CAII??CUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

N??ee Na?oeaia A?eoi??aia

OAeE 808.3 — 541.2 + 801.311.152

IACAE AeI??A A OE?A?INUeE?E IIA?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa

A a o i ? a o a ? a oaeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiyeaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

CAII??AEAEss – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*aaaiaiei A?eoi? Aioiiiae/,

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaeaoiee Aieiaeeie? Naiaiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ii?ic Aaeaioeia sse?aia,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? iiae,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Aeiiaoeuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “9“ a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 10.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 17.051.02 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe o
Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

330600, i. Caii??aeaey, aoe. AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?i. ??, aoae.230.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:

330600, i. Caii??aeaey, aoe. AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?i. ??.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_9_” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oii’ye O.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

?icaeoie no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iineeaiei ?ioa?anii aei naiaioe/ieo iniaeeainoae eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue.
C’yaeeinue /eiaei i?aoeue, ui noinothoueny oai?aoe/ieo canaae aea/aiiy
naiaioeee neiaa (A.A. Aeyo/oe, E.I. Ionoia?o, ?.A. Ea?i?eianueea,
E.A. Eene/aiei, ?.O. Naa/aiei), a oaeiae ie?aieo naiaioe/ieo a?oi ne?a
(A.A.Ao?y/ie, I.A.Aa?aaa, A.I. Aeiiee, A.I. Ai?ieie/, A.I. E?eoaiei).
Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia oea, i?iaeaie nenoaiieo a?aeiioaiue o iaaeao
eaeneei–naiaioe/ii? a?oie (ENA), i?iaeaie naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e neiaa ?
ci?i o i?e aeey oe?a?inueei? e?iaa?noeee ana ua caeeoathoueny
aeooaeueieie. Oae, cie?aia, iaaeine?aeaeaiith ? ENA iaca aei??a. A
oe?a?i?noeoe? iaia? ie?aieo niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue, o yeeo ae a iiaiiio
ianyc? ?icaeyaeaeany naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a iaca aei??a. O oeueiio aniaeo?
oaaao a/aieo i?eaa?oaee eeoa ie?ai?, /anoeia? ieoaiiy; eaeneoe? ia
iicia/aiiy oeyo?a niieo/aiiy i?enay/ai? iiiaeeiie? noaoo?, a oaeiae
i?eiaa?aei? caoaaaeaiiy (iai?eeeaae, Ae/ei C.I. Iacae noaaeee a
oe?a?inuee?e iia? // I?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?aeaeoii? eaeneee oa
o?acaieia?? oe?a?inueei? iiae. Oace aeiiia?aeae.— Oaeai?iae, 1978.—
N.5–6.; Oae/aiei A.Ae. *oiaoeueeee oeyo // Eoeueoo?a neiaa:
?anioae?eainueeee i?aea?aeii/ee ca??iee.— E., 1990.— Aei.38.— N.60–61.).
Iacae aei??a noaiiaeyoue aaaaoo naiaioe/io i?e?inenoaio, ui caeia?
i?ia?aeia i?noea o iii?iaoeai?e nenoai? oe?a?inueei? iiae. Oa? eaeneee,
ui iaceaa? oeyoe niieo/aiiy, uiaei aeaaiino? iioiaeaeaiiy ? no?eeino?
noi?oue ia iaeiiio c ia?oeo i?noeue o ?yae? ?ioeo oaiaoe/ieo a?oi. Iacae
aei??a iathoue aeiaao ? neeaaeio ?noi??th, yea iia’ycaia c ?icaeoeii
noni?euenoaa, aaeaea a iniia? eaene/iiai cia/aiiy neiaa eaaeeoue
?noi?e/ii cae??ieaia a na?aeiiino? ethaeae ni?aa?aeiini?noue neiaa c
iaaiei yaeuai ae?eniino?.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe coiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noth nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaaeaii? naiaioe/ii? a?oie ne?a ia aac? iaeneiaeueii iiaiiai oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo, aac /iai ia iiaeia niiae?aaoeny ia aeinoia??io
eaeneei–naiaioe/io ea?oeio no?oeoo?e oe?a?inueei? iiae.

Aea/aiiy ??cieo oa??a eaeneee ni?ey? caaaa/aiith e?iaa?noe/ii? oai??? oa
eaeneeia?ao?/ii? i?aeoeee, a oaeiae oi?ioaaiith iaoiai oyaeaiiy i?i
iiaio iiaeaeue na?oo. Inue /iio naia caa?iaiiy aei eaeneee ia iicia/aiiy
aei??a ? aeooaeueiei.

Aeey aea/aiiy ?noi??? ia?iaeo, eiai aeooiaii? ? iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e,
nioe?aeueii–aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aaaeeeai aeine?aeeoe a?oie ne?a,
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaieo c? niiniaii eiai aeeooy, na?oiaeyaeii ?
iiaooii. Na?aae oeeo ne?a cia/io e?euee?noue noaiiaeyoue eaenaie ia
iicia/aiiy aei??a, ui ? ? i?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ine?eueee aei oaaae aa?aoueny oe?iea eiei iaca, ii?yae ?c oa?i?iii
“iacae aei??a” iia?o?ii oa?i?iii “oeyoe niieo/aiiy”.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny neiaa, ui iaeaaeaoue aei eaeneei–a?aiaoe/iiai
eeano «?iaiiee», aea a?aiaoe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?icaeyaeaieo ?iaiiee?a ye
/anoeie iiae ia aoiaeeoue o noa?o aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aoeiieia?/i? aeneo?ne, ye? iathoue i?noea o i?aoe?, neoaeaoue
aeiiii?aeiei caniaii aeey aeeaoiai ?ice?eooy no?oeoo?e ia?a?niiai
cia/aiiy ie?aieo iaca aei??a.

Ia?aia eaeneea eeaneo?eo?oueny ca oaiaoe/ieie a?oiaie, o iaaeao yeeo
aiae?cothoueny ie?ai? eiiiiiaioe. Eiaeia iacaa ?icaeyaea?oueny
(ae?ao?ii?/ii, neio?ii?/ii) c iniaeeaith oaaaith aei naiaioeee neiaa,
noa?e eiai iiaoooaaiiy, aaia?ao?? iioe?aiiy.

Aeey aeeaoiai aiae?co caeo/aii iaoa??ae c iiia?aaei?o noie?oue,
aeiiiaiaii ?iaioo aeaieie no/anieo oaoiaeo oa aia??eiaeo neiaiee?a.
Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy iaca aei??a aea? iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe ie?ai?
oaiaeaioe??, oa?aeoa?i? aeey i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo eaene/ii?
nenoaie oe?a?inueei? iiae.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith iaoeiai–aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, cie?aia oaie:
“No?aeiineia’yinuee? iiae a ?o ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo”.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy naiaioeei–no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae,
noee?noe/ieo ooieoe?e, /anoioe aaeeaaiiy eaeneee ia iicia/aiiy aei??a o
no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
nenoaie oeeo iaca. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo iniiaieo caaaeaiue:

– anoaiiaeoe yeiaeiiai?oee ei?ion iaca aei??a a oe?a?inuee?e iia?;

– aeae?eeoe iniiai? eaeneei–naiaioe/i? a?oie iaca aei??a, ui
ooieoe?iiothoue a?ae iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy,
aeacaoe ia no?oeoo?i? oa naiaioe/i? iniaeeaino? ?o ?icaeoeo;

– ii iiaeeeaino? iiaeaoe iaea?eueo a??ia?aeio o?iiieia?th iiyae ?
oa?eoi??aeueia iioe?aiiy ie?aieo eaenai;

– aeine?aeeoe aaeaioi?noue, eaeneei–naiaioe/i? oa noee?noe/i? ooieoe??,
neiaioai?/? iiaeeeaino? ne?a ia iicia/aiiy oeyo?a niieo/aiiy ia
no/aniiio aoai?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ?iaioe ? ae?aeaeoe/iee i?aeo?ae aei iiae ye
aei oe?e?nii? oa aca?iiiia’ycaii? nenoaie, ui ia?aaoaa? o iino?ei?e
aeeiai?oe?, ?icoi?iiy iiae ye noni?eueiiai yaeua. Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
coiiaeee aea?? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaothoueny oae?
iaoiaee: iieniaee (i?e aiae?c? eaeneei–naiaioe/ieo i?aea?oi),
ii??aiyeueii–?noi?e/iee (aeey aeyaeaiiy aeeiai?ee naiaioe/ieo i?ioean?a,
yea i?inoaaeo?oueny i?e c?noaaeaii? ??cieo /aniaeo c??c?a oe?a?inueei?
iiae) oa noaoenoe/iee (i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? iaca aei??a c iiaeyaeo
a?aiaoeee).

Aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??ae aeey ?iaioe aeiae?aany ?c
eaeneeia?ao?/ieo i?aoeue, o yeeo iaeiiai?oa i?aaenoaaeaii aaaaonoai
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iiae: aeaaeai?/iiai 11–oe oiiiiai «Neiaieea
oe?a?inueei? iiae», «Neiaa?y oe?a?inueei? iiae», oii?yaeeiaaiiai
A.A??i/aieii, ?noi?e/ieo, aoeiieia?/ieo, aia??eiaeo, oaoiaeo, ii?oaiieo,
o?acaieia?/ieo neiaiee?a. *anoeia aeine?aeaeoaaii? eaeneee aeyaeaia a
oaenoao oai??a a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a, o ioae?oeenoe/ieo
i?aoeyo oa oni?e ia?iaei?e oai?/ino? (i?ene?a’y, i?eeacee).

Noai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie. ENA iaca aei??a a oe?a?inuee?e iia? ua ia
aoea i?aaeiaoii eiiieaeniiai e?iaa?noe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ie??i
iiiaeeiieeo ioae?eaoe?e, i?enay/aieo /anoeiaei ieoaiiyi, ?ia?o ?c
cacia/aii? i?iaeaiaoeee iaia?.

Iaoeiaith iiaeciith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oa, ui aia?oa a oe?a?inueeiio
iiaiciaanoa? c?a?ai? ? ii?aoeueiaai? neiaa ia iicia/aiiy aei??a,
i?iaiae?ciaai? ?o iioiaeaeaiiy, naiaioeea, aaia?ao?y iioe?aiiy,
eaeneei–naiaioe/i? oa noee?noe/i? ooieoe?? ia no/aniiio aoai?. ?iaioa ?
ia?oei nenoaiii–no?oeoo?iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi naiaioe/ii? a?oie eaeneee
aeey iaceaaiiy oeyo?a niieo/aiiy a oe?a?inuee?e iia?. Aiia aeeiioaaeany
ia oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae?, yeee aein? ia aoa oae iiaii i?aaenoaaeaiee o
iaoeiaiio ia?ao. Ia iniia? aeena?oaoe?? oeeaaeaii neiaiee
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaca.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eyoeiooue
eiiieaeniiio aea/aiith eaene/ii? nenoaie oe?a?inueei? iiae, cie?aia,
oaeiai ?? aaaeeeaiai eiiiiiaioa ye iacae oeyo?a niieo/aiiy.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e /eoaii? aoc?anueeeo eo?n?a
«Eaeneeieia?y no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iiae», «Noee?noeea oe?a?inueei?
iiae», «E?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo», o niaoeeo?nao oa
niaoenai?ia?ao, i?enay/aieo aea/aiith eaeneeieia??, i?ae /an iaienaiiy
eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o, o oai??? ? i?aeoeoe? neiaieea?noaa, o
i?aeoe/iiio iaieiae?ii? eoeueoo?ith oe?a?inueeiai iiaeaiiy i?ae /an
aea/aiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae ye ?iicaiii?.

Iniaenoee aianie. Aaoi?ii oia?oa anoaiiaeaii iaeiiai?oee ei?ion iaca
aei??a a oe?a?inuee?e iia?, noa?aeoa?eciaaii iniiai? eaeneei–naiaioe/i?
a?oie iaca oeyo?a niieo/aiiy a?ae iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei
nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy, aeine?aeaeaii no?oeoo?i? oa naiaioe/i?
iniaeeaino? ?o ?icaeoeo, neiaioai?/? e ?io? iiaeeeaino? ia no/aniiio
aoai?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? oa
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? o 7 ioae?eaoe?yo: o ca??ieeo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue «Neia’yinuee? iiae a ?o ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo»
(Caii??aeaey, 1996), o I?eaei?i?ianueeiio iaoeiaiio a?nieeo (?42, ?46
1997; ?37, ?51 1998) ? aoee i?aaeiaoii iaaiai?aiiy ia I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “2000 ?ie?a c ??caeaa O?enoiaiai” (Caii??aeaey, 1996),
IV ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «?noi?eei–aoiia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie» (Caii??aeaey, 1996), ia
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??: «Ieanue Aii/a? ?
o?noaeanyoieoeoai» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998), Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 275–e ??/ieoe? a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy
A.Neiai?iaee (Ia?ayneaa–Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1998). Ie?ai? ?icae?ee oa any
aeena?oaoe?y caaaeii iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
caaaeueiiai iiaiciaanoaa Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, neiaieea aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaca,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa oiiaieo
nei?i/aiue. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 206 noi??iie, nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ia?aoiao? 239 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O Anooi? ia??oioiaothoueny aea?? oaie e aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oi?ioeththoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
iienothoueny iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, cacia/athoueny iieiaeaiiy, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Iacae iacaiieo aei??a” i?enay/aiee c’ynoaaiith
naiaioeei–no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae eaeneee ia iicia/aiiy iaca iacaiieo
aei??a o no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?, aecia/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e aeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo nenoaie oeeo iaca.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a oe?a?inuee?e iia? iaeiaioaaiiy aei??a ooai?ththoue
ye?nii ? e?euee?nii ?icaeiaio eaeneei–naiaioe/io a?oio, aei yei?
aoiaeyoue ye iacae iacaiieo, oae ? iaiacaiieo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy.

Iaeaeaai?oith ca iioiaeaeaiiyi, iaea?eueo iiaiith ? neeaaeiith ca
i?aai?caoe??th nai?o aeaiaio?a ? i?aenenoaia eaeneei–naiaioe/ii? a?oie
iaca aei??a, ui icia/a? iacaii? oeyoe niieo/aiiy.

O ?iaio? cae?eniaii naiaioe/io eeaneo?eaoe?th iaca iacaiieo aei??a a
oe?a?inuee?e iia? ? aeae?eaii 5 oaiaoe/ieo a?oi:

1.  Eaenaie ia iicia/aiiy aei?iae, ui c’?aeio? ianaeai? ioieoe ?
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac ieo. Oey /eneaiia a?oia ioiieth? 4 i?aea?oie, a naia:

a) eaenaie ia iicia/aiiy aei??a, i?enoiniaaieo aeey ia?ai?uaiiy ii ieo
o?ainii?oii (aaoiiaa?no?aeue, aaoino?aaea, a?oe, ainoeiaoeue, ae?oi,
iaa?no?aeue, iinoiaa, ni?aeaae, o?aeo, o?ana, oeyo, oina);

a) neiaa ia iicia/aiiy oeyo?a niieo/aiiy, yeeie ia?anoaathoueny, ye
i?aaeei, i?oee (iaa?e, i?oo?ea, i?oae, i?ioai, ?aao, noaaea, noaaeea,
o?aiao, o?iia, o?aeiee oa ?i.);

a) iacae aei??a ia iicia/aiiy ie?aiiai aeaeo iacaiiiai niieo/aiiy –
cae?cieoe? (aocueeieie?eea, aeaieie?eea, cae?cieoey, eaiaoia aei?iaa,
o?aiaae, ooi?eoea?, eie?y, oi?);

a) eaenaie ia iicia/aiiy ??ciiaeae?a aei??a caeaaeii a?ae i?noey ?o
i?ieyaaiiy (iaaea, iai?aeie, ??cea, noaieia; aa?aaiaeia, a?yaeeia,
no?iia; ea?iec, iaeac, ieae; eac, i?in?ea).

2. Eaenaie, ui iaceaathoue ae?eyiee aei??a, ye? ??ciyoueny nai?i
i?ecia/aiiyi, oi?iith. Aeae?eaia i?e?inenoaia iaiaeii??aeia ca nai?th
naiaioe/iith iaaaioaaeai?noth. ?? cia/aii?aee ianya ioiieth? 4 i?aea?oie
ne?a, a naia:

a) neiaa ia iicia/aiiy i?noey ia?aoeio oeyo?a, noaaeie, aoeeoeue
(e?eaeiaa aei?iaa, ia?aoei, ia?ao?anoy, ia?aaaeie, ?icaei??aeaey,
?icioooy, ?ico?anoy, ?icaeeea, o?auaoee);

a) iiiaie aei??a ca ?o iai?yieii oa oi?iith (aeaa?o, aeaei, a??aae,
caea, cai?io, eie?ii, iiai?io, na?iaioeia, ne?oo oiui);

a) neiaa ia iicia/aiiy ae?eyiie aei??a c /?oei iaiaaeaiith a?aenoaiith,
??ci? ca nai?i i?ecia/aiiyi (i?aeeii, nione, oca?c, oeiaethth/ee ooiee,
i?ia?i, noaioe?y oa ?i.);

a) iiiaie ia iicia/aiiy i?noey ia oeyoo niieo/aiiy c iaaiei i?ecia/aiiyi
? /?oei aecia/aiith ooieoe??th (ia?aaae, ia?a?cae, ia?aeac, ia?ao?ae,
i?i?cae oa ?i.).

