IIIINOA?NOAI ICAITE OE?A?IEOE?A?INUeEEE O?AINII?OIEE OIIAA?NEOAO

IIUAIEI Ieeiea Iaaiiae/

OAeE 621.43+621.43.01+621.43.001

IAOEIAI-OAOII*II INIIAE NOAI?AIIss IAO?AAeEOeIEIEO IAEIIIOOAEIEO
AeAEAOIIA AIOO?IOIUeIAI CAI?AIIss C AENIEEIE AEIIIII*IEIE I AEIEIAI*IEIE
IIEACIEEAIE

05.04.02 — oaieiai aeaeaoie

Aaoi?aoa?aoaeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
oaoii/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?i Aaoiiiaiei i aeaeaoie
aaoiiiaieueii-aei?iaeiueiai iinoeoooo Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoii/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo.

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Ae`y/aiei A. A.,Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e «Aeaeaoie
aioo??oiueiai cai?aiiy»;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iieaeaanueeee A. A.,Oa?e?anueea
aea?aeaaia aeaaeaiiy caeicie/iiai o?ainii?oo, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith
«Ia?enia aaiiao?iy oa ?iaeaia?ia a?ao?ea»;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Aeieaaiia E. ?., Oe?a?inueeee
o?ainii?oiee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e «Aeaeaoie ? oaieioaoiiea».

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa —

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a » Aeaeaoie aioo??oiueiai cai?aiiy».

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny 15 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 10 00 aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii
niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.059.03 i?e Oe?a?inueeiio
o?ainii?oiiio oiiaa?neoaoi ca aae?anith:

252010, i. Ee?a, aoe. Noai?iaa, 1, aeoiaee cae.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o aiaeiioaoei Oe?a?inueeiai
o?ainii?oiiai oiiaa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee 14 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ae. o. i., i?ioani?
Aeieo???a I. I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Ca iaoiai /ano aiane?aeie ia?aoiaeo aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie ia ?eieia? a?aeiineie ? iaaecae/aeii? aaaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa iio??aai ?icaeoie ??ciiiai?oieo
aaeocae iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ia aac? no/anii? oaoi?ee. A ca’yceo c oeei
aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ooai?aiiyi iiaeo
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ?o/ieo iaoei, aoaeoeaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
iiii-oaoi?ee, iaae?eieo ? aeiiii?/ieo iaeiaaaa?eoieo o?ainii?oieo
cania?a oa ii.

Na?aae ?o/ieo iaoei iniaeeaa i?noea caeiathoue aaiceiiiioi?i? ieeee
(AII), ui a?aeiinyoueny ca?aeii c i?aeia?iaeiith eeaneo?eaoe??th aei
iaoai?ciaaieo ia?aiinieo ?ino?oiaio?a i?aeaeuaii? iaaaciaee aeey
iaaeieeoiueiai ca?aaeiaeua. A e?a?iao — /eaiao i?aeia?iaeii?
i?aai?caoe?? ii noaiaea?oecaoe?? (ISO) — NOA, ssiii??, ?in??, Iieueu?,
Oaaoei?, I?ia//eie, Ioaei? oa ?i. (anueiai 15 e?a?i) canoiniaai? c
iaoith caoenoo caei?ia’y ethaeae ? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, a oaeiae
ciaioaiiy niiaeeaaiiy iaeeaa, an? i?aeia?iaei? noaiaea?oe, i?eeiyo?
Oaoi?/iei Eii?oaoii ON23/SC 17 ISO “O?aeoi?e ? iaoeie aeey n?euenueeiai
? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa — ?o/i? ii?oaoeai? e?nia? iaoeie”. Oaeeo
i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a iiiaae 20.

Cieaeaiiy a?a?aoe?? ? ooio AII aei aacia/ieo ??aiae, ui
?aaeaiaioothoueny a?aeiia?aeieie noaiaea?oaie, ? iaei??th ?c
iaeneeaaei?o?o iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?iaeai. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui a
na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? noaiaea?oe ia?aaeaa/athoue ii?ioaaiiy a?a?aoe?? AII
ii eiiieaeno ?o a?a?aoe?eieo, ooiiaeo, aaaiaeo, iiooaeiinieo ?
aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao??a. Ia aeaeue, ??ai? a?a?aoe?? ? ooio AII aein? a
onueiio na?o? ia caaeiaieueiythoue a iiai?e i??? noaiaea?oiei aeiiaai.

C on?o a?aeiieo iniiaieo iai?yie?a eiiieaeniiai ae??oaiiy cacia/aii?
i?iaeaie iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei ? aoaeoeaiei ? ?acii c oei iaea?eueo
aaaeeei ? caiia?aaiiy /e cieaeaiiy a?a?aoe?? ? ooio a naiiio aeaea?ae? —
aeaeaoi?. Oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?iaioe ii cieaeaiith ooio ?
a?a?aoe?? AII, aeeiiai? a eieeoiueiio N?N? a OeIAe?IA, Iinoeooo? a?a??ie
i?aoe? ? i?iocaoai?thaaiue AII N?N? ? ?ioeo e?a?iao, a oaeiae
aeine?aeieoeuee? ?iaioe ii iaeiiiooaeiei aeaeaoiai aioo??oiueiai
cai?aiiy (AeAC) ??ciiiai?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy, na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
?nioth/? AeAC ia iiaeooue aoaeoeaii ae??oeoe i?iaeaio ooai?aiiy
aia?iooiiaacia/ieo ?o/ieo iaoei. Aieiaiith i?e/eiith iaiiaeeeaino?
ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ? i?eioeeiia? iaaeie?ee eeane/ieo aeaeaoi?a,
iia’ycai? c iayai?noth e?eaioeiii-oaooiiiai iaoai?cio.

Iaaeoi na?eici? iaaeie?ee eeane/iiai aeaeaoia c aeinoaoiuei aeineiiaeei
?iai/ei oeeeeii ciooothoue o/aieo ? ?iaeaia??a caa?iooeny aei
iao?aaeeoe?eieo eiino?oeoe?e AeAC. Ca ei?aeiiii oe?iei i?iaiaeyoueny
iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ? eiino?oeoi?nueei ?iaioe ii noai?aiith
iao?aaeeoe?eieo AeAC, a oaeiae ?o/ieo iaoei c oeeie aeaeaoiaie. Oiio
iinoaea iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iiaeaeae
iaeiiiooaeieo AeAC, ui aeicaieyoue iie?aueoe oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?
iieacieee ?o/ieo iaoei. ?acii c oei ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy ? aeiaiaeee
eiino?oeoe?? iiaeii? aooe i?iaaaeai? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye?
aeeth/athoue ii?aoethaaiiy cania?a ?ic?aooieo e?iaiaoeee, aeeiai?ee ?
ieoaiiy oai???, ui a?aeaeaathoue ?aaeuei? i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny
a iao?aaeeoe?eiiio aeaeaoi?.

Aeeeaaeaia aeua iaoiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue ? aaaeeea?noue iaoeiai?
i?iaeaie noai?aiiy iiaeo iao?aaeeoe?eieo iaeiiiooaeieo AeAC.

Ca’ycie oaie aeena?oaoe?? c ieaiii ?iaioe oi?aa?neoaoo. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c ieaiaie IAe? AeiiAeOO,
aeeiiaieo a ?aieao iinoaiia AeEIO N?N? ? 555 a?ae 30.10.85 ?. “Iiooeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii noai?aiith i?eioeeiiai iiaeo eiino?oeoe?e aeaeaoi?a
aioo??oiueiai cai?aiiy, aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaeea aeey ieo, cania?a
aaoiiaoecaoe??, ae?aaiinoeee ? ?nieo?a” ? ? 633 a?ae 28.12.78 ?.
“Noai?eoe ? inai?oe ae?iaieoeoai iaeiaia?aoe?eiiai aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia
5 e. n. c ??aiai a?a?aoe?? ia ei?ion? ieae/a aeiia AINO 7770-72 ia 10
aeA”, I?aeaoc?anueei? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie «Aenieiaeiiii?/i?
aeaeaoie aioo??oiueiai cai?aiiy ? aa?aaaoe ia ?o aac?“ ia 1986 – 1990
?iee, ui aeeiioaaeeny ca?aeii c iinoaiiaith ?I O?N? ? 218 a?ae 12.06.86
?., a oaeiae c iaeacaie Iiiaoca O?N? ? 322 a?ae 06.06.80 ?. ? ? 3 a?ae
3.01.78 ?. ? ieaiaie IAe? AeiiAeOO. Aaciaeie aeey i?aeaioiaee
aeena?oaoe?? ? ?iaioe A75-91 (? ain. ?a?no?aoe?? 0194 U 0035050),
O90-366 (0190018394), O84-350 (01840012014), O81-362 (81014084), O77-8
(77075260) ? ?io?, ui aeeiioaaeeny i?ae iaoeiaei ea??aieoeoaii ? i?e
aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? caeiaoaa/a.

Iaoa ?iaioe. ?ic?iaea iaiao?aeieo iieiaeaiue caaaeueii? oai??? aeaeaoi?a
aioo??oiueiai cai?aiiy ? noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e iaeiiiooaeieo aeaeaoi?a, ui caaacia/othoue iieiioaiiy
iaeeaii? aeiiii?/iino? ? cieaeaiiy a?a?aoe?? oa ooio o ii??aiyii? c
iayaiei ??aiai oeeo iieaciee?a no/anieo AeAC.

Iaeay ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaieo noai
iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a ? niaoe?aeueii iaea?aeaieo oai?aoe/ieo aeaieo
uiaei ?iai/iai i?ioeano, aeeiai?ee ? e?iaiaoe/ii? oi/iino? aeaeaoia
i?iaanoe aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueei oa aeine?aeieoeuee? ?iaioe ? oaeei
/eiii aia?oa noai?eoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? AeAC c iie?ioaieie
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie.

Caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ?iaio? aeei?enoai?: aiae?oe/iee can?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiaiaoe/ii? oi/iino? aacoaooiiiai ii?oiaaiai aeaeaoia c
aeaiia eie?i/anoeie aaeaie, caniiaaiee ia eii?ei?e oai??? ooieoe?e;
aiae?oe/i? caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iai/iai i?ioeano, e?iaiaoeee ?
c??aiiaaaeaiino? aacoaooiiiai ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoi?a;
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iai/iai i?ioeano, a?a?aoe?? ?
aoaeoeaieo iieaciee?a oeeo aeaeaoi?a, a oaeiae ii??aiyeuei? ?nieoe ia
a?a?aoe?th ? ooi aaiceiiiioi?ieo ieeie — aeine?aeii? c aacoaooiiei
aeaeaoiii ? na??eii?.

Ie??i iaoiaeee, ui cae/aeii canoiniaothoueny, i?e aecia/aii?
iiooaeiinieo ? aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeaoia, aoee canoiniaai?
niaoe?aeuei? caniae aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Iniaeeaino? i?ioeano cai?aiiy aea/aeeny ca aeiiiiiaith noaoenoe/iiai
iaoiaeo, caniiaaiiai ia iaea?aeaii? iioa?aaeueiiai ?yaeo iaeiie/aieo
/anoio i?eoiaeo iieoi’y aei iiiicaoe?eieo ciiae?a aeey caaeaieo iiiaio?a
/ano uiaei eooo iiai?ioo eie?i/anoiai aaeo.

2. Oa?iiaeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e ?iai/eo oeeee?a a oeee?iae?? ? e?eaioeii?e
eaia?? aeaeaoia aecia/aeeny oeyoii iiaeeeaoe?? oeneo.

3. Inieoe ia a?a?aoe?th ? ooi i?iaiaeeeeny ca?aeii c iaoiaeeeith, yea
a?aeiia?aea? aea?aeaaiiio ? i?aeia?iaeiiio noaiaea?oai.

Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ui aenoaathoueny ia caoeno:

1. Oai?aoe/ii anoaiiaeaii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iieiaeaiiy
i?i oa, ui a aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi? i?e/eiith ?aaeiaeueiiai ia?ai?uaiiy
ii?oiy ? eooia? eieeaaiiy eoe?ne, aeeeeeai? ae??th oaoiieia?/ieo ?
iiioaaeieo iioeaie aeaiaio?a e?eaioeiii-eoeiniiai iaoai?cio (EEI), a
oaeiae aeaoi?iaoe??th aeaoaeae aeaeaoia, ui aeieeathoue i?ae aieeaii nee
? oaiia?aoo?e.

2. I?aoeacaeaoi?noue oeeeiiae?iii?oiaai? a?oie o aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi?
aecia/a?oueny ia oaieiaeie caci?aie, ye caaaeueiii?eeiyoi a
o?aaeeoe?eieo AeAC, a oae caaieie ?iai/eie caci?aie, ui a?aoiaothoue
iayai?noue oaoiieia?/ieo ? iiioaaeieo iiieeie, a oaeiae eiino?oeoeai?
iniaeeaino? EEI.

3. I?aeaeuaiiy iiooaeiinieo ? aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeaoia iiaea aooe
aeinyaiooi e?iaiaoeeith neeiaiai iaoai?cio, ui caaacia/o? ?oo ii?oiy ii
niioni?aeaeueiiio caeiio, yeee a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae caeiio ia?ai?uaiiy
ii?oiy a eeane/iiio AeAC c e?eaioeiii-oaooiiei iaoai?ciii.

