EE?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE E?IAA?NOE*IEE
OI?AA?NEOAO

I?OeAOeUeEA Ienaia Ieeiea?aia

OAeE 372.80/802.0:801.5

IAA*AIIss A?AIAOE*IIAI IAOA??AEO OA EIAI I?AAI?CAOe?ss

A I?Ae?O*IEEO “ENGLISH THROUGH COMMUNICATION”

AeEss 7 ? 8 EEAN?A NA?AAeIUeI? OEIEE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 13.00.02 — oai??y oa iaoiaeeea

iaa/aiiy: aa?iainuee? iiae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ioeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

NEEss?AIEI I?ia Einoyioei?aia

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?iicaiieo iia

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo

OA?IIIIEUeNUeEEE Ieaa Ai?eniae/

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?iicaiii? o?eieia??

Ai?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai

?inoeoooo ?iicaiieo iia

IE?EIEE Oaoyia ?aai?aia

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie,
Eaai?aoi??y iaoiaeeee ?iicaiieo iia, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” n?/iy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.054.01 ii i?enoaeaeaiith
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a /eaiaeeaeaoa/ iaoe o Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
e?iaa?noe/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252650, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aae.Aaneeuee?anueea, 73.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 24 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.I.Niaeyeiaa

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Ca?aeii c I?ia?aiith na?aaeiuei? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee c ?iicaiieo
iia ? i?iaeoii Aea?aeaaiiai ina?oiueiai noaiaea?oo c ?iicaiii? iiae
(caaaeueia na?aaeiy ina?oa V — IX eeane), i?aeoe/ia iaoa iaa/aiiy
iieyaa? a oiio, uia iaa/eoe o/i?a ni?eeoaaiiy ?iicaiiith iiaith a oni?e
oa ienueiia?e oi?iao1.

C i?aeoe/ii? iaoe iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae a na?aaei?e oeie? eia?/ii
aeieeaa? iaiao?aei?noue iaa/aiiy a?aiaoeee aeey ??oaiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo
caaea/.

I?iaeaia iaa/aiiy a?aiaoeee a na?aaei?e oeie? ia ? iiaith. ?nio? aaeeea
e?euee?noue ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo ??ciei aniaeoai oeueiai ieoaiiy: i?e?iae?
a?aiaoe/ieo iaae/ie (TH.?.Iannia 1978, 1988; N.I.Oao?eia 1986; S.Gaies
1977; S.Krashen 1987 oa ?i.), ???a?o?? iiaeaii?aeo iaae/ie (I.?.Aac,
I.A.Eyoiaeoeueeee 1967; H.Dulay, M.Burt 1978; R.Jordens, E.Kellerman
1978), ?ic?iaoe? eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaieo a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa (I.N.?eue?i
1981; A.A.Eai?aeon 1979; TH.?.Iannia 1967, 1977, 1985; I.E.Neey?aiei
1982, 1992, 1993; A.E.Neaee?i 1983, 1987; N.I.Oao?eia 1986; A.I.Ooaei
1972; M.Long 1990; J.Maculaitis, M.Sheraga 1993, H.Widdowson 1978;
L.Meyer 1990).

?nio? /eiaei ioae?eaoe?e, iia’ycaieo c iaieiae?iiyi a?aiaoeeith

a ?ioaineaiiio iaa/aii?, a naia: c i?noeai a?aiaoeee a eo?n?
?ioaineaiiai iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae (?I) o iiaiiio aoc? (E.O.Aaaa/ei??
1977), c i?ioeanii iaieiae?iiy iaa/aeueiei iaoa??aeii ca noaiith Neioac1
— Aiae?c — Neioac2 (A.I.Eeoaeai?iaenueea 1988), c

____________

1I?ia?aie na?aaeiuei? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee. ?iicaii? iiae /5 -11
eeane/. — E.: Ina?oa. — 1996. — N. 1; Aea?aeaaiee ina?oi?e noaiaea?o c
?iicaiii? iiae /Caaaeueia na?aaeiy ina?oa V — IX eeane/ I?iaeo, 2-aa
?aaeaeoe?y. — E.: Eaia?o. — 1998. — N. 5 — 7.

iniaeeainoyie iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai ioi?ieaiiy oniiai iiaeaiiy
(I.A.Cai?ia, 1990), ?c niaoe?o?eith iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a
noa?oeo eeanao na?aaeiuei? oeiee (N.I.Iacai?i, E.A.Aeai?niaa, 1992).

O 1996-1998 ?ieao o aeaeaaieoeoa? “Ina?oa” iioae?eiaai?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i? eiiieaene “English through Communication” (IIE
AON) aeey 5, 6 ? 7 eean?a (IIE AON aeey 8 eeano ae?oeo?oueny) noai?ai?
a?oiith aaoi??a i?ae ea?eaieoeoaii I.E.Neey?aiei, a yeeo oaeiae
aeei?enoiao?oueny oaoiieia?y ?ioaineaiiai iaa/aiiy. Ieoaiiy iaa/aiiy
a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a i?ae?o/ieeao AON aeey ii/aoeiaiai nooiaiy — 5 ?
6 eeane — ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoiaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? (I.E.Neey?aiei
1996, A.A.Oiiaiei 1995). I?ioa, a?eia? iniaeeaino? o/i?a 5-6 eean?a ?
7-8 eean?a nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny. Ioaea, ? iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy
a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a 7 ? 8 eeanao ia? aooe ?ioith. A?aenooi?noue
niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeaie iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo
oa eiai i?aai?caoe?? a i?ae?o/ieeo AON aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a, a oaeiae
iaiao?aei?noue o?aooaaiiy a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai
nooiaiy coiiaeee aeooaeuei?noue aeai?o oaie ?aoa?iaaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo
?iicaiii? iiae o/i?a 7 ? 8 eean?a o i?ae?o/ieeo ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
?ioaineaii? oaoiieia?? aeey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaa/aiiy o oeie?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo aiae?enueei? iiae c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo oei?a aa?enoe/ieo
aan?ae oa eiai i?aai?caoe?y a i?ae?o/ieeo “English through
Communication” aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a na?aaeiuei? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

A?iioacith aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? iieiaeaiiy, ca?aeii c yeei oi?ioaaiiy
no?eeeo ?ioiiiaieo iiaeaii?aeo a?aiaoe/ieo iaae/ie a o/i?a na?aaeiueiai
nooiaiy iiaea aooe aoaeoeaiei ca oiiae aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo oei?a
aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae aeey iiyniaiiy oa ona?aeiieaiiy iiaiai a?aiaoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo, a oaeiae i?aenenoaie a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa, iiaoaeiaaii? c
o?aooaaiiyi aoai?a oi?ioaaiiy aeuacaaaeaieo iaae/ie oa aeo?aeieo
iieiaeaiue IIE AON.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?, i?aeoe/i?e
?ic?iaoe? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy
a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ?c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo oei?a aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae
a i?ae?o/ieeo aiae?enueei? iiae aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a, yea a iaeneiaeueii
o?aoiaoaaea a?eia? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo i?aee?oe?a.