3. Neiaa ia iicia/aiiy ia`?eo?a, nii?oae, ui aenooiathoue oeyoaie
niieo/aiiy. Aeaia a?oia neeaaea?oueny ?c 4 i?aea?oi:

a) iacae iino?a (a?aaeoe, anoaeaaea, eeaaeea, i?no, iae?o, ia?a?caeea,
ia?ai?oea, iiioii oa ?i.);

a) neiaa ia iicia/aiiy nii?oae, ye? ? aiaeii/an aei?iaaie ?
a?ae?ioaoi?/ieie ia’?eoaie (aaoea, a?aaey, aeaiaa oa ?i.);

a) eaenaie, ui iaceaathoue oaoi?/i? nii?oaee, i?enoiniaai? aeey
ia?ai?uaiiy (aia?aeue, aneaeaoi?, e?oo, ia?o, i?aeeiiiee, iaiaeon,
iaoa?iinoa?, noiaee oa ?i.);

a) iacae nii?oae, caaaeaieo aeey c?o/iino? ia?ai?uaiiy (aeaaa?eaaea?,
coieiea, ia?ii, ieaooi?ia, iii?no, noaioe?y oiui).

4. Iacae aei??a a ianaeaieo ioieoao. Ooo /?oei ?ic??ciy?oueny 2 oeie
iii?iaoe?e:

a) neiaa ia iicia/aiiy aei??a, aeei?enoiaoaaieo ye aeey i?i?caeo, oae ?
aeey i?ioiaeo (aaaith, aeay, aoeueaa?, aoeeoey, aeanyoie, iaaa?aaeia,
i?iniaeo, nooea, ooiee oa ?i.);

a) iacae aei??a, i?enoiniaaieo aeey i?oiai ia?anoaaiiy (iai/eia,
iaiaeue, i?oio?ae, iii?no, o?iooa?, oca?//y oiui).

5. Iiiaie ia iicia/aiiy aei??a, aeei?enoiaoaaieo i?ae /an nii?oeaieo
ciaaaiue. O aeine?aeaeai?e a?oi? eaenai aeae?eaii 2 i?aea?oie:

a) iacae ??ciiaeae?a nii?oeaieo aei??aeie (aaeio?ae, ni?aeaae, o?ae);

a) neiaa, ye? iaceaathoue niaoe?aeuei? i?enoinoaaiiy – i?iaeiaaeaiiy
aei??a, aeei?enoiaoaaieo o nii?o? (o?aiie?i).

O ?iaio? a?aecia/aii, ui nenoaia iaca iacaiieo aei??a – oea e?euee?nii
iii?oiee ?ic?yae eaeneee a oe?a?inuee?e iia?.

Iniiaio ? e?euee?nii ia?aaaaeath/o /anoeio i?iaiae?ciaaii? eaeneee
neeaaeathoue neiaa neia’yinueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. ?ioiiiai? caiice/aiiy
iathoue iacia/io aaao (aeania oe?a?inuee? iacae – aeecueei 86%;
?ioiiiaiiai iioiaeaeaiiy – 14%). Uiaei oa?eoi??? iioe?aiiy –
caaaeueiiaaeeaai? eaenaie noaiiaeyoue aeecueei 71%; aocueeieieaeuei? –
29%. Ca /anoioith aeei?enoaiiy – aeoeaii aaeeaai? neiaa neeaaeathoue
aeecueei 65%, ??aeeiaaeeaai? – 35%.

Aei naiaioe/iiai iiey iaca aei??a aoiaeyoue eaenaie–oa?i?ie (ia?aa?ae,
iiioii, ?ieaaea, na?iaioeia, o?ae, o?aiie?i).

Caa?oa?ii oaaao ia aeei?enoaiiy caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo iiiai?a
aeine?aeaeaii? ENA cei/eiiei aeaiaioii aeey eiaeoaaiiy nai?? iiae
(aei?iaa – “ca’ycie, yeei iaeaaaeueii ia?ai?aaeythoueny caai?iiai?
i?aaeiaoe, eenoe”; i?ia?i – “iaiai ni?eueieea”, ia?aa?i – “a?ioiaee
ia?aeac”).

C?noaaeaiiy naiaioeee iaca iacaiieo aei??a, cao?eniaaieo o “Neiaieeo
oe?a?inueei? iiae” (NOI), “Neiaa?? oe?a?inueei? iiae” ca ?aaeaeoe??th
A.A??i/aiea (NAA), “Neiaieeo noa?ioe?a?inueei? iiae XIV–XV noie?ooy”
(NNoOI), “Neiaieeo oe?a?inueei? iiae XVI–II iie. XVII noie?ooy”,
aia??eiaeo neiaieeao, ia?aeiio?, ui aiia caeaa?eueoiai caa??aa?oueny aac
a?ae/ooieo ci?i i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano, ? eeoa aeaye? c iaca ci?ieee
naith naiaioeeo. I?e oeueiio i?inoaaeo?oueny ?icoe?aiiy naiaioe/iiai
ianyao. Iai?eeeaae, eaenaia aei?iaa. NNoOI o?eno? ?? o 3 cia/aiiyo, NAA
– 4, NOI – 7. ?iaiiee iooue o NNoOI iiaea?oueny ?c 2 cia/aiiyie, o NOI –
?c 8. Neiai o?aeo, ooieoe?iioth/e o iia? iaaoei oa?i?iieia?/iiai
cia/aiiy: “niaoe. noeoii?noue oaoi?/ieo cania?a ea?oaaiiy, ia?ai?uaiiy
/iai–iaaoaeue”, i?ioa o nai?io ia?aeiiiio cia/aii? aaeeaa?oueny
iaiaaeaii. Aiaeyoeae caciaaaee ? caoaeaiiy naiaioe/iiai ia’?io.
Iai?eeeaae, eaenaia o?iia a no/ani?e iia? ao?aoeea cia/aiiy “iai?yiie
ne?ae?a”. Aeaia cia/aiiy cao?eniaaia ua NAA.

O ?iaio? a?aecia/aii, ui aeaye? ?ai?oa aeoeaii aaeeaai? iacae iacaiieo
aei??a ia no/aniiio aoai? inoaoi/ii aeeoee c oaeeoeo, aai, iinooiiai
a?oa?coth/eny, aaeeaathoueny /ei?ac ??aeoa, ia iaiaaeai?e oa?eoi???
(aa?aa, ao?ie, a?yaeeia, iae?o, i?nae, ia?a?caeea, i?iaiiy, i?ioai,
noo?nie, oaia oa ?i.).

Iaeiae aeine?aeaeaia i?e?inenoaia cacia? ci?i ia eeoa e?euee?niiai
oa?aeoa?o. Iie?nai?/i? neiaa (caai?io, cae?oo, caeii, i?ia?i, i?i?cae,
ooiee) aenooiathoue eiiiiiaioaie e?eueeio oaiaoe/ieo a?oi, oei naiei
yaeythoue niaith oi/eo ia?aoeio ??cieo ?yae?a, noai?thth/e ?o neeaaei?
ia?ao?auaiiy, ui ? aecia/a? nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? eaeneee, i?i yeee
na?ae/aoue oaeiae neiii?i?/i?, aioii?i?/i? ca’ycee i?ae
eaenaiaie–/eaiaie ie?aii acyoi? oaiaoe/ii? a?oie, a oaeiae iiii?i?y, ui
aeieea? ye a iaaeao iaeii? a?oie, oae ? i?ae neiaaie–eiiiiiaioaie ??cieo
eeaneo?eaoe?eieo a?oi.

I?aene?ai? ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiioaiiy a eaeneei–naiaioe/iiio iie?
aeyaeythoue naaa a neiii?i?/ieo ?yaeao, aioii?i?/ieo ia?ao, iiii?i??.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui eaenaie, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei iaeii? oaiaoe/ii? a?oie,
/anoi ia?aaoaathoue o neiii?i?/ieo ca’yceao. Oea aeicaieeei aeae?eeoe
??ci? neiii?i?/i? ?yaee, iai?eeeaae, ia iicia/aiiy iiiyooy “oe?ieee
anoaeueoiaaiee / aaoiiiaaiee oeyo aeey ianiaiai aaoiiia?eueiiai ?ooo”
aaeeaathoueny eaenaie: aaoiiaa?no?aeue, aaoino?aaea, aaoioeyo, aaoiiea,
aoae?ii, ae?aea, iaa?no?aeue, ni?aeaae, o?ana, oina; a oaeiae ae?aeaeoi?
aieueoae, aieueoiaee, i?ioa?e??iaea, i?ioa?eue.

