I?AAeAIIIOE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE

OI?AA?NEOAO (i.Iaeana) ?i. E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai

Eiycyi Ia??aiia Ieaen??aia

OAeE 378.937+378.14+42.44

IAA*AEUeII-AeINE?AeIEOeUeEA Ae?ssEUeI?NOUe

NOOAeAIO?A ssE CAN?A AEOOAE?CAOe??

I?IOAN?EII CIA*OUEO CIAIUe

(ia aac? aea/aiiy ?iicaiieo iia)

13.00.01- oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?cia?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio

?inoeooo?, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?*OE Iaae?y
Aanee?aia

?cia?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
?inoeooo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

iaaeaaia?ee oa iaoiaeeee ii/aoeiaiai
iaa/aiiy, aeaeai oaeoeueoaoo

i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? EOCUe
Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/,

Oiainueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.A.Oe/eie, ?aeoi?;

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
?AAeOE Aaea??e A?eoi?iae/,

E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.E.Aeiie/aiea.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — E?eai??cueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo,
eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.E?eaee ??a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ ” 1998?. i aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 41.053.01 i?e
I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
(i.Iaeana) ?i.E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai ca aae?anith: 270008, i.Iaeana,
aoe.Noa?iii?oio?aie?anueea, 26.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe?
I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (i.Iaeana) ?i.E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ “ 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.A.Eaaaea?iaa

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny iaiao?aei?noth noai?aiiy
aeeoo?caeaoii? nenoaie ina?oe, ?? aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oa aoiai?caoe??, ui,
a naith /a?ao, ia? ia iao? caaacia/aiiy aeey eiaeiiai a?iiaaeyieia
iiaeeeainoae iino?eiiai aeooiaii-oai?/iai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy,
caaeiaieaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oa eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa.

Aea?aeaaiith iaoe?iiaeueiith i?ia?aiith “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia XXI
noie?ooy”) aecia/ai? iniiai? oeyoe a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
ina?oe, na?aae yeeo i??i?eoaoiiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue: i?aeaeuaiiy
i?ioan?iiae?cio iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, oi?ioaaiiy caeaoiino? a/eoae?a
aeeiai?/ii ?aaaoaaoe ia caieoe noni?eueiiai aeeooy, caaacia/aiiy
aeine?aeieoeueei? ni?yiiaaiino? iaioae?oaoo iaeaooi?o iaaeaaia?a.

C iaoith ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aeieo iai?yi?a ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii?
nenoaie ina?oe, aeinyaiaiiy aoaeoeaii? i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a, noai?aiiy ?ioaa?aeueii? iane??cii? nenoaie
aeyaeaiiy oa caeo/aiiy iieiae? aei iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? ii?yae ?c
?ica’ycaiiyi iecee ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?iaeai iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o
aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue iioeiaeueii? i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? aecia/eeeny
iaai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie: ooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe a aeoea?caoe?? oai?/i? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a (A.I.Aeaenthe, A.?.Aiae?a?a, E.A.Ea?oe?ia, I.A.E?/oe,
A.I.Iieyei, I.TH.Iinoaethe oa ?i.); i?noea ??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a
iiooeiai-oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? a nenoai? oaoiai? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a (I.A.Aaaeoe?ia, I.Aa?iue?, Ae.AEe?a?, ?.A.Cycthi, A.A.Eocue,
I.A.Eocue-i?ia, C.I.Eo?eyiae, I.A.Ii?ic, A.I.Iaai?ia, A.A.?aaeoe,
A.I.Neanoueii?i, ?.?.Oiaethe); i?ioean aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia
caniaaie aeei?enoaiiy aeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy (I.Aeaieiaei,
E.Athei-Eeaiaio, ?.I.Ieeue?oae, A.E.Neaee?i, A.I.Ne?ei/aiei, A.?aaoee?,
A.I.Oa?eia).

Ii?yae c oeei oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui o a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aieea iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ia aeooae?caoe?th i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue,
cie?aia i?e aea/aii? ?iicaiieo iia o iaaeaaia?/iiio aoc?, caeeoa?oueny
iica oaaae iaoeiaoe?a.

I?ae oei, aiae?c iaaeaaia?/iiai oiiaeo uiaei i?aeoe/iiai iiaioaaiiy
?iicaiiith iiaith na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeinoaoi? aeei?enoaiiy anueiai
?icia?ooy aeae?a ye aoaeeoi?ii?, oae ? iicaaoaeeoi?ii?
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a. Ioaea,
a?aecia/a?oueny iayai?noue cia/ieo ?aca?a?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano a aeaiiio iai?yieo, a naia: iaoiaee/ia oa ?ioi?iaoe?eia
caaacia/aiiy iioeaaoe?eiiai, ci?noiaiai, i?ioeanoaeueiiai aniaeo?a
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, i???ioaoe?y nooaeaio?a ia
naiino?eio iinoaiiaeo oa ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo i?ciaaaeueieo caaea/.

Aei oiai ae, ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae ia?aeiio?, ui ?ica’ycaiiy
aeuaicia/aieo i?iaeai iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye iaeei ?c ie?aeieo oeyo?a
aeinyaiaiiy ye?nii iiaiai ??aiy i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a
?iicaiieo iia, caeaoieo iia?e?ciaoaaoe iaeiie/aiee
aeine?aeieoeueei-iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae, oai?/i ?ioaa?oaaoe oa
canoiniaoaaoe ia i?aeoeoe? iaaoo? ciaiiy c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy aa?iii?eii
?icaeiaii? iniaenoino? oeiey?a c i?eoaiaiiei i?aaiaiiyi aei
?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaiiai naii?icaeoeo. Icia/aia aeua iaoiiaeei aea??
oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy: “Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue
nooaeaio?a ye can?a aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue (ia aac?
aea/aiiy ?iicaiieo iia)”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeiny a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee oa iaoiaeeee ii/aoeiaiai
iaa/aiiy ?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo. Iai?yiie
iaoeiaiai iiooeo — “I?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia ni?yiiaai?noue o nenoai?
i?aeaioiaee iieiaeiai a/eoaey ye can?a oi?ioaaiiy ineoieia?/ii?
no?eeino? eiai ae?yeueiino?” (? 1870080789).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo ?inoeooo?a.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?ioean aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo
ciaiue nooaeaio?a caniaaie ?oiuei? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oa i?aeoe/ii ai?iaoaaoe
iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, yea
caaacia/o? aeooae?caoe?th i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue; aeyaeoe
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaii? iiaeae?.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy: caaacia/eoe aeooae?caoe?th i?ioan?eii cia/oueo
ciaiue nooaeaio?a iiaeeeai ca oiia canoinoaaiiy nenoaie iaaeaaia?/ieo
caoiae?a, yea ia?aaeaa/a?:

— eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy ye aoaeeoi?ieo, oae ? iicaaoaeeoi?ieo
oi?i i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy a iai?yieo iaeneiaeueiiai caae?yiiy
i?ioan?eii cia/ouiai iaoa??aeo, aeoea?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a;

— cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue, ui
aeicaieythoue caaacia/eoe iiaoaiia oi?ioaaiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue
oa iaae/ie, ?icaeoie ?ioaeaeooaeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo iioea?a iaa/aiiy
iniaenoino?;

— aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?aeo a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a, ui ni?ey? anoaiiaeaiith iia?eueiiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo uiaei
oa?aeoa?o aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue, aacia?a?aiiio eiioaeoo ?c oe?eueiei
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei i?ioeanii;

— i???ioaoe?th nooaeaio?a ia aeoeaio naiiina?oith ?iaioo, ui aenooia?
nooo?aei oaeoi?ii caaaa/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai “oiiaeo” i?ioan?eii
cia/oueo ciaiue.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

?ice?eoe ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/io nooi?noue iiiyoue
“iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a”, “aeooae?caoe?y
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue”;

aeyaeoe e?eoa??? oa ??ai? aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue
nooaeaio?a;

?ic?iaeoe iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ui
caaacia/o? aeooae?caoe?th i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue;

c’ynoaaoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae?
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a;

aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? nenoaie
iaaeaaia?/ieo caoiae?a uiaei aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooieee iieiaeaiiy
o?einionueei? iaoee i?i ae?aeaeoe/iee ca’ycie i?ae yaeuaie ae?eniino?,
?o aca?iicaeaaei?noue oa aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue, aeooiaii-iaoa??aeueio
nooi?noue ae?yeueiino?, ?aei?noue na?aeiiino? ? ae?yeueiino?;
iaoiaeieia?/ieie i???ioe?aie aoee ?aea? aoiai?oa?ecaoe?? oa aoiai?caoe??
iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ieie aeaea?aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooieee iieiaeaiiy ineoieia??
oa iaaeaaia?ee ae?yeueiino? (A.A.Aiaiue?a, E.N.Aeaionueeee,
A.A.Aeaaeaeia, I.I.Eaiioue?a, A.O.Eiiia, N.E.?oa?iooaei, O.Oaeoaocai),
eiioeaioe??: i?iaeaiii-?icaeaaeueiiai oeio iaa/aiiy (A.A.Aeaaeaeia,
Ae.A.Aeueeii?i, I.I.Iaothoe?i, I.?.Iaoiooia, ?.ss.Ea?ia?,
?.N.sseeiainueea), iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy
?iicaiieo iia (A.I.A?oueiiia, ?.I.Ceiiyy, I.I.Eaiioue?a, A.I.Oa?eia),
iioei?caoe?? i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a
(I.A.Aaaeoe?ia, A.I.Aiaoo, I.A.E?/oe, I.A.Eocuei?ia, C.I.Eo?eyiae,
I.A.Ii?ic, A.I.Iaai?ia, ?.?.Oiaethe).

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: 1) oai?aoe/i?: nenoaiiee aiae?c oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy o?einionueei?, nioe?ieia?/ii?, ineoieia?/ii?,
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? oa
?ino?oeoeaii-ii?iaoeaii? aeieoiaioaoe??, oai?aoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy; 2)
aii??e/i?: iaaeaaia?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy, aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a, aan?aee, aieaooaaiiy, iaoiae aenia?oieo ioe?iie oa
naiiioe?iie, eiio?ieueia oanooaaiiy, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio; 3)
iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny a o?e aoaie:

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1993-1994?.?.) ii?aoeueiaoaaeany o?einionueea,
nioe?ieia?/ia, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a c i?iaeaie,
c’yniaoaaany ??aaiue ?? ?ic?iaeaiino?; eiie?aoecoaaeeny iaoa, i?aaeiao ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioaaeany ?iai/a a?iioaca. Caaa?oaiiyi
ia?oiai aoaio ?iaioe aenooieei aecia/aiiy iiiyoue
“iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a”, “aeooae?caoe?y
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue”, i?iaaaeaiiy ae?aaiinoe/iiai aenia?eiaioo.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1994-1997?.?.) iiaeeaethaaany oai?aoe/iee aiae?c
iaoeiaiai oiiaeo c i?iaeaie, ?ic?iaeyeany iaoiaeeea oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaioo. Aoea ai?iaiaaia aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaeue
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, aeyaeai? i?eioeeie, aeiiae
uiaei ?? aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oiiaao aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1998?.) aiae?coaaeenue ? ocaaaeueithaaeeny
?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo, ?ic?iaeyeeny ia ?o iniia?
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, cae?enithaaeany iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea oa
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iaoa??ae?a, oi?ioethaaeeny aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Eiiieaenii aea/aii i?iaeaio
aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue caniaaie
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a; cae?eniaii
eiiiiiaioii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe;
?ice?eoi ae?aeaeoeeo aca?iica’yceo iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? e i?ioeano aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue nooaeaio?a;
aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aoaeoeai?noue iaaeaaia?/ieo caoiae?a o
eiioaeno? ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ooi/iaii? e
eiie?aoecaoe?? nooiino? iiiyoue ”iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea
ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a”, “aeooae?caoe?y i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue”,
aecia/aii? iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? c o?aooaaiiyi e?eoa???a aoaeoeaiino? aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue
nooaeaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaaeaaia?/ii?
oaoiieia?? ae?aaiinoeee ??ai?a aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue nooaeaio?a, o
noai?aii? oa ai?iaoaaii? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, iaoe?eaieo ia
aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.
Iioae?eiaai? iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?aeoeoe?
iaaeaaia?/ieo ?inoeooo?a ? eieaaeae?a, a oaeiae ia aoai? i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? aeniiaee ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? e aeei?enoiaothoueny a
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? oaeoeueoaoo ?iicaiieo iia Oa?niinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.E.E?oinueei? oa
?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo (aeia?aeee i?i
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? 03/288 a?ae 14.04.1998 ?ieo; ? 1 — 4/585 a?ae
17.09.1998 ?ieo).

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa: aia?oa cae?eniaii eiiieaeniee oai?aoe/iee
aiae?c oiia aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue nooaeaio?a o
i?ioean? aea/aiiy ieie ?iicaiieo iia ?c caae?yiiyi
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?; cai?iiiiiaaii e
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, yea ia? ia iao? aeooae?caoe?th ciaiue iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a;
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee uiaei noeioethaaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a /a?ac aeoeai? oi?ie
iaa/aeueieo caiyoue c e?iaa?noe/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
iaoiaeieia?/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue; canoinoaaiiyi
nenoaie aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo iao? oa caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?aei?noth ye?niiai oa e?euee?niiai aiae?c?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo; iiaeeea?noth a?aeoai?aiiy aenia?eiaioo,
ni?aa?aeianai?noth iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a c i?aeoeeith aeui?
iaaeaaia?/ii? oeiee; ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ee ?aniiiaeaio?a;
noaoenoe/iith ia?iaeith ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii?
?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
I?aeia?iaeieo (i. ?cia?e, 1994?., i.*a?i?aoe?, 1996), i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (i. Oa?nii, 1996, 1998?., i. ?cia?e,
1995, 1997, 1998?.)