Iaoa ? a?iioaca coiiaeee oae? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aecia/eoe iniiai? oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie
iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo oa eiai i?aai?caoe?? a i?ae?o/ieeao c
aiae?enueei? iiae aeey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaa/aiiy ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? ineoieia??, ineoie?iaa?noeee,
iaaeaaia?ee oa iaoiaeeee.

2. I?iaiae?coaaoe iaoiaeeeo canai?iiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo oa niiniae
eiai i?aai?caoe?? a ??cieo i?ae?o/ieeao aiae?enueei? iiae aeey
na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaa/aiiy a na?aaei?e oeie?.

3. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe ia?aiee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo a i?ae?o/ieeo AON aeey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaa/aiiy.

4. Aecia/eoe iaeaeioe?euei?o? oeyoe i?aai?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo
a i?ae?o/ieeo AON aeey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaa/aiiy.

5. ?ic?iaeoe ??ci? oeie aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae, ia aac? yeeo aoaea
a?aeaoaaoeny iciaeiieaiiy c iiaei a?aiaoe/iei iaoa??aeii o i?ae?o/ieeo
AON aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a.

6. Noai?eoe a?aiaoe/i? eiiaioa?? aei i?ae?o/ieea AON aeey 7 oa 8 eean?a.

7. ?ic?iaeoe i?aenenoaio a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa, yea a aoea ?ioaa?aeueiith
/anoeiith caaaeueii? nenoaie ai?aa i?ae?o/ieea AON aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a.

8. Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee
iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo o/i?a 7 ? 8 eean?a caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
na?aaeiuei? oeiee.

O i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy iae?aneaieo caaaeaiue aoee aeei?enoai? oae?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: aiae?c a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo i?ae?o/iee?a
aiae?enueei? iiae aeey na?aaeiuei? oeiee c oi/ee ci?o iaa/aiiy
a?aiaoeee; oanooaaiiy o/i?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? ?o
?ioiiiaieo iiaeaii?aeo a?aiaoe/ieo iaae/ie; aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa/aiiy a
oiae? ?ica?aeoaaeueiiai oa iniiaiiai iaa/aeueieo aenia?eiaio?a;
aieaooaaiiy o/i?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy ?o noaaeaiiy aei iaoiaeeee, yea
i?iiiio?oueny a aeine?aeaeaii?; e?eoe/iee aiae?c ioae?eaoe?e a?o/eciyieo
oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo c ineoieia??, ineoie?iaa?noeee, iaaeaaia?ee oa
iaoiaeeee, ye? iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa a oai?aoe/iiio ?
i?aeoe/iiio ieai? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo
o/i?a na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaieo iaie ??cieo
oei?a aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae, ui iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaothoue a?eia?
ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? i?aee?oe?a ? ? ?ioaa?aeueiith /anoeiith
i?ae?o/iee?a AON aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a na?aaeiuei? oeiee.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aeiaaaeaia
aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae ia aoai? iciaeiieaiiy
o/i?a na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaa/aiiy c iiaei a?aiaoe/iei iaoa??aeii;
?ic?iaeai? oeie aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo; iaa?oioiaaia i?aenenoaia a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa o
i?ae?o/ieeo AON aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c ?ic?iaeith aa?enoe/ieo
aan?ae, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny i?ae /an iciaeiieaiiy c eiaeiei iiaei
a?aiaoe/iei yaeuai, yea canaith?oueny o i?ae?o/ieeo AON aeey 7 ? 8
eean?a, a oaeiae ?c noai?aiiyi i?aenenoaie a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa ?
a?aiaoe/ieo eiiaioa??a aeey i?ae?o/iee?a AON aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?aeia?aaeai? o oanoe noaooyo, aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
ui??/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo iieiaeeo a/aieo “No/ani? iaoiaee iaa/aiiy
?iicaiieo iia” (AEeoiie?nueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo,
AEeoiie?, 1995 — 1997); ia ui??/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo iieiaeeo a/aieo “Iia?
oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy” (Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao,
Ee?a, 1996 — 1998); ia anaoe?a?inuee?e ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iia? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy” (AEeoiie?nueeee aea?aeaaiee
iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo, AEeoiie?, 1996); ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“New Teachers for the New Century” (Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee
oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1996); ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? “Developing
Communicative Competence in a Second Language” (IATEFL; AEeoiie?nueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo, AEeoiie?, 1997).

No?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue anooi, o?e ?icae?ee, aeniiaee,
nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoie. Ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii
ia 164 noi??ieao, ianya nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae — 17
noi??iie (173 iaeiaioaaiue), aeiaeaoe?a — 19 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ?icae?e? ? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae iaa/aiiy a?aiaoeee o i?ae?o/ieeo
“English through Communication” aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a” aeine?aeaeothoueny
oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ia na?aaeiueiio
nooiai? a na?aaei?e caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie?: aecia/athoueny a?eia?
ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? o/i?a na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy a eiioaeno?
iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae,
?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy aieeao a?eiaeo ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae
?icaeoeo o/i?a-i?aee?oe?a ia iaoiaeeeo iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo
oa eiai i?aai?caoe?th a i?ae?o/ieeo aiae?enueei? iiae aeey na?aaeiueiai
nooiaiy iaa/aiiy, aiae?cothoueny ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei iaa/aiiy a?aiaoeee
?iicaiii? iiae a na?aaei?e oeie?.

