oaieiaienoo, a, cia/eoue, i OAAI ia oiciieiai/ii
eiinoaioiiio ?iaii, IEI ye?ac i oa?aeoa?eco? noai ?anii?aoi?iiai
oaieiiaiiio i aenooia?, cia/eoue, a yeinoi niaoeeoi/iiai e?eoa?ith
noaio EOAeA oa ae?aaeaiinoi ?? iaaeinoaoiinoi.

A aeineiaeaeaiiyo c iaoaiaoe/iei iiaeaethaaiiyi ia i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo
oa oai?eo aoei aeyaeaii ?yae aaaeeeaeo aeey oai?i? i eeiii/ii? i?aeoeee
aeanoeainoae IEI. Aeyaeeiny, ui aii ia? /ioeo ae?aaeaio
iioaa?aoeaiinoue, oiaoi noia?ii ae?aaea? ?anii?aoi?ii oaieiaeo?aoe,
coiiaeaii ye aaioeeyoeieieie, oae i oaieiaaiieie iiaeeeainoyie
aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo, i oiio, i?e ciiiaiii AE?E oa OAAI ia iaeio i oo
ae aaee/eio (%) iiae aieeaii ?icieo oaeoi?ia oa caoai?thaaiue aoaeo
ciiiaiiy (cieaeaiiy) ?anii?aoi?ieo oaieiaeo?ao IE? c?inoa? a 1,6—1,8
?aca i, oaeei /eiii, c?inoa? ia oaeo aaee/eio aeiaaiinoe/ia
iioi?iaoeaiinoue IEI aeey aeyaeaiiy e ioeiiee iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA.

A oeeo aea aeine?aeaeaiiyo c on??th ae?aci?noth i?iyaeeany caeiiii??ia
caeaaei?noue oaieiai?noo aeaeeooaaiiai iia?o?y a?ae eiai ia’?io ?
nooiaiy eiai c?a??aaiiy. Oae, i?e ca?eueoaii? ia’?io aeeoaeueiiai
iia?o?y, oiaoi aeeaeie aeeoaiiy c 0,2 aei 0,5 oa 3,2 e, oaiei?ie?noue
c?inoaea, a?aeiia?aeii, c 0.7 ? 0.1 eae aei 2.3 ? 0.1 eae ? aei 15.3?
1.3 eae, a OAAI c 34.2 ? 0.04 aei 34.6 ? 0.06 oa 35.4 ? 0.3?N. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui eiiaeeoe?iioaaiiy iia?o?y a?aeaoaa?oueny ia eeoa o
aa?oi?o aeeoaeueieo oeyoao, ye aaaaeaeiny ?ai?oa, a i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ? a
eaaaiyo (I.A.A?eyeia oa ni?aaao., 1988). Noaey/e ii eiao?oe??ioao
ei?aeyoei?, IEI oinii ei?aeth? c oaeeie oaeoi?aie-a?aoiaioaie ye aie
(-0.28 ± 0.07), c?ino (0,71 ± 0,15), ieiua iiaa?oii oiea (0.16 ± 0,05)
i noaoue (0.12 ± 0.04). Oea aeeeoo? iaiaoiaeiinoue a?aooaaiiy i?e
iiaaiieaei?eiao?i? aaae, aieo e noaoi ianoaaeoaaieo inia, a oaeiae
noaiaea?oecaoei? oiia, a yeeo i?iaiaeeoueny aeineiaeaeaiiy. IEI ia?
aeineoue aenieo aeiaaiicoe/io /ooeeainoue: aii ?aaao? (ciiith?oueny)
iaaioue ia oaei ei?ioei/anii oa iiii?ii ca iioaineaiinoth aieeae ia
i?aaiici, yeeie ? eeiii/ii ooieoeiiiaeueii-iaaaioaaeoaaeueii i?iae. Oea
i?iyaeeiny a ?iciie ni?yiiaaiinoi oa ae?aaeaiinoi ciiiao OAAI iiae ?o
aieeaii. Cieaeaiiy OAAI aiaeii/aii o aeaeyaei oaiaeaioei? iiae aieeaii
i?oinoaoe/ii? i?iae — ia 0.3 ± 0.02 °N, i ae?acii oa noaoenoe/ii ai?i
aiaeii (P I > -2S , oiaoi i?e
IEI aiae -14 aei -29.9 %; ae?aaeaia I2 a aeiaiaciii -2S > I > -3S ,
oiaoi i?e IEI aiae -30 aei -45 %; cia/ia I3 a aeiaiaciii I 0.7) c oaeeie ia’?iii-?ieinieie ye ?aae oa ?aeae, AE?E,
C?E, IIE/C?E; c aaioeeyoeieieie — IAE, ?Ae, AEI, a c iieacieeia
a?iioiaeueii? i?ioiaeiinoi — eeoa c Ioaeae.. O oai?eo ia ?aaiiea?aeeo
IEI aeia?a ei?aeth? c aeineoue iaioei /eneii nii?iiao?e/ieo
iieacieeia i c iaioith oiniioith ei?aeyoei? ii?iaiyii c ?o ei?aeyoei?th
o oai?eo ia a?iioiaeueio anoio; aea c aieueoith oiniioith ii?iaiyii c
a?oiith i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo inia. C oeueiai aeoiea?, ui ei?aeyoeiy IEI
?icoe?y?oueny i c?inoa? i?e eaaaiaai-na?oeaaeo caoai?thaaiiyo i aii a
aieueoie ii?i aiaeaeaa? ciiie EOAeA, coiiaeaii ia?aaaaeii ii?ooaiiyi
aaioeeyoeieii? ooieoei? aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo, ?? iiaeeeainoae.