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? 176 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, c ieo 153 noi??iee
iniiaiiai oaenoo. A oaeno? ai?uaii 2 noaie, 8 oaaeeoeue, 3 ae?aa?aie. O
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae 251 iacaa, ianya 4 aeiaeaoe?a 41 noi??iea.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii
ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy, ?iai/o a?iioaco, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao
iiaecio, oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue ye ia’?eo
oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy” ooi/ith?oueny ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
nooi?noue iiiyoue “iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue
nooaeaio?a”, “aeooae?caoe?y i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue”, ?icaeyaea?oueny
aeeaeaeoe/ia iiooaei?noue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe ye caniao
aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a, iiaeathoueny iane?aeee aiae?co
o?aaeeoe?eii? nenoaie iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, a
oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe ae?aaiinoeee ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy o aeuiio caeeaae?
ina?oe.

O iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? (E.N.E?oae?e) i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei
?icaeyaeaiiy ia?aiao?o “noa’?eoeai?noue — ia’?eoeai?noue ?acoeueoaoo
aeine?aeaeaiiy” ye oaeiai, ui aecia/a? i??i?eoaoio ni?yiiaai?noue
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ia oai?/a “ia?aa?aee?eooy”
iaeiie/aiiai noni?eueii-?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo. Aiaeii/an,
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia’?eoeaiith
cia/ou?noth aeinyaiooiai ?acoeueoaoo iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino?. C oeueiai
aeieeaa?, ui iaei??th ?c aaaeeeaeo oa?aeoa?enoee
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe ??
ni?yiiaai?noue ia i?ciaaaeueii-oai?/a canai?iiy nooaeaioaie iaaooeo
ethaenoaii ciaiue ? aeinyaiaiiy noa’?eoeaii iiaeo aeniiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeuaicia/aia aeicaiey? iiaeeaeoe oyaeaiiy i?i niaoeeo?/i?noue
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ia a?aei?io a?ae
o?aaeeoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aiiy.

C?noaaeaiiy i?ioean?a aeieeiaiiy aioo??oiuei? iioeaaoe?? ca oiia
o?aaeeoe?eii? e iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? iiaeaeae iaa/aiiy
aee?enoae?ciao? iioeiaeuei?noue naia iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, yea ni?ey? caoaeaeaiith ?ioaeaeooaeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo
iioea?a o ca’yceo c iiooeiaei oa?aeoa?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?aae?noth
a?aee?eooy iiaiai (iaa?oue noa’?eoeaii iiaiai), caaeiaieaiiy a?ae
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-naiino?eiiai oa?aeoa?o ?iaioe.

Ocaaaeueithth/e ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo aecia/aiue
aeao?i?oe?? “iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a”,
iniaeeainoae ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia a?aei?io, c iaeiiai aieo, a?ae
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe, c ?ioiai — a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai oeio
iaa/aiiy, ae?eaeaii aeniiaeo: iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue
nooaeaio?a — oea oaeee aeae iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ?iaioe oai?/iai
oa?aeoa?o, yeee iaoe?eaiee ia iiooe, aea/aiiy e iiyniaiiy oaeo?a ? yaeu
ae?eniino? c iaoith iaaoooy e nenoaiaoecaoe?? noa’?eoeaii iiaeo ciaiue
i?i ieo.

I?ia?aeieie ooieoe?yie iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?,
ca?aeii c eiioeaioe??th i?iaeaiii-?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy, aenooiathoue:
caaacia/aiiy oai?/iai oeyoo canai?iiy ciaiue, aeoea?caoe?y ieneaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, ?icaeoie ?ioaeaeooaeueii-i?ciaaaeueieo iioea?a
iaa/aiiy, oi?ioaaiiy ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy iiaioaaiiy iaoiaeaie
aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe, aaeineiiaeaiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue,
oai?/eo cae?aiinoae nooaeaio?a.

No?oeoo?iee neeaae iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
aecia/a?oueny iioeaaoe?eiei, ci?noiaei, i?ioeanoaeueiei ?
?acoeueoaoeaiei eiiiiiaioaie; ooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue eiaeiiai a
oe?e?niiio no?oeoo?iiio ooai?aii? — niaoeeo?/ia.

Iioeaaoe?eiee eiiiiiaio a?aeoai?th? oae? i?ia?aei? ooieoe??, ye-io:
aeoea?coth/a, ni?yiiaoth/a, ?aaoethth/a. Naia o i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? oi?iothoueny o?
?ioaeaeooaeueii-i?ciaaaeuei? iioeae, iiceoeai? aiioe??, ui eaaeaoue a
iniia? aioo??oiuei? iioeaaoe?? iaa/aiiy iniaenoino?.

C iioeaaoe?eiei iaa?ae’?iii iia’ycaiee ci?noiaee eiiiiiaio
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ui iaoiiaeth?oueny
caeaaei?noth aioo??oiuei? iioeaaoe?? iaa/aiiy a?ae niaoe?aeueiiai
a?aeai?o iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, caeaoiiai caaeiaieueieoe
?ioaeaeooaeueii-i?ciaaaeueiei iio?aaai noa’?eoo ae?yeueiino?. A aeaiiio
iai?yieo aaa/athoueny oae? ia?niaeoeae: i???ioaoe?y ci?noo
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe ia nenoaiia aeei?enoaiiy i?ioan?eii
cia/oueo ciaiue, iaoe?eaiiy oaeoeee i?aai?caoe?? aeaii? ?iaioe
nooaeaio?a ia iiaeaethaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue ?aaeueiee oe?eueiee iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean.

Caaaeueii aeciaii, ui i?iaeoeoeai?noue aoaeue-yei? ae?yeueiino?
caeaaeeoue a?ae i??e iaieiae?iiy noa’?eoii ?? iia?aoe?eii-ae?eiaei
neeaaeii; ioaea, aeiiiaoeny aeniei? yeino? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? iiaeeeai ca oiia oi?ioaaiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue oa
iaae/ie iniaenoino?. Aeine?aeieoeuee? ae?? neeaaeathoue iniiao
i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiiiiiaioa aeaii? ae?yeueiino?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei niaoeeo?ee i?ioeaaeo?e ?icai?oaiiy iiooeiai? ?iaioe
i?inoaaeo?oueny nenoaia aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo aoai?a, a naia:
i?aeaioia/iai (i?aai?caoe?eii-i???ioiaiiai), aeeiiaa/iai
(eiino?oeoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai), ?acoeueoaoeaiiai
(?aoeaeneaii-aen?ieia?/iiai).