Ineoieia?/iith iniiaith iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae a oe?eiio oa a?aiaoeee
cie?aia ia?aii iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?niee i?aeo?ae. A ?iaio? iine?aeiaii
?icaeyaeathoueny ae?yeuei?niee oa iniaeno?niee eiiiiiaoe oeueiai
i?aeoiaeo.

Aiae?c caaaeueii? oai??? ae?yeueiino? (E.N.Aeaionueeee, I.I.Eaiioue?a,
N.E.?oa?iooaei), oai??? i?ia?aeii? ae?yeueiino? oa ci?ie oe???
ae?yeueiino? ia ??cieo noaae?yo ?icaeoeo ineo?ee ethaeeie
(I.I.Eaiioue?a, ?.I.Ceiiy, A.A.Aeaaeaeia, Ae.A.Aeueeii?i) iieacaa, ui
aeey ineo?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?aee?oea aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue aeaa oeie
i?ia?aeii? ae?yeueiino? — iaa/aeueia, aai i?ciaaaeueia, oa ae?yeuei?noue
ni?eeoaaiiy.

A?eia? ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? i?aee?oe?a ?icaeyaeathoueny ca?aeii c
/ioe?ia e?i?yie ineoieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo o/i?a, ye? aoee aecia/ai?
?.I.Ceiiueith: ?ioaeaeooaeueiith, iniaeno?niith, ae?yeuei?niith oa
eiioi?eaoeaiith. A ieai? ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo a?aeaoaathoueny
ci?ie a ?icoiia?e ae?yeueiino? oa ni?eeiyoo? i?aee?oea: ci?ith?oueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae eiie?aoii-ia?aciei oa aano?aeoiei ieneaiiyi ia
ei?enoue inoaiiueiai; i?aee?oie iaaoaa? caeaoiino? aei a?eueo neeaaeiiai
aiae?co oa neioaco yaeu, ui ni?eeiathoueny; ?icaeaa?oueny
aiae?oeei-neioaoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue, oiaoi o/i? i?aaiooue aecia/eoe
aieiaia, aaaeeeaa a iaoa??ae?, iaieiae?aathoue ai?iiyi iaa?oioiaoaaoe,
aeiaiaeeoe iaai? iieiaeaiiy, ?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiiy. I?ae aieeaii ?inoo
naiina?aeiiino? o i?aee?oea ?icaeaa?oueny iio?aaa oa ai?iiy naiino?eii
ieneeoe. A ieai? iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo aaeeeo ?ieue a oeueiio a?oe?
a?ae?a?athoue i?ciaaaeuei? oa nioe?aeuei? iioeae — ?ioa?an aei oaeo?a
ci?ith?oueny ?ioa?anii aei caeiiii??iinoae, i?aee?oea i?eaaaeththoue
caaaeaiiy, aeeiioth/e ye? a?i iiaea iieacaoe naith eiiiaoaioi?noue o
aeaiiio ieoaii? oa ??aaiue naiai ?icaeoeo. Oea icia/a?, ui iaiao?aeii
ci?ieoe oi?io iciaeiieaiiy c iiaei iaoa??aeii, oiaoi o/i? ia iiaeii?
io?eioaaoe aioia? oaeoe (i?aaeea), a iiaeii? aeyaeyoe caeiiii??iino?,
i?ine?aeeiaoaaoe eia?/i? ca’ycee; iaiao?aeii aeeth/aoe a o?ie oai?/?
caaaeaiiy, ye? iio?aaothoue a?ae o/i?a naiino?eieo ??oaiue, aenoaaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo a?iioac oa ?o eieaeoeaio ia?aa??eo. A ieai?
eiioi?eaoeaiiai ?icaeoeo o i?aee?oea i?iaeiaaeo? oaeineiiaethaaoeny
iiiaieeaoo?a oa a?aea?? iiaieo cania?a ye a ??aei?e, oae ? a ?iicaii?e
iia?, ?o eiia?iaoi?eea, niiniae oi?ioaaiiy oa oi?ioethaaiiy aeoiee,
oaeineiiaeththoueny iiaeaii?a? iaoai?cie: iai’youe, ieneaiiy, eiia??ia
i?iaiicoaaiiy; i?aee?oee ii/eiathoue na?aeiii ei?enooaaoeny oaeeie
iia?aoe?yie ye ii??aiyiiy, aiae?c, aano?aaoaaiiy, ?iaeoeoe?y.

Aecia/ai? ianooii? ineoieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo a i?ae?o/ieeo AON aeey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy:

1. Iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ?I ia? aoaeoaaoeny c o?aooaaiiyi
oei?a i?ia?aeii? ae?yeueiino? a aeaiiio a?oe?: iaa/aeueii?, aai
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oa ae?yeueiino? ni?eeoaaiiy. Ioaea, i?e
iaa/aii? a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ia?aaaao ne?ae iaaeaaaoe ai?aaai, ye?
iinyoue i?ciaaaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? ia?aaeaa/athoue eieaeoeaio aca?iiae?th
o/i?a — ?iaioo a ia?ao, iaeeo a?oiao, eiiaiaeao.

2. O ca’yceo c iniaeeainoyie ?icaeoeo ni?eeiyooy, ieneaiiy oa iai’yo?
i?aee?oe?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy a?aiaoeee aiae?enueei? iiae iaiao?aeii
iaaeaoe iiaeeea?noue naiei o/iyi ?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aeniiaee i?i
ooai?aiiy oa aaeeaaiiy a?aiaoe/ieo no?oeoo? (AN), ui aea/athoueny,
anoaiiaethaaoe eia?/i? ca’ycee i?ae ??cieie a?aiaoe/ieie yaeuaie,
oi?ioethaaoe i?aaeea.