Ua c aieueoith ae?aaeaiinoth IEI ei?aeth? c iieacieeaie oeaio?aeueii?
aaiiaeeiaiiee a a?oii oai?eo (n=54) c iaaeinoaoiinoth e?iaiiaiao. sseui
a a?oii i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo inia (n=50) eiaoioei?io ei?aeyoei? — IEI c
OI neeaaeaa 0.06, c NI—0.13, c OIE—0.23 i eeoa c *NN—0.39, oi a a?oii
oai?eo c iaaeinoaoiinoth e?iaiiaiao eiaoioei?io ei?aeyoei? aeaieo
iieacieeia c IEI caieueoeany a 2-10 ?acia, aeinyaath/e 0.56 (aeey OI).
Oaea caieueoaiiy oiniinoe ei?aeyoei? IEI c iieacieeaie
ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii? nenoaie iiae aieeaii caoai?thaaiiy oa
iaaeinoaoiinoi e?iaiiaiao aeaco? ia i?e/aiiinoue aei ?icaeoeo
iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA ii?ooaiue aa?i-oa aaiiaeeiaiiee.

Ii?yae c oeei, niinoa?iaaeany i /ioei ae?aaeaia niieo/aiinoue
ciiiaiue IEI, oiaoi iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA c aieueoinoth c 30-e
nii?iiao?e/ieo iieacieeia ciaiioiueiai aeeoaiiy, 6-a
ea?aeiiaaiiaeeiaii/ieie , a oaeiae c ae?aaeaiinoth iaaeinoaoiinoi
e?iaiiaiao i aeeoaiiy. I?e ia?inoaiii inoaiiio o oai?eo ia a?iioiaeueio
anoio oa ?aaiiea?aeeo i?ia?aneaii onoaoaeyeany iaaeinoaoiinoue EOAeA,
oiaoi c?inoaa ?? nooiiiue. Oea naiae/eoue i?i i?e/aiiinoue, aeoeaio
?ieue aa?i-aaiiaeeiaiiee aei iaoaiiciia oi?ioaaiiy iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA
i ?? ae?aaeaiinoi i?e ?icieo eaaaiaai-na?oeaaeo caoai?thaaiiyo oa ?o
?iciiaeaeao.

Caeaaeiinoue eiiaeeoeiiioth/eo iiaeeeainoae aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo
i?iyaeyeany oaeiae a aeineiaeaeaiiyo c iiaeaethaaiiyi EOAeA ca
aeiiiiiaith caaaeaii? aeua iiaeaei aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo i a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiiyo. Ca?eueoaiiy ia’?io iiaio?y, ui
iaaeoiaeeoue aei iiaeaei, oiaoi ci caieueoaiiyi ?? aaioeeyoei?, ye i
cieaeaiiy oaieiaaiieo iiaeeeainoae ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy ia?ooci?
iiioaoi?a o?aoaia?iioiaeueiiai o?aeoo oa eaaaiue ?iaeeiith, iiiooth/ith
e?ia, noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e “aeaeeooaaiiiai” iiaio?y
ia 1-2 °N, a i?e i?ioeeaaeieo i?ioeanao aiia, iaaiaee, iiaeaeuoaaeany.