Aeniea nooi?iue noi?iiaaiino? aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue, a?aenooi?noue
“iiieeeiaeo” ae?e na?ae/aoue i?i aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. Aoaeo ae?yeueiino?, ye
a?aeiii, iieeaaeaii a iniiao ?? ?acoeueoaoeaiiai eiiiiiaioa. A iaoiio
aeine?aeaeaii? naia aeooae?caoe?y ciaiue aenooia? a yeino? i?ia?aeii?
iaoe iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ioaea, ?acoeueoaoii
aeaii? ae?yeueiino? ? aoaeoeai?noue aeooae?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo. Ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui aeooae?caoe?y i?ioan?eii cia/oueo
ciaiue — oea i?ioean ia?aaaaeaiiy c iioaioe?aeueiiai noaio a aeooaeueio
ae?th ?ai?oa iaaooeo ciaiue (e?iaa?noe/ieo, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo,
iaoiaee/ieo), ?o a?aeoai?aiiy oa ia?aianaiiy a iia? neooaoe??
aeei?enoaiiy c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo c iaa/aeueiei iaoa??aeii, ui
i?aeeyaa? canai?iith.

Aiae?c ye iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai oiiaeo (Ae.A.?euee?i, N.E.?oa?iooaei,
A.I.Ni??iia), oae ? aii??e/ieo iaoa??ae?a, io?eiaieo a ?acoeueoao?
cae?eniaiiai iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeciaiiy
oaeeo e?eoa???a ae?aaiinoeee noaio aeooae?caoe??, ye:

ianya a?aeoai?thaaiiai iaoa??aeo; iieacieeii oeueiai e?eoa??th aenooia?
iiaiioa a?aeoai?aiiy ciaiue;

oa?aeoa? cao?a/aieo coneeue (eaae?noue/oo?oaeiai?noue); aeaiee e?eoa??e
iiaea aooe aei??yiee /a?ac iieaciee aaoiiaoecio aeooae?caoe?? iaoa??aeo;

nooi?iue aaeaeaaoiino? a?aeoai?aiiai iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ciaiiyi,
iaaooei a iaai?e iaoeia?e aaeoc? (iieaciee aeaiiai e?eoa??th —
i?aaeeuei?noue aeooae?ciaaieo ciaiue);

eiiieaeni?noue aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue (iieaciee — anoaiiaeaiiy
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo ca’yce?a); icia/aiee e?eoa??e aeiiiiaaa? c’ynoaaoe
nooi?iue noi?iiaaiino? ai?iiy ii?aeioaaoe ??ci? eiioeaiooaeuei?
i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy aeeaeaeoe/ii-aeoiaieo i?iaeai, “aa/eoe”
oe?e?niee iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean.

A?aeiia?aeii c aeuaaeeeaaeaieie e?eoa??yie oa ?o iieacieeaie, noaei ca
iiaeeeaa ?ic??ciyoe iaai? ??ai? aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue nooaeaio?a, a naia:

? ??aaiue — iecueeee — a?aeaeaa? aenieo nooi?iue oo?oaeiaiiy nooaeaio?a
a?aeoai?thaaoe iaeiie/ai? ciaiiy, aeiiouaiiy ieie cia/ieo iiieeie o
aeeeaaeaii? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, eiai iaaeinoaoi?e ianya e iacia/iee
ca’ycie ?c noi?aeieie aeenoeeie?iaie;

?? ??aaiue — na?aaei?e — a?aeaeca?eaeth? cia/io i??o oo?oaeiaiiy, yeo
a?ae/oaathoue nooaeaioe a i?ioean? aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue, iaaio
e?euee?noue iiieeie, iaiiaiee ianya a?aeoai?thaaiiai iaoa??aeo,
neooaoeaia anoaiiaeaiiy i?aei?aaeiaoieo ca’yce?a;

??? ??aaiue — aeua na?aaeiueiai — a?aeia?aaea? iai?aaaoiiaoeci
a?aeoai?aiiy canai?ieo ciaiue, a?aenooi?noue iiieeie, cia/iee ianya
a?aeoai?aiiai iaoa??aeo, iayai?noue i?aei?aaeiaoieo e i?aeoeeeeiaeo
ca’yce?a;

?V ??aaiue — aenieee — aena?oeth? aaoiiaoeci aeooae?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo, a?aenooi?noue iiieeie, cia/iee ianya a?aeoai?aieo ciaiue,
anoaiiaeaiiy anueiai niaeo?o i?aeoeeeeiaeo ca’yce?a, aa/aiiy ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo yaeua, eiai aeeth/ai?noue a oe?e?ni?noue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano,
aa??aioi?noue ae??oaiiy iaaii? i?iaeaie. Naia ca oiia aeinyaiaiiy
nooaeaioaie aeaiiai ??aiy, aeooae?caoe?y ?o ciaiue iiaea aooe aecia/aia
ye iaeneiaeueii aoaeoeaia.

Nai?/ania ae?aaiinoeea nooiaiy aeooae?caoe?? ni?ey? iia?eueiino? ??
ei?aeoe??, ui, a caaaeueiiio i?aenoieo, aieeaa? ia aoaeoeai?noue
canai?iiy ciaiue, ?o ?ioaa?aoeai?noue oa no?oeoo?oeiaai?noue. Aenieee
??aaiue aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue iaoiiaeth?oueny oa?aeoa?ii caiai’yoiaoaaiiy
e ?ai?iaeoeoe?? iaoa??aeo.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei c’yniaaii, ui aieea eiiiiiaio?a
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ia iioeiaeuei?noue i?ioeano
aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue nooaeaio?a aecia/a?oueny, ii-ia?oa, iaoe?eai?noth
icia/aii? noa?e ae?yeueiino? ia caoaeaeaiiy iiceoeaieo aiioe?e ?
aioo??oiuei? caoe?eaaeaiino? a i?aaeiao? aeooae?caoe??, ii-ae?oaa,
ni?yiiaai?noth ia aaeineiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoie aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue, ui
eaaeaoue a iniia? ae?eiaiai neeaaeo aeooae?caoe??, ii-o?ao?,
ni?iiiaei?noth caaacia/aiiy iia?eueii? ae?aaiinoeee oa?aeoa?o
aeooae?caoe??. Ioaea, iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue
a?ae??ciy?oueny cia/iith iiooaei?noth a aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii
cia/oueo ciaiue iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a.

Iaeiae, ca ?acoeueoaoaie ae?aaiinoe/iiai “c??co” (anueiai aoei ioiieaii
988 nooaeaio?a) iieiaeia ?aniiiaeaio?a (53%) eiinoaooaaea na?aaei?e
??aaiue i?aeaioiaeaiino? aei aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, 16% —
“iecueeee”. Caiaaeoi iaea e?euee?noue ?aniiiaeaio?a (5%) a?aeiia?ea, ui
i?aeaioiaeaia aei aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe ia aenieiio ??ai?. 26%
nooaeaio?a aaaeei aoei ioe?ieoe na?e ??aaiue i?aeaioiaeaiino?.