4. A noa?i?aeaeueiiio aeaeaoi?, ui ia? aenie? a?a?aoe?ei? ?
ianiaaaa?eoi? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ia iiaeooue aooe aeinyaioo? iiooaeiini? ?
aeiiii?/i? iieacieee ia ??ai? eeane/ieo AeAC. I?e/eie iia??oaiiy oeeo
iieaciee?a iia’ycai? c i?eioeeiiaeie iniaeeainoyie eiino?oeoe??
noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia, ui iani?eyoeeai aieeaathoue ia ia?aa?a
?iai/iai i?ioeano.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ?icaeaathoue oai??th
e?iaiaoeee, aeeiai?ee ? ?iai/iai i?ioeano aeaeaoi?a aioo??oiueiai
cai?aiiy ? aeicaieythoue noai?thaaoe aenieiaoaeoeai? aeaeaoie ca
e?eoa??yie iiooaeiino?, aeiiii?/iinoi, a oaeiae a?a?aoe?? ? ooio.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe. Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui
iaea?aeai? a ?iaio?, iaa?oioiaai?:

 ?acoeueoaoaie oai?aoe/ieo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue e?iaiaoeee,
aeeiai?ee ? ?iai/iai i?ioeano aacoaooiiiai ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoi?a;

 ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aiao??a ?iai/iai
i?ioeano ? aoaeoeaieo iieaciee?a aeaeaoi?a, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoaie
?nieo?a ia a?a?aoe?th ? ooi, aeecueeeo aei ?aaeueieo, aacoaooiiiai
aeaeaoia ? aeine?aeii? aaiceiiiioi?ii? ieeee ?c oeei aeaeaoiii;

 caaeia?eueiith ca?aei?noth ?acoeueoao?a aiae?oe/ieo ??oaiue,
noaiaeiaeo ?nieo?a ? ?nioth/eo aeaieo ii AeAC.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaa?oioiao?oueny canoinoaaiiyi aei?iaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, i?eeaae?a ?
niaoe?aeueii? ?a?no?oth/i? aia?aoo?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe:

 aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo eiiaiaoe/ii? oi/iino?
aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo iaeeo a?aeoeeaiue, ia
i?aenoaa? yei? ? iiaeeeaei i?ecia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? aeiionee an?o
aeaiaio?a ? iae?aoe iioeiaeueio eiino?oeoeaio noaio aeaeaoia;

 ?ic?iaeai? iniiae oai??? e?iaiaoeee ? aeeiai?ee noa?i?aeaeueiiai
aeaeaoia, ye? aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe ?ic?aooieiai-oai?aoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aecia/aoe eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e i?e eiai noai?aii?;

 aia?oa iaea?aeai? aeai? ?ic?aooieiai-oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
oaieiiai?oaeaiinoi noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia, ui aeicaieyoue aecia/eoe
eiai i?noea na?aae ?ioeo oei?a aeaeaoi?a uiaei oaieiiai?oaeaiinoi, a
oaeiae ooi/ieoe aea?? ia?aiao??a a oaieiaiio ?ic?aooieo aeaeaoia;

 oai?aoe/ieie oa aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeyaeai?
iniaeeaino? ?iai/iai i?ioeano aeaeaoia, ui ia a?aoiaoaaeeny ?ai?oa,
iia’ycai? c eiai e?iaiaoeeith;

 ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieiai? ioe?iee aieeao e?iaiaoeee ii?oiy ia
?iaeeeaoi?i? iieacieee aeaeaoia;

 ?ic?iaeaiee iiaee iaoiae /anoeiaiai (ia 20 … 30 %) cieaeaiiy
a?a?aoe?e iaeiioeee?iae?iaiai aeaioaeoiiai aeaeaoia, ye? aeieeathoue
a?ae e?ooiiai iiiaioo.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?icaeoeo oai??? e?iaiaoeee, aeeiai?ee
? ?iai/iai i?ioeano AeAC a?aeiinii aei iniaeeainoae eiino?oeoe?? ?
?iai/iai i?ioeano aacoaooiiiai ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoi?a, a oaeiae a
ii?aoethaaii? iaoeiaeo iniia ?ic?aooieo eiiaiaoe/ii? oi/iino?
aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia, ui aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe ia noaae??
i?iaeooaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ? iiioaaei? ia?aiao?e, a oaeiae
ia?aoe iioeiaeueio EEI. Iia? iaoeia? aeai? aeicaieythoue, cie?aia,
iaea?aeaoe i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao aoaeo aieeao e?iaiaoeee neeiaiai
iaoai?cio ia i?io?eaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai oeeeeo ? aecia/eoe oaeei /eiii
ia?aaaao aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia o ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiei AeAC uiaei
iiooaeiinieo ? aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

 noai?ai? iia?, caoeuai? aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie, eiino?oeoe??
aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia, ui ia? aenie? iieacieee uiaei iiooaeiino?,
aeiiii?/iinoi, a?a?aoe?? ? ooio;

 noai?aii iiaee, caoeuaiee aaoi?nueeei na?aeioeoaii, noa?i?aeaeueiee
aeaeaoi, ui ia? cieaeaio a?a?aoe?th ia ei?ion? ? oi?io? iani-aaaa?eoi?
iieacieee;

 aeeeaaeaii iiaee niin?a ?ic?aooieo eiiaiaoe/ii? oi/iino? aacoaooiiiai
aeaeaoia, ui aeicaiey? ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy, aeiaiaeee oa aei?iaoaaiue
i?ecia/aoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? aeiionee ia an? eiai aeaiaioe, iae?aoe
iioeiaeueio eiino?oeoeaio noaio ? ?ici??e aeaoaeae EEI. ?ic?aooiie
eiiaiaoe/ii? oi/iino? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee oaeiae i?e i?iaeooaaii?
?ioeo iaoei, iaoai?ci?a ? i?eeaae?a, aei yeeo aenoaathoueny aeiiae
aeniei? oi/iino? ?iaioe;

 cai?iiiiiaaia ? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia iiaa, caoeuaia aaoi?nueeei
na?aeioeoaii, eiino?oeoe?y iaeiioeee?iae?iaiai aeaioaeoiiai aacoaooiiiai
aeaeaoia, a ye?e aeinyaiooa /anoeiaa (i?eaeecii ia 20 … 30 %)
ca?eueoaiiy ??aiii??iino? e?ooiiai iiiaioo;

 ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae ?ic?aooieiai? ioe?iee aieeao e?iaiaoeee aeaeaoia ia
eiai iiooaeiini? oa aeiiii?/i? iieacieee;

 ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea eiiaiaoe/iiai ? aeeiai?/iiai ?ic?aooie?a
aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia;

 ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea eiiaiaoe/iiai ? aeeiai?/iiai ?ic?aooie?a
noa?i?aeaeueiiai AeAC;

 ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy aacoaooiiiai ?
noa?i?aeaeueiiai AeAC;

 ?ic?iaeaii oi?aa?naeueiee noaiae aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aenieiiaa?oiaeo
AeAC iiooaei?noth aei 6 eAo ? /anoioith iaa?oaiiy 500 – 11000 oa 1;

 ?ic?iaeaii iiai?noth aaoiiaoeciaaiee aei??iee aeo?ao iaeeaa c
iiaeeea?noth i?aeeeth/aiiy aei AII.

?aae?caoe?y aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe. Iniiai? aeniiaee ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeei?enoai? iaoeiiaoae?aieie caaiaeaie ?in?? — AI CiAe
(i. Ia?i) ? AI Neai?eeaaeiao (i. A?enuee Aeoaenueeiai e?ath), a i?ioean?
ii?aoethaaiiy ? noai?aiiy iaeaoieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a
iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei cia/aiue iioeiaeueieo
eiino?oeoeaieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaeaoi?a aeei?enoai?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei oaoiieia?/iei ?inoeoooii (IAeOI, i. Cae?cie/ia
Iineianueei? iae.) i?e aeiaiaeoe? ? oaeineiiaeaii? eiino?oeoe?? oeeo
aeaeaoi?a. Cai?iaaaeaeai? a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaai?aoi??yo IAeOI ?
AAeI AeiiAeOO :

 oi?aa?naeueiee noaiae aeey aei?iaoaaiue iaeiiiooaeieo AeAC;

 aaoiiaoeciaaiee aei??iee aeo?ao iaeeaa.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoai?:

 a i?iiiceoe?yo c ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeo?a aea?aeaaiiai ? aaeocaaiai
noaiaea?o?a ?in?? ? e?a?i NIAe, a oaeiae noaiaea?oo ii iioiieeeao a
e?a?iao — /eaiao ISO TC 23/SC 17 c iaoith caoenoo caei?ia’y ethaeae ?
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua;

 a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e /eoaii? eo?n?a “Aaoiiia?euei? aeaeaoie” ?
“Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oaieioaoi?ee”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia: Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo —
“I?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy ?iai/eo i?ioean?a a aeaeaoiao aioo??oiueiai
cai?aiiy” (Iineaa, IAAeI, 1986 ?.) i “No/aniee ??aaiue ? oeyoe
oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo iieaciee?a aeaeaoi?a
aioo??oiueiai cai?aiiy” (Eoaainuee, EII?, 1983 ?.); /aoaa?oiio
?anioae?eainueeiio iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? uiaei iie?auaiiy
iieaciee?a oaieiaeo aeaeaoi?a ? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy (Iae?oiiieue, OAeAOA,
aa?anaiue 1998 ?.); iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? “Oaoiiyeieiaey — 91”
(Aeiiaoeuee, AeII, 1991 ?.); iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo AeiiAeOO
(Aeiiaoeuee — Ai?e?aea, 1978 – 1996 ??.); i?aeia?iaeieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo — «Yeieiaey i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aaeiiia»
(Ai?e?aea, AAe? AeiiAeOO, aa?acaiue 1999 a.), “Oaeineiiaeaiiy
eiino?oeoeaieo oa aenieoaoaoeieieo iieacieeia aaoiiiaieia i aei?iaeiio
iaoei” (Ee?a, OOO, /a?aaiue 1998 ?.), “I?iaeaie aaciaee o?ainii?oiiai
i?inoi?o” (E?iaoeuee, ?in?y, EAeOO, aa?anaiue — aeiaoaiue 1998 ?.),
“I?iaeaie o?ainii?oo oa oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy” (Ee?a, OOO, /a?aaiue 1997
?.) ? “I?ia?aneai? oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ? no/ani?noue”
(Aeiiaoeuee — Naaanoiiieue, AeiiAeOO, aa?anaiue 1997 ?.); i?aeia?iaeiiio
oe?a?inueei-aia?eeainueeiio nai?ia?? “Oi?aae?iiy oiiaa?neoaonueeeie
oaoiieia?yie ? noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? iaeiai ? na?aaeiueiai a?ciano”
(Aeiiaoeuee, AeiiAeOO, 1996 ?.); ? i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “Oe?a?inuee?
?iiiaaoe?ei? i?iaeoe, iia? oaoiieia?? ? aeiaoiaee” i. Oieaaeaeueoiy,
O?eaaeaeueo?enueeee iaoeiaee oeaio?, NOA, 1997 ?.

Ioaeieaoei?. C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 57 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, a oiio
/ene? aea? iiiia?aoi? caaaeueiei ianyaii 28,4 ae?oe. a., yei iaienai?
caeiaoaa/ai iaeiiin?aii, i 14 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa ia aeiao?ae:
eeth/ia? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? a 36 ?iaioao.

Iaeaoi? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? c?acee aacoaooiiiai ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai
aeaeaoi?a aeniiioaaeenue ia eieeoi?e AAeIA N?N? 1983, 1984 i 1990 ??. oa
ia i?aeia?iaeiiio oe?a?inueei-aia?eeainueeiio nai?ia?? (Aeiiaoeuee,
AeiiAeOO) o aeiaoi? 1996 ?.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
6-oe ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeia, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 258
iaeiaioaaiue ? 4-o aeiaeaoe?a. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia 363
n. iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 123 ?enoiee ? 20 oaaeeoeue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nei ?iaioe ?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio?, aeeiiai? ni?eueii c ni?a?ia?oieeaie eaoaae?e “Aeaeaoie” AAeI
AeiiAeOO (aei 1996 ?.) ? eaai?aoi??? noaiaea?oecaoe?? ? ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo aaiceiiiioi?iiai ?ino?oiaioo IAeOI i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ? ca
o/anoth aaoi?a. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? o
ni?aoi?noa? ?c ieie. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe a aeaye?e i??? iaoiiaeai? oaeiae
o/anoth caaiae?a AI CiAe ? AI Neai?eeaaeiao, ni?eueii c yeeie aoee
aeaioiaeai?, iaeaaiaeaeai? ? iiia?aaeiuei aei?iaoaai? iaeaoi? oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei? c?acee iao?aaeeoe?eieo AeAC ? aeine?aei? AII c oeeie
aeaeaoiaie. E??i oiai, o noai?aii? aeaeaoi?a iaaio aeiiiiiao iaaeaa
Iaeioiiieuenueeee iioi?iee caaiae (Oe?a?ia). Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia a?a?aoe?th ? ooi i?iaiaeeeeny a IAeI iaaeeoeeie i?aoe?
?AII (i. Iineaa) ? a aeine?aei?e eaai?aoi??? AI CiAe ni?eueii ?c IAeOI ?
AAeI AeiiAeOO. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny oaeiae i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
? ca o/anoth aaoi?a.

?ic?iaea iiaeo noai aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia, a oaeiae noai?aiiy
i?eioeeiiaeo noai ? eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue aei?iaiiai noaiaeo ?
aei??ieea aeo?ao iaeeaa aeeiiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Iniiai? ?aea?
?iaioe ? iaoiaeeee oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaeaaeaoue aaoi?ia?.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? naith aaey/i?noue aeieoi?ia? oaoi. iaoe, i?io. I. I.
Cai?ueeo ca eiai iaci?iio i?aeo?eieo ? oe?ii? ii?aaee a i?ioean?
aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c i?iaeai
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo ? ooai?aiiy iiaeo iaeiiiooaeieo aeaeaoi?a”
iaaaaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i ?iaioe i?ia?aeieo o??i na?oo uiaei aeioneo ?
?ic?iaee iiaeo eeane/ieo AeAC iaei? iiooaeiino?. ?icaeyioo? oeyoe
aaeineiiaeaiiy no/anieo AeAC ? ia?niaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeey ?o/ieo
iaoei iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a, iiiceoiiai aeaioeeeiiae?iaiai, c
iiaea?eiei aeacaeniaeueiei EOI, ?ioi?iiai oeio Wankel, aacoaooiieo (N.
N. Aaeaiaeiia, Stiller-Smith, c ieaiaoa?iei ? e?eaioeiii-eoeiniei
iaoai?ciaie), i?a?oaeueiiai R. Sarich ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai, a oaeiae AeAC
c ?aaoethaaiiyi nooiaiy noeneo, cieioieeiaei aaci?iniiaeieii oa ?i.