A ieaii c’ynoaaiiy ?iei eaaaiaai? aaiiaeeiaiiee a eiiaeeoeiiioaaiii
aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y ia iaoo i?iiiceoeith oa o/anoth eaiae. iaae.
iaoe A.A.Niio?iaei aoee i?iaaaeaii aino?i aeineiaee ia 5 aacii?iaeieo
niaaeao aaaith aiae 9 aei 14 ea c aenia?eiaioaeueieie ciiiaie uiaei
e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy iaeiai eiea oeyoii iiaeaethaaiiy aeaio noaiia —
aiiiaieaii? oa aiia?aieaii?. Aiiiaieaiiy noai?thaaeany caoaeaiiyi
i?inaioo a?oa?iaeueiiai eaaaiaaiai noiaao?a ia 40-50 %, a aii?aaieaiiy —
caoaeaiiyi iaeii?? aai aeaio eaaaiaaeo aai.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a oiiaao ooo/iiai aeeoaiiy ia oiii
aaenaiaeiaiai ia?eico i?e aioo?ioiueiaaiiiio /e aioo?ioiuei/a?aaiiio
eiai aaaaeaiii c ?ic?aooieo 70 ia/ea c aeiaeaaaiiyi iiaeaei aoi?o /a?ac
iiooaaoeieio o?oaeo. OAAI aeii?thaaeany aeaeo?ioa?iiiao?ii c
oa?iinoi?iaei iiaaiioa?iiaeao/eeii ia aeoiaei iiooaaoeieii? o?oaee
o?ieieea, aaaaeaiiai a o?aoath, a aioo?ioiuei-na?oeaaa oaiia?aoo?a —
aaaaeaiiyi aieeiaiai oa?iinoi?iaiai oa?iiaeao/eea a na?oea /a?ac ?ic?ic
i?aaiai aooea. Aeii?thaaeany oaeiae i oaiia?aoo?a aaeeooaaiiai iiaio?y,
oiaoi na?aaeiaeua.

Aiaeic iaea?aeaieo aeaieo iieacaa ui aiiiaieaiiy ye i aiia?aieaiiy a
iieiio eiei i?e iaeiaeiaie oaiia?aoo?i e?iai (35.8 ? 36.2 °C a ?icieo
aeineiaeao) oa oaiia?aoo?i aaeeooaaiiai iiaio?y 22 ? 24 °N
i?ecaiaeeoue aei /ioei ae?aaeaiiai cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aeaeeooaaiiai
iiaio?y a ?icieo aeineiaeao ia 1.0 ? 1.5 °N. Iiney ii?iaeicaoei?
e?iaiiaiao OAAI iiaa?oaeany i?aeoe/ii aei ii/aoeiaeo aaee/ei.
Cia/eoue, i aiiiaieaiiy, i aiia?aieaiiy iaeiai eiea e?iaiiaiao
coiiaeththoue cieaeaiiy eiiaeeoeiiioth/eo iiaeeeainoae aeeoaeueiiai
aia?aoo, ui naiae/eoue i?i i?e/aiiinoue aei eiiaeeoeiiioaaiiy
aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y ia eeoa oeaio?aeueii?, a e eaaaiaai? aaiiaeeiaiiee.

Aeyaeaii caeiiiii?iinoi ?iciioe?aiinoi i ae?aaeaiinoi iaaeinoaoiinoi
EOAeA, niieo/aiinoi ciii oa ei?aeyoei? ooieoeiiiaeueieo iieacieeia
ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii? nenoaie aeathoue oyaeaiiy i?i oa, /iio oaei ?icii
ca iicieiai?th caoai?thaaiiy ye iiaaiieiiiic, a?iioio, a?iioiaeueia
anoia oa ION, ?aaiiea?aeeo oa aiia?oiii/ia oai?iaa aeeeeeathoue, ii
nooi, iaeiioeiii, oi/a e ?icii? ae?aaeaiinoi, ciiie EOAeA — ??
iaaeinoaoiinoue.