Iiaeai? iaoa??aee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iano?eio iaiao?aei?noue o
iiaeeo?eaoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia a
oaeiio aaaeeeaiio ?aeo?n? ye ?ic?iaeaiiy aio/eeo aa??aio?a
ooieoe?iiaeueii-i?aai?caoe?eiiai aniaeoo aeaii? ?iaioe; inoaii?
ia?aaeaa/a? caaacia/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii a?aei?iiiai oaiio iaieiae?iiy
aeine?aeieoeueeeie ai?iiyie, ia?iaiaioi?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy aeaniiai
iia?aoe?eiiai ?ino?oiaioa??th aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe, iinooiiaee
ia?ao?ae a?ae iecueeiai aei a?eueo aenieiai ??aiy i?aeaioiaeaiino? aei
iiooeiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Ioaea, oai?aoe/iee aiae?c iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeaea?ae uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a o aeu?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e oeie?, ?acoeueoaoe ae?aaiinoe/iiai aenia?eiaioo na?ae/aoue
i?i iaiao?aei?noue iioei?caoe?? o?aaeeoe?eii? nenoaie
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oeyoe e caniae iioei?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ye /eiieea
aeooae?caoe?? ?oi?o i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue” i?aaenoaaeaia
aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?,
aecia/a?oueny aeeaeaeoe/ia iiooaei?noue i?ia?aeieo cania?a iaa/aiiy a
iioei?caoe?? aeaii? ?iaioe; ?ice?eaa?oueny iioaioe?ae
a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ii? ? naiiina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? a i?ioean?
aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue nooaeaio?a.

Nooo?ai, ui naia iiaeaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy yaeu iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?eniino? aeicaiey? aena?oeeoe ?o aeeaeiio nooi?noue, ?ice?eoe
aeeiai?eo aca?iica’yceo neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a, aeyaeoe oeyoe, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aieeaii ia i?ioean ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo
oaiiiai?a.

Iioeiaeuei?noue aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeae? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe iaoiiaeaia ae??a?noth niaoeeo?/ieo aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue, o ?ie?
yeeo aenooia? ?aei?noue i?eioeei?a:

eiiiainaoi?iino?, ca?aeii c yeei ia?aaeaa/a?oueny cia/ia ?icoe?aiiy
“oiiiaeo” ciaiue nooaeaio?a ca ?aooiie i???ioaoe?? inoaii?o ia
naiino?eiee iiooe e nenoaiaoecaoe?th aeiaeaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Oey
aeiiaa ia?aaeaa/a? ia?iuaiiy “yae?a” iaaooeo i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue
c iaoith caaacia/aiiy iiaiioe ?o aeooae?caoe??;

i?aenaieia?/iino?, nooi?noue yeiai iieyaa? o iaeneiaeuei?e aeoea?caoe??
iiooeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ae?e nooaeaio?a o iai?yieo iaaoooy ieie
noa’?eoeaii iiaeo ciaiue. Aeoea?caoe?y i?ioeanoaeueiiai aniaeoo
aeine?aeaeaiiy i???ioiaaia ia aaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii?
iiooeiai-oai?/i? ?iaioe iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a, iaieiae?iiy ??
oaoiieia??th;

aaaaoi??aiaaino?, ui ia?aaeaa/a? caaacia/aiiy “iie?ieiaiai” oneeaaeiaiiy
ci?noo iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? /a?ac nei?i/aiiy aai
iiiiiaeaiiy caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy, caoaeaiiy aai ?icoe?aiiy
“?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iiey” aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue. I?eioeei
aaaaoi??aiaaino? aeicaiey? a iiaiiio ianyc? a?aooaaoe ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? nooaeaio?a, ??aaiue ?oiueiai aeooaeueiiai ?icoiiaiai
?icaeoeo, nooi?iue iaieiae?iiy iaa/aeueiei iaoa??aeii;

ae?aeia?/iino?, yeee ?aae?co?oueny oeyoii aeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iioaioe?aeo ae?aeiao a i?aenenoai? “aeeeaaea/ — nooaeaio”. Naia ae?aeia,
ye a?aeiii, aeicaiey? aeeeaaea/o anoaiiaethaaoe iia?eueiee ca’ycie ?c
nooaeaionueeith aoaeeoi???th, c’yniaoaaoe iano??e, i??o ??
caoe?eaaeaiino? e ia?ciaiino? a i?aaeiao? iaa/aiiy, aiioe?eiee oa
o?ce/iee noai. E??i oiai, ae?aeia caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy
aoiinoa?e “ni?eueiiai i??eoaaiiy” (I.A.E?/oe, I.N.Oeieo?), “ni?eueii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae??” ca aeiiiiiaith aeeth/aiiy nooaeaio?a o
eieaeoeaii-a?oiia? aeaee iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe;

i?iaiinoe/iino?, yeee i???ioo? ia aeyaeaiiy iaeaeeae/i?, na?aaeiuei? oa
a?aeaeaeaii? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, iaoe?eth? ia anoaiiaeaiiy
i?iaiico iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao cania?a iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ia oa?aeoa? aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue.

?aae?caoe?y aeuaicia/aieo i?eioeei?a iaoiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ei?aeoe??
a nenoaiao oi?aae?iiy, i?aai?caoe?? oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Ae??a?noue nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aecia/a?oueny noi?iiaai?noth no?eaeiaaeo
oi?iue, yeeie iiaeiai aieiae?oe aeeeaaea/: eiino?oeoeaieo, i?iaeoeaieo,
aiinoe/ieo, i?aai?caoi?nueeeo. Iaeiae, aeuaicia/aieo oi?iue ea??aieea
i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth nooaeaio?a iaaeinoaoiuei aeey iioeiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy iath. Iaiao?aeiei ? “cono??/iee ?oo” nooaeaio?a, yeee
i?iyaey?oueny a ona?aeiieaii? i?ioan?eii? cia/eiino?
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, iayaiino? iaaieo iniaeno?nieo
yeinoae (oe?eani?yiiaaiino?, iaiieaaeeaino?, i?aoeaethaiino?),
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e (i?aaiaiiy aei naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, oai?/i?
naii?aae?caoe??).

Eia?/ii aaaaeaoe, ui aeiiaaie aei i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aenooiathoue: o?aooaaiiy
aca?iicaeaaeiino? oa aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino? ??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?caoe?eieo
oi?i iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?; a?eueo iiaia
aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?aeo eaeoe?e ? nai?ia??a. Ca oiia oe?e?niiai
i?eoyaiaiiy anueiai a?naiaeo oi?i i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ooai?th?oueny iiaeeea?noue
aeoeaii? iia?e?caoe?? oiiaeo iaeiie/aieo ciaiue.

Oni?oia ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
ia?aaeaa/a? ?aae?caoe?th iaaieo aeiia uiaei ci?noo oa i?ioeano aeaii?
noa?e i?aoe? nooaeaio?a: i???ioaoe?y oai?aoe/iiai e?iaa?noe/iiai
iaoa??aeo ia eiai ianooiia aeei?enoaiiy a oe?euei?e i?aeoeoe?,
caaacia/aiiy eiiieaeno iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aca?iica’yceii oa aca?iiaeiiiaiaiiyi ??ai?a, ui eiai
neeaaeathoue; aeoea?caoe?y i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ca
?aooiie ia?aoiaeo a?ae iiiieia?/ieo aei ae?aeia?/ieo oa iie?eia?/ieo
oi?i ni?eeoaaiiy.