A oeueiio ?icae?e? oaeiae iieacaia aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie ?
noi?ioeueiaai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui a?aoiaothoue iniiai?
iai?yiee a ?icaeoeo iaeiiiooaeieo AeAC ? ?o no/aniee oaoi?/iee ??aaiue.

Aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo AeAC iiooaei?noth aei 20 eAo iina?ae/o?, ui
oae? aeaeaoie oe?iei canoiniaothoueny a onueiio na?o? ye aeaea?aea
aia?a?? a aeaeo?iaaia?aoi?ao, ianinao ? ?ioeo noaoe?iia?ieo onoaiiaeao,
a oaeiae o aeaeyae? neeiaiai i?eaiaeo ??ciiiai?oieo iaoei ? iaoai?ci?a.
Iaea?eueoeie a na?o? ae?iaieeaie iaeiiiooaeieo AeAC ? o??ie NOA,
I?ia//eie, Ioaei?, Oaaoei?, Eaiaaee, Aaeeeia?eoai?? ? ssiiii?. A NOA,
iai?eeeaae, iaeaea 900 o??i o?eueee eeoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, a oaeiae iecea aaoiiia?eueieo ? iioi?iaoae?aieo
caaiae?a, ui aeaioiaeythoue ia caiiaeaiiy niaoe?aeuei? iaeiiiooaei?
aeaeaoie. Iaeiiiooaei? AeAC Oe?a?ie ? e?a?i NIAe ia a iiai?e i???
caaeiaieueiythoue iio?aae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ?, aei oiai ae,
i?ia?athoue ia na?oiaiio ?eieo ?c-ca iecueeeo aenieoaoaoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee. Oiio oaeineiiaeaiiy oeeo aeaeaoi?a ? aeooaeueiei
caaaeaiiyi.

Iniiai? i?iaeaie o?aaeeoe?eieo AeAC ?o/ieo iaoei oae?, ye i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiiii?/iinoi, ciaioaiiy oe?aeeeaiai aieeao ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua,
ia iiaeooue aooe ?ica’ycai? a iiai?e i???, ai aoaeoeai? iiaeeeaino? ?o
oaeineiiaeaiiy aaea ae/a?iai?. Ia iaeaeeae/o ia?niaeoeao (aei 2010 ?.)
o?aaa i/?eoaaoe ia aeei?enoaiiy a ?o/ieo iaoeiao iao?aaeeoe?eieo
aeaeaoi?a, i?ioa aeey ?o oni?oiiai canoinoaaiiy iiaeii? i?iaiaeeoeny
?ioaineai? ?iaioe ii noai?aiith eiieo?aioicaeaoieo eiino?oeoe?e oeeo
aeaeaoi?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? aiae?co iniaeeainoae eiino?oeoe?? ? ia?aiao??a
??ciiiai?oieo oei?a a?aeiieo aeaeaoi?a cai?iiiiiaai? ? ?ic?iaeai? aea?
iia? i?eioeeiiai ??ci? noaie iao?aaeeoe?eieo AeAC noiniaii aei AII, a
naia — aacoaooiiiai ii?oiaaiai ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai.

Ia ?en. 1 iaaeaia eiino?oeoeaia noaia iaeiioeee?iae?iaiai aacoaooiiiai
aeaeaoia.

?en. 1. Eiino?oeoeaia noaia aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia

?iai/ee i?ioean aeaeaoia cae?enith?oueny ye a cae/aeiiio ii?oiaaiio
aeaioaeoiiio AeAC c e?eaioeiii-eaia?iith i?iaeoaeith.
Cai?ioii-iinooiaeueiee ?oo ii?oiy ia?aoai?th?oueny a iaa?oaeueiee ?oo
eie?i/anoiai aaea ca aeiiiiiaith EEI, yeee aeeth/a? aeaa eie?i/anoeo
aaee — neeiaee 1 ? aeiaeaoeiaee 2, ye? iathoue aeiaeaoeia? i?ioeaaae 3,
? eoe?no 4, niieo/aio c ii?oiai /a?ac ooie 5 ? ca’ycaio c eie?i/anoeie
aaeaie ca aeiiiiiaith iiacoi?a 6. Eiiaiaoe/iee ca’ycie i?ae neeiaei ?
aeiaeaoeiaei eie?i/anoeie aaeaie aeeiiaii ca aeiiiiiaith aeaio
iaeiaeiaeo oeeeiiae?e/ieo oanoa?aiue 7, aei?noei iinaaeaeaieo ia
a?aeiia?aeieo aaeao. I?e a?aeiia?aeiiio i?aeai?? ian i?ioeaaa a aeaeaoi?
caaacia/o?oueny iiaia c??aiiaaaeaiiy nee iia?oei? an?o ?ooiieo /anoei.

Ia ?en. 2 iieacaia eiino?oeoeaia noaia noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia
(aaciiia?o?yi? o?aeoe ? na?/ea caiaethaaiiy ia iieacai?).

?en. 2. Noaia noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia:

R – ?aae?on noa?e ?iai/eo eaia?; r – ?aae?on oeeeiiae?e/iiai aenooio ia
noa?i?aeaeueiiio ii?oi?

A ia?ooiiiio noa?e/iiio ei?ion? 1 ?ici?uaiee noa?i?aeaeueiee ii?oaiue 2,
yeee oa?ii?ii anoaiiaeaiee ia iaeueoe? 3, cae??ieaiiio a ei?ion?.
Ii?oaiue ia? iicaeiaaei?e iac, ?ici?uaiee ocaeiaae in? iaeueoey. A iac?
?ooa?oueny iiacoi 4, iinaaeaeaiee ia e?eaioeiio oeeeo 5 aeo?aeiiai aaea
6. Noa?i?aeaeueiee ii?oaiue o/eiy? cai?ioii-iiai?ioiee ?oo, ooai?thth/e
aea? ?iai/? eaia?e 7, 8 ci?iiiai ia’?io, a yeeo iiaeooue cae?enithaaoeny
oa?iiaeeiai?/i? i?ioeane AeAC ii aeai- /e /ioe?eoaeoiiio oeeeeo.

A a?aeiieo iai ?iaioao ia i?noyoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o
?aoe?iiaeueieo eiino?oeoeaieo ? ?iai/eo ia?aiao??a oeeo aeaeaoi?a. Oiio
iac??ea iaiao?aei?noue a i?iaaaeaii? eiiieaeno IAe? ? AeE?, aeey
aecia/aiiy iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue ii noai?aiith iiaeo
AeAC.

Iinoaaeaia a ?iaio? oe?eue aecia/eea iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy oaeeo
iniiaieo caaaeaiue.

1. ?icaeoie iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai??? AeAC uiaei ieoaiue e?iaiaoeee,
aeeiai?ee ? ?iai/iai i?ioeano iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a — aacoaooiiiai
?c EEI ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?aooiie iniiaieo ia?aiao??a iao?aaeeoe?eieo
aeaeaoi?a.

3. Ii?aoethaaiiy ? ooai?aiiy iaeaoieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a
aacoaooiiiai ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoi?a.

4. I?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aiao??a ?iaioe
aeaeaoi?a, a oaeiae aei?iaoaaiiy AII c aacoaooiiei aeaeaoiii ia
a?a?aoe?th ? ooi.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Iniiae oai??? aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia” iiae?eaiee ia aea?
/anoeie ? ? oai?aoe/iith aacith aeey ?ic?iaee ? noai?aiiy aacoaooiiiai
aeaeaoia ?c EEI. A ia?o?e /anoei? ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy e?iaiaoeee,
aeeiai?ee ? ?iai/iai i?ioeano aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia.

Iieacaii, ui a iaeiioeee?iae?iaiio aeaioaeoiiio aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi?
an? neee ?ia?oe?? oa ?o iiiaioe c??aiiaaaeothoueny iiai?noth i?e
aeiiiiic? i?inoiai iaoiaeo onoaiiaee i?ioeaaa ia eie?i/anoeo aaeao. Aeey
ciaioaiiy iac??aiiaaaeaiino? e?ooiiai iiiaioo aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia
cai?iiiiiaaia noaia EEI ?c ci?uaieie a i?yieo in? oeee?iae?a
eie?i/anoeie aaeaie. Iaea?aeaia aiae?oe/ia caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy
aaee/eie ci?uaiiy aae?a, i?e ye?e iiaea aooe aeinyaiooa /anoeiaa
ca?eueoaiiy ??aiii??iino? e?ooiiai iiiaioo (i?eaeecii ia 20 … 30 %).

Ca’ycie i?ae e?iaiaoeeith aeaeaoia ? eiai ?iaeeeaoi?ieie iieacieeaie
iaoiiaeaii ?ic?aooieiaeie ??aiyiiyie ?iai/iai oeeeeo, ye? o?aoiaothoue
??cieoeth na?aaei?o oaeaeeinoae ?ooo ii?oiy ia ae?eyioe? i?aeaiaeo
oaiea. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a iieacothoue, ui i?e ia?ai?uaii? ii?oiy ii
n?ioni?aeaeueiiio caeiio, ia a?aei?io a?ae ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oiy a
eeane/iiio AeAC c EOI, ?iaeeeaoi?ia iiooaei?noue iiaea aooe i?aeaeuaia,
a aeo?aoa iaeeaa cieaeaia ia 3 – 4 %.

Ae?oaa /anoeia oeueiai ?icae?eo i?enay/aia ?ic?aooieo e?iaiaoe/ii?
oi/iino? aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia. Iaei??th c iniaeeainoae eiino?oeoe??
aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia ? oa, ui eaiee ?ici??iiai eaioethaa EEI
iaia’yceiai iiaeii? aooe i?ae?a?ai? oaeei /eiii, uia caaacia/oaaeany
eiai eiiaiaoe/ia oi/i?noue, ui aa?aioo? a iniiaiiio aeiaea?aeaiiy oiia
a?eueiiai, aac ca?aeaiue, ?aaeiaeueiiai ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oiy a iaaeao
oaieiaeo caci??a ia an?o ?aaeeiao ?iaioe aeaeaoia. I?e/eiith
?aaeiaeueiiai ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oiy ? eooia? eieeaaiiy eoe?ne, aeeeeeai?
ae??th oaoiieia?/ieo ? iiioaaeieo iioeaie, aaee/eie yeeo, ye i?aaeei,
aecia/athoueny a?aeoeeaiiyie ? aeiioneaie ?ici???a aeaoaeae.

Iioeaee aeaiaio?a EEI ?icaeyioo? i?ae eooii ci?o ?o i?iyao a oiiaao
?iaioe aeaeaoia. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aoa aia?oa ?ic?iaeaiee i?io. I. A.
Eaeaoieeiaei ? canoiniaaiee a oai??? ?aaeueieo iaoai?ci?a.

Ia iniia? aiae?co iaoi/iinoae eiiaiaoe/iiai eaioethaa a aacoaooiiiio
aeaeaoi? aoee iaea?aeai? cae/aei? ??aiyiiy, ui iienothoue ca’ycee
eooiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy eoe?ne c 29-oueia iacaeaaeieie ci?iieie, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaoiieia?/i? ? iiioaaei? iioeaee aeaioiaeaiiy ?
cae?aiiy aeaeaoia. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaoaaany i?eioeei iacaeaaeiino?
ae?? ia?aeiieo iiieeie, cai?iiiiiaaiee aia?oa aeaaeai?eii I. A.
A?o?ae/ai. Aanue aieea iaoi/iinoae aeaiaio?a aeaeaoia aoei i?eaaaeaii
aei /ioe?ueio iioeaie: caaaeaii? iiieeee ?aae?ono e?eaioeia R, caaaeaii?
eooiai? iioeaee eie?i/anoeo aae?a ; caaaeaii? iiieeee iieiaeaiiy
iiacoi?a o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei? A ? caaaeaii? iiieeee i?aeinueiai?
a?aenoai? eie?i/anoeo aae?a A.

Eooiaa ia?ai?uaiiy eoe?ne i?e iayaiino? cacia/aieo aeua /ioe?ueio
caaaeaieo iioeaie aecia/a?oueny ?c ??aiyiiy

wmetafile8? ??th???????????
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A@???&??yyyy?????AyFy?c ???&?
?MathType??????u????????????-?????]e???]o???u?th??????
aea R = R0 + R; = 0 + ; aaee/eie R ? a?aeiinyoueny aei e?eaioeia, aei
yeiai caaaeai? iioeaee, a R0 ? 0 — aei oae caaiiai aaciaiai e?eaioeia,
ia yeiio a?aenooi? iioeaee.

I?e oa?ii?iiio niieo/aii? ooiea c eoe?nith ia?aeeaaeea ii?oiy a iaaeao
oaieiaiai caci?o iiae?ey?oueny ia aeae?eueea oac (?en. 3): i?yiiaenia
iieiaeaiiy ii?oiy c “a?eueiei” ?ooii a oaieiaeo caci?ao (noaia a) ? c
i?eeyaaiiyi ia iaeei a?e oeee?iae?o aac iia?oy ia iueiai (a); iioeea
iieiaeaiiy ii?oiy, i?e yeiio aieiaea ? thaea i?eeyaathoue aei iiaa?oi?
oeee?iae?o iaeii/anii, ia iaaaioaaeoth/e eiai, (a). Eoo iiai?ioo eoe?ne,
a?aeiia?aeiee iaaiae? ii noai? a, cai?iiiiiaaii iaceaaoe aeno?aiaeueiei
(y), a aeey noaie a — e?eoe/iei (e?). Eoo y ? iaaeith eooiaeo aiie?ooae
eoe?ne, i?e yeeo ia? i?noea iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaa ?iaioa ii?oiy. I?e
cia/aiiyo eooa > e? ia?ae?eaeaiiy ii?oiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
caeeeithaaiiyi eiai a oeee?iae?? ? aeaeaoi noa? iai?aoeacaeaoiei.