Eioa?aoo?ii i aeanii aeaii aeicaieythoue aaaaeaoe, ui eiiaeeoeiiioth/i
aeanoeainoi i iiaeeeainoi aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo aecia/athoueny,
i?eiaeiii, o?ueiia iniiaieie eiai ii?oiooieoeiiiaeueieie ia?aiao?aie:
1) ?icii?ii (ieiuath) eiiaeeoeiiioth/eo iiaa?oiae aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo,
eiioaeooth/eo c aeeoaeueiei iiaio?yi; 2) oaiia?aoo?ith oeeo iiaa?oiae,
yea caeaaeeoue ye aiae aaiiaeeiaii/ii? aeinoaaee aei ieo oaiea aiae
“na?oeaaeie” oiea, oae i aeanii? oaieii?iaeoeoei? ?? no?oeoo?;
3)eieueeinoth iiaio?y, ui eiiaeeoeiiio?oueny, i yea aecia/a?oueny
ia’?iii-?ieinieie oa aaioeeyoeieieie ia?aiao?aie. Naia oei no?oeoo?e
caeo/athoueny aei iaoieiai/iiai i?ioeano i caciathoue ciii i?e
eaaaiaai-na?oeaaeo caoai?thaaiiyo, yei neoaeeee i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy a
iaoeo aeineiaeaeaiiyo.

Oae, iiaaiieiiiic, noi?iaiaeaeoth/enue oia?iciei ia?a?iaeaeaiiyi
eaaaiaai? oeaieie, ?icaeoeii aoceeeiaeo aeeth/aiue, i?ecaiaeeoue aei
nei?i/aiiy ooieoeiiiaeueii? aeoeaiinoi iiaa?oii eaaaiue, oie ieiui, yea
aa?a o/anoue a eiiaeeoeiiioaaiii aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y. I?i oea
naiae/aoue ciiie nii?iiao?e/ieo iieacieeia (AE?E, IAE?E, IIAE oiui),
yei niinoa?iaaeeny o oai?eo ia eaaaiaai oai?iae a iaoeo
aeineiaeaeaiiyo i a aeineiaeaeaiiyo aaaaoueio iioeo aaoi?ia
(A.I.Iaaaeaoeeyi, 1960, 1967; I.N. Oiaeaea?, 1958, 1966; S.E. Motley,
1950; F.L.Navratil, 1965,1967).

Ii?yae ci nei?i/aiiyi ia?aioiie eaaaiue, a, cia/eoue, i ?o /anoee aeiei
a eiiaeeoeiiioaaiii aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y, eaaaiaai caoai?thaaiiy —
iiaaiieiiiic, o?iii/iee a?iioio i, iniaeeai, a?iioiaeueia anoia,
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ua e a?iioiniaciii, yeee inoioii ciiith?
aaioeeyoeith ie?aieo naaiaioia i aeieae eaaaiue (i?e iaoo?aoeieiiio
aai iano?oeoeaieo oeiao ?iceaaeiaiue aeeoaiiy), iniaeeai ia ii/aoeiaeo
noaaeiyo ?icaeoeo oia?ico. A iaoeo aeineiaeaeaiiyo oea i?iyaeyeiny o
ciiiaiii niiaaiaeiioaiiy iiae ?ieinii-aaioeeyoeieieie (AE?E, IAE
oiui) i iieacieeaie a?iioiaeueii? i?ioiaeiinoi (IOaeae., IAO ) c ?o
iaeaaeieie cia/aiiyie, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c eioa?aoo?ieie aeaieie i,
ye i?aaeei, ?icoeiith?oueny ye i?iya niieo/iiai aai eiiaiiiaaiiai
oeio aaioeeyoeieii? iaaeinoaoiinoi (A.I.Iaaaeaoeeyi, 1967, A.?.
Ethaiioae?ia, Ia?ii I.I., 1969; I.A.Ei?eooei, E.A.Iaaiia, 1995).Oea,
i?e?iaeii, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai ia’?io
aeaeeooaaiiai iiaio?y, i, cia/eoue, aei cieaeaiiy eieueeinoi oaiea,
iaiaoiaeiiai aeey eiai cia?iaaiiy aei eiinoaioiiai aiiainoaoe/iiai ?iaiy
oa ciaioaiiy IEI, oiaoi caieueoaiiy ae?aaeaiinoi iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA.