Neiii?i?/i? a?aeiioaiiy aeieeathoue ye i?ae neiaaie (aaoio?ana,
iaa?no?aeue, oina), neiaii ? neiainiieo/aiiyi (??oioiaea – ??oioiaa
aei?iaa, ooi?eoea? – i?aea?nia aei?iaa), oae ? i?ae neiainiieo/aiiyie
(e?eaeiaa aei?iaa, ?icnoaei? aei?iae). Aeyaii i?aene?aieo
ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aeiioaiue ? aioii?i?y (o?iooa? – iai/eia ca iciaeith
“iiuaia – iaiiuaia aei??aeea aeey oiae?iiy”; i?iniaeo – caaoeie;
i?ioenoaaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia i?inoi?ia?e iciaoe? “oe?iea – aocueea
aoeeoey”). O aeine?aeaeaii? i?aee?aneth?oueny ca’ycie aioii?i?? c
neiii?i??th, eiee eiiiiiaioe neiii?i?/iiai ?yaeo ia?aoeiathoueny c
aeaiaioaie aioii?i?/ii? ia?e.

Niinoa?aaeaii yaeua iacii?i??. Aeae?ey?ii ?yae ne?a, ui ca nai?th
naiaioeeith caeiathoue i?ii?aeia i?noea, noiyoue ia naiaioe/i?e in? i?ae
aioii?i?/iith ia?ith (a?oe – ?oioiaa aei?iaa), yeo anoaiiaeth?ii ca
iciaeith “iiuaia – iaiiuaia aei?iaa”. Oea eaenaie a?oe?aea, a?ouaoea,
iinoiaa, eaiaiea. ainoeiaoeue, o?aeo, aei?iaa, oeyo, iooue, ?oioiaea,
iai?aoe?, ye? naiaioe/ii ?ic/eaiiaothoueny ia 2 a?oie: iaei? oyae?thoue
aei ia?oiai, a ?io? – aei ae?oaiai neiaa aioii?i?/ii? ia?e.

Iiii?i?/i? aca?ieie o?enothoueny i?ae ??cieie oaiaoe/ieie a?oiaie
(caaaeueiiaaeeaaia aoeueaa? – “ianaaeaeaia aea?aaaie oe?iea aeay
iina?aaeei? aoeeoe? a i?no?, aoeeoey c oaeith aea?th”, ae?aeaeoia
aoeueaa? – “noaaeea, ui i?ieeaaeaia iia?ey ia?eai?a naaeea”;
caaaeueiiaaeeaaia i?no – “nii?oaea aeey ia?a?caeo aai ia?aoiaeo /a?ac
??/eo, cae?cieoeth, aaoiiaa?no?aeue, y?”, aia??eiaa i?no – “aei??aeea c
aeiuie acaeiaae oaoe”; caaaeueiiaaeeaaia oeyo – “nioaa caie?, i?ecia/aia
aeey ?caee oa oiae?iiy”, aia??eiaa oeyo – “ia?ao?anoy aei??a”;
caaaeueiiaaeeaaia i?ia?i – “ae?eyiea oeyoo i?ae cae?cie/ieie
noaioe?yie”, ae?aeaeoia i?ia?i – “aoeeoey, yeith aeaaiythoue ooaeiao ia
iaoo”).

O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?iaeueii–a?aiaoe/ii? no?oeoo?e iaca
aei??a a oe?a?inuee?e iia? c’yniaaii, ui oey eaeneei–naiaioe/ia a?oia
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??ciiiai?oiith no?oeoo?ith. Ianaiia?aae oea aaeeea
a?oia i?inoeo iii?iaoe?e, ye? oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia ia?aeii?
(iaa?no?aeue, o?ana, oeyo oa ?i.) oa aoi?eii?, c oneeaaeiaiith,
niaoe?ae?ciaaiith naiaioeeith (neiaa-eiiiiceoe aaoiiaa?no?aeue,
aaoio?ana, aaoioeyo).

Ii?aoethaaiiy eaeneeia?ao?/ieo i?aoeue aeaei ciiao iii?oeoe ia?aaeaaaiiy
cia/aiiy oeyoiaino? neioaene/ii – aeai/eaiieie neiainiieo/aiiyie ye
caaaeueiiaaeeaaieie (a?oeiaaia aei?iaa, ?oioiaa aei?iaa, i?aea?nia
aei?iaa, oinaeia aei?iaa), oae ? aocueeieieaeueieie (i?ioa?e??iaooia
aei?iaa, ?icnoaei? aei?iae).

Aiaeyoeae ia iicia/aiiy iacaiieo aei??a iaiaeii??aei? uiaei nai?o
neiaioai?/eo iiaeeeainoae. Iaea?eueo aea?eaaoe?eii aeoeai? aeania
oe?a?inuee? eaenaie ye o aaeoc? eiiiioaoeaieo (aei??aeaiueea, iooea/ee,
?ic’?caei/ea, noaaeeiiiueea, oeyoie), oae ? aeaiioaoeaieo ooai?aiue
(aaoiaei?iaeiee, o?aniaoae?aiee, oeyoiai-o?ainii?oiee, oeyoii), o yeeo
aeei?enoiaothoueny ye noo?enaeuei?, oae ? aacao?eni? niiniae
neiaioai?aiiy. Neiaioai?/? iiaeeeaino? ?ioiiiaieo ne?a cia/ii iaiaaeai?
ii??aiyii c oe?a?inueeeie aiaeyoeaaie. Na?aae iio?aeieo a?ae caiice/aieo
?iaiiee?a i?aaaeththoue noo?enaeuei? aea?eaaoe, a iniiaiiio,
i?eeiaoieee. O ?iaio? a?aecia/aii, ui, ooieoe?iioth/e o iia?,
aeaineeaaei? neiainiieo/aiiy (aaoiiia aei?iaa, a?oeiaaia aei?iaa,
oinaeia aei?iaa) noaee aacith aeey ooai?aiiy oi?aa?a?a (aaoiiea,
a?oe?aea, oinaeea).

?iaiieee iacae aei??a aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo o?acaieia?ci?a (aeoiaeeoe ia
a??io aei?iao, oa?ienoee oeyo, aooe ia ?iciooo?), ia?ao?ac (acaoea
aei??a, aeaeeoia aei?iaa, noaeaaa o?ana), einiii?i?a (*oiaoeueea
Aei?iaa, Iiei/iee Oeyo, Oaueia Aei?iaa), i?ene?a’?a oa i?eeacie,
ia?iaeieo ii??aiyiue (oeo?ee, ye o?aiaae ia iiai?io?; iiaacei, ye
ne?iiio ia ia?aeac?), ia?iaeiiiiaoe/ieo i?eeeaaeie (oeyoe-aei?iae,
iooue-aei??aeaiueea). Aeine?aeaeoaai? eaenaie ? neeaaeiaeie aeai- ?
aaaaoi/eaiieo neiainiieo/aiue a?enueeiai? oa?i?iieia?? (aei?iaa,
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia e?i?? o?iioo; aei?iaa, i?eoiaaia a?ae niinoa?aaeaiiy,
oeyo a?aeoiaeo), th?eaee/ii? (aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oia i?eaiaea),
?ioi?iaoeee oa ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee (aei??aeea eiaeiaa, oeyo
aeinooio, ia?ao?anoy noaaea/a), nii?oeaii? oa?i?iieia?? (a?aiaa
aei??aeea, i?no c iii?ith ia ia?aaeie?//y, neaeiiia o?ana), oi?aia?ao??
(aei??aeea-i?iiaiaae, cae?eoee iiai?io), ioceee (iiai?io iaeiae?eii?
e?i??), e?ii (caoeiaa aei??aeea), aeiiii?/ii? oa?i?iieia?? (aeiiii?/iee
oeyo ?icaeoeo), aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo (aei?iaei? iieioii,
i?oio?aeia aei??aeea), ui ca nooiaiai naiaioe/iiai noyaiaiiy eaenai
iiae?eythoueny ia neiainiieo/aiiy, ye? ia iathoue ia?ainieneaiiai
eiiiiiaioa ? eaaei ?ic/eaiiaothoueny; neiainiieo/aiiy ?c ia?ainieneaiei
eiiiiiaioii.

A ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii eaoaai??aeueia ae?aaeaiiy iaca aei??a o
no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?. A?aecia/aii, ui naia oeyoiaino? o iia?
ioi?iey?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ??cieo a?aiaoe/ieo eaoaai??e (i?ene?aieeaie
iaai?inoaoeue, ieieeoeath), a oaeiae iiai?noth noanoaioeaiaaieie
i?eeiaoieeaie (iinoiaa, iaaa?aaeia). Iaaieioaii, ui o
oi?iaeueii-a?aiaoe/iiio ieai? a?eueo?noue iaca aei??a noaiiaeyoue
?iaiieee, ine?eueee ?iaiiee ? iniaeeaith oi?iith iiaieo ciae?a, ca
aeiiiiiaith yeeo cae??ieth?oueny iacaa i?aaeiao?a, cie?aia, aei?iaa. An?
?icaeyioo? ?iaiieee iacae iacaiieo aei??a ooieoe?iiothoue o eaene/iiio
neeaae? iiae ye iacae iaoa??aeueieo i?aaeiao?a (eiie?aoieo i?aaeiao?a,
ia?noio, caaaeueieo iaca). Caaaeuei? ? aeani? ?iaiieee ia?aaoaathoue a
noai? iino?eii? aca?iiae??. Aeaia?/iee ca’ycie i?ae ieie aeyaey?oueny ia
i?aeoeoe? a iiiiaiaii? aeanieo ?iaiiee?a ca ?aooiie caaaeueieo
(o?auaoee) ? iaaiaee (Aeaoi?ia-no??o). A?aecia/aii iaeaaei?noue
i?ene?aiee?a ?c oeyoiaith naiaioeeith aei eaeneei–naiaioe/ii? a?oie iaca
aei??a, oi/a, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?iaiiee?a, oeyoiaa iii?iaoe?y a ieo
iaoa?iao?oueny ia aecia/aiiy iciaee ae?? aai yeino? ? ia ? ?o iniiaiith
ooieoe??th.

Aeine?aeaeaia i?aenenoaia ?ai?acaioiaaia ?iaiieeaie o?ueio ?iae?a,
na?aae yeeo ia?aaaaeathoue aiaeyoeae /ieia?/iai ?iaeo – 50% a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aiae?ciaaiiai iaoa??aeo, ?iaiieee ae?ii/iai ?iaeo
noaiiaeyoue 39%, na?aaeiueiai – 11%. O i?e?iiie? iaca aei??a aeyaeaii
?iaiieee iiaea?eiiai /ieia?/i-na?aaeiueiai ?iaeo (aa?aaeeua, ioaiceua).
Aeyaeaii iaeaaei?noue caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo, aocueeieieaeueieo,
ca?oa?ciaaieo eaenai aei ??cieo ?iaeiaeo eean?a (oina (n.?.) – nioa,
oaoa (ae.?.); aaoa (ae.?.) – aaoy (n.?.), aaoie (/.?.)).

Na?aae c?a?aiiai iaoa??aeo ia?aaaaeathoue eaenaie, aeey yeeo oa?aeoa?i?
oi?ie ? iaeieie, ? iiiaeeie, Oae? ?iaiieee iacae aei??a neeaaeathoue
aeecueei 95% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aeine?aeaeaieo. ?acii c oei,
i?e?iiiea iaeiaioaaiue iacaiieo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy aeeth/a? aiaeyoeae
pluralia tantum, ye? neeaaeathoue aeecueei 5% (aaoe, iai?aoe?, noiaee,
nooee). Aeaye? ?iaiieee c ?icaeoeii iiae iaaoee, ie??i iiiaeeiii?,
neiaoeyoeaio oi?io (?icaeeea, iai/eia). Oae, NAA iiaeaaaa eaenaie
iai/eia, ?icaeeea eeoa ye ?iaiieee pluralia tantum.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Iacae iaiacaiieo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy a oe?a?inuee?e iia?”
i?enay/aiee c’ynoaaiith naiaioeei–no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae eaeneee ia
iicia/aiiy i?aecaiieo, aiaeieo, iia?o?yieo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy,
aecia/aiith oaiaeaioe?e aeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo nenoaie oeeo iaca.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeine?aeaeaia ENA iaca iaiacaiieo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy
caeaaeii a?ae oa?aeoa?o naiaioeei–iiiyoo?aiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, coiiaeaiiai
eia?ei-i?aaeiaoiei ci?noii icia/oaaieo neiaaie i?aaeiao?a ? iiiyoue,
aeeth/a? e?eueea naiino?eieo i?aenenoai, a naia:

1. Iacae oeyo?a niieo/aiiy, ui i?ieyaathoue aiaeith. Aeine?aeaeaia iiea
aeeth/a? 3 eeaneo?eaoe?ei? a?oie:

a) eaenaie, ui iicia/athoue ae?eyiee aiaeiiai oeyoo ??ci? ca nai?i
i?ecia/aiiyi, ooieoe??th, oi?iith (aeaaoi??y, eaaioaae, ?aeae,
oa?aaoa?);

a) iiiaie aeey iaceaaiiy iai?yieo ?ooo noaeai (aaeaeaa?iae, aaen,
ae?aeo, eo?n);

a) iacae ooo/ieo nii?oae, i?ecia/aieo aeey ia?anoaaiiy aiaeith (eaiae,
i??n, ii?o, i?enoaiue, oethc).

2. Iacae i?aecaiieo aei??a. Aiaeyoeae oeueiai i?e?iiiey eeaneo?eo?ii ca
3 oaiaoe/ieie a?oiaie:

a) eaenaie, ui iicia/athoue oeyoe i?ae caieath, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a
a??ie/iio ae?iaieoeoa? (eaa?oeaa, eaaa, oaooa, ooieueiy);

a) iiiaie ia iicia/aiiy i?aecaiieo oeyo?a, aeei?enoiaoaaieo i?ae /an
ai?iieo ae?e (ai?io?, naia, o?aioay);

a) eaenaie ia iicia/aiiy i?aecaiieo aei??a ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy (aaea?ay,
iao?i, i?ia, ooiaeue).

3. Iacae iia?o?yieo e?i?e ca’yceo. O neeaae? aeine?aeaeaiiai i?e?iiiey
aeae?ey?ii 3 a?aeiinii naiino?ei? oaiaoe/i? a?oie:

a) eaenaie aeey iaceaaiiy iia?o?yieo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy; iai?yie?a ?ooo
(aa?ae?i?y, aa?ao?ana, eo?n, iaiaa?);

a) iiiaie ia iicia/aiiy nii?oae ia caie?, aac yeeo iia?o?yia niieo/aiiy
iaiiaeeeaa (aa?iae?ii, aa?iii?o, ce?oia nioaa, o?ai);

a) eaenaie ia iicia/aiiy «eini?/ieo aei??a oa ?o /anoei» (aiiano?,
aiiaae, i?a?oa, ia?eaae?e).

4. Iaeiaioaaiiy oyaieo e?i?e ia caii?e eoe?. Aiaeyoeae oeueiai i?e?iiiey
ia iicia/athoue aaciina?aaeiuei oeyoe niieo/aiiy, aea iaceaathoue
iiiyooy, aac yeeo iaiiaeeeaa i? noaeiiieaanoai, i? iia?o?iieaaaiiy. Oea
eaenaie a?aoi, aeaaoi?, ia?eae?ai, ia?aeaeue.

5. Iaeiaioaaiiy aei??a, ui noiyoue iica aeae?eaieie i?aenenoaiaie ENA.
I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy ENA iaca aei??a aoei aeyaeaii ?yae ne?a, ui
iiaeooue aoiaeeoe iaeii/anii aei e?eueeio aai an?o aeae?eaieo
i?aenenoai. Oea neiaa a?oa??y, ia?o?oo, ia?aaea, ?aen.

Eaenaie ia iicia/aiiy iaiacaiieo aei??a no?ieao? uiaei iioiaeaeaiiy.
Aeaye? c iaaaaeaieo iaca ? aeaai?ie neia’yinueeeie neiaaie, ui ?o
oe?a?inueea iiaa oniaaeeoaaea a?ae aeaaiueioe?a?inueei? (a??ae,
caaiaeue, ia?aa?c, onoy). *anoeia ?o aaciina?aaeiuei /e iiina?aaeeiaaii
aoea canai?ia oe?a?inueeith iiaith a ??ci? /ane ? c ??cieo iia (aoooa,
eaaioaae, oa?aaoa?, eaa?oeaa, ia?o?oo, ?aen).