?en. 3. Eiiia?aie ia?ai?uaiiy ii?oiy

Aeey ioe?iee i?aoeacaeaoiino? aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia aaaaeaii iiiyooy
?iai/eo caci??a i?ae ii?oiai ? oeee?iae?ii. ?iai/? caci?e aaaaeathoueny
ca iaeiaio? ?c ?nioth/eo i?e ?iaio? aeaeaoia caci??a i?ae ii?oiai ?
oeee?iae?ii. I/aaeaeii, ui aaee/eia oeeo caci??a aecia/a?oueny ia
o?eueee iioeaeaie ? oaieiaei noaiii aeaiaio?a aeaeaoia, aea oaeiae eooii
iiai?ioo eie?i/anoeo aae?a.

Oi?ioee aeey ?iai/eo caci??a ? eoo?a y, e? iaea?aeai? aeey aeaio
eiino?oeoeaieo aa??aio?a EEI — c aei?noeei ? oa?ii?iei e??ieaiiyi ooiea
aei eoe?ne.

sseui ooie ? eoe?na iathoue oa?ii?ia niieo/aiiy, oiae? ?iai/ee caci?
i?ae ii?oiai ? oeee?iae?ii aecia/a?oueny ii ??aiyiith

wmetafile8? ??t???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ay¤y`¤ ???&?
?MathType??A????u????????????-?????‰???n
???uaeya?????aea aaee/eie Sao wmetafile8? ??¶????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
a???&??yyyy?????Ay¬y I ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Aeno?aiaeueiee y ? e?eoe/iee e? eooe aeey
oe??? iaaiaee iiaeooue aooe ia/eneai? ?c ni?aa?aeiioaiue:

wmetafile8? ??z???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ay·ya ???&?
?MathType???????u????????????-?????µ???E???u?th??????
wmetafile8? ??u???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ay¤ya ???&?
?MathType???????u????????????-????????n???uaeya?????
Ooo wmetafile8? ??¶????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
????&??yyyy?????Ay¬y@I ???&? ?MathType??P????u?th??????Ia
aac? iaea?aeaieo oi?ioe aeey iioeaie ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo
eiiaiaoe/ii? oi/iino? aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia ia noaae?? eiai i?iaeooaaiiy
? aeiaiaeee, yea caniiaaia ia iaoiae? eii?eii? oai??? ooieoe?e.
Iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? aecia/aoe iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e, a
oaeiae ?aoe?iiaeuei? a?aeoeeaiiy ? aeiionee ?ici???a on?o iniiaieo
aeaiaio?a aeaeaoia.

Iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy a iaeeo a?aeoeeaiiyo onoaiiaeththoue ca’ycie i?ae
aaee/eiaie 29-oe iacaeaaeieo ci?iieo (a?aie/ieo a?aeoeeaiue ? aeiione?a,
caci??a ? o. ae.) ? ia?aiao?aie EEI — ?aae?onii e?eaioeio, eooii
iiai?ioo eie?i/anoeo aae?a ? iieiaeaiiyi iiacoi?a. Ia i?aenoaa? oeeo
??aiyiue aoee iiaoaeiaai? n?oueia? no?oeoo?i? noaie aca?iica’yceo
ia?aiao??a , R, A ? . Ic ?o aeiiiiiaith iaea?aeai? ?ic?aooieia? oi?ioee
aeey /anoeiaeo eiao?oe??io?a aieeao aoaeue-yeeo iacaeaaeieo ia?aeiieo
/eiiee?a ia aoaeue-yeee ia?aiao?-ooieoe?th aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia.

Eooiaa ia?ai?uaiiy eoe?ne ?icaeyaea?oueny, ye i?e??no ooieoe?? ?
aeecueei ??aii aeeoa?aioe?aeo oe??? ooieoe??, oiaoi

wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????AyIyAI ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????aea

wmetafile8? ??±???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@(???&??yyyy?????Ay«y?(+ ???&? ?MathType??p????uaeya?????
wmetafile8? ??“???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ay®y? ???&?
?MathType???????u????????????-?????????i???z
???µ ???A???T???I???ue???u?th??????Ooo
A0, R0, 0, A0 — ii/aoeia? cia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ci?iieo, ii
a?aeiioaiith aei yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny i?e??no.

Inoaoi/ia eii?eia ??aiyiiy eooiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy eoe?ne ia? aeaeyae

wmetafile8? ??? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
A8???&??yyyy?????AyFy?8A ???&? ?MathType??aea — iicia/a?
a?aeiinio ci?io a?aeiia?aeiiai ia?aiao?a.

Eiaeiee eiao?oe??io aieeao Ni a oeueiio ??aiyii? iaea?aeaii ca
aeiiiiiaith ?icai?iooi? no?oeoo?ii? noaie aca?iica’yceo ia?aiao??a , R,
E, ? aeeth/a? aei naaa ieceo aeo?aeieo eiao?oe??io?a aieeao, ui aoee
iaea?aeai? oeyoii aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy ooieoe?e ia?aiao??a EEI ii
a?aeiia?aei?e iacaeaaei?e ci?ii?e.

Ia ?en. 4 iaaeai? caeaaeiino? aiie?ooaee eooiaeo eieeaaiue eoe?ne a?ae
oi/iino? aeaioiaeaiiy ? iiioaaeo aeaoaeae EEI.

sse aeaeii, aeey cae/aeii? oi/iino? aeaioiaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo
aeaeaoi?a, a?aeiia?aeath/i? 7-e nooiai? oi/iino?, iaea?eueoa aaee/eia
eooiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy eoe?ne neeaaea? 0,0556 ? cia/ii iaioa, i?ae i?e
8-io ? 9-io nooiaiyo oi/iino? (a?aeiinia cieaeaiiy neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii
35 ? 56 %). Aeaioiaeaiiy aeaeaoia c i?aeaeuaiith oi/i?noth (6-ee ? 5-ee
nooiai? oi/iino?) i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy iiieeee eooiaiai iieiaeaiiy
eoe?ne o ii??aiyii? c 7-ei nooiaiai oi/iino? a?aeiia?aeii ia 28,6 ? 48,4
%. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui o anueiio ae?aiacii? oaeaee?nieo ?
iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ?aaeei?a ?iaioe aeaeaoia, iaeneiaeuei? aaee/eie
eooiaeo eieeaaiue eoe?ne ci?iththoueny ia a?eueo, i?ae ia 3,77 % i?e
5-io, 2,62 % — 6-io, 1,75 % — 7-io, 0,8 % — 8-io ? 0,47 % — 9-io
nooiaiyo oi/iino?.

?en. 4. Caeaaei?noue (6) eooiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy eoe?ne a?ae eooa 0
iiai?ioo eie?i/anoiai aaea i?e ??cieo nooiaiyo oi/iino?

Iieacaii, ui aaee/eie ?iai/eo caci??a i?ae ii?oiai ? oeee?iae?ii a
aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi? ?noioii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oaieiaeo caci??a a
cae/aeieo AeAC ? aecia/athoueny caniaii e??ieaiiy ooieo aei ii?oiy ?
eoe?ne.

?ic?aooieia? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? iieacaee, ui i?e aei?noeiio
cae??ieaii? ooieo oi/i?noue aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae ? ?o eiino?oeoeai?
?ici??e ia caaacia/othoue i?aoeacaeaoiino? ii?oiaai? a?oie ? aeaeaoia a
oe?eiio. A ?ac? oa?ii?iiai c’?aeiaiiy ooiea c eoe?nith ?iai/? caci?e,
i?e yeeo caaacia/o?oueny ii?iaeueia ?iaioa aeaeaoia, aecia/athoueny a
iniiaiiio eiino?oeoeaiei ia?aiao?ii Io (aeea. ?en. 3).

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Iniiae oai??? noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia” i?enay/aiee
oai?aoe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, ui aeicaieyoue iaea?aeaoe ioe?ieo
noa?i?aeaeueiiai AeAC ca aaaa?eoaie ? ianith, oaieiiai?oaeai?noth ?
iniaeeainoyie ?iai/iai i?ioeano, a oaeiae c?iaeoe eiai ?ic?aooiee —
eiiaiaoe/iee, aeeiai?/iee ? ia i?oei?noue.

Ia iniia? ni?aa?aeiioaiue eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a noa?i?aeaeueiiai
aeaeaoia (aeea. ?en. 2) aoea aeaaaeaia oi?ioea aeey ?ic?aooieo ?iai/iai
ia’?io oaieiai? eaia?e

wmetafile8? ??A???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A???&??yyyy?????Ay?y?? ???&?
?MathType??0???u????????????-?????= ???=K
????I???–y???u??
??????????-?????y????D???-??????L???T?????T??
???T?a???u?th??????aea R — ?aae?on noa?e ?iai/i? eaia?e, ii; r —
?aae?on oeeeiiae?e/iiai aenooio, aeeiiaiiai ia noa?i?aeaeueiiio ii?oi?,
ii; — iiaiee eooiaee o?ae ii?oiy, a?aae.

Aiae?c oi?ioee (7) iieaco?, ui o noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia c
ca?eueoaiiyi R ieoii? ianiaaaa?eoi? iieacieee ci?iththoueny oaeaeoa,
i?ae o ii?oiaaeo AeAC, o yeeo, ye a?aeiii, Vh  R2. Ca?aene iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iiceoeai? aeanoeaino? noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia ca
aaaa?eoaie ? ianith aoaeooue i?iyaeyoeny i?e ca?eueoaii? ?iai/iai
ia’?io.

Ca ia?aiao?e, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaieiiai?oaeai?noue noa?i?aeaeueiiai
aeaeaoia, ao?aoe oaiea a no?iee, a oaeiae eiiiaeoi?noue ?iai/i? eaia?e
i?eeiyo?: ieoiia iiaa?oiy oaieiai? eaia?e — Fk / Vh ? ieoiia iiaa?oiy
noa?i?aeaeueiiai ii?oiy — Fn / Vh.

A ?iaio? iaaaaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a oaieiiai?oaeaiinoi
noa?i?aeaeueiiai ? ?ioi?iiai aeaeaoi?a. Ia ?en. 5 iieacai? ?ic?aooieia?
a?ao?ee ci?ie ia?aiao??a Fk / Vh ? Fn / Vh a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?iai/iai
ia’?io Vh aeey o?ueio ??cieo aeaeaoi?a. Ic ?en. 5, a aeaeii, ui
noa?i?aeaeueiee ? ?ioi?iee aeaeaoie iathoue i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeia?
iieacieee uiaei oaieiiai?oaeaiinoi ? cia/ii iinooiathoueny eeane/iiio
AeAC ii oeueiio ia?aiao?o. Ic ?en. 5, a aeo?ea?, ui ca
oaieiiai?oaeai?noth eaia?e cai?aiiy, a oaeiae ?? eiiiaeoiinoi
noa?i?aeaeueiee aeaeaoi ia?aaaaea? aeaeaoi Wankel, iinooiath/enue
o?eueee ii?oiaaiio AeAC.wmetafile8? ??W???6????????&?

?yyyy????Word?Microsoft Word??? ???????
«????u??????????????????D???-?????????uOey???????en. 5.
A?ao?ee ci?ie ia?aiao?a Fk /Vh e Fn /Vh:

1 — noa?i?aeaeueiee aeaeaoi; 2 — aeaeaoi Wankel; 3 — ii?oiaaee AeAC

Aeey noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia (aeea. ?en. 2) aeaaaeai? ??aiyiiy
e?iaiaoeee ? aeeiai?ee. Aeo?aei? ??aiyiiy :

eooiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy noa?i?aeaeueiiai ii?oiy

wmetafile8? ??;???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ay«y@+ ???&?
?MathType??p????uaeya?????aea wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????Ayya ???&?
?MathType??A????u????????????-?????????*???u?th??????
eooiai? oaeaeeino? ii?oiy

wmetafile8? ??ae???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ay¤y $ ???&?
?MathType??????u????????????-?????n???????u?th??????
aea iino?ei? eiao?oe??ioe

wmetafile8? ??7???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ay?yaO ???&?
?MathType??A????u????????????-?????=e???=I???u?th??????
eooiaiai i?enei?aiiy ii?oiy

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ay?yAh ???&?
?MathType??????u????????????-?????]k???]!???u?th??????
A oeueiio ??aiyii? iino?ei? eiao?oe??ioe

wmetafile8? ??d???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @
 ???&??yyyy?????Ay?y`o ???&? ?MathType??
???u????????????-?????^r???^N???^Ue
???^E???1/27???1/2
???1/2b???1/2E???1/2‡???1/2/???u?th??????Aiae?c
eiiaiaoe/ieo ooieoe?e (?en. 6) aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a?eueo
iia?eueiee, i?ae o eeane/iiai aeaeaoia, ?oo noa?i?aeaeueiiai ii?oiy a
?aeii? a. i. o. iaaeeaea? i?ioean cai?aiiy a noa?i?aeaeueiiio aeaeaoi?
aei icioi?iiai i?ioeano i?aeaaaeaiiy oaieioe, ui i?aeaeuo?
aeiiii?/i?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue oeeeeo, a a?eueo oaeaeeee ?oo ii?oiy
iiaeeco i. i. o. ni?ey? iiiaae iia?eueiiio iaae?iith oeneo i?iaeoai/iiai
ca?yaeo i?e aaciiai?i?, ui i?aeaeuo? ye?noue i?iaeoaee oaieiai? eaia?e.
Oeeie iiceoeaieie aeanoeainoyie, ye aeaeii ?c iaaaaeaieo aeaieo,
aieiae?? oaeiae aacoaooiiee aeaeaoi ?c EEI.

Aeey ioe?iee oaeaee?nii? oi?ne?iaee noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia aaaaeaii
iiiyooy na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino? ?ooo iiacoia uiaei iicaeiaaeiiai iaco
ii?oiy, yea aecia/a?oueny ?c ??aiyiiy

wmetafile8? ??M???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ay?ya ???&?
?MathType???????u????????????-?????]O ???]=
???????aea n — /anoioa iaa?oaiiy aaea, oa-1; r — a ii; — a
a?aae.