Ua a eeane/ieo ?iaioao eeiiioeenoia oa oiciieiaia ieioeiai noieiooy
(A.A.Aeiia?aaeia,1861; I.I.N?/aiia,1866; N.I.Aioeii,1867;
I.I.Iaaeia,1877) aoei iieacaii, ui oaiia?aoo?a ?icieo i?aaiia i oeaiei,
a oiio /enei eaaaiue oa iioeo i?aaiia aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo
aecia/a?oueny, ianaiia?aae, nooiaiai e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy, noaiii oiiono oa
i?inaioo iinoa/ath/eo ?o noaeei.

?iceaaeiaiiy aaiiaeeiaiiee ye iaoaiicio aeinoaaee oaiea aei
ii?oi-ooieoeiiiaeueieo no?oeoo?, yei aa?ooue o/anoue a eiiaeeoeiiioaaiii
aeeoaeueiiai iiaio?y, a iaoeo aeineiaeaeaiiyo i?iyaeyeiny niieo/aiinoth
ae?aaeaiinoi iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA c ae?aaeaiinoth iaaeinoaoiinoi
e?iaiiaiao oa iineeaiiyi ei?aeyoeieieo ca’yceia c i? ooieoeiiiaeueieo
iieacieeia c IE?, a oaeiae i?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ii?ooaiii
aaiiaeeiaiiee a iaeiio eiei e?iaiiaiao, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ?iaioaie
aaaaoueio aaoi?ia, yei aiaeii/aee aeaiee aeae ?iceaaeiaiue
e?iaiiinoa/aiiy i i?e eaaaiaaeo i na?oeaai-noaeeiieo caoai?thaaiiyo
(A.I.Aio/ae, I.A.Iaaacaiee,1965).

Iaiaaii, naia nooiaiai ii?ooaiiy ooieoeiiioaaiiy no?oeoo?,
aaciina?aaeith eiioaeooth/eo c aeeoaeueiei iiaio?yi i nooiaiai
?iceaaeiaiue aa?i-i aaiiaeeiaiiee iiynith?oueny ?icia ae?aaeaiinoue
iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA i?e ?icieo iicieiai/ieo oi?iao eaaaiaai-na?oeaaeo
caoai?thaaiue, ui i?iyaey?oueny ciaioaiiyi e?eoa?ith iaaeinoaoiinoi
oei?? ooieoei? —iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iiai iiaeaeno. Aeeeaaeaii oaeoe
naiae/aoue i?i nooo?ao ?ieue o aaiaci iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA ii?ooaiiy
aca?iica’yceia eiai aa?i-aaiiaeeiaii/ieo i?ioeania, aeioeieueiinoi
aeei?enoaiiy IEI a yeinoi aeiaeaoeiaiai iioaa?aeueiiai iieacieea ye aeey
ioeiiee ooieoeiiiaeueiiai noaio i iiaeeeainoae ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii?
nenoaie, oae i iaeneiaeueii? oice/ii? i?aoeacaeaiinoi o oai?eo
aaciaaaioaaeoaaeueiei iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iei niiniaii.

5.Iaaeinoaoiinoue EOAeA oa oice/ia i?aoeacaeaoiinoue oai?eo ia
eaaaiaai-na?oeaai caoai?thaaiiy5.Iaaeinoaoiinoue EOAeA oa oice/ia
i?aoeacaeaoiinoue oai?eo ia eaaaiaai-na?oeaai caoai?thaaiiy

Iioa?an eeiiioeenoia aei oice/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiinooi (OI) coiiaeaiee oei,
ui c ?? ciiiaiiyie iia’ycothoue ?icaeoie ?yaeo caoai?thaaiue oa
ia?aaeiaoieiai/ieo noaiia: aiia?oaicith oa iaeioa?oth/ee aiaea?oa?iio
(U.P.Larsen,1966), aeiaaao, a?iioiaeueio anoio, aioicaio eaaaiue
(Z.F.Pyorolaetal, 1968; F.D.Rutentrans, 1968; W.C.Kzal,1969), aieue o
nieii i einoeao inia, caeiyoeo “neaey/ith ?iaioith” (A.I. Aoeee, 1990).