O i?ioean? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo ne?a ?o naiaioeea caciaea
iaaieo c?ooaiue. Oae, niinoa?aaeaii oaeo caoaeaiiy cia/aii?aiai ianyao
eaenai. Iai?eeeaae, ?iaiiee ia?aa?c. NOI, ye ? NAA iiaea? ?? ?c
cia/aiiyie: “ia?aaacaiiy”, “i?noea, aea ia?ai?aaeythoueny /a?ac aiaeio
ia?aiiio”. A NNoOI o?enoaaa ua cia/aiiy “ieaoa ca ia?ai?aao”, “i?aai
cae?aoe ieaoo ca ia?aa?c”. Ca /an naiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy a iia? eaenaia
caaiaeue iaaoea ia?aiiniiai cia/aiiy ? aaeeaa?oueny aeey iaceaaiiy
niie?eiiai, caoeoiiai i?noey /e na?aaeiaeua ?c niie?eiei, oiia?eueiaiei,
a?aenoaeei, caeini?eei aoooyi. ?iaiiee i?enoaiue aaeeaa?oueny ia?aiinii
?c cia/aiiyie: “aoeeoey i?noa aai ianaeaiee ioieo ia aa?ac? ii?y aai
??/ee; i?noea, aea iiaeia noiaaoeny, a?aeii/eoe, ciaeoe i?eooeie;
ia?aaaaeii o niieo/aii? c? neiaii oeoa – i?noea, aea iiaeia ciaeoe
niie?e, caaeiaieaiiy”.

Ii??aiyii c aeae?eaiith aeua ENA iaca iacaiieo aei??a o iaeiaioaaiiyo
iaiacaiieo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy ia?aaaaeathoue caiice/ai? neiaa, ui iiaea
aooe iiyniaii aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieie /eiieeaie.

Uiaei nooiaiy a?oa?caoe?? aiaeyoea?a-neeaaeiee?a aeae?eaii? ENA, oi a?i
iaaeoi iecueeee ii??aiyii ?c ?iaiieeaie iacaaie iacaiieo aei??a
(o?eno?ii ia?ao?ae aei ianeaiiai oa?o neiaa a?aoi).

Ca noa?ith aeei?enoaiiy aiae?ciaaia i?e?iiiea i?aaenoaaeaia ia 90%
caaaeueiiaaeeaaiith eaeneeith a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaii? iane ne?a (a??ae,
aaaaiue, caoiea, eaiae) ? ia 10% aia??eiaeie neiaaie (iieae, iio?aeiy,
i?oae, no?iiiaeia).

Noiniaii oa?aeoa?enoeee no?oeoo?e, oi c?a?ai? aiaeyoeae yaeythoue i?ino?
(??ea, aaaaiue, eo?n) oa neeaaei? ca nai?th aoaeiaith iaeiineiae
(aaaiii?o, aa?iii?o, eiio?-ai?io?), i?e i?aaaethaaii? i?inoeo; a oaeiae
neiainiieo/aiiy (iia?o?yia e?i?y, ce?oia nioaa, noa?oiaee iaeaeai).

?iaiieee aeae?eaieo oaiaoe/ieo a?oi iaiaeii??aei? uiaei nai?o
neiaioai?/eo iiaeeeainoae. Iaea?eueo aea?eaaoe?eii aeoeai? aeania
oe?a?inuee? eaenaie ye o aaeoc? aeai?iooeaieo ooai?aiue, oae ?
eiiiioao?a (a?iaeaoeue, a?iaeii, ??/eua, ??/eiaee, ??/a/ea).
Iaea?eueoiai iioe?aiiy ?iaiieee iacae aei??a c iiceoeaiei caaa?aeaiiyi
iaaoee a ?iciiai?e iia? oa iiac??. Aiie ? caniaii aeyaeaiiy
iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo ii/ooo?a ethaeeie, ?? na?oini?eeiaiiy.

Neiaioai?/? iiaeeeaino? ?ioiiiaieo ca iioiaeaeaiiyi ne?a cia/ii
iaiaaeai? ii??aiyii c aaoiooiiieie aiaeyoeaaie. Na?aae iio?aeieo a?ae
caiice/aieo eaenai i?aaaeththoue noo?enaeuei? aea?eaaoe, a iniiaiiio,
i?eeiaoieee (?aeaeiaee, i?a?o?aeueiee, oa?aaoa?iee).

O a?aiaoe/iiio a?aeiioaii? aeine?aeaeoaaia i?aenenoaia iaca iaiacaiieo
oeyo?a niieo/aiiy ? iii?iaoeaiith, oiaoi ?ai?acaioiaaia ?iaiieeaie, ye?
ooieoe?iiothoue o eaene/iiio neeaae? oe?a?inueei? iiae ye iacae
iaoa??aeueieo/iaiaoa??aeueieo i?aaeiao?a. Cia/aiiy i?aaeiaoiino?
ae?aaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith eaoaai??? ?iaeo, /enea e a?aei?iea.

Aeine?aeaeoaai? iacae iaeaaeaoue aei i?aeeeano eiie?aoieo i?aaeiao?a,
ia?noio, caaaeueieo iaca.

Aiae?ciaaia ENA ?ai?acaioiaaia aiaeyoeaaie aeaio ?iae?a.
Aeine?aeaeoaaiee iaoa??ae aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i ia?aaaao ?iaiiee?a
/ieia?/iai ?iaeo iaae ?iaiieeaie ae?ii/iai ?iaeo (ie??i i?e?iiiey ne?a
aeey iaceaaiiy i?aecaiieo aei??a). O?eno?ii iaeaaei?noue aei ??cieo oi?i
eaoaai??? ?iaeo ?iaiieea ooiaeue a e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? oa ae?aeaeoao.

Aeine?aeaeoaaia ENA ?iaiiee?a ? i?e?inenoaiith ?c neeaaeiith
no?oeoo?ith.

Iie?nai?/i? neiaa, ui aoiaeyoue aei ?? neeaaeo (aaoiiea, a?oea,
a?aeiiaa, aeaei, aeaa?o, aee?oo, aaea?ay, aeaaa?eaaea?, caai?io, cae?oo,
caeii, eo?n, eieniae?iia, iaiaa?, ?aeae, o?aaa?n, o?ai, o?ae)
aenooiathoue eiiiiiaioaie e?eueeio i?aenenoai, oei naiei yaeythoue
niaith oi/eo ia?aoeio ??cieo ?yae?a, noai?thth/e ?o neeaaei?
ia?ao?auaiiy, ui ? aecia/a? nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? eaeneee, i?i yeee
na?ae/aoue oaeiae neiii?i?/i?, aioii?i?/i? ca’ycee i?ae
eaenaiaie-/eaiaie ye ie?aii acyoi? oaiaoe/ii? a?oie, oae ? i?ae
eaenaiaie-eiiiiiaioaie ??cieo eeaneo?eaoe?eieo a?oi.

Eaenaie aiae?ciaaii? ENA aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo oa?i?iieia?/ieo
neiainiieo/aiue (aa?iae?ii aacoaaiiy, ?aaeei ??ee), ia?ao?ac (i?aecaii?
aei?iae, ci?yia aei?iaa), ?ae?ii (?oe o oa?aaoa??, iieeoeny ??eith,
a?aoe eo?n, ciyoeny c ae?aeoo, a?/ia i?enoaiue).

O Aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ooo
a?aecia/a?oueny:

1. Iacae aei??a a oe?a?inuee?e iia? ooai?ththoue ye?nii ? e?euee?nii
?icaeiaio eaeneei-naiaioe/io eaoaai??th, ui oi?ioaaeany i?ioyaii
o?eaaeiai /ano. Aiia a?aecia/a?oueny aeaai?noth iioiaeaeaiiy,
naiaioe/iith ?ie?noth, ?icaaeoaeaiith neiii?i?eith oa no?oeoo?iith
??ciiiai?oi?noth.

2. Aiae?ciaai? iaeiaioaaiiy iaiaeii??aei? uiaei aaeeoeo: na?aae iaca
iacaiieo aei??a caaaeueiiaaeeaai? neiaa neeaaeathoue aeecueei 71%,
aocueeieieaeuei? – 29%, i?e?iiiea ae iaiacaiieo oeyo?a i?aaenoaaeaia ia
90% caaaeueiiaaeeaaiith eaeneeith a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaii? e?eueeino? ne?a.

Iacae oeyo?a niieo/aiiy ??ci? ca nai?th no?oeoo?ith. A?eueo?noue ?c ieo
? i?inoeie neiaaie (aoeeoey, aei?iaa, oeyo); aeaye? yaeythoue niaith
neeaaei? iaeiine?ai? aeaiaioe (aaoiiaa?no?aeue, aaoino?aaea, ni?aeaae);
/anoeia iaeiaioaaiue – neeaaei? aeai/eaii? ooai?aiiy (a?oeiaaia aei?iaa,
??oioiaa aei?iaa, eaiaoia aei?iaa, i?aea?nia aei?iaa, oinaeia aei?iaa).
Oa?aeoa?ii, ui aiae?oe/i? oi?ie iathoue iaeiiei?aiaa? aeoaeaoe
neioaoe/iiai neeaaeo (a?oeiaaia aei?iaa – a?oe?aea, ??oioiaa aei?iaa –
??oioiaea).