Aiae?c c??aiiaaaeaiinoi iieacaa, ui a noa?i?aeaeueiiio aeaeaoi?, ia
a?aei?io a?ae ii?oiaaiai AeAC, i?e cai?ioii-iiai?ioiiio ?ooo
noa?i?aeaeueiiai ii?oiy aeieea? o?eueee iaeei iiiaio nee iia?oe??.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeaoi?a. Aei?iaia onoaoeoaaiiy” aaoi?ii ae??oothoueny
ianooii? ieoaiiy.

I?ia?aia aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeaoi?a aeeth/aea:

1) aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo i?aoeacaeaoiinoi iaeaoieo c?ace?a
aacoaooiiiai ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoi?a. Aecia/aiiy ?o iiooaeiinieo ?
aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a. Aeya i?eioeeiiai? iiaeeeaino? cieaeaiiy
a?a?aoe?? oeeo aeaeaoi?a.

2) aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?iai/iai i?ioeano aenia?eiaioaeueieo
c?ace?a iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a.

3) aecia/aiiy oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?iaioe aeaeaoi?a ia ??cieo
oaeaee?nieo ? iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ?aaeeiao.

4) aeine?aeaeaiiy a?a?aoe?? ? ooio aaiceiiiioi?ieo ieeie c aacoaooiiei ?
eeane/iei aeaeaoiaie.

Caaaeueia iaoiaeeea ia?aaeaa/aea aei?iaoaaiiy aeaeaoi?a ia noaiaeao AI
CiAe, IAeOI ? AAeI AeiiAeOO ? aeeth/aea a?aeeaaeeo, oieiaeio ? aa?y/o
iaeaoee, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee — oaeaee?nii?,
iaaaioaaeoaaeueii? ? oieinoiai oiaeo. Iaoiaeeea ia?aaeaa/aea oaeiae
aei?iaoaaiiy oeaiieo iioiieeie c ??cieie oeiaie aeaeaoi?a ia a?a?aoe?th
? ooi a oiiaao, aeecueeeo aei aenieoaoaoe??.

Ie?ai? iaoiaeeee aei?iaoaaiue ?ic?iaeai? c iaoith aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
?iai/iai i?ioeano aeaeaoi?a ? a?aeiinyoueny aei iiaeeoe?thaaiiy oeneo ?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioeano cai?aiiy. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeeny a AAeI AeiiAeOO ia noai?aiiio aeey oeeo oe?eae aei?iaiiio
noaiae?, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe an? iaiao?aei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aei??e
ia?aiao??a o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c AINO 18516-92, yeee ?ic?iaeaii ia iniia?
aiaeia?/ieo i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a ISO.

Aeey iiaeeoe?thaaiiy oeneo aoa aeei?enoaiee i’?ciaeaeo?e/iee
aei??thaaeueiee i?eeaae ?I-4 o??ie RFT (eieeoiy IAe?). Ii ?iaeeeaoi?iei
ae?aa?aiai i?iaiaeeany caaaeueiee aiae?c yeino? i?ioeano cai?aiiy.

E??i iiaeeoe?thaaiiy, aeey aea/aiiy a?aei?iiinoae a i?io?eaiii i?ioeano
cai?aiiy a aeaeaoi?, iia’ycaieo c e?iaiaoeeith oiai /e ?ioiai neeiaiai
iaoai?cio, aoa canoiniaaiee a?aeiiee noaoenoe/iee iaoiae ?a?no?aoe??
?iciianthaeaeaiiy o?iioo iieoi’y a eaia?? cai?aiiy ca aeiiiiiaith
iiiicaoe?eieo ciiae?a.

Iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aaeaa/aea oaeiae
iaea?aeaiiy ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo eiiaiaoe/ieo noai aeaeaoi?a ii
cieaeaiith ??aiae a?a?aoe?? ? ooio. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a
eaai?aoi??? aeonoeee AI CiAe, a oaeiae a eaai?aoi??? noaiaea?oecaoe?? ?
ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo aaiceiiiioi?iiai ?ino?oiaioo IAeOI ni?eueii ?c IAeI
iaaeeoeeie i?aoe? ?AII. Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy ?nieo?a a?aeiia?aeaea
?in?enueeiio noaiaea?oo AINO ? 50062-92 ? i?aeia?iaeiiio noaiaea?oo ISO
7505. Aei??e ? ioe?iea a?a?aoe?? ? ooio i?iaiaeeeeny a?aeiia?aeii aei
AINO 12.1.012-90, AINO 12.1.003-83 ? AINO 16519-78. I?e aei??ao ?
ia?iaoe? aeaieo aeei?enoiaoaaeany aia?aoo?a o??ie Brel & Kjaer (Aeai?y).
Niaeo?ia?aie a?a?aoe?? AII ci?iaeeny a ae?aiacii? /anoio 8 – 1000 Aoe, a
ooiia? oa?aeoa?enoeee aecia/aeeny a ae?aiacii? /anoio 4 – 8000 Aoe.
Niaeo?aeueiiio aiae?co i?aeeyaaee ii?io?i? ia?aiao?e a?a?aoe?? —
a?a?aoe?eia oaeaee?noue ? aia?ii?enei?aiiy a ieoaaieo nioaao, a oaeiae
caaaeai? noia?i? aia?ioaeaee?noue ? aia?ii?enei?aiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii aei ?icaeyiooeo iaoiaeee aoee ae??oai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

 ?ic?iaeaii aei?iaiee noaiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ye
a?o/eciyieo, oae ? ca?oa?aeieo aeaeaoi?a iiooaei?noth a?ae 0,1 aei 6 eBo
? /anoioith iaa?oaiiy aei 11000 oa-1;

 ?ic?iaeaii aaoiiaoeciaaiee aei??iee aeo?aoe iaeeaa, iia?o?y ? /anoioe
iaa?oaiiy eieii/anoiai aaea aeaeaoia c iiaeeea?noth i?aeeeth/aiiy AII;

 ?ic?iaeai? niaoe?aeueia aei??thaaeueia aia?aoo?a ? i?eno?i? aeey
aea/aiiy ?iai/iai i?ioeano aeaeaoia aeaiia iacaeaaeieie caniaaie —ca
aeiiiiiaith iiaeeoe?thaaiiy oeneo ? aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a i?ioeano
cai?aiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi iiiicaoe?eieo aeao/ee?a.

I’yoee ?icae?e “Aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueei ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia c e?eaioeiii-eoeiniei iaoai?ciii” i?enay/aii
ae??oaiith ianooiieo ieoaiue:

a) ?ic?iaoe? iaeaoieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a aacoaooiiiai
aeaeaoia;

a) a?aei?aoethaaiith eiino?oeoe?? iaoai?cio ia?aoai?aiiy ?ooo ii?oiy a
iaa?oaeueiee ?oo aeo?aeiiai aaea;

a) i?iaaaeaiith ?nieo?a ia a?a?aoe?th ? ooi.

A iniiao ?ic?iaie iieeaaeaia i?eioeeiiaa noaia aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia,
yea iienaia a ?icae. 1.

A iaeaoiiio c?aceo aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia eeane/iee e?eaioeiii-oaooiiee
iaoai?ci aoa cai?iaiee ia EEI. Aeaeaoi ia? aea? ?cieueiaai? iaeia a?ae
iaeii? eaia?e — e?eaioeiio ? i?iaeoai/io. Inoaiiy aeeiiaia o c’?ii?e
i?inoaaoe?, ?ici?uai?e i?ae oeee?iae?ii ? ea?oa?ii. C’?iia i?inoaaea
neoaeeoue aeey aea/aiiy oiia ciauaiiy aeaeaoia. A ?ac? onoaiiaeaiiy
i?inoaaee e?eaioeiia eaia?a noa? ?cieueiaaiith a?ae oeee?iae?o, i?e
oeueiio aaciiai?i cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith i?iaeoai/ii? eaia?e, a
a ii?iaeiei? ea?oa?a ? iiaeeea?noue cae?eniaiiy ciauaiiy ye
?ica?eceoaaiiyi, oae ? i?ae oeneii. I?e ciyo?e i?inoaaoe? aaciiai?i
cae?enith?oueny ?c oae caaiei “nooei“ ea?oa?ii ye o cae/aeiiio
aeaioaeoiiio AeAC c e?eaioeiii-eaia?iith i?iaeoaeith. Ine?eueee a
aeaeaoi? ooie iaa aei?noea cae??ieaiiy, oi a i?ioean? aeaioiaeaiiy ?
cai?ee aoea cai?iaaaeaeaia noa?aiia ?iaeea?aeoaeueia i?eaiiea aeaoaeae c
iaoith iaea?aeaiiy i?i?iaeueieo eooiaeo eieeaaiue eoe?ne, a a?aeiia?aeii
? iaeiaioeo ?aaeiaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue ii?oiy. Ie??i oiai, aeaui aoee
ca?eueoai? caci?e i?ae ii?oiai ? oeee?iae?ii.

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue ? ?aa?c?? ia?oiai iaeaoiiai c?acea aacoaooiiiai
aeaeaoia iieacaee, ui aeey eiino?oeoe?? EEI ?c iiacoiaie oa?oy ciauaiiy,
cae?enithaaia i?ei?ooaaiiyi ianoeea a iaeeai, ia caaacia/o?
i?aoeacaeaoiino? aeaeaoia ia an?o oaeaee?nieo ?aaeeiao eiai ?iaioe. I?e
aei?iaoaaii? aiaeeiia aeo?aoa iaeeaa aacoaooiiei aeaeaoiii i?e
iaeneiaeuei?e iiooaeiino? neeaaeaea 0,8  0,9 ea/aiae. Aei?iaoaaiiy
aeaeaoia ia iaae?ei?noue na?ae/aoue i?i iaaeinoaoith aoaeoeai?noue
ciauaiiy EEI oeyoii ?ica?eceoaaiiy. I?ney 10 aiaeei ?iaioe i?e /anoio?
iaa?oaiiy eie?i/anoeo aae?a n = 6800 oa-1 ? aoaeoeai?e iiooaeiino? Na =
1,1 eAo noaeany aaa??y aeaeaoia, aiane?aeie yei? noaeiny iiaia
c?oeioaaiiy iiacoi?a, a ia ?iai/eo iiaa?oiyo eoe?ne c’yaeeeny o??ueie,
??ciiiai?oi? eieuei?e i?ieeainoi ? ne?aee iaoai?/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue, ui
aeaco? ia iaaeinoaoi? a?aeaaaeaiiy oaiea a?ae aoce?a oa?oy, ye?
i?aoeththoue i?e aeniei/anoioieo oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo.

Ae?oaee iaeaoiee c?acie aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia a?ae??ciyany a?ae ia?oiai
iayai?noth eiia?iiaaii? nenoaie iauaiiy. I?ae oeneii 0,15 … 0,4 IIa
a?ae aiiioiaaiiai a ei?ion? aeaeaoia ianeyiiai ianino ciauoaaeeny
ei??ii? i?aeoeiieee eie?i/anoeo aae?a ? ?iai/? iiaa?oi? iiacoi?a, a
oaeiae iai?yii? eoe?ne. Iio? aeaoae? EEI ciauoaaeeny ?ica?eceoaaiiyi
ianoeea. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui a aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi?
c eiia?iiaaiith nenoaiith iauaiiy caaacia/o?oueny eiai
i?aoeacaeaoi?noue, a iaoai?/i? ao?aoe iathoue i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiao
aaee/eio ?c cae/aeiei aeaeaoiii AII.

C?acie aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia ?c eiia?iiaaiith nenoaiith iauaiiy,
aeaioiaeaiee ? c?a?aiee ca ii?iaie oi/iino?, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue
oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy aeaeaoia no/anii? iioiieeee “Oaeaa-214“, a
i?ioean? aei?iaoaaiue caciaa na?eicii? aaa??? — /eiae? iioeiaeaeaiiy
ii?oiy, oeee?iae?o ? EEI. I?e/eiith iioeiaeaeaiiy aeaeaoia noaei
aei?noea e??ieaiiy ooiea aei ii?oiy ? eoe?ne. I?e oaeiio cae??ieaii?
ooiea ?c-ca iayaiino? eooiaeo eieeaaiue eoe?ne aeiee “iaoya” a ia?ao
oa?oy: ii?oaiue — oeee?iae? ? iiacoi — iai?yii? eoe?ne. Oea i?eaaei aei
aeieeiaiiy caaee??a a cacia/aieo ia?ao oa?oy, aiane?aeie /iai aeaeaoi
aoa coieiaiee ?c iiaiiai oiaeo (n = 7000 oa-1) ia i?ioyc? anueiai
aeae?eueeio iaa?o?a, iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeee iiiaio iia?oei? iaoiaeea.
Oe? ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c oai?aoe/ieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie eiiaiaoe/ii? oi/iino? aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia, ye?
iienai? a ?icae. 2 aeena?oaoe??.

Aeey caiia?aaiiy iiae?aiei aeiaaeeai ? caaacia/aiiy i?aoeacaeaoiinoi
aeaeaoia, aeaioiaeaiiai c o?aaeeoe?eieie oaoiieia?/ieie ? iiioaaeieie
aeiioneaie, a ianooiieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?aceao aacoaooiiiai AeAC
aoei ia?aaeaa/aia oa?ii?ia niieo/aiiy uiiaeiaioa iaeiiai e?ioey ooiea c
eoe?nith ? ia?ai? eiino?oeoeai? ?ici??e a?aeiia?aeii aei ?acoeueoao?a
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ine?eueee a aeaeaoiao ?o/ieo iaoei canoinoaaiiy aeinoaoiuei neeaaeii?
nenoaie iauaiiy i?ae oeneii aacia?niaeoeaia, oi aeey caaacia/aiiy ?iaioe
EEI a oiiaao ciauaiiy oeyoii i?ei?ooaaiiy ianoeea aei iaeeaa a on?o
ianooiieo c?aceao aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia iiacoie neiacaiiy aoee cai?iai?
eaoeaie.

Ia ?en. 7 iaaeaia noaia ae?oaiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai c?acea aeaeaoia c
aeaiia eaoeaie ia eiaeiiio eie?i/anoiio aae?.