3. I?ae /an iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ne?ae o?aoiaoaaoe
i?ciaaaeuei? oa nioe?aeuei? iioeae i?aee?oe?a. Ioaea, ai?aae iathoue
aoaeoaaoeny ia i?iaeaiiiio, iniaeno?nii-cia/ouiio, oe?eaaiio iaoa??ae?,
yeee iiaeiai a?aeiia?aeaoe iniaeno?niei iio?aaai o/i?a, ?o ?ioa?anai.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iaoiaee/ieo ia?aaeoiia iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo
o i?ae?o/ieeo AON aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a na?aaeiuei? oeiee aoee
i?iaiae?ciaai? ??ci? iaoiaee iaa/aiiy a?aiaoeee ?iicaiii? iiae c
o?aooaaiiyi aeuacaaaeaieo a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai
nooiaiy. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c, cie?aia, aeyaea oae? iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? o
iaa/aii? a?aiaoeee ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy
?iicaiii? iiae:

1) ooieoe?y AN, ui aea/athoueny, iiaeiia canaithaaoeny ?acii ?c oi?iith;

2) iciaeiieaiiy c iiaeie AN iiaeiii a?aeaoaaoeny a oe?ieiio eiioaeno?, a
yeiio aeaiiino?o?oueny ?o ooieoe?y o iiaeaii?;

3) o a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aaao ia?aae o/iyie iiaeiii noaaeoeny iiaeaii?aa
caaaeaiiy, aiie iathoue aooe eiioi?eaoeaii ni?yiiaaieie oa neooaoeaieie.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ? ?ioaa?aeueiith
/anoeiith i?ioeano iaa/aiiy aiae?enueei? iiae a IIE AON ia na?aaeiueiio
nooiai?, aiii ia? a?aeaoaaoeny c o?aooaaiiyi an??? noeoiiino?
iieiaeaiue, ia yeeo aaco?oueny eiioeaioe?y aaoi?nueeiai eieaeoeao:

— iaa/aiiy aiae?enueei? iiae /a?ac ni?eeoaaiiy oe??th iiaith;

— eiiieaenia iaa/aiiy ni?eeoaaiith o an?o aeaeao iiaeaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino?;

— aiioe?ei?noue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano;

— eiioeaio?iaaia iiaea/a anueiai iiaiai iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo a
oaenoao-iie?eiaao.

O ?icae?e? ?? “Iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a i?ae?o/ieeo
“English through Communication” aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a” ?icaeyaeathoueny
oe?e? iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, iaoiaeeea iciaeiieaiiy c iiaei
a?aiaoe/iei iaoa??aeii aiae?enueei? iiae ca aeiiiiiaith ??cieo oei?a
aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae, aeiiae aei i?aenenoaie a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa oa
i?aai?caoe?y a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a i?ae?o/ieeo aiae?enueei? iiae AON
aeey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaa/aiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ineoieia?a ? iaoiaeeno?a (?.I.Ceiiuei?, TH.?.Ianniaa,
N.I.Oao?eiaa, I.E.Neey?aiei, I.I.Ie?iethaiaa, A.N.Oeaoe?i oa ?i.)
iieacaee, ui iaoith iaa/aiiy ?ioiiiaiiai a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ?
oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a aaoiiaoeciaaieo, no?eeeo oa aio/eeo a?aiaoe/ieo
iaae/ie. Aiii a?aeaoaa?oueny a o?e aoaie: ? — i???ioiaii-i?aeaioia/ee
aoai, ?? — noa?aioeiecoth/a-neooaoeaiee aoai, ??? —
aa??thth/a-neooaoeaiee aoai (N.I.Oao?eia).

Iciaeiieaiiy c iiaei a?aiaoe/iei iaoa??aeii o oeeee? o?ie?a i?ae?o/ieea
AON aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a, ye ? c on?i iaa/aeueiei iaoa??aeii oeeeeo ia?
i?noea i?e ia?aae’yaeaii? oaenoo-iie?eiao, yeee ? iniiaiei iaa/aeueiei
oaenoii IIE AON. Aea i?e oeueiio oaaaa o/i?a ia cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia
iiaeo a?aiaoe/ieo no?oeoo?ao, aeaiiino?o?oueny eeoa ?o ooieoe?thaaiiy ye
c?ace?a iiaeaiiy.

I?ney ia?aae’yaeaiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a oaeno?-iie?eic? o/iyi
i?iiiio?oueny aeeiiaoe iaeio-aea? ai?aae, aea aiie aeei?enoiaothoue iiao
AN ca c?aceii. Oae? ai?aae a?aeiinyoueny aei ieoaeueii-a?aeiia?aeieo,
aea aaeeaath/e iiao a?aiaoe/io no?oeoo?o o/i? caiice/othoue ?? c ieoaiue
a/eoaey.

Iiyniaiiy oa ona?aeiieaiiy iiaiai a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a?aeaoaa?oueny
ca aeiiiiiaith aa?enoe/ii? aan?aee, ui aeicaiey? iaeneiaeueii
a?aoiaoaaoe a?eia? ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? i?aee?oe?a, ?o caeaoi?noue
aei aiae?oeei-neioaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, oiaoi iaaea? o/iyi iiaeeea?noue
/a?ac eia?/i? ?icoiia? ae??, aeieace, ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c c o??th
?ioi?iaoe??th, yeith aiie aaea aieiae?thoue, ? nie?ath/enue ia aeina?ae
a ??aei?e oa ?iicaii?e iia? i?eoiaeeoe aei naiino?eieo aeniiae?a
noiniaii aaeeaaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy AN, oi?ioethaaoe i?aaeea.

A iaaeaaia?/i?e oa iaoiaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ( E.I.Aa?iai, ?.ss.Ea?ia?,
?.E.I?iuey?-Aaei?o/aa), i?ae aa?enoe/iith aan?aeith ?icoi?thoue ?yae
?icoaoiaaieo a eia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino? ieoaiue, ui iio?aaothoue
aaeoieeaeo a?aeiia?aeae, caaaeyee yeei aoaea ae??oaia iinoaaeaia
caaea/a. Oey caaaeueia eiioeaioe?y aoea iieeaaeaia iaie a iniiao
noai?aiiy aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae aeey iaa/aiiy a?aiaoeee a IIE AON aeey 7 ?
8 eean?a.