3. Eaenaie ia iicia/aiiy oeyo?a niieo/aiiy no?ieao? uiaei iioiaeaeaiiy.
I?i aeaai? iioiaeaeaiiy iaca na?ae/eoue caaaeueia iioe?ai?noue ?o ia
eeoa a neia’yinueeeo iiaao, aea e o aeayeeo ?ioeo ?a?iiaenueeeo. Iniiaio
? e?euee?nii ia?aaaaeath/o /anoeio i?iaiae?ciaaii? eaeneee neeaaeathoue
neiaa neia’yinueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Caiice/aiiy a ??cieo i?aenenoaiao
iaca aei??a i?aaenoaaeai? iaiaeiaeiai. Oae, o i?aenenoai? iaca iacaiieo
oeyo?a niieo/aiiy aiie neeaaeathoue aeecueei 14% i?ioe 86% niieiia?/ii
oe?a?inueeeo; o iacaao aei??a, ui i?ioiaeyoue aiaeith – 49,9% i?ioe
50,1%; a ?ioeo i?aenenoaiao (iacae iia?o?yieo e?i?e, i?aecaiieo oeyo?a
niieo/aiiy) ?ioiiiai? neiaa i?aaaeththoue. Na?aae caiice/aieo
iaeiaioaaiue aeae?ey?ii aecioecie – aeaiaioe ?ioeo iia, ui ia oa?eoee a
nenoaio oe?a?inueei? eaeneee. Aecioecie iicia/athoue ?aae??, oa?aeoa?i?
eeoa aeey oiai /e ?ioiai ia?iaeo, a?aeaeaathoue iaoe?iiaeueio niaoeeo?eo
(ii?. ae?aea, oaeaae).

4. C ?noi?e/iei ?icaeoeii iiae eaenaie ia iicia/aiiy aei??a caciaee
iaaieo ci?i. Eiei ooieoe?iioaaiiy ie?aieo iaca iino?eii c?inoaei.
Naiaioeea ne?a iioe?thaaeany a iniiaiiio ca anioe?aoe?yie ciai?oiueiai
oa?aeoa?o, oiaoi caaaeyee ia?aianaiith iacae ia i?aaeiaoe, yaeua oiui,
ye? nai?ie iciaeaie aoee aeayeith i??ith iiae?ai? aei iueiai (aei?iaa,
iaaea, noaaeea, oeyo). ?icoe?aiiy naiaioeee iaeieo aiaeyoea?a
i?ecaiaeeei aei aeo?niaiiy c oaeeoeo ?oi?o neiii?i?/ieo a?aeiia?aeiee?a
(eaenaia aei?iaa aeo?nieea c oaeeoeo neiii?i?/i? iooue, o?aeo). Ie?ai?
neiaa a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo iiae ca?eueoeee eiei aeei?enoaiiy, i?ioa, o
nai?io ia?aeiiiio cia/aii? ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue aiie aaeeaathoueny
iaiaaeaii aai, ao?aoeaoe nai? eieeoi? cia/aiiy, iaaoee iiaiai (o?aeo).

Aeyaeaii aeiaaeee aeei?enoaiiy eaenai ia iicia/aiiy ?a/iaeie, yeith
iie?eaathoue aei?iae, aeey iaceaaiiy naieo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy. Ia?ii
ia?aianaiiy iaca ca iiae?ai?noth, noi?aei?noth (anoaeueo, aoae?ii).

I?ioyaii ooieoe?iioaaiiy a iia? cia/ia e?euee?noue eaenai iaaoea
ia?aiiniiai cia/aiiy (iooue, noaaeea, oeyo).

Aeaye? ?c cia/aiue aiae?ciaaieo aiaeyoea?a, ui iiynith?oueny
aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieie i?e/eiaie, ca?oa?coaaeeny. Oa?eoiaoe aei ianeaiiai
neeaaeo eaeneee, oe? neiaa aaeeaathoueny a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia? ?c
noee?noe/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi, aai ia iaiaaeai?e oa?eoi??? (aa?aa, iae?o,
i?oae, i?oea, ie?oue, ?aao, o?aiao, oioa?).

C ?icaeoeii iiae ?iciaaeoaaiiy eaene/ii? naiaioeee aeine?aeaeoaaieo ne?a
i?ecaaei aei ooai?aiiy iiaeo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, oiaoi aei aeieeiaiiy
iiii?i?a (ainoeiaoeue, eac).

ENA iaca aei??a ?ai?acaioiaaia ?iaiieeaie, oe?ioa naiaioe/iiai ianyao
yeeo aeicaiey? ?i iaeii/anii aoiaeeoe aei e?eueeio oaiaoe/ieo a?oi
??cieo ?? i?aenenoai (aeaa?o, caeii, caea, caei, eie?ii, i?ia?i).

5. Ia nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? aiae?ciaaiiai naiaioe/iiai iiey aeacothoue
ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? a?aeiineie (neiii?i?y, aioii?i?y, iiii?i?y), ui
aeieeathoue ye o iaaeao iaaii? oaiaoe/ii? a?oie, e?eueeio
eeaneo?eaoe?eieo a?oi, oae ? i?ae i?aenenoaiaie iaeiaioaaiue aei??a.

6. Eaenaie aeine?aeaeoaaii? ENA aenooiathoue eiiiiiaioaie neeaaeieo,
oa?aeoa?ieo aeey ia?iaeiiiiaoe/ii? iiae, eiino?oeoe?e. Aaeeo? ia?aiinii
o oaeeo eiiiiceoao aiie aenooiathoue o ia?iaeiiiiaoe/i?e iia? ye
ooi/ithth/? /e ?ioei?coth/? i?eeeaaeee (oeyo-aei?iaa, oeyoe-aei?iae,
oeyoe-aei??aeaiueee, iooue-aei?iaa, iooue-aei??aeea,
iooue-aei??aeaiueea).

Aeoeaii aaeeaathoueny iacae ia iicia/aiiy aei??a o neeaae? no?eeeo
neiainiieo/aiue, i?ene?a’?a oa i?eeacie, ye iieniaeo, oae ? ia?acieo
ia?ao?ac, aenooiath/e a ieo iniiaiei, naiaioe/ii aecia/aeueiei
eiiiiiaioii.

Iaeiaioaaiiy aeine?aeaeaii? ENA aenooiathoue o neeaae? neiainiieo/aiue
oa?i?iieia?? ?ioi?iaoeee oa ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee (iaa?no?aeue
aeaieo, a?oea i?ia?aie), iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy (iaa?no?aeue ciacoaaeueia),
aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo (aei?iaa aeui? eaoaai???, i?oio?aeia
aei??aeea, iaa?no?aeue niieo/aiiy aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo), nii?oo
(i?no c iii?ith ia ia?aaeie?//y, neaeiiia o?ana), a?enueeia?e (iiioii,
?ieaaea), e?ii (caoeiaa aei??aeea), a?o?oaeoo?i?e (iica?/ia a?oe?aea,
oi?oeaaa a?oe?aea), o oi?aia?ao?? (aei??aeea–i?iiaiaae). Oae?
oa?i?iieia?/i? neiainiieo/aiiy ooai?ai? a ?acoeueoao? iaoaoi?e/iiai
ia?ainieneaiiy, ui aeieeei ia iniia? anioe?aoe?e (iiae?aiino?),
aiaeia??.

7. ?iaiieee aeine?aeaeoaaii? ENA ae?aaeathoue aeeoo?ai iaiao?aei? aeey
ethaeeie iiiyooy.

Eaenaie ia iicia/aiiy iaca aei??a iathoue oe?ie? neiaioai?/?
iiaeeeaino?, ye? coiiaeththoueny, i/aaeaeii, aaeeeith noni?eueiith
cia/ou?noth iiiyooy. Iaea?eueo aeoeai? a oeueiio ieai? aeania
oe?a?inuee? eaenaie, na?aae iio?aeieo a?ae yeeo o?eno?ii ye
aeaiioaoeai?, oae ? eiiiioaoeai? ooai?aiiy.

A oe?a?inuee?e iia? ?nio? cia/iee oa? eaeneee c iiceoeaiei
aiioe?eii-ioe?iiei caaa?aeaiiyi ia iicia/aiiy oeyo?a niieo/aiiy.
Iiaoooth/e a ?iciiai?e oa ia?iaeii-iiaoe/i?e iia?, aeai?iooeai?
ooai?aiiy (aei??aeaiueea, iooee, ?icioooy/ei, noaaeeii/ea, o?aooi/ie,
oeyoa/ie, oeyoie) aeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoueny ? a ooaeiaei?e e?oa?aoo??.

Neiaioai?/? iiaeeeaino? ?ioiiiaieo ca iioiaeaeaiiyi ne?a cia/ii
iaiaaeai? ii??aiyii ?c aeania oe?a?inueeeie aiaeyoeaaie.