?en. 7. Noaia ae?oaiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai c?acea aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia:

A — iaeeaiee aa/ie; A — ianeyia aaiia aeey ciauaiiy ieeueiiai eaioethaa

Eaoee 1 ni?eeiathoue iniiaia iaaaioaaeaiiy ? eiioaeoothoue ?c aa?oiueith
iai?yiiith eoe?ne 3, a eaoee 2 — ?c ieaeiueith iai?yiiith 4. Eiaeiee
eaoie iaeii/anii ? ciai?oiueith iaieiith aieue/anoiai i?aeoeiieea ? ia?
iaoai?ci i?eioniaiai i?iai?ioo eaoea aeey iiaeeeaino? eiai ea/aiiy ii
iai?yiiei eoe?ne aac neiacaiiy. Iaoai?ci i?iai?ioo eaoea yaey? ?a?/io
coa/anoo ia?aaea/o, o yei? coa/anoa eieani 5 aei?noei c’?aeiaii ?c
eaoeii, a ?aeea 6 — c eoe?nith.

sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe noaiaeiaeo aei?iaoaaiue, iaoai?/iee e. e. ae. a
aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi? iaea?aeaii ??aiei 0,82 … 0,86 i?ioe 0,48 oa 0,76
o aeaeaoi?a AII “Ae?oaeaa-4” ? “Oaeaa-214”.

Anoaiiaeaii iaeaea 13%-ia ca?eueoaiiy aoaeoeaii? iiooaeiino? ? ciaioaiiy
i?eaeecii ia oaeo ae aaee/eio ieoiii? aeo?aoe iaeeaa, ui ? iane?aeeii
iayaiino? EEI, yeee caaacia/o? a?eueo aenieee iaoai?/iee e. e. ae. ?
e?aua i?io?eaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai oeeeeo.

A i?ioean? aecia/aiiy oaeaee?nieo ? iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee
niinoa??aaeiny cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e i?ae na?/ath caiaethaaiiy a
aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi? o ii??aiyii? c eeane/iei ia 10 … 30 N, ui aeaco?
ia caaa?oaiiy i?ioeano cai?aiiy i?e iaioiio ia’?i?, a ioaea, a?eueo?e
i??? ei?eniiai ?icoe?aiiy ? iaio?e oaieiiai?oaeaiinoi oeee?iae?o.
Ia?iaea ?iaeeeaoi?ieo ae?aa?ai iieacaea, ui o?eaae?noue cai?aiiy a
aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi? ia 3 … 7 i. e. a. iaioa, i?ae o eeane/iiai, ui
iiaeia iiynieoe iayai?noth oo?aoeicaoei? aaciaiai no?oio ii anueiio
ia’?io eaia?e cai?aiiy, a oaeiae iaioith oaeaee?noth ?ooo ii?oiy iiaeeco
a. i. o., i?e ye?e caaacia/othoueny e?au? oiiae i?io?eaiiy o?i?/ieo
?aaeoe?e.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiue aoee iaea?aeai? ?ioaa?aeuei? ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo
iiiaio?a i?eoiaeo o?iioo iieoi’y aei i’yoe iiiicaoe?eieo aeao/ee?a,
?ici?uaieo a ??ciiiai?oieo i?noeyo eaia?e cai?aiiy.

Oe? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui a cae/aeiiio AeAC iniiaia /anoeia
i?iaeoai/iiai ca?yaeo ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ii eaia?? cai?aiiy a a?e
iaeiiai c i?iaeoai/ieo a?eii a oie /an, ye a aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi?
niinoa??aa?oueny a?eueo ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e oaeaeeinoae no?oio.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui oa?aeoa?
ci?ie oaeaeeino? iieoi’y caeaaeii a?ae n, Na, c ? a iaio aeaeaoiao
iaeaioe/iee ? aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c a?aeiieie aeaieie.

A oeueiio ae ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ii??aiyeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?a?aoe?? ? ooio aacoaooiiiai ? eeane/iiai aeaeaoi?a, a oaeiae ?o/ieo
iioiieeie ?c oeeie AeAC. ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue na?ae/aoue, ui o
ae?aiacii? iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieo aeey ethaeeie /anoio 63 – 250 Aoe ??ai?
a?a?aoe?? aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia ia 6 – 12 aeA ieae/a, i?ae o
o?aaeeoe?eiiai.

sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe aei??o ooiiaeo ? a?a?aoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeaio iiaeaeae ieeie — c aenia?eiaioaeueiei c?aceii aacoaooiiiai
aeaeaoia (iaaeae? oei A) ? na??eii? “Oaeaa-214” (oei A), iaeneiaeuei?
??ai? ooio aeey ieeie A ? A, i?aoethth/eo ia oieinoiio oiaeo, i?aeoe/ii
iaeeiaeia? ? neeaaeathoue 93 – 94 aeAA. O oie aea /an i?e ?iaio? ieeie
i?e iaeneiaeuei?e iiooaeiino? a ?aaeei? ieeaiiy “?ice?yaeoaaiiy”
niinoa??aaeany ?noioia ??cieoey iaeneiaeueieo ??aiae ooio: aeey
iioiieeee A — aei 103 aeAA, a aeey ieeee A — iiiaae 106 aeAA. I?e
ioe?ioe? niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ooio aeaio oei?a iioiieeie ?noioieo
?ica?aeiinoae ia aeyaeaii.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aei?iaoaaiue iieacaa e?au? a?a?aoe?ei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee o iioiieeee A. Aeinyaiooa cieaeaiiy ??aiae
aia?ioaeaeeino? a oe?eiio ia aeaio ?oeiyoeao iioiieeee A o ii??aiyii? c
iioiieeeith A neeaei iiiaae 2 aeA, a i?e ioe?ioe? noia?iiai i?enei?aiiy:
0,3 – 1,6 i/n2.

I?e ioe?ioe? niaeo?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee aia?aoe?e aeaio iiaeaeae ieeie
aeyaeaia ??cieoey a /anoioiiio ?iciiae?e? ??aiae aia?ioaeaeeino?.
Iioiieeea A ia? /?oeo caeiiii??i?noue ?iciiae?eo ??aiae aia?ioaeaeeino?
ia iaio ?oeiyoeao ? i?e iaio ?aaeeiao ?iaioe. Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy
??aiae aia?ioaeaeeino? niinoa??aaeeny o ae?aiacii? 8 – 31,5 Aoe i?e
?iaio? iioiieeee ia oieinoiio oiaeo ? 31,5 – 63 Aoe — i?e aeeiiaii?
?ice?yaeoaaiiy. Aeey iioiieeee A oaeiai no?eeiai iiaoi?aiiy /anoioiiai
?iciiae?eo ??aiae aia?ioaeaeeino? ia aeyaeaii. Oa?aeoa?iei aeey
iioiieeee A ? a?aeiinii ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e ??aiae a?a?aoe?? ii o?ueii
iai?yieai X, Y, Z.

?icaeyioo? i?e/eie ciaioaiiy a?a?aoe?? ? ooio aeine?aeii? iioiieeee A.
Iiaia c??aiiaaaeai?noue o?eueee nee iia?oei? ia?oiai ii?yaeeo (ca
iaoiaeii Eai/anoa?a-Oaeei?a) a aeaeaoi? iioiieeee “Oaeaa-214” ia
caaacia/o? ?noioiiai cieaeaiiy a?a?aoe??, ai neee iia?oei? ae?oaiai
ii?yaeeo iiaeooue aeeeeeaoe a?a?aoe?th, ui ia?aaeuo? aeiionoei? ii?ie. A
aacoaooiiiio ae aeaeaoi? neee iia?oei? ae?oaiai ? aeueo ii?yaee?a
a?aenooi?, a ia?oiai ii?yaeeo iiai?noth c??aiiaaaeai? ca aeiiiiiaith
i?ioeaaa ia eie?i/anoeo aaeao.

A oinoiio ?icae?e? “Aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueei ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoia” aeeeaaeai? ?iaioe ii noai?aiith iaeaoieo
c?ace?a noa?i?aeaeueiiai AeAC. A oiae? aeeiiaiiy AeE? i?ney aeae?eueeio
iaaaea/ aoea ?ic?iaeaia ae??caeaoia eiino?oeoe?y noa?i?aeaeueiiai
aeaeaoia. Aeaeaoi a?ae??ciy?oueny i?inoioith eiino?oeoe??, iecueeei
??aiai a?a?aoe?? ? oi?ioeie ianiaaaa?eoieie iieacieeaie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui noa?i?aeaeueiee aeaeaoi ia?
iaaeinoaoith iaae?ei?noue nenoaie ou?eueiaiue, ui coiiaeaii eiai ono?i?i
? oaoiieia??th aeaioiaeaiiy ii?oiy ? ei?iono, ye? iathoue noa?e/io
oi?io. A noa?i?aeaeueiiio aeaeaoi? aeo?e na?aei? noi?oi ?c eaia?e
cai?aiiy a 3 – 4 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae o cae/aeiiio AeAC.

I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ia ?aaeeiao,
aeecueeeo aei oieinoiai oiaeo, noa?i?aeaeueiee aeaeaoi i?aoeth?
iano?eei, ui ? a iniiaiiio ne?aenoaii iecueei? iaae?eiino? ou?eueiaiue.
Ieoiia aeo?aoa iaeeaa o noa?i?aeaeueiiio aeaeaoi? ia 5 – 10 % aeua, i?ae
o ii?oiaaiio aeaeaoi? iioiieeee “Oaeaa-214”, i?e/iio iniaeeai oea
iii?oii i?e iaiiaiiio iaaaioaaeaii? ? iecuee?e /anoio? iaa?oaiiy.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui nenoaia iauaiiy “?ica?eceoaaiiyi” ia caaacia/o? ciauaiiy
? iaiao?aeiee a?aeaiae oaiea a?ae ia? oa?oy neeiaiai iaoai?cio.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui noa?i?aeaeueiee aeaeaoi ua iio?aao?
oaoi?/ieo oaeineiiaeaiue, ia?o i?ae eiai iiaeia aoaea aeei?enoaoe ye
aeeoo?caeaoiee neeiaee i?eaiae.

AENIIAEE

A aeena?oaoe?? aeaii iiaa ??oaiiy cia/ii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeaie, ui
ia? aaaeeeaa ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy, yea iieyaa? o ?icaeoeo
oai??? ? oaeineiiaeaii? aeaeaoi?a aioo??oiueiai cai?aiiy, eio??
caaacia/othoue aenie? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee.

Iniiai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee ?iaioe
iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio.

1. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio ?icaeoeo iaeiiiooaeieo aeaeaoi?a
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iniiai? i?iaeaie eeane/ieo iaeiiiooaeieo AeAC
oae?, ye cieaeaiiy a?a?aoe?? ? ooio, i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iinoi ? ieoiii?
iiooaeiino?, ia iiaeooue aooe ?ica’ycai? oeyoii iiaeaeueoiai aianaiiy
oaeineiiaeaiue ye a eiino?oeoe?th oeeo aeaeaoi?a, oae ? a ?iai/?
i?ioeane, ui ?aae?cothoueny ieie. Noai?ai? aei oeueiai /ano ??ciiiai?oi?
eiino?oeoe?? iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a: N. Aaeaiaeiia, Stirling, Wankel,
Sarich oa ?i. ia iiaeooue ae??oeoe eiiieaenii cacia/ai? i?iaeaie ?
aeiaaathoue aeeaieeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?iaaaeaiiy aaeeeeo
aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o.

2. Ia iniia? aeeiiaieo IAe? ? AeE? ?ic?iaeaia ? aei?iaoaaia oe?ea iecea
iaeaoieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a iiaeo iao?aaeeoe?eieo AeAC —
aacoaooiiiai ii?oiaaiai c e?eaioeiii-eoeiniei iaoai?ciii ?
noa?i?aeaeueiiai. Ia aac? aeaioaeoiiai aacoaooiiiai iaeiioeee?iae?iaiai
aeaeaoia noai?aia aeine?aeia aaiceiiiioi?ia ieeea ?c i?aeaeuaieie
iiooaeiinieie, aeiiii?/ieie ? a?a?aoe?eii-ooiiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

3. Iaea?aeai? iia? iaoeia? aeai? ii oai??? AeAC, ui i?aaenoaaeai?:
a) aiae?oe/ieie caeaaeiinoyie e?iaiaoeee, aeeiai?ee ? ?iai/iai i?ioeano
aacoaooiiiai ii?oiaaiai ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai aeaeaoi?a; a) ?ic?iaeaiith
iaoiaeeeith ?ic?aooieo eiiaiaoe/ii? oi/iino? aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia, yea
a?oioo?oueny ia iaoiae? eii?eii? oai??? ooieoe?e. Iaoiaeeea aea?
iiaeeea?noue ia?aoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? aaee/eie aeiione?a ia aeaioiaeaiiy ?
iiioaae aeaoaeae, a oaeiae aeyaeoe iioeiaeueio eiino?oeoe?th ? ?ici??e
aeaiaio?a aeaeaoia ia noaae?? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaeooaaiiy ? aeiaiaeee;
a) cai?iiiiiaaiith iaoiaeeeith ia?aiao?e/iiai ?ic?aooieo oeeee?a
aacoaooiiiai ? eeane/iiai aeaeaoi?a, ui aeicaieeoue iaea?aeaoe ioe?ieo
aieeao e?iaiaoeee ii?oiy ia ?iaeeeaoi?i? iieacieee.

4. Aeeiiai? oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue,
ui noa?i?aeaeueiee aeaeaoi ia? ?noioi? ia?aaaae ia?aae ?nioth/eie
ii?oiaaeie AeAC ii c??aiiaaaeaiino?, aaaa?eoai ? ian?. I?ioa ii oe?eiio
?yaeo iaeaaaeeea?oeo iieaciee?a oaeeo, ye aeiiii?/i?noue, ieoiia
iiooaei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue, noa?i?aeaeueiee aeaeaoi a??oa, i?ae
cae/aei? aeaeaoie aianeiaeie iani?eyoeeaiai i?io?eaiiy ?iai/iai
i?ioeano.

5. Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo ? aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o ii
noai?aiith aacoaooiiiai AeAC c e?eaioeiii-eoeiniei iaoai?ciii ae??oai?
oae? eiino?oeoeai? ? oaoiieia?/i? ieoaiiy:

 iaea?aeai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? aaee/eie aeiione?a ia aeaioiaeaiiy ? iiioaae
aeaiaio?a aeaeaoia;

 aecia/ai? oae caai? ?iai/? caci?e a oeeeiiae?i-ii?oiaa?e a?oi?, ui
caaacia/othoue i?aoeacaeaoi?noue aeaeaoia ? caaaeaee iaio? oaieiaeo
caci??a, ye? iathoue i?noea a cae/aeieo AeAC, aiane?aeie iayaiino?
oaoiieia?/ieo ? iiioaaeieo iioeaie aeaiaio?a aeaeaoia;

 ciaeaeaia iaea?eueo i?eeiyoia eiino?oeoeaia noaia e?eaioeiii-eoeiniiai
iaoai?cio c oi/ee ci?o oaoiieia?/iinoi ? ?iaioicaeaoiino?, a ye?e ooie
oa?ii?ii c’?aeiaiee c eoe?nith ? aei?noei i?ee??ieaiee aei ii?oiy.

6. ?ic?aooieiai-aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie onoaiiaeaii ca’ycie
i?ae e?iaiaoeeith ii?oiy ? ia?aiao?aie ?iai/iai i?ioeano aeaeaoia.
Iieacaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy neeiaiai iaoai?cio c niioni?aeaeueiei
ia?ai?uaiiyi ii?oiy cai?noue cae/aeiiai e?eaioeiii-oaooiiiai iaoai?cio
i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaeeeaoi?ii? iiooaeiino? i cieaeaiith
aeo?aoe iaeeaa ia 3 – 4 %.

7. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? iieacothoue, ui a aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi?
ii??aiyii ?c eeane/iei aoaeoeaia iiooaei?noue a?eueoa ia 13 % ?
i?eaeecii ia oaeo ae aaee/eio iaioa aeo?aoa iaeeaa.

8. Aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui a
aacoaooiiiio aeaeaoi? ia a?aei?io a?ae cae/aeiiai niinoa??aa?oueny
a?eueo ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e oaeaeeinoae iieoi’y ii eaia?? cai?aiiy, ui
aeaco? ia a?eueo ni?eyoeeaee oa?aeoa? iioieo aac?a a eaia?? cai?aiiy,
aeeeeeaiiai i?ioeanii i?iaeoaee-iaiiaiaiiy.

9. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aeine?aei? c?acee
eaioethaiaeo iioiieeie c aacoaooiiei aeaeaoiii iathoue /eiaeo ia?aaaao
ii a?a?aoe?? ? ooio iaae e?aueie no/anieie aaiceiiiioi?ieie ieeeaie, ui
aeioneathoueny o ??cieo e?a?iao. Aeinyaiooa cieaeaiiy ??aiae
aia?ioaeaeeino? ia ?oeiyoeao aeine?aeii? iioiieeee ii??aiyii c ieeeith
“Oaeaa-214”, ui aeionea?oueny a ?in??, neeaei a na?aaeiueiio 2 aeA, a
cieaeaiiy aia?ii?enei?aiiy aeinyaaei 0,3 – 1,6 i/n2. I?e oeueiio
oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth aieeao ia aaee/eio noia?iiai aia?ii?enei?aiiy
ia ?oeiyoeao aeine?aeii? iioiieeee, ia a?aei?io a?ae cae/aeieo ieeie, ?
aeineoue ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e ??aiae aia?aoe?e ii o?ueii iai?yieai O,
Y, Z.

10. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? iieacothoue iiaeeea?noue cieaeaiiy ooio
eaioethaiai? iioiieeee (aeey iaaeaii? eiino?oeoe?? ia 3 aeAA) i?e
canoinoaaiii aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia c e?eaioeiii-eoeiniei iaoai?ciii.

11. A?aeiia?aeii aei ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiue AeAC ?ic?iaeai?
aei?iaiee noaiae ? iiai?noth aaoiiaoeciaaiee aei??iee aeo?aoe iaeeaa, ui
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey aenia?eiaioaeueii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo,
oaoiieia?/ieo ? aeine?aeieo ?ia?o a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao. Noaiae
aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeaoi?a iiooaei?noth aei 6 eAo ?
/anoioith iaa?oaiiy 500 – 11000 oa-1. Aei?iaiee noaiae ? aei??iee
aeo?aoe iaeeaa a 1985 ?. cai?iaaaeaeai? a aeine?aei?e eaai?aoi??? IAeOI
(i. Cae?cie/ia, Iineianueei? iae., ?in?y).

12. An? ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? a i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy IAe? ? AeE?,
aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo eiino?oeoe?e iao?aaeeoe?eieo AeAC –
aacoaooiiiai ? noa?i?aeaeueiiai, a oaeiae a i?iaeoao aea?aeaaieo
noaiaea?o?a ii iioiieeeai e?a?i NIAe ? e?a?i — /eai?a ISO TC 23/SC 17.

13. Oae? yeino?, ye aenieee e. e. ae., aaeeea ieoiia iiooaei?noue ? iae?
a?a?aoe?y ? ooi ?iaeyoue aacoaooiiee aeaeaoi eiieo?aioicaeaoiei
cae/aeiei iaeiiiooaeiei AeAC. Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a, a yeiio iiaeii?
aanoeny iiaeaeueo? ?iaioe iaae aacoaooiiei aeaeaoiii, ? i?aeaeuaiiy eiai
iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaio?eaaeino? ca ?aooiie oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe??
e?eaioeiii-eoeiniiai iaoai?cio c oei, uia oeae aeaeaoi iiaeia aoei
i?aaenoaaeoe ye ae?enio aeueoa?iaoeao eeane/iiio AeAC.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo ?iaioao:

Iiiia?ao??

1. Ieuaiei I. E. Iao?aaeeoeeiiiua iaei?acia?iua aeaeaaoaee aioo?aiiaai
nai?aiey: A 2 o. — Aeiiaoee: Eaaaaeue, 1998. — O.1: Oai?ey, ?ac?aaioea e
eniuoaiea iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeaaoaeae. — 228 n.

2. Ieuaiei I. E. Iao?aaeeoeeiiiua iaei?acia?iua aeaeaaoaee aioo?aiiaai
nai?aiey: A 2 o. — Aeiiaoee: Eaaaaeue, 1998. — O.2: Iniiau ?an/aoa
eeiaiaoe/aneie oi/iinoe aanoaooiiiai aeaeaaoaey. — 314 n.

Noaoo? a iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo

1. Ieuaiei I. E. Iiuoiue noa?ieaeaeueiue aeaeaaoaeue // Aaoioeyoiaee
Oe?a?ie — 1998. — ? 2. — N. 14 – 15.

2. Ieuaiei I. E. Ia?niaeoeaiay eiino?oeoeey aanoaooiiiai aeaeaaoaey
aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey // Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie — 1998. — ? 2. — N. 16 –
17.

3. Ieuaiei I. E. E?eaioeiii-eoeeniue iaoaieci aeaoooaeoiiai aanoaooiiiai
aeaeaaoaey iaeie iiuiinoe // Io?aneaaia iaoeiino?iaiea: O?oaeu /
Oaa?e/aneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aa?ioaoie/aneay aeaaeaiey. — Iaeeoiiieue:
OAAOA. — 1998. — O. 6, aui. 2. — N. 33 – 35.

4. Ieuaiei I. E., Oei/aiei A. A., Iiaie?auaiia A. N. Aanoaooiiue
aeaoooaeoiue aeaeaaoaeue n iaoaieciii eciaiaiey noaiaie naeaoey //
Io?aneaaia iaoeiino?iaiea: O?oaeu / Oaa?e/aneay ainoaea?noaaiiay
aa?ioaoie/aneay aeaaeaiey. — Iaeeoiiieue: OAAOA. — 1998. — O. 6, aui. 2.
— N. 36 – 37.

5. Ieuaiei I. E., Oei/aiei A. A. Iniaaiiinoe eeiaiaoeee
iaeiioeeeeiae?iaiai aeaeaaoaey n aeaoiy oaooiaie, niaaeeiaiiuie n aeaoiy
eieai/aouie aaeaie // Io?aneaaia iaoeiino?iaiea: O?oaeu / Oaa?e/aneay
ainoaea?noaaiiay aa?ioaoie/aneay aeaaeaiey. — Iaeeoiiieue: OAAOA. —
1998. — O. 5, aui. 2. — N. 22 – 25.

6. Ieuaiei I. E., Oei/aiei A. A. ?an/ao eeiaiaoeee aeaooaaeueiiai
aeaeaaoaey n aeaoiy oaooiaie ia iaeei ii?oaiue // Io?aneaaia
iaoeiino?iaiea: O?oaeu / Oaa?e/aneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aa?ioaoie/aneay
aeaaeaiey. — Iaeeoiiieue: OAAOA. — 1998. — O. 5, aui. 2. — N. 26 – 29.

7. Ieuaiei I. E., Noaeae O. I. Ia?niaeoeau oeo/oaiey aea?iaeonoe/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeaoooaeoiuo iaeiioeeeeiae?iauo aeaeaaoaeae n aicaeooiui
ioeaaeaeaieai // Na. iao/. o?oaeia IAAeE. Aaoiiiaeeueiua e o?aeoi?iua
aeaeaaoaee aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey. — I.: IAAeE. — 1986. — N. 174 – 177.

8. Ieuaiei I. E., ?iaeei A. A., E?aia?ue I. I. Noaiae aeey eniuoaiey
aeaeaaoaeae ?o/iiai iioieino?oiaioa // Ia?aaeiaie i?iecaiae. iiuo. —
1985. — ? 10. — N. 26 – 28.

9. Ieuaiei I. E., Aea?ya/aiei TH. I., E?aia?ue I. I. Nieaeaiea aea?aoeee
aaiciieeu // Ia?aaeiaie i?iecaiae. iiuo. — 1985. — ? 8. — N. 38 – 40.

10. Aoeiia I. A., Caiiia A. A., Ieuaiei I. E. Iaeiioeeeeiae?iaay
onoaiiaea e aiia?aoo?a aeey enneaaeiaaiey yeaeo?e/aneie ia?aaioee
naaaeaai ca?yaea ia i?ioeannu nianaia?aciaaiey e nai?aiey e oiene/iinoue
io?aaioaaoeo aacia ea?ath?aoi?iiai aeaeaaoaey // Aeaeaaoaee aioo?aiiaai
nai?aiey, aui. 32: ?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/.-oaoi. nai?iee. — Oa?ueeia: Aeua
oeiea, 1980. — n. 106 – 112.

Aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa

1. A. n. 1295017 NNN?, IEE F 02 A 53/00. Aeaeaaoaeue aioo?aiiaai
nai?aiey / N. A. Eiiiiaiei, I. E. Ieuaiei, TH. I. Aea?ya/aiei, A. O.
Aaa?ei, N. A. Aeanyooi (NNN?). — ? 3967249/25-06; cayaeaii 17.10.85;
Iioae. 07.03.87, Athe. ? 9. — 4 n.

2. A. n. 1151703 NNN?, IEE F 02 A 75/32. Aeaeaaoaeue aioo?aiiaai
nai?aiey / TH. I. Aea?ya/aiei, I. E. Ieuaiei, N. A. Aeanyooi, A. I.
Oe?eieei (NNN?). — ? 3712227/25-06; cayaeaii 21.12.83; Iioae. 23.04.85,
Athe. ? 15. — 2 n.

3. A. n. 1116198 NNN?, IEE F 02 A 75/32. Aeaeaaoaeue aioo?aiiaai
nai?aiey / TH. I. Aea?ya/aiei, I. E. Ieuaiei, N. A. Aeanyooi, A. ?.
Ianetheia, N. E. Aa?noeia, I. A. Iaeeioea, TH. E. Iaiiiiyuee, A. A.
Aea?thaei (NNN?). — ? 3397223/25-06; cayaeaii 16.02.82; Iioae. 30.09.84,
Athe. ? 36. — 3 n.

4. A. n. 1300160 NNN?, IEE F 01 L 7/02. Cieioieeiaue iaoaieci
aaci?ani?aaeaeaiey / TH. I. Aea?ya/aiei, I. E. Ieuaiei, N. E. Aa?noeia,
A. O. Aaa?ei, A. N. Iiaie?auaiia, A. O. Nethna?aa (NNN?). —
? 3841239/25-06; cayaeaii 02.01.85; Iioae. 30.03.87, Athe. ? 12. — 3 n.

5. A. n. 1288311 NNN?, IEE F 01 L 7/02. Iaoaieci aaci?ani?aaeaeaiey
aeaeaaoaey aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey Ieuaiei / I. E. Ieuaiei (NNN?). —
? 3861493/25-06; cayaeaii 25.02.85; Iioae. 07.02.87, Athe. ? 5. — 6 n.

6. A. n. 1281700 NNN?, IEE F 02 A 75/32. Aeaeaaoaeue aioo?aiiaai
nai?aiey / Y. I. Iaeeeia, I. E. Ieuaiei, TH. I. Aea?ya/aiei, N. E.
Aa?noeia, A. O. Aaa?ei, A. N. Iiaie?auaiia, N. A. Aeanyooi, A. A.
Aea?thaei (NNN?). — ? 3487401/25-06; cayaeaii 07.05.82; Iioae. 07.01.87,
Athe. ? 1. — 3 n.

Aeiiia?ae? ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao

1. Ieuaiei I. E. E aii?ino eeiaiaoe/aneie oi/iinoe aanoaooiiiai
aeaeaaoaey // Ca. iaoe. i?. iiaeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-oaoi. eiio.
«Oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo oa aenieoaoaoeieieo iieacieeia
aaoiiiaieia i aei?iaeiio iaoei». — E.: OOO. — 1998. — N. 162 – 163.

