Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

IA?OOEAAE* Aeea Aaeai?aia

OAeE 371.302:371.04.

IAOEIAI-IAAeAAIA?*IA NIAAeUEIA

?AAIA IA??IEA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeaenthe Aiaoie?e Ieeieaeiae/, Ee?anueeee

oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i?ioani?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
aeaaeai?e AII Oe?a?ie

Ie/eaei Iaeey A?eai??aia, ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ?

ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a;

— aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie
Nooia?ee Aiaaeai Ieoaeeiae/, I?eea?iaonueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee;

— aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Cieiooo?ia Na?oeaia O?ioei?aia,
Oa?e?anueeee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? A?eai??y Neiai?iaee,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. A?iieoey.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny (6( aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiae. Ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.16 o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, i.Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae.
317).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e?ii. 10).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii (6( aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I.Ei?i?a

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie. Iiooeo iiaeo
eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie iie?ioaiiy ina?oe,
iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy oa noai?aiith oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? a?o/eciyii?
iaaeaaia?ee ni?ey? aea/aiiy aeina?aeo oai?/eo aeeeaaea/?a, o/aieo,
ea??aiee?a ina?oi?o caeeaae?a, ye? a ieioeiio i?aoethaaee a aaeoc?
ina?oe, iaae no?oeoo?oaaiiyi oa i?iaiicoaaiiyi iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii?
nenoaie a Oe?a?i?. A?aooaaiiy ? i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy ie?aieo
aeooaeueieo iai?yi?a ia’?eoeaiiai aeina?aeo iiaea ni?eyoe cae?eniaiith
ea?aeeiaeueieo ina?oi?o ?aoi?i. Ia aeaeue, ca ?aaeyinueei? aeiae
iaoeiaee aei?iaie oe?a?inueeeo iaaeaaia?a aeinoaoiueith i??ith ia
aea/aany, oe?e? eiai ieanoe caeeoaeeny iica iaaeaie iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie, a
?iaia aaaaoueio o/aieo aeiaaee /an ia?aaoaaee o caaooo?.

Ia’?eoeaia ?icoi?iiy ?noi?e/ieo caeiiii??iinoae, i?ioean?a noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?ee, a?aooaaiiy aianeo a ?? oai??th ?
i?aeoeeo aeinyaiaiue aecia/ieo iniaenoinoae ia? aaaiia cia/aiiy aeey
?icaeoeo oe??? iaoee.

Ine?eueee o iiia?aaei? aeanyoe??//y ?noi??ia?ao?? oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?ee i?eae?eyeiny iaaei?aaaeaii iaei oaaae, aei
oe??? ii?e caeeoa?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiith niaaeueia a/aieo
na?oiaiai ??aiy — ?.Ia??iea, N.N??iiieea, N.?oniai?, ?.Noaoaiea,
A.Aauaiea, ss.*ai?ae, A.Aieioeia, A.A??i/aiea, O.Ae/aanueei? oa ?ioeo.
Ia’?eoeaia ?noi?e/ia ni?aaaaeeea?noue aeiaaa