I?ae /an aa?enoe/ii? aan?aee a/eoaeue i?eaa?oa? oaaao o/i?a aei
“e?eoe/ieo oi/ie”, “cii iaaaciaee”, oiaoi aei i?noeue, aea iiaeooue
c’yaeoeny iaea?eueo oeiia? oa no?ee? iiieeee. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey?
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii i?aeoiaeeoe aei eiaeiiai eeano oa a?aoiaoaaoe
?iae?a?aeoaeuei? iniaeeaino? o/i?a. A/eoaeue iiaea oaeaeei ?aaaoaaoe ia
aeneiaethaaiiy o/i?a, aecia/aoe nooi?iue ?icoi?iiy oa ona?aeiieaiiy
o/iyie iiaiai a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, ?aaoethaaoe ??aaiue i?iaeaiiino?
ca?aeii ??aiy i?aeaioiaeaiino? eeano. O/i? ?ici??eiaothoue,
oi?ioeththoue aeniiaee aaiein, ui aeicaiey? a/eoaeth iino?eii
eiio?iethaaoe ?o ae??.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae neeaaeiino? a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, ui aea/a?oueny,
aa?enoe/i? aan?aee iiaeooue aeeth/aoe a naaa ??ci? iiaeae? ieoaiue: 1)
ieoaiiy, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue ii??aiyiiy a?aiaoe/ieo yaeu aiae?enueei? oa
oe?a?inueei? iia, oa?aeoa?enoeee yeeo ni?aiaaeathoue a iaio iiaao; 2)
ieoaiiy, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue ii??aiyiiy a?aiaoe/ieo yaeu aiae?enueei? oa
oe?a?inueei? iia, oa?aeoa?enoeee yeeo ia ni?aiaaeathoue a iaio iiaao; 3)
ieoaiiy, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue ni?anoaaeaiiy ana?aaeai? aiae?enueei? iiae;
4) ieoaiiy, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue aiae?c a?aiaoe/ieo yaeu, a yeeo ?
noia?a/eea? oaeoe; 5) ieoaiiy, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue o a?aeiia?ae?
caeiaaaeeo, aeniiaie.

A?aiaoe/iee iaoa??ae, ui i?iiiio?oueny aeey canai?iiy a i?ae?o/ieeo AON
aeey 7 ? 8 eeano, ie ?icae?eeee ia o?e a?oie: a?aiaoe/iee iaoa??ae, a
yeiio i??i?eoaoiith ? ooieoe?iiaeueia noi?iia yaeua, ui aea/a?oueny,
iai?eeeaae, Infinitive and its Functions or Modal Verbs; a?aiaoe/iee
iaoa??ae, a yeiio i??i?eoaoiith ? oi?iaeueia noi?iia yaeua, ui
aea/a?oueny, iai?eeeaae, Forms of the Infinitive (oaeeo yaeu aeoaea
iaei); a?aiaoe/iee iaoa??ae, a yeiio aiae?co?oueny ? ooieoe?iiaeueia ?
oi?iaeueia noi?iie a?aiaoe/iiai yaeua, iai?eeeaae, Subjunctive Mood or
Perfect Progressive Tense (oey a?oia ? iaea?eueoith).

Ca?aeii c oaeei ?iciiae?eii a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ie ?ic?iaeee o?e oeie
aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo: ? —
aa?enoe/i? aan?aee, iaoith yeeo ? aecia/aiiy ooieoe?? a?aiaoe/ieo yaeu,
ui aea/athoueny; ?? — aa?enoe/i? aan?aee, iaoith yeeo ? aecia/aiiy oi?ie
a?aiaoe/ieo yaeu; ??? — aa?enoe/i? aan?aee, iaoith

yeeo ? aecia/aiiy ye ooieoe?iiaeueieo, oae ? oi?iaeueieo iniaeeainoae
a?aiaoe/ieo yaeu. Eiaeiee oei aa?enoe/ii? aan?aee ia? nai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oa aeeth/a? iaai? iiaeae? ieoaiue.

Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaae aa?enoe/ii? aan?aee ??? oeio, yea aeeth/aia aei
i?ae?o/ieea AON aeey 7 eeano oa aeei?enoiao?oueny a i?ioean? aea/aiiy
ocaiaeaeaiiy /an?a.

1. a) Read the first verse of A.A.Milne’s poem “The King’s Breakfast”:

The King asked the Queen and

The Queen asked the Dairymaid:

“Could we have some butter

For the Royal slice of bread?”

The Queen asked the Dairymaid,

The Dairymaid said:”Certainly,

I’ll go and tell the cow

Now

Before she goes to bed.”

b) Now read our version of what the King and the Queen, the Dairymaid,
the cat and the cow say. Note the tense forms in the subordinate
clauses. Refer to the table of tenses if necessary.

The King

The Queen

The Dairymaid

The cat

The cow

says

(that) he prefers bread and butter. (…)

she is waiting for the Dairymaid. (…)

the cat has eaten all the butter. (…)

he ate the butter yesterday. (…)

she will have given some more milk

by the end of the week. (…)

O/i? aaiein /eoathoue ?a/aiiy oa aecia/athoue aeaei-/aniao oi?io
ae??neiaa i?ae?yaeiiai ?a/aiiy. Iai?eeeaae:

P1: The Queen says that she is waiting for the Dairymaid. O i?ae?yaeiiio
?a/aii? aaeeoi oaia??oi?e o?eaaeee /an.

T: A a aieiaiiio ?a/aii??

P1: O aieiaiiio — oaia??oi?e iaicia/aiee /an.

T: A??ii. O aieiaiiio ?a/aii? — oaia??oi?e iaicia/aiee /an, o
i?ae?yaeiiio — oaia??oi?e o?eaaeee /an.

c) Read the same statements. Note how the tense forms in the subordinate
clause have been changed.

The King

The Queen

The Dairymaid

The cat

The cow

said

(that) he preferred bread and butter. (…)

she was waiting for the Dairymaid. (…)

the cat had eaten all the butter. (…)

he had eaten all the butter the day before. (…)

she would have given some more milk by the end of the week. (…)

O/i? ciia /eoathoue aaiein oa aiae?cothoue ?a/aiiy, iai?eeeaae:

P1: The Queen said that she was waiting for the Dairymaid. O
i?ae?yaeiiio ?a/aii? aaeeoi ieioeee o?eaaeee /an.

T: A a aieiaiiio?

P1: O aieiaiiio — ieioeee iaicia/aiee /an.

O: Oae, a??ii. O aieiaiiio ?a/aii? — ieioeee iacia/aiee /an, o
i?ae?yaeiiio — ieioeee o?eaaeee /an.

d) Let’s fill in the following chart. The last line has been done for
you.