C o?aooaaiiyi aeuaicia/aieo aeiia iaie aoea ?ic?iaeaia
aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, a
ye?e aeioe?eueii ?ic??ciyoe aeaa oeie no?oeoo?: ?iaa??aioio oa
aa??aioii-iaoiaee/io (aeea. noaio).

Nenoaiiooai?thth/ei aeaiaioii ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a aoaeue — ye?e oi?i?
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy aenooia? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea caaaeaiiy. A
yeino? ?iai/iai i?iiiio?ii oaea aecia/aiiy aeao?i?oe??
“iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea caaaeaiiy”: oea i?iaeaiia caaaeaiiy, yea
iaoe?eaia ia aea/aiiy iaaieo oaeo?a oa yaeu, ia aeooae?caoe?th ciaiue
i?i ieo c iaoith ae?iaeaiiy e nenoaiaoecaoe?? noa’?eoeaii iiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ae?eni?noue.

C iaoith caaacia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, iiaiiaaai? ?aae?caoe?? aeiia
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy aeaii? ?iaioe, iae?aneth?oueny
iaiao?aei?noue eeaneo?eaoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c e?eoa??yie:

iiaiioa noi?iiaaieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue;

i??a aeyaeaiiy i?ciaaaeueii? naiino?eiino? nooaeaio?a;

ianya iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo.

I?eeiath/e aei oaaae aecia/ai? iaie aeai?eoi?/iee, /anoeiai-iiooeiaee,
e?aaoeaiee ??ai? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, a ?iaio? eiie?aoeciaaii a?aeiia?aeiee oa?aeoa? eiaeii?
a?oie iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue.

Noaia.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a.

Ioaea, iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy aeai?eoi?/iiai ??aiy
i???ioiaai? ia iecueeo i?aeaioiaeai?noue nooaeaio?a aei
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, i?i?iaeueiee nooi?iue i?iyao
i?ciaaaeueii? naiino?eiino?, iaiaaeaiee ianya ioiieaiiy iaoa??aeo. Aeai?
caaaeaiiy iaoe?eai? ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaieo e?iaa?noe/ieo eaoaai??e aai
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu, ?o ianooiia iiyniaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
oiiaeo iaeiie/aieo ciaiue.

Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy /anoeiai-iiooeiaiai ??aiy
ia?aaeaa/athoue a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue i?aeaioiaeaiino? nooaeaio?a aei
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, aiie a?ae??ciythoueny
i?eoe?eueiei iaaeaaia?/iei aieeaii ia aeooae?caoe?th iaoa??aeo
aeae?eueeio aeenoeeie?i iaaiiai oeeeeo, /ei iaoiiaeththoue oe?iea
ia?aianaiiy ciaiue o iia? neooaoe?? aeei?enoaiiy.

Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy e?aaoeaiiai ??aiy
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaeaeuith i??ith aeyaeaiiy i?ciaaaeueii?
naiino?eiino? nooaeaio?a, ioiieaiiyi aeenoeeie?i ??cieo oeeee?a. Oeei
caaaeaiiyi i?eoaiaii? i?aeaeuaia neeaaei?noue, ia?iuoaaiiy aeaiaio?a
oai?/ino?.

Iioe?aiiy iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue ia o?eueee ia
aoaeeoi?i?, a e iicaaoaeeoi?i? i?ia?aei? caniae iaa/aiiy, aeicaiey?
caaacia/oaaoe aaaaoi??aiaaa ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, a iaiao?aei?e oa aeinoaoi?e i??? aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iaaeaaia?/iee iioaioe?ae e?iaa?noe/ieo aeenoeeie?i oai?aoe/iiai e
i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o, neioacoaaoe aiinoe/iee e i?aenaieia?/iee aniaeoe
i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue.

A?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue iaaea? iiaeeea?noue
anoaiiaethaaoe aacia?a?aiee eiioaeo nooaeaio?a ?c oe?eueiei
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei i?ioeanii oi?iaeiaae anueiai ia??iaeo i?aeaioiaee
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a. E??i oiai, aiia a?ae??ciy?oueny aeeaeaeoe/iith
ni?iiiaei?noth ai?iaoaaoe ia i?aeoeoe? ?acoeueoaoe
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe, ae?aaiicoaaoe ?o aoaeoeai?noue,
ei?aeooaaoe iiieeee. Naia a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
ni?yiiaaia ia a?aei?aoethaaiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue o oiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio na?aaeiaeu?, yea ?o iio?aao? a ?aaeuei?e i?ioan?ei?e
ae?yeueiino?.

Naiiina?oiy ?iaioa nooaeaio?a, ca oiia ?? i?aai?/iiai “aieaoaiiy” a
nenoaio cania?a iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ni?ey?
caaaa/aiith ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai “oiiaeo” i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue
nooaeaio?a, noai?aiith oaeiai iiceoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei i?aaeiaoo
iaa/aiiy, yea caaacia/o? ia?iaiaioi?noue naiiina?oe ai?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai
/ano.

Cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy cana?ae/eei, ui canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii?
iiaeae? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? iiceoeaii aieeioei ia
aoaeoeai?noue aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue nooaeaio?a.

Oae, eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio cana?ae/ea, ui cia/ia e?euee?noue
nooaeaio?a (60% ?aniiiaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? aea??ee e 52% —
eiio?ieueii?) oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iecueeei ??aiai aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue;
na?aaeiueiai ??aiy aeinyaei a?aeiia?aeii 27% e 33%. Ia ??ai? “aeua
na?aaeiueiai” aeyaeeiny 13% nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie e 15% —
eiio?ieueii?.

I?aenoieiaee “c??c” aeyaea c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? nooaeaio?a
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie, aeey yeeo ? oa?aeoa?iei aenieee ??aaiue
aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue (aeea. oaaeeoeth).

A aenia?eiaioaeuei?e aea??oe? 47% nooaeaio?a aeinyaee aenieiai ??aiy
aeooae?caoe??, oiae? ye o eiio?ieuei?e — eeoa 7%; 37% ?aniiiaeaio?a
aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie a?aecia/athoueny ??aiai “aeua na?aaeiueiai” (a
eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? — 26%). AEiaeai nooaeaio aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie ia
aeyaea iecueeiai ??aiy aeooae?caoe??, oiae? ye e?euee?noue oaeeo o
eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? neeaaea? 32%.

Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoe, ui aoee iaea?aeai? a i?ioean?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe, i?aeoaa?aeeee i?aaii??i?noue noi?ioeueiaaii?
a?iioace, aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, iaoe?eaii? ia aeooae?caoe?th i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue
nooaeaio?a.