Aecia/aiiy OI iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy aeey ?? eieueeinii? ioeioeee
a?aiiao?e/ieo oanoia c iaeneiaeueieie aeey aeaii? ethaeeie oice/ieie
iaaaioaaeaiiyie, ui aeeiiothoueny aei iiyae a?aie/ii? aoiie aai aei
iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiai caieueoaiiy aaeeoeo eenith /e iaeneiaeueii
aeiionoeiiai i?enei?aiiy na?oeaaeo nei?i/aiue (P.O.Astrand,1972;
R.I.Shepard, C.H.Veese, I.B.Merritan,1971; G.N.Malleroviz,1981), oiaoi
iinoyoue aeayeee aeaiaio ?eceeo aeey caei?ia’y ianoaaeoaaiiai
(J.R.Zoman, R.E.Phillips,1973; A.I.Iaaaeaoeeyi,1981), nooo?ai
c?inoath/iai i?e aecia/aiii OI o oai?eo ethaeae. Oiio a eeiii/iie,
aieiaiei /eiii, o ea?aeiieiai/iie i?aeoeoei, ca aeiiiiiaith
iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo oanoia aecia/a?oueny ia naia OI, a oae caaia
“oiea?aioiinoue”, nooiiiue aeo?eaaeinoi aei oice/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue
?aaeaiaioiaaii? iioaineaiinoi (E.I.Iiia?aioeaa,1974; E.I.Iiia?aioeaa i
niiaaao.,1975; Aecye A.I.,1979; Aieeia A.N., Naiaii?eiaa O.E.,1980;
I?aaa?nueeee A.I.,1981; ?iciaa I.E. oa ni?aaao.,1972; Eoiaiia A.I.,1975;
I?aaa?nuee?e A.I.,1985). Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui ia?aaeaa/aii
a?aiiao?e/ii oanoe oice/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiinoi oai?eie acaaaei, i
iniaeeai, oeie eio?i no?aaeaeathoue ia eaaaiaai oa na?oeaai-noaeeiii
caoai?thaaiiy, aaaeei ia?aiinyoueny aai ae acaaaei ia ia?aiinyoueny i
i?ioeiieacaii. Oiio ?? noai i?e ?icieo caoai?thaaiiyo, a oiio /enei
eaaaiaai-na?oeaaeo a oe?ieie eeiii/iie i?aeoeoei ye i?aaeei ia
ioeiith?oueny, /a?ac ui ao?a/a?oueny aaeueieoeiiia iioi?iaoeiy, oaea
iaiaoiaeia aeey ae?ioaiiy caaaeaiue ic iaeanoi aeiaaiinoeee,
i?iaiicoaaiiy, ioeiiee aoaeoeaiinoi ?aaaieioaoei? oa eieoaaiiy oai?eo, a
oaeiae nioeiaeueieo caaaeaiue — ia’?eoeaicaoei? oa iiaeaeuaiiy
?acoeueoaoeaiinoi aenia?oece i?aoeacaeaoiinoi, anoaiiaeaiiy nooiaiy
iiaaeiaeecaoei? oiui.

Oiio anoaiiaeoe aca?iica’ycee iiae iaaeinoaoiinoth EOAeA oa oice/iith
i?aoeacaeaoiinoth i ?? noaiii o oai?eo ia eaaaiaai-na?oeaai
caoai?thaaiiy aoei ia iiaeeeai o ca’yceo c aiaenooiinoth
aaciaaaioaaeoaaeueiiai niiniao ?? ioeiiee o oai?eo. ?ic?iaeo oaeiai
niiniao aoei ?icii/aoi ci c’ynoaaiiy aca?iica’yceia iiae iieacieeii
EOAeA—IE? oa OI.