Present Simple

Present Progressive

Present Perfect changes into

Past Simple

Future Perfect Future in-the-Past

O/i? nii/aoeo naiino?eii caiiaiththoue oaaeeoeth ienueiiai a cioeo?, a
iio?i onii ?acii ia?aa??ythoue i?aaeeuei?noue ?? caiiaiaiiy, aecia/ath/e
ye? iiieeee aoei c?iaeaii, iai?eeeaae:

P1: Present Simple changes into Past Simple.

O: Do you all agree?

Ps: Yes, we do. Etc.

e) What has caused the changes in the subordinate object clauses?

A?aeiia?aeath/e ia oea ieoaiiy, o/i? ?iaeyoue aaaeeeaee aeniiaie i?i
oa, a yeeo aeiaaeeao ci?ith?oueny /an o i?ae?yaeiiio ?a/aii?,
iai?eeeaae:

?1: I?e/eiith ci?ie ae??neiaa o i?ae?yaeiiio ?a/aii? ? ci?ia oi?ie
ae??neiaa o aieiaiiio ?a/aii?.

O: Iiaeea?oueny oaaaeii. Ci?ieeiny naia ae??neiai /e uinue ?ioa?

?s: Ci?ieeany oi?ia ae??neiaa.

O: A??ii! Ca yei? oiiae ci?ith?oueny oi?ia ae??neiaa o i?ae?yaeiiio
?a/aii??

?2: sseui o aieiaiiio ?a/aii? ae??neiai noi?oue o ieioeiio /an?, oi o
i?ae?yaeiiio ?a/aii? ae??neiai noiyoeia a iaeiiio c ieioeeo /an?a.

O: Oae, oe?eeii a??ii! Aeaaaeoa i?iaeyiaii ua ?ac, ye ci?iththoueny
aeaei-/ania? oi?ie ae??ne?a o i?ae?yaeiiio ?a/aii?, yeui o aieiaiiio
?a/aii? ae??neiai noi?oue o ieioeiio /an?. Etc.

2. Read the following sentences from the story “The Enchanted Doll”.
Consider the verb in the principal clause and define the tense forms in
the subordinate object clauses.

1) The doctor thought that this doll would be the best present for his
niece.

2) Jim said that the young doctor had worked too hard.

3) I suddenly remembered that it was my niece’s birthday next week.

4) Jim told me that this beautiful doll had been made by a tall
red-haired woman.

5) The doctor thought that this girl was very unhappy.

A i?ae?o/ieeo AON i?iiiiothoueny eeoa oi?aa?naeuei? noaie aa?enoe/ieo
aan?ae, ye? iiaeooue aooe ?icoe?ai?, nei?i/ai? aai o?ainoi?iiaai?
ca?aeii c ia’?eoeaieie oiiaaie a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio eean? oa ca?aeii c
iiaaaeaiiyie a/eoaey.

A?aoiaoth/e a?eia? iniaeeaino? o/i?a na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy oa aeo?aei?
iieiaeaiiy IIE AON, iaie noai?aia i?aenenoaia a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa, yea ?
?ioaa?aeueiith /anoeiith an??? nenoaie ai?aa i?ae?o/ieea. Aecia/aii 18
oei?a ai?aa, ye? neeaaeathoue i?aenenoaio a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa i?ae?o/ieea
AON aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a, a naia: ca e?eoa???i aiioeaiaaiino? —
aiioeaiaai?; ca e?eoa???i eiioi?eaoeaiino? — eiioi?eaoeai?,
oiiaii-eiioi?eaoeai?, iaeiioi?eaoeai? c i?ciaaaeueiith iioeaaoe??th; ca
e?eoa???i iayaiino? ?ieueiaiai eiiiiiaioo — iniaeno?nii-?ieueia?,
?ieueia? oa i?aeiniaeno?ni?; ca e?eoa???i “niin?a i?aai?caoe?? ai?aa”-
o?iioaeuei?, oi?ia?, ia?i? oa a?oiia?; ca e?eoa???i “??aaiue ea?oaaiiy”
— c iiaiei oa /anoeiaei ea?oaaiiyi; ca e?eoa???i aca?iica’yceo iaa/aiiy
aiai??iiy oa ienueia — oni? oa ienueiia?; ca e?eoa???i
iie?ooieoe?iiaeueiino? — iie?ooieoe?iiaeuei?; ca e?eoa???i caeo/aiiy
??aeii? iiae — iaeiiiiai? oa aeaiiiai?.

Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa IIE AON aeey 7 eeano oa c?acee ?o
aeeiiaiiy, ye? i?iiiiothoueny.

1) Your visit to Scotland is almost over. Now you are phoning Emily
Simon from Brighton, England. Tell her about your journey across
Scotland.

Example:

Sp1 (ni?yiiao? aeneiaethaaiiy o/i?a): Tell Emily that you went
sightseeing round Edinburgh.

P: Emily, we went sightseeing round Edinburgh.

Sp2 (Emily): What did you say?

P: I said we had gone sightseeing round Edinburgh.

Sp1 (aea? iiaiee eeth/): I said we had gone sightseeing round Edinburgh.

Ai?aaa aeeiio?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith e?iaaoiiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a ?aaeei?
aeeeoi? — o/aiue. (Oeeee 2, §8, ai?.4)

2) Our tour of the UK is over. But we didn’t have time to see everything
we wanted. Think of a place you would like to visit if you came here
again.

Example:

If I came to the UK again some day, I would visit the Houses of
Parliament. (Oeeee 4, §8, ai?.5)

A?aiaoe/i? eiiaioa?? IIE AON ai?uai? a e?ioe? i?ae?o/ieea ye ie?ai?
?icae?ee, ui aeicaiey? o/iyi oaeaeei ciaeoe iio??aio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
a?aiaoe/i? yaeua aiae?enueei? iiae a eean? ? aaeiia, oiaoi oiae?, eiee
a/eoaeue aaaaea? oea ca aeioe?eueia. ?ioi?iaoe?y a?aiaoe/iiai eiiaioa?y
aeeeaaeaia o oi?i? eiii’thoa?iiai aeia?aeieea: /?oei ? a oiio ianyc?,
yeee iio??aai ia aeaiiio aoai? iaa/aiiy. Iaoa??ae eiiaioa?y ?icoaoiaaiee
a o?e iine?aeiaaiino?, a ye?e a?i cono??/a?oueny a oeeee? o?ie?a ?
i?noeoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue i?eeeaae?a, noai oa ocaaaeueithth/eo
oaaeeoeue.