Oaaeeoey

?acoeueoaoe ae?aaiinoeee ??ai?a aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue nooaeaio?a

?aniiiaeaioe;

E?euee?noue nooaeaio?a o %

“C??ce”

Ii/aoeiaee

E?ioeaaee

??ai? aenia?eiai-

oaeueia a?oia eiio?ieueia

a?oia aenia?eiai-

oaeueia a?oia eiio?ieueia

a?oia

aenieee — — 47 7

aeua na?aaeiueiai 13 15 37 26

na?aaei?e 27 33 16 35

iecueeee 60 52 — 32

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaei i?aenoaae aeey oaeeo aeniiae?a:

1. Nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? aeiiae, ui aenoioo? aei i?aeaioiaee
iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a iaoiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue iioei?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, yea a?ae??ciy?oueny cia/ieie
?aca?aaie a aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue iaeaooi?o
oao?aoe?a. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ae?aaiinoe/iiai aenia?eiaioo cana?ae/ea,
ui na?aae nooaeaio?a aeyaey?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ia?aaaaeii iecueeiai
(56% ?aniiiaeaio?a) oa na?aaeiueiai (30% ?aniiiaeaio?a) ??ai?a
aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue.

2. Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a iiaea aooe
aecia/aia ye oaeee aeae iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ?iaioe oai?/iai
oa?aeoa?o, yeee iaoe?eaiee ia iiooe, aea/aiiy e iiyniaiiy oaeo?a ? yaeu
ae?eniino? c iaoith ae?iaeaiiy e nenoaiaoecaoe?? noa’?eoeaii iiaeo
ciaiue i?i ieo.

O cae?eniaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeooae?caoe?y i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue
?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean ia?aaaaeaiiy c iioaioe?aeueiiai noaio a
aeooaeueio ae?th aaea iaaooeo ciaiue (e?iaa?noe/ieo,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo), ?o a?aeoai?aiiy oa ia?aianaiiy a
iia? neooaoe?? aeei?enoaiiy c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo c iaa/aeueiei
iaoa??aeii, ui i?aeeyaa? canai?iith.

?ieue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a caaacia/aii? aenieiai
??aiy aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue aaa/a?oueny a oaeeo
aniaeoao: iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue neoao? caniaii
oi?ioaaiiy no?eaeiaaeo i?aai?caoe?eii-i???ioiaieo,
eiino?oeoeaii-i?eeeaaeieo, ?aoeaeneaii-aen?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
oi?iue, ni?ey? noai?aiith aioo??oiuei? iioeaaoe??, a?aecia/a?oueny
ni?iiiaei?noth caaacia/oaaoe a yeino? ci?noo iaa/aiiy i?ioan?eii
i???ioiaaiee iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae, aeicaiey? iia?eueii ae?aaiicoaaoe
ye?noue aeooae?caoe??. Ioaea, iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue
aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaa? eiaeiei ?c nai?o eiiiiiaio?a (i?ioeanoaeueiei,
iioeaaoe?eiei, ci?noiaiei, ?acoeueoaoeaiei) ia oa?aeoa? aeooae?caoe??.

3. Ae?aaiinoeea aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue ia?aaeaa/a?
c’ynoaaiiy eiai iciae ca oaeeo e?eoa???a, ye:

ianya a?aeoai?thaaiiai iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo;

oa?aeoa? aeo?a/aieo coneeue iniaenoino? (eaae?noue/oo?oaeiai?noue);

nooi?iue aaeaeaaoiino? a?aeoai?aiiai iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ciaiiyi,
iaaooei o aeai?e iaoeia?e aaeoc?;

eiiieaeni?noue, yea aeiiiiaaa? aeyaeoe i??o noi?iiaaiino? ai?iue
ii?aeioaaoe ??ciiiai?oi? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy aeeaeaeoe/ii-aeoiaieo
i?iaeai, oe?e?nii “aa/eoe” iaaeaaia?/iee i?ioean.

A?aeiia?aeii c aeuaicia/aieie e?eoa??yie, aoei aeae?eaii oae? ??ai?
aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue nooaeaio?a: iecueeee, na?aaei?e, aeua na?aaeiueiai,
aenieee.

4. ?ic?iaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ia?aaeaa/aea aca?iica’ycie, aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue oa
aca?iiiineeaiiy ?iaa??aioii? oa aa??aioii-iaoiaee/ii? no?oeoo?, ui
neeaaeathoue ?? iniiao. Aa??aioii-iaoiaee/ia no?oeoo?a i?aaenoaaeaia
nenoaiiei “aa/aiiyi” i?aai?caoe?eiiai, ooieoe?iiaeueiiai e
oi?aae?inueeiai aniaeo?a. I?ia?aeiith eaieith ooieoe?iioaaiiy e
oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aenooieei
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea caaaeaiiy.

5. Iioeiaeuei?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeae?
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? caaacia/o?oueny ?aae?caoe??th
a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? iaaieo oa?oioaaiue i?ia?aeieo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia: a nenoai? i?aai?caoe?? (aaaaeaiiy
eiiieaeno i?ioan?eii cia/ouiai iaoa??aeo a on? oi?ie i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aiiy, aeei?enoaiiy ?aca?ao aoaeeoi?ieo oi?i (eaeoe?e, nai?ia??a,
i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue) c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aacia?a?aiino? aaeineiiaeaiiy
aeine?aeieoeueeeo oi?iue nooaeaio?a); a nenoai? ooieoe?iioaaiiy:
(oe?eani?yiiaaia i?iiaaeaaoe/ia i?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a o iai?yieo
ia?iuoaaiiy oiiaeo i?ioan?eii i???ioiaaii? eaeneee, aeei?enoaiiy
?icaaeoaeaiiai ??ciiaeaeo iaaeaaia?/ii ni?yiiaaieo oi?i
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?); a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy
(i?aea?? aeeeaaea/ai i?ioan?eii cia/ouiai iaoa??aeo, yeee a?aeaeaa?
iniiai? aeaiaioe ye niaoe?aeueii? e?iaa?noe/ii?, oae ?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?, iaoiaee/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey;
iaaeaiiy nooaeaioo iiaeeeaino? aeey i?iyao ?i?oe?aoeae a oi?aae?ii?
aeaniith iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth, caaacia/aiiy
iinooiiaiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae oi?aa-e?iiy c aieo aeeeaaea/a aei
naiioi?aae?iiy nooaeaioa).

6. ?ic?iaeaia no?aoaa?y aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeae? iaa/aiiy aeicaieeea
?noioii a?eueo?e e?eueeino? nooaeaio?a (47%) iaea?aeaoe aaco aeey
ia?aoiaeo ia aenieee ??aaiue aeooae?caoe?? ciaiue. I?e oeueiio ia 24%
ca?eueoeeany e?euee?noue oeo ?aniiiaeaio?a, ooi aeinyaioa ??aiy “aeua
na?aaeiueiai”.

Ia?niaeoeae aea/aiiy icia/aii? i?iaeaie, ia iao iiaeyae, iia’ycai? ?c
noai?aiiyi iane??cii? nenoaie iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?,
yea ioiiethaaea a oae? ina?oyinuee? eaiee, ye: na?aaeiy oeiea — aeuee
iaa/aeueiee caeeaae — i?neyaeeieiiia ina?oa oao?aoey.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Aeooae?caoe?y ciaiue nooaeaio?a caniaaie
iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?: Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. —
Iaeana: I?eio-Iaenoa?, 1998. — 104 n.