Oa?aeoa?i? aeey noa?ioe?a?inueei? iiae aeai?iooeai? iio?aei? c noo?enii
-e-(a) i?ioyaii aeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ao?aoeee aeni?aneai?noue ?,
ia?aeoiaoe o noa?o noee?noe/ii iaeo?aeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy, o
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aeo?nieee c oaeeoeo iaaea?aei? oi?ie. Ia no/aniiio
aoai? aiie ni?eeiathoueny aaea ye ii?oieia?/ii ia/eaiiaai? iaeeieoe?
(aaoea, ??/ea, noaaeea oiui).

8. O a?aiaoe/iiio a?aeiioaii? aeine?aeaeoaaia nenoaia iaca aei??a ?, a
iniiaiiio, iii?iaoeaiith, oiaoi ?ai?acaioiaaia ?iaiieeaie, a oaeiae
noanoaioeaiaaieie i?eeiaoieeaie (iaaa?aaeia, iinoiaa) ?
neiainiieo/aiiyie (aei?iaei? iieioii, e?eaeiaa aei?iaa, iiioiiiee i?no).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy eaoaai??? iaca aei??a noaaeoue ian ia?aae oaeoii
?nioaaiiy a?oie ne?a, yea aeeth/a? a naaa a?aeae??ne?ai? ?iaiieee,
i?ene?aieee, ui ia iathoue i?yii? iii?iaoe?? oeyo?a niieo/aiiy, aea
nai?th naiaioeeith o?nii iia’ycai? c aiae?ciaaiith ENA (eieoaaiiy,
iaai?inoaoeue, iai?yiee. ieieeoeath).

?iaiieee caaaeuei? ? aeani? iacae ia?aaoaathoue o ??ciiieaiiaeo,
iaiaeiicia/ieo uiaei iiaii? ? e?iaa?noe/ii? noo? ca’yceao (oeae ca’ycie
ia i?aeoeoe? aeyaey?oueny o iiiiaiaii? aeanieo ?iaiiee?a ca ?aooiie
caaaeueieo iai?. – O?auaoee) ? iaaiaee (iacae-aiii?ie Aeaoi?ia-no??o,
?iaeueiai).

Aiae?ciaaia nenoaia ?ai?acaioiaaia ?iaiieeaie o?ueio ?iae?a, na?aae yeeo
i?aaaeththoue aiaeyoeae /ieia?/iai ?iaeo, ye? neeaaeathoue aeecueei
aeaio o?aoei a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo, ?iaiieee ae?ii/iai ?iaeo
noaiiaeyoue iaeio o?aoth ? iacia/ia /anoeia ?iaiiee?a na?aaeiueiai
?iaeo. O aeine?aeaeoaaiiio i?e?iiie? aeyaeaii eaenaie iiaea?eiiai
(/ieia?/i-na?aaeiueiai) ?iaeo (aa?aaeeua, ioaiceua).

Eaoaai??y /enea. Na?aae aiae?ciaaieo noanoaioea?a ?iaiieee, ui iathoue
oi?io iaeieie ? iiiaeeie neeaaeathoue aeecueei 95%, ?iaiieee pluralia
tantum (aaoe, cae?ooane, eaai/ee, iai?aoe?, ia?o?, iooy, ?icaeeee,
noiaee, nooee) – aeecueei 5% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ianoaaeaieo.
I?aenenoaie ENA iaca aei??a aeeth/athoue iaci?ithaai? aiaeyoeae aaaith,
aeao?ea, i?ea, oina. ?i aeanoeaa ioeueiaa neiaici?ia.

9. ENA iaca aei??a a oe?a?inuee?e iia? noaiiaeoue iniaeeao i?e?inenoaio.
Aeine?aeaeaia naiaioe/ia iiea a?aee?eoa eeoa aei iaaii? i??e, eiai /eaie
ooai?ththoue nenoaio ?c neeaaeiith no?oeoo?ith ? ia?aaoaathoue o
???a?o?/ieo ca’yceao.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iiaiinoee?noe/iee iioaioe?ae ENA iaca oeyo?a niieo/aiiy (ia iaoa??ae?
?iiaio I.Aii/a?a “Oaiy ci?y”) // No?aeiineia’yinuee? iiae a ?o
?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo iai’yo?
i?ioani?a N.I. Nai?eeaiea.— Caii??aeaey, 1996.— *.2.— N.91-94.

2. Iiaa oieueeei?o ye a?aeaeooy aeooiaiino? ia?iaeo // Iaoa??aee
I?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? “2000 ?ie?a c ??caeaa O?enoiaiai”.—
Caii??aeaey, 1997.— N.234-236.

3. Eaene/ia i?e?inenoaia ?c no?eaeiaaei aeaiaioii “cae?cieoey” a
oe?a?inuee?e iia? // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Aoiai?oa?i?
iaoee.— 1997.— ?42 (53).— N.40-44.

4. Aei naiaioe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iacae “aei?iaa” a oe?a?inuee?e iia? //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Aoiai?oa?i? iaoee.— 1997.— ?46 (57).—
N.39-43.

5. Iiaiinoee?noe/iee iioaioe?ae iaca aei??a o oai?/ino? I.Aii/a?a //
Ieanue Aii/a? ? o?noaeanyoieoeoai: iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 80–??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy I.Aii/a?a.—
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998.— N.134-136.

6. Iiiaie ia iicia/aiiy oeyo?a caeaaeii a?ae i?noey i?ieyaaiiy //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. O?eieia?y oa iaaeaaia?ea.— 1998.—
?37(104).— N.44-48.

7. Eaene/ia i?e?inenoaia ia iicia/aiiy iaca i?noey ia?aoeio aei??a a
oe?a?inuee?e iia? // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. O?eieia?y.—
1998.— ?51 (118).— N.46-48.

N??ee N.A. Iacae aei??a a oe?a?inuee?e iia?.— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa.— Caii??cueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? anaa?/ii aeine?aeaeaia eaeneea ia iicia/aiiy aei??a a
no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?. Ia iaoe?iiio iaoa??ae? ?c caeo/aiiyi
aeaea?ae ??cii??aeii? /aniai? i?eiaeaaeiino? o ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny
neio?ii?/ii e ae?ao?ii?/ii eiiiiiaioe eaeneei–naiaioe/iiai iiey
iaeiaioaaiue oeyo?a niieo/aiiy c iniaeeaith oaaaith aei naiaioeee neiaa,
noa?e eiai iiaoooaaiiy, aaia?ao?? iioe?aiiy, i?inoaaeothoueny ?o
no?oeoo?i?, aea?eaaoe?ei? iniaeeaino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iacae iacaiieo aei??a, iaeiaioaaiiy iaiacaiieo oeyo?a
niieo/aiiy, i?e?inenoaia, eaeneei–naiaioe/ia a?oia, naiaioeea,
naiaioe/iee ianya, aea?eaaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino?, aeai?iooea, eiiiioao.

Ne?ue N.A. Iacaaiey aei?ia a oe?aeineii ycuea.— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.01 – oe?aeineee ycue.— Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee ananoi?iiia enneaaeiaaia eaeneea aeey iaicia/aiey aei?ia
a nia?aiaiiii oe?aeineii ycuea. Ia iaoe?iii iaoa?eaea n eniieueciaaieai
?aciia?aiaiiuo enoi/ieeia a ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony neio?iie/anee e
aeeao?iie/anee eiiiiiaiou eaeneei–naiaioe/aneiai iiey iaeiaiiaaiee
aei?ia n iniaaiiui aieiaieai e naiaioeea neiaa, noa?a aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, aaia?aoee ?ani?ino?aiaiey, i?ineaaeeaathony eo
no?oeoo?iua, aea?eaaoeeiiiua iniaaiiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iacaaiey iacaiiuo aei?ia, iaeiaiiaaiey iaiacaiiuo iooae
niiauaiey, iee?inenoaia, eaeneei–naiaioe/aneay a?oiia, naiaioeea,
naiaioe/aneee iauai, aea?eaaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe, aeaieiooea, eiiiioao.

Siryk S.V. Names of Roads in the Contemporary Ukrainian Language.—
Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate”s Degree in Linguistics. Major – 10.02.01. – The
Ukrainian Language.— Zaporozhye State University, Zaporozhye, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to an all–round analysis of lexical units
denoting names of roads in the contemporary Ukrainian language.
Components of lexical semantic fields of names of roads are analyzed
both synchronically and diachronocally on the basis of substantial
materials and sources of different periods of time. Special heed is paid
to the semantics of a word, the area of its use, its structural and
derivational peculiarities.

Key words: names of land roads, names of non–land roads, microsystem,
lexical semantic group, semantics, semantic volume, derivational
capabilities, deminutuve, connotate.

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