O ?icae?e? ??? “Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee”
?icaeyaea?oueny i?aai?caoe?y ? i?iaaaeaiiy ?ica?aeoaaeueiiai oa
iniiaiiai iaa/aeueieo aenia?eiaio?a, a oaeiae aiae?c ?o ?acoeueoao?a.

?ica?aeoaaeueiee iaa/aeueiee aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany i?ioyaii ethoiai —
aa?aciy 1996 iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo ia aac? na?aaeiuei? oeiee N 16
i.AEeoiie?a. A aenia?eiaio? acyee o/anoue aea? a?oie o/i?a 7-a oa 7-a
eean?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?ica?aeoaaeueiiai aenia?eiaioo aeicaieeee
anoaiiaeoe, ui ia?aiee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ?
aeinooiiei aeey o/i?a c ??ciei ??aiai i?aeaioiaee; i?aenenoaia
a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa aeicaiey? noi?ioaaoe a o/i?a a?aiaoe/i? iaae/ee
iio??aieo iai yeinoae.

Iniiaiee iaa/aeueiee aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany i?ioyaii aa?aciy — ea?oiy
1997 ?ieo ia aac? na?aaeiuei? oeiee N 27 i.AEeoiie?a. A
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaa/aii? acyee o/anoue aea? a?oie 7-a oa 7-a eean?a.
Iaoith aenia?eiaioo aoei i?aeoaa?aeeoe a?iioaco ?aoa?iaaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ui iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo c
aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo oei?a aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae oa i?aenenoaie a?aiaoe/ieo
ai?aa, ui a?aoiao? a?eia? iniaeeaino? o/i?a 7 ? 8 eean?a, aeicaieeoue
aoaeoeaii noi?ioaaoe a o/i?a a?aiaoe/i? iaae/ee oniiai oa ienaiiiai
iiaeaiiy.

??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? a?aiaoe/ieo iaae/ie a oiae? iaio aenia?eiaio?a
aecia/aany ca e?euee?noth iaa?aieo aae?a ca?aeii /ioe?ueio iniiaieo
e?eoa???a: a?aeiia?aei?noue eiioi?eaoeaiiio caaaeaiith, i?aaeeuei?noue
iiaeaiiy (a?aoiaoaaeeny ye ooieoe?iiaeuei?, oae ? oi?iaeuei? iiieeee),
oaii iiaeaiiy oa ianya aeneiaethaaiue o/i?a. Iaeneiaeueia noia aae?a,
yeo i?a iaa?aoe o/aiue, aei??aithaaea 100. C oe??? noie aecia/aany
??aaiue iaa/aiino? eiaeiiai o/anieea aenia?eiaioo oa a?oie a oe?eiio ca
iaoiaeeeith A.I.Aaniaeueea.

Na?aaei?e ei?o?oe??io iaa/aiino? a?oi, ui iaa/aeeny ca ?ic?iaeaiith a
aeine?aeaeaii? iaoiaeeeith, i?ney aenia?eiaioo noaiiaea: 0,86
(aenia?eiaioaeueia a?oia ?ica?aeoaaeueiiai aenia?eiaioo); 0,89; 0,82
(aenia?eiaioaeuei? a?oie iniiaiiai aenia?eiaioo), ui ia?aaeuo? oiiaiee
ei?o?oe??io iaa/aiino? 0,7 ca A.I.Aaniaeueeii. Nooo?ai nei?ioeeany
oaeiae e?euee?noue oi?iaeueieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiieeie, i?i ui
na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe ia?aae- oa i?neyaenia?eiaioaeueieo c??c?a ca
e?eoa???i “i?aaeeuei?noue”.

Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aoaeoeai?noue
cai?iiiiiaaii? o aeine?aeaeaii? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo o/i?a na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo oei?a
aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae oa i?aenenoaie a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiaiaeeoueny aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a i?ae?o/ieeao
aiae?enueei?

iiae aeey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy iaa/aiiy a na?aaei?o caaaeueiiina?oi?o
oeieao.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Neey?aiei I.E., I?oeaoeueea I.I. Iniaeeaino? iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo ia na?aaeiueiio nooiai? o i?ae?o/ieeo “English through
Communication”//?iicaii? iiae. — 1997. — N1. — N. 31 — 34.

(Aiae?c a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy, ?ic?iaea
aa?enoe/ii? aan?aee oa o?aaiaioo a?aiaoe/iiai eiiaioa?y iaeaaeaoue
aaoi?o aeine?aeaeaiiy).

2. I?oeaoeueea I.I. Iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a
i?ae?o/ieeo “English through Communication” aeey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy
//?iicaii? iiae. — 1997. — N4. — N. 20 — 23.

3. Eiio?ieue ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? a?aiaoe/ieo iaae/ie i?ae /an
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy a?aiaoeee aiae?enueei? iiae ca i?ae?o/ieeii
“English through Communication” aeey 7 eeano //?iicaii? iiae. — 1998. —
N3. — N. 10 — 11.

I?oeaoeueea I.I. Iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo oa eiai i?aai?caoe?y a
i?ae?o/ieeo “English through Communication” aeey 7 ? 8 eean?a
na?aaeiuei? oeiee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.02 — oai??y oa iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy:
aa?iainuee? iiae. — Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao,
Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaiith oa i?aeoe/i?e
?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aiae?enueei? iiae
o/i?a 7 ? 8 eean?a oa ieoaiiyi i?aai?caoe?? a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a
i?ae?o/ieeo aiae?enueei? iiae “English through Communication” aeey
na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy. A ?iaio? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia iaoiaeeea
iaa/aiiy a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ca aeiiiiiaith ??cieo oei?a aa?enoe/ieo
aan?ae oa i?aenenoaie a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa c iaeneiaeueiei o?aooaaiiyi
a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae o/i?a na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy. Aeiaaaeaia
aeioe?euei?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? a aeine?aeaeaii? i?aai?caoe??
a?aiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo a i?ae?o/ieeo aiae?enueei? iiae c aeei?enoaiiyi
?ioaineaii? oaoiieia??. ?ic?iaeai? ??ci? oeie aa?enoe/ieo aan?ae oa
i?aenenoaia a?aiaoe/ieo ai?aa, ye? ? ?ioaa?aeueiith /anoeiith
i?ae?o/ieea “English through Communication” aeey na?aaeiueiai nooiaiy.
Noai?ai? a?aiaoe/i? eiiaioa?? aei i?ae?o/iee?a 7 ? 8 eean?a.