Ia iiaenoaai aea/aiiy ei?aeyoeieieo aca?iica’yceia c iieacieeaie
inoaiiuei? ca oanoii PWC170 o caei?iaeo inia (n=25) oa
ei?aeyoeieii-?aa?aneaiiai aiaeico iaea?aeaieo aeaieo aeaaaeaii oi?ioeo,
yea aiaeaeaa? anoaiiaeaio caeaaeiinoue: OI = 59.9 * IE? +33, aea
OI—oice/ia i?aoeacaeaoiinoue, a eai/oa; IE?—iaeneiaeueia eaei?e/ia
?ieinoue a eae. A ?acoeueoaoi ?? aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii iiiia?aio aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy oice/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiinoi ca IE? ye iniiaii? neeaaeiai?
iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iiai iiaeaeno IEI.Iiieeea ioeiiee OI iiaaii
eaei?eiao?e/iei aaciaaaioaaeoaaeueiei niiniaii a ii?iaiyiii c ??
aecia/aiiyi ca oanoii PWC170 ia ia?aaeuo?, a na?aaeiueiio ± 7 %.

Ioeiithth/e ca aeiiiiiaith iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iiai niiniao oice/io
i?aoeacaeaoiinoue caei?iaeo aieii 35-45 ?ieia inia (n=25), aeyaeeiny, ui
aiia (ioeiiea) eieeaa?oueny aiae 690 aei 1400 eai/oa, neeaaeath/e a
na?aaeiueiio 1143 eai/oa aai aiae 113 aei 229 ao, a a na?aaeiueiio—184
ao. Oea i?aeoe/ii aiaeiiaiaea?, o anyeiio ?aci, aiae/ooii ia
aiae?iciy?oueny aiae oice/ii? i?aoeacaeaoiinoi nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aoeiaieeia — ?ieueieeia, oaa?eiieeia, iia?aoi?ia OAN oa ?o iiii/ieeia,
o yeeo aiia eieeaa?oueny aeae 230 ± 6.2 aei 275 ± 6.6 ao (A.I.
Iaaaeao?eyi oa niiaaao.,1986), ai?ie/eo ?yooaaeueieeia, o yeeo aiia a
na?aaeiueiio neeaaea? 179 ± 30 ao (Aeaae?oaaa E.A.,1995), nii?oniaiia
?icieo niaoeiaeicaoeie, o yeeo aiia eieeaa?oueny o aeiaiaciii 1044-1760
eai/oa c oanoii PWC170 (Ea?iiai A.E. oa niiaaao.,1969).

sse iieacaee iaoi aeineiaeaeaiiy, i?aoeacaeaoiinoue oai?eo ia
eaaaiaai-na?oeaai caoai?thaaiiy, ui ioeiith?oueny aaciaaaioaaeoaaeueiei
iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iei niiniaii, eieeaa?oueny i?e ?icieo iicieiai/ieo
oi?iao aiae 470 eai/oa i?e a?iioiaeueiie anoii aei 800 eai/oa o oai?eo
ia iiaaiieiiiic, oiaoi cieaeo?oueny ia 50 % i?e a?iioiaeueiie anoii, ia
10 % i?e iiaaiieiiiici, ia 15 % i?e o?iii/iiio a?iioioi, ia 30 % a
caaaeueiie a?oii oai?eo ia ION oa ?aaiiea?aeeo.

Cieaeaiiy oiea?aioiinoi aei oice/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e
eaaaiaai-na?oeaaeo caoai?thaaiiyo aiaeii/aii aaaaoueia aaoi?aie, aea a
iaoeo aeineiaeaeaiiyo aia?oa iieacaii iiaeeeainoue oa aoaeoeaiinoue
ia yeinii?, a eieueeinii? ioeiiee OI acaaaei, i aieiaia — ciii ??
a?aaeaiinoi iiae aieeaii oeo /e iioeo caoai?thaaiue. Oeei naiei
noai?ththoueny iaiaoiaeii oiiae aeey aieueo oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy
a?aiiao?i? a eeiiioei aioo?ioiio oai?ia, a oaeiae a iieieeiii/ieo
oiiaao, iniaeeai i?e aenia?oeci i?aoeacaeaoiinoi, eiee eieueeinia
ioeiiea iaaoaa? iniaeeai? oeiiiinoi, ineieueee ni?ey? ia’?eoeaicaoei?
aoaeoeaiinoi eieoaaiiy,anoaiiaeaiiy nooiaiy ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiinoi oa
iiaaeiaeecaoei?.