2. Aeoea?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? iaeaooi?o
o/eoae?a ?iicaiii? iiae o i?ioean? aoc?anueeiai iaa/aiiy: Iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??. — ?cia?e, 1995. — 64 n. (o?aioe. iiaith).

3. I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a eo?n?
aeenoeeie?i “Aeiiaoi? /eoaiiy”, “?iaeea?aeoaeueia /eoaiiy”: Iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??. — ?cia?e, 1997. — 12 n. (aiae.iiaith).

4. Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a ye can?a
aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue // Iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie
no/anii? oeiee /Iaoeiaee a?niee. — Aei.2. — ?cia?e, 1997. — N. 38 — 43.
(?in.iiaith).

5. Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeia ae?yeuei?noue iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a ye can?a
aeoea?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. — 1998. — ?2. — N. 105 — 114.

6. Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue ye can?a ?icaeoeo oai?/eo
cae?aiinoae iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a // Ina?oyiei. — 1998. — ?2. — N. 41 — 42.

7. Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue ye can?a aeooiaii-oai?/iai
?icaeoeo iieiae? // Iaaeaaia?/i? iaoee: Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue. — Aei.2. —
Oa?nii: Ina?oa, 1998. — N. 89 — 92.

8. Aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue iaeaooiueiai a/eoaey: nai???aei?noue,
oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy // Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Nenoaia iaia?a?aii? ina?oe: caeiaooee, iiooee, i?iaeaie”.
O 6-oe ei. ei.3. Oeyoe caaacia/aiiy ianooiiino? a nenoai?: n?iaeia,
aeioe?eueia aeoiaaiiy — na?aaeiy caaaeueia, i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia oa
aeua ina?oa. — *a?i?aoe?, 1996. — N. 274 — 276.

9. Aeeeaaeaiiy oaoi?/ii? eaeneee o?aioeocueei? iiae ye ?iicaiii? //
Aeeeaaeaiiy o?aioeocueei? iiae oa eoeueoo?e: Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue. — ?cia?e,
1994. —

N. 13. (o?aioe.iiaith).

10. Aeaye? ieoaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae?? aoc?anueeiai aeeeaaea/a ?
nooaeaio?a o i?ioean? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? //
Aeeaeaeoe/i? aniaeoe iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae?? o oeie? oa aoc?:
Ca.iaoe.iia?aeiieaiue. — ?cia?e, 1994. — N. 25 — 26. (?in.iiaith).

11. Iiaia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey a oiiaao I?eaeoiaa’y // Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y: ?noi??y, aoiia?ao?y,
iiaa”. — ?cia?e, 1995. — N. 75 — 76.

12. ?c aeina?aeo iioei?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a // Ca??iee iaoe.i?aoeue. — ?cia?e, 1995. — N. 71
— 72.

13. Aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa nooaeaio?a ye oaeoi? ?o
caaaeueii-aoiai?oa?iiai ?icaeoeo // Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa ? i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy iieiae?”. — Oa?nii, 1995. — N.
136.

14. Iaoeiai-oai?/a ?iaioa o/i?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee ye can?a ?aae?caoe??
iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo a i?ioean? aea/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae
// Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe:
Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue. — *. ??. — Ee?a-Oa?nii, 1997. — N. 81 — 82.

15. O?aioeocueea i?ana e aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a //
Iaaeaaia?/iee oa ?ioi?iaoeaiee aniaeoe no/anii? o?aioeocueei? i?ane:
Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue. — ?cia?e-Ee?a, 1997. — N. 25 — 26. (o?aioe.iiaith).

Eiycyi I.I. Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a ye
can?a aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue (ia aac? aea/aiiy
?iicaiieo iia). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee.
I?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
E.Ae.Ooeinueeiai, Iaeana, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?iaeaia aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii
cia/oueo ciaiue nooaeaio?a caniaaie ?oiuei? iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Ooi/iaii nooi?noue iiiyoue “iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea
ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a”, “aeooae?caoe?y i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue”.
Aeyaeaii e?eoa??? oa ??aiaao oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeooae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii
cia/oueo ciaiue iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a ?iicaiieo iia. ?ic?iaeaii e
aenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iaiaaii iiaeaeue iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, aecia/aii iaiao?aei? ? aeinoaoi? iaaeaaia?/i?
oiiae ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a,
aeooae?caoe?y i?ioan?eii cia/oueo ciaiue, iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeieoeueea
caaaeaiiy.

Eiycyi I.A. O/aaii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue nooaeaioia eae
n?aaenoai aeooaeecaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueii cia/eiuo ciaiee (ia aaca
eco/aiey eiino?aiiuo ycueia). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. —
THaeiioe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao
ei.E.Ae.Ooeineiai, Iaeanna, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony i?iaeaia aeooaeecaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueii
cia/eiuo ciaiee nooaeaioia n?aaenoaaie eo o/aaii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ooi/iaia nouiinoue iiiyoee “o/aaii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay
aeayoaeueiinoue nooaeaioia”, “aeooaeecaoeey i?ioanneiiaeueii cia/eiuo
ciaiee”. Auyaeaiu e?eoa?ee e o?iaiaaay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeooaeecaoeee
i?ioanneiiaeueii cia/eiuo ciaiee aoaeoueo o/eoaeae eiino?aiiuo ycueia.
?ac?aaioaia e yenia?eiaioaeueii ai?iae?iaaia iiaeaeue
o/aaii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia, ii?aaeaeaiu
iaiaoiaeeiua e aeinoaoi/iua iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey aa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o/aaii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue nooaeaioia,
aeooaeecaoeey i?ioanneiiaeueii cia/eiuo ciaiee,
o/aaii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneia caaeaiea.

Kniazian M.A. “The school-research activity of students as a means of
professional important knowledge actualization (on the basis of the
study of foreign languages). — Manuscript.

The dissertation for the candidate degree of pedagogical sciences, in
speciality 13.00.01 — theory and history of pedagogics. — South —
Ukrainian Pedagogical University named after K.D.Ushinsky, Odessa, 1998.

The dissertation deals with the problems of actualization of
professional important knowledge of students by means of their
school-research activity. The essence of the conceptions “the
school-research activity of students”, “the actualization of the
professional important knowledge” is specified. The criteria and the
level characteristics of actualization of the professional important
knowledge of future teachers of foreign languages are found out. The
model of the school-research activity of students is worked out and
experimentally approved, the necessary and sufficient pedagogical
conditions of its functioning are defined.

Key words: the school-research activity of students, the actualization
of the professional important knowledge, the school-research task.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 9.10.98 ?.

Ianya 1.0 oi. ae?oe. a?e. Oi?iao 60o90 1/16

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Iai?? ionaoiee. Cai. ? 86.

Iaae?oeiaaii a OIA “Ae?oe-?ioi?i”

i. ?cia?e, i?-o Noai?iaa, 29.

Oae./oaen (04841) 2-02-86.

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iaieiae?iiy

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niina?aaeai-iy ca eeanii,

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e?a?iiciaa/iio; 3)iaaeaaia?/iiio; 4) iaoiaee/ii-

iiio; 5) ineoieia?/iiio

“iae?” aein-

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