Aiioaoe?y ?in?enueeith iiaith:

Ieoeaoeeay I.I. Iao/aiea a?aiiaoe/aneiio iaoa?eaeo e aai i?aaiecaoeey a
o/aaieea «English through Communication» aeey 7 e 8 eeannia n?aaeiae
oeieu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.02 — oai?ey e iaoiaeeea iao/aiey:
aa?iaineea ycuee. — Eeaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue eeiaaenoe/aneee
oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oai?aoe/aneiio iainiiaaieth e i?aeoe/aneie
?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee iao/aiey a?aiiaoe/aneiio iaoa?eaeo aiaeeeneiai
ycuea o/aueony 7 e 8 eeannia e aii?inai i?aaiecaoeee a?aiiaoe/aneiai
iaoa?eaea a o/aaieea ii aiaeeeneiio ycueo «English through
Communication» aeey n?aaeiae nooiaie iao/aiey. A ?aaioa oai?aoe/anee
iainiiaaia iaoiaeeea iao/aiey a?aiiaoe/aneiio iaoa?eaeo, eiaaea
iaeneiaeueii o/eouaathony aic?anoiua iniaaiinoe o/aueony n?aaeiae
nooiaie. Iciaeiieaiea n iiaui a?aiiaoe/aneei iaoa?eaeii eae e ni anai
o/aaiui iaoa?eaeii oeeeea i?ienoiaeeo a oaenoa-iieeeiaa, eioi?ue
yaeyaony iniiaiui o/aaiui oaenoii o/aaieea. Iiyniaiea e iniciaiea iiaiai
a?aiiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea i?ienoiaeeo yooaeoeaiaa i?e eniieueciaaiee
ya?enoe/aneeo aanaae, eioi?ua iicaieytho iaeneiaeueii o/eouaaoue
aic?anoiua iniaaiiinoe iiae?inoeia, eo niiniaiinoue e
aiaeeoeei-neioaoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. aea?o o/aueiny
aiciiaeiinoue /a?ac eiae/aneea oinoaaiiua iia?aoeee, aeieacaoaeuenoaa,
n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec n oie eioi?iaoeeae, eioi?ie iie oaea aeaaeatho, e
iie?aynue ia iiuo a ?iaeiii e eiino?aiiii ycueao i?eoiaeeoue e
naiinoiyoaeueiui auaiaeai ioiineoaeueii oiio?aaeaiey e oi?ie?iaaiey
a?aiiaoe/aneeo no?oeoo?, oi?ioee?iaaoue i?aaeea. ?ac?aaioaii o?e oeia
ya?enoe/aneeo aanaae: I — ya?enoe/aneea aanaaeu, oeaeueth eioi?uo
yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea ooieoeee eco/aaiuo a?aiiaoe/aneeo yaeaiee; II —
ya?enoe/aneea aanaaeu, oeaeueth eioi?uo yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea oi?iu
eco/aaiuo a?aiiaoe/aneeo yaeaiee; III — ya?enoe/aneea aanaaeu, oeaeueth
eioi?uo yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea eae ooieoeeiiaeueiuo, oae e oi?iaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae eco/aaiuo a?aiiaoe/aneeo yaeaiee. Eaaeaeue oei
ya?enoe/aneie aanaaeu eiaao naie oa?aeoa?enoeee e aeeth/aao
ii?aaeae?iiua iiaeaee aii?inia a caaeneiinoe io neiaeiinoe eco/aaiiai
a?aiiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea.

O/eouaay aic?anoiua iniaaiiinoe o/aueony e enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey
o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneiai eiiieaena «English through Communication», a
eioi?ii eniieuecoaony oaoiieiaey eioaineaiiai iao/aiey, ?ac?aaioaia
iiaenenoaia a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee, eioi?ay yaeyaony eioaa?aeueiie
/anoueth iauae nenoaiu oi?aaeiaiee o/aaieea. Nicaeaiu a?aiiaoe/aneea
eiiiaioa?ee e o/aaieeai aeey 7 e 8 eeannia. Iaoa?eae eiiiaioa?eaa
?aniieiaeai a oie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, a eioi?ie ii ano?a/aaony a
oeeeea o?ieia e niaea?aeeo aieueoia eiee/anoai i?eia?ia, noai e
iaiauathueo oaaeeoe.

A?aiiaoe/aneee iaoa?eae o/aaieea «English through Communication» aeey 7
e 8 eeannia i?aaenoaaeai a ?acee/iuo aai /anoyo, a eiaiii: a
oaenoao-iieeeiaao, a ya?enoe/aneeo aanaaeao, a a?aiiaoe/aneeo
oi?aaeiaieyo, a ?acaeaeao «Aeoeaiue oaiaoe/aneee neiaa?ue» eaaeaeiai
oeeeea o?ieia, a a?aiiaoe/aneeo eiiiaioa?eyo.

Aiioaoe?y aiae?enueeith iiaith:

Nitsetska O.M. Teaching and Organizing Grammar Material in the Textbook
«English through Communication» for the Pupils of the 7th and 8th Forms
of the Secondary School. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate Degree in Pedagogical Studies. Speciality
13.00.02 — Theory and Methodology: Germanic Languages, Kyiv State
Linguistic University, Kyiv, 1998.

The thesis is devoted to theoretical substantiation and practical
elaboration of methodology of teaching pupils of the 7th and 8th Forms
English Grammar and to the problem of organizing grammar material in the
textbook «English through Communication». It has been theoretically
substantiated that grammar material is to be taught with the help of
different types of heuristic talks and the subsystem of grammar
exercises which fully reflects the age peculiarities of the 7th and 8th
Forms pupils. It has been proved that in a textbook based on intensive
technology grammar material should be arranged in the way suggested by
the researcher. Different types of heuristic talks, the subsystem of
grammar exercises and grammar commentaries that have become an integral
part of the textbook «English through Communication» for the 7th and 8th
Forms have been created.

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