2. Ieuaiei I. E. Iaeioi?ua ?acoeueoaou iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio e
enneaaeiaaiee aanoaooiiiai aeaeaaoaey // Na. o?oaeia iaaeaeoia?.
iao/.-oaoi. eiio. «I?ia?anneaiua oaoiieiaee iaoeiino?iaiey e
nia?aiaiiinoue». — Aeiiaoee: AeiiAOO. — 1997. — N. 164 – 165.

3. Mishchenko N. I. Connecting Rod-absent Engine with a Crank-link
Gear // The project presentation at the International workshop
«Ukrainian Innovation Projects, New Technologies and Inventions» —
Philadelphia: University City Science Center, Philadelphia, USA. —
February, 1997. — 4 p.

4. Mishchenko N. I. Unrotor Internal Combustion Engine // The project
presentation at the Ukrainian — American workshop «University Technology
Management and Technology — Based Small and Medium-Sized Business» —
Donetsk: DonSTU, Ukraine. — October, 1996. — 4 p.

5. Ieuaiei I. E. Enneaaeiaaiea aieiaiai ia?aiauaiey ii?oiy a aanoaooiiii
aeaeaaoaea aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey // Na. oacenia aeiee. iao/.-oaoi. eiio.
ii caaa?oaiiui IE?. — Aeiiaoee: AeIE. — 1991. — *.II. — N. 113

6. Ieuaiei I. E. Nieaeaiea aea?aoeee e ooia iaeiiiuiuo aeaeaaoaeae
aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey // Na. oacenia aeiee. iao/.-oaoi. eiio. ii
caaa?oaiiui IE?. — Aeiiaoee: AeIE. — 1991. — *.II. — N. 112.

7. Ieuaiei I. E. Oeo/oaiea aea?aoeeiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeaaoaeae
?o/iiai iioieino?oiaioa // Anan. iao/. eiio. «I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey
?aai/eo i?ioeannia a aeaeaaoaeyo aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey»: Oac. aeiee. —
I.: IAAeE. — 1986. — N. 221 – 222.

8. Ieuaiei I. E., Aoeiia I. A., E?aia?ue N. I., Oei/aiei A. A.,
Iiaie?auaiia A. N. Ii?aaeaeaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeanna nai?aiey e aa
aeeyiea ia yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee aeaoooaeoiiai aaiceiiaiai aeaeaaoaey
// O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-oaoi. eiio. «Yeieiaey i?iiuoeaiiuo
?aaeiiia». — Aeiiaoee: «Eaaaaeue». — 1999. — N. 67 – 69.

9. Ieuaiei I. E., Noaeae O. I., Oei/aiei A. A., Iiaie?auaiia A. N.
Nicaeaiea aanoaooiiiai aeaeaaoaey Iooi n oeo/oaiiuie yeiiiie/aneeie e
yeieiae/aneeie iieacaoaeyie // Na. iao/. o?oaeia iaaeaeoia?. iao/. eiio.
I?iaeaiu aaciianiinoe o?ainii?oiiai i?ino?ainoaa. — Eeiaoee: EAOO e
EYAE. — 1998. — N. 21.

10. Ieuaiei I. E., Oei/aiei A. A., Iiaie?auaiia A. N., E?aia?ue N. I. E
?an/aoo i?aaiia aaci?ani?aaeaeaiey a aanoaooiiii ii?oiaaii aeaeaaoaea //
Ca. iaoe. i?. iiaeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-oaoi. eiio. «Oaeineiiaeaiiy
eiino?oeoeaieo oa aenieoaoaoeieieo iieacieeia aaoiiiaieia i aei?iaeiio
iaoei». — E.: OOO. — 1998. — N. 156 – 157.

11. Ieuaiei I. E., Oei/aiei A. A. Auai? e ?an/ao ia?aiao?ia aanoaooiiiai
aaiceiiaiai aeaeaaoaey n ia?aiaiiie noaiaiueth naeaoey // Na. o?oaeia
iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-oaoi. eiio. «I?ia?anneaiua oaoiieiaee iaoeiino?iaiey e
nia?aiaiiinoue». — Aeiiaoee: AeiiAOO. — 1997. — N. 166 – 168.

12. I?uaiei I. ?., O?i/aiei A. A., Iiaie?auueiiia A. N.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeaeaoie iao?aaeeoe?eii? eiino?oeoe?? // Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-oaoi. eiio. «I?iaeaie o?ainii?oo oa oeyoe ?o
ae??oaiiy». — E.: OOO. — 1997. — N. 119 – 120.

13. Mishchenko N. I., Himchenko A. V. Connecting Rod-absent ICE with
Variable Compression Ratio // The project presentation at the
International workshop «Ukrainian Innovation Projects, New Technologies
and Inventions» — Philadelphia: University City Science Center,
Philadelphia, USA. — February, 1997. — 4 p.

14. Ieuaiei I. E., Aoeiia I. A., Aieiaeueei TH. A. Nicaeaiea iiauo AeAN
n iiauoaiiie oiieeaiie yeiiiie/iinoueth e iaeie oiene/iinoueth
io?aaioaaoeo aacia // Oac. aeiee. Anan. iao/. eiio. «Nia?aiaiiue
o?iaaiue e iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo e yeieiae/aneeo
iieacaoaeae aeaeaaoaeae aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey». — *.1. — I. — 1983. —
N. 69.

Iaoa??aee i?i iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia aeinyaiaiiy

1. Ieuaiei I. E. Aanoaooiiue aeaeaaoaeue aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey / Eio.
eenoie i iao/.-oaoi. aeinoeaeaiee ? 82-68. — Aeiiaoee: AeOeIOE
Oe?IEEIOE, 1982. — 4 n.

2. Ieuaiei I. E. Aaoiiaoe/aneee ecia?eoaeue ?anoiaea oiieeaa / Eio.
eenoie i iao/.-oaoi. aeinoeaeaiee ? 82-73. — Aeiiaoee: AeOeIOE
Oe?IEEIOE, 1982. — 4 n.

3. Eiiiiaiei N. A., Ieuaiei I. E., Iiaie?auaiia A. N. Eniuoaoaeueiue
noaiae aeey iaeiiiuiuo aunieiiai?ioiuo aeaeaaoaeae aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey
/ Eio. eenoie i iao/.-oaoi. aeinoeaeaiee ? 84-21. — Aeiiaoee: AeOeIOE
Oe?IEEIOE, 1984. — 4 n.

4. Ieuaiei I. E., Iiaie?auaiia A. N., Ethae/aaa A. A. Yeaeo?iiaaieoiue
ia?aeeth/aoaeue oiieeaa / Eio. eenoie i iao/.-oaoi. aeinoeaeaiee
? 82-71. — Aeiiaoee: AeOeIOE Oe?IEEIOE, 1982. — 4 n.

AIIOAOe?ss

I?uaiei I. I. Iaoeiai-oaoii/ii iniiae noai?aiiy iao?aaeeoeieieo
iaeiiiooaeieo aeaeaoiia aioo?ioiueiai cai?aiiy c aenieeie aeiiiii/ieie i
aeieiai/ieie iieacieeaie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.04.02 — oaieia? aeaeaoie. Oe?a?inueeee o?ainii?oiee
oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ?ic?iaee ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a iiooaei?noth aei 20 eAo — aacoaooiiiai ?
noa?i?aeaeueiiai. A ?iaio? ?icaeiaii iiaee iai?yi a oaeineiiaeaii?
aeaeaoi?a uiaei iaeaaaeeea?oeo oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a.

Io?eiai? iia? aeai? ii e?iaiaoeoe?, aeeiai?oe? ? ?iai/ueiio i?ioeano
AeAC. Aia?oa aeeeaaeai? iniiae oai??? e?iaiaoe/ii? oi/iino? aacoaooiiiai
aeaeaoia, ui ? oai?aoe/iith aacith aeey eiai noai?aiiy. I?eaiaeyoueny
aeai? uiaei iiooaeiinieo, aeiiii?/ieo ? a?a?aoe?eieo iieaciee?a
aacoaooiiiai aeaeaoia, a oaeiae a?a?aoe?e oa ooio aeine?aeii? iioiieeee
?c oeei AeAC. Aeaia ioe?iea i?eaeaoiino? noa?i?aeaeueiiai AeAC aeey
iiiioaoi?ee. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ? noai?aii?
iao?aaeeoe?eieo AeAC, a oaeiae a i?iaeoao aea?aeaaieo noaiaea?o?a ii
iioiieeeai e?a?i NIAe ? e?a?i — /eai?a ISO TC 23/SC 17.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aacoaooiiee aeaeaoi, noa?i?aeaeueiee aeaeaoi, oai??y,
?ic?iaea, aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeiiii?/iinoue, a?a?aoe?y, ooi.

Aiiioaoeey

Ieuaiei I. E. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea iniiau nicaeaiey iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo
iaeiiiuiuo aeaeaaoaeae aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey n aunieeie yeiiiie/aneeie e
yeieiae/aneeie iieacaoaeyie. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.04.02 — oaieiaua aeaeaaoaee. — Oe?aeineee
o?ainii?oiue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?ac?aaioee e enneaaeiaaiey
iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeaeaaoaeae iiuiinoueth aei 20 eAo — aanoaooiiiai e
noa?ieaeaeueiiai. A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea a
niaa?oainoaiaaiee aeaeaaoaeae ii aaaeiaeoei oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneei
iieacaoaeyi.

Iieo/aiu iiaua aeaiiua ii eeiaiaoeea, aeeiaieea e ?aai/aio i?ioeanno
AeAN. Aia?aua eceiaeaiu iniiau oai?ee eeiaiaoe/aneie oi/iinoe
aanoaooiiiai aeaeaaoaey, eioi?ua yaeythony oai?aoe/aneie aacie aeey aai
nicaeaiey. I?eaiaeyony aeaiiua ii iiuiinoiui, yeiiiie/aneei e
aea?aoeeiiiui iieacaoaeyi aanoaooiiiai aeaeaaoaey, a oaeaea aea?aoeee e
ooio iiuoiie oeaiiie ieeu n yoei AeAN. Aeaia ioeaiea i?eiaieiinoe
noa?ieaeaeueiiai AeAN aeey ieieoaoieee. ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou eniieueciaaiu
i?e ?ac?aaioea e nicaeaiee iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo AeAN, a oaeaea a i?iaeoao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaiaea?oia ii iioiieeai no?ai NIA e no?ai — /eaiia ISO
TC 23/SC 17.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aanoaooiiue aeaeaaoaeue, noa?ieaeaeueiue aeaeaaoaeue,
oai?ey, ?ac?aaioea, enneaaeiaaiea, yeiiiie/iinoue, aea?aoeey, ooi.

Summary

Mishchenko M. I. Scientific and technical bases for creation of
non-traditional low-power internal combustion engines with high
efficient and ecological indices. — Manuscript. Thesis for a Doctor
degree in speciality 05.04.02 — Thermal engines. — Ukrainian Transport
University, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to connecting rod-absent and spheroidal
small size non-traditional engines elaboration and research. A new trend
in engines perfection on major technological parameters is being
developed.

Connecting rod-absent and spheroidal engines kinematics, dynamics and
operational process theory is presented. In oscillating crank gear
connecting rod-absent bishaft internal combustion engine (ICE) which
provides cosine law piston displacement irrespective of piston number
all inertial forces and their moments can be completely balanced by
additional mass placement on cranks. Partial decrease (by 20 – 30 %)
vibration which is a reactive moment result is possible for this engine
type. Spheroidal engine obtained kinematics function analysis permits to
conclude that spheroidal engine piston relative displacement almost
coincides with connecting rod-absent engine piston displacement. In
comparison with classical ICE spheroidal engine has considerable
advantages as to the balance parameter. It has only one unbalanced
inertial force moment.

Calculation basis parameters of operating process with due regard for
piston kinematics differences based on the thermal calculation classical
method by prof. V.I. Grinevetsky is elaborated. Correlation between
piston kinematics and engine indices is defined as a calculation and
test research result. Use of oscillating crank gear instead of the
ordinary one results in engine power and efficient indices improvement
by 3 – 4 %.

For the first time kinematics precision connecting rod-absent engine
calculation methods based on the linear function theory method is
described. Being on project and engine perfection step methods permit to
choose rational values tolerance for details manufacture and assembly;
to define optimal constructive scheme and its components size; to assess
engine performance depending on technological, assembly errors and its
components thermal deformation.

As a result of scientific research work and OKR a number of connecting
rod-absent and spheroidal engines models and experimental specimens is
elaborated and tested. Effective power and efficiency is experimentally
by 13 % in connecting rod-absent engine in comparison with the classical
one. In this engine type more flame front smooth speed by combustion
chamber volume is observed; combustion durability process is less than
in the usual one by 3 – 7 crankshaft turns. Specific fuel consumption in
spheroidal engine is more than in the classical one by 5 – 7 %. The
reason of it is insufficient safety seal system and increased thermal
losses to combustion chamber walls.

Tests define the best noise and vibration characteristics of connecting
rod-absent and spheroidal engines.

Experimental researches of different petrol saws testify to the fact
that achieved vibration reduction on tested connecting rod-absent engine
petrol saw handles in comparison with «Taiga-214» saw is 2 dB (decibel)
vibrospeed and 0,3-1,6 ms-2 vibroaccelaration.

Theoretical and experimental research results permit to conclude that
such characteristics as high efficiency, low vibration and noise,
technological manufacture effectiveness make connecting rod-absent
engine be competitive to traditional low-power ICE.

Key words: connecting rod-absent engine, spheroidal engine, theory,
elaboration, research, efficiency, vibration, noise.

IIUAIEI Ieeiea Iaaiiae/

IAOEIAI-OAOII*II INIIAE NOAI?AIIss IAO?AAeEOeIEIEO IAEIIIOOAEIEO
AeAEAOIIA AIOO?IOIUeIAI CAI?AIIss C AENIEEIE AEIIIII*IEIE I AEIEIAI*IEIE
IIEACIEEAIE

05.04.02 — oaieiai aeaeaoie

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 10.09.99. Oi?iao 60  84 1/16. Iaii?
oiinueeee.Ia/aoue RISO. Caeac ? 7. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1,9. Oe?aae 100
i?ei.

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