C i?aaenoaaeaieo aeaieo noa? i/aaeaeiei aca?iica’ycie oice/ii?
i?aoeacaeaoiinoi oa iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA, a oaeiae iiaeeeainoue
ioeiiee OI o inia c eaaaiaaeie oa na?oeaai-noaeeiieie caoai?thaaiiyie ca
aeiiiiiaith aaciaaai oaaeoaaeueiiai iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iiai niiniao.

6.Aoaeoeaiinoue iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iiai niiniao aeey ioeiiee
?acoeueoaoia eieoaaiiy oai?eo 6.Aoaeoeaiinoue iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iiai
niiniao aeey ioeiiee ?acoeueoaoia eieoaaiiy oai?eo

Ae?ioaiiy aeaiiai caaaeaiiy caeienithaaeiny ia i?eeeaaei eieoaaiiy
oai?eo ia iiaaiieiiiic oa ?aaiiea?aeeo, i?e/iio ia onio oai?eo, a oeo,
yei ca aeiiiiiaith iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iiai iaoiaeo ianoaaeoaaeeny aeai/i
— ia iiiaio iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei noaoeiiia?o i a ia?iiae aeienee.

Aei aeai?ie aeeth/aeeny eeoa oai?i c /ioei ae?aaeaiith iaaeinoaoiinoth
EOAeA, oiaoi iaaeinoaoiinoth I2 oa I3. ?? noai ioeiithaaany aeaiyei: ca
ciiiaie iiae aieeaii eieoaaiiy iiaaiioa?iinii?ieaei?eiao?e/ieo
iieacieeia IE?, OAAI, AE?E, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoue eiiaeeoeiiioth/i
iiaeeeainoi aeeoaeueiiai aia?aoo oa ca iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iei iiaeaenii
— IEI, oa?aeoa?iei iieacieeii ae?aaeaiinoi nooiaiy iaaeinoaoiinoi
EOAeA. Oaeee iaoiaee/iee iiaeoiae ni?eya c’ynoaaiith iniiaiiai ieoaiiy
— /e iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny iiaaiieaei?eiao?e/iee iiaeaen, oiaoi
e?eoa?ie iaaeinoaoiinoi EOAeA aeey ioeiiee aoaeoeaiinoi eieoaaiiy
oai?eo c eaaaiaai-na?oeaaith iaoieiai?th.

Ie?ii oeueiai, ia i?eeeaaei oai?eo ia iiaaiieiiiic oa ?aaiiea?aeeo
aea/aeeny oaeiae aca?iica’ycee IEI c ?acoeueoaoeaiinoth eieoaaiiy ca
i?eeiyoith a eeiii/iie i?aeoeoei iaoiaeeeith ioeiiee ?acoeueoaoeaiinoi
(aoaeoeaiinoi) eieoaaiiy, cai?iiiiiaaii? I.I.Iaco?ii (1965) aaeueiith
nenoaiith: iieiioaiiyi, iacia/iei iieiioaiiyi, aac ciii, iiai?oaiiyi
noaio caei?ia’y. I?e oeueiio a?aoiaoaaeany aeeiaiiea eeiii/ieo i?iyaia
caoai?thaaiiy, iieacieee ooieoeiiiaeueiiai noaio ea?aeii?anii?aoi?ii?
nenoaie, ?aioaaiieiai/ii oa eaai?aoi?ii aeaii, noa’?eoeaia aeoiea
naiiai oai?iai i?i aoaeoeaiinoue i?iaaaeaiiai eieoaaiiy.

C onio ianoaaeoaaieo oai?eo ia iiaaiieiiiic (n=318) aei a?oie aea/aiiy
aoaeoeaiinoi eieoaaiiy aoei aeeth/aii eeoa 100 inia c /ioei
ae?aaeaiith ca IEI iaaeinoaoiinoth EOAeA—I2 oa I3 ca ?aooiie
cieaeaiiy ioeiithaaieo ii IE? oa OAAI, eiai ye oaieiaaiieo
aeanoeainoae (a na?aaeiueiio ia 21 % i?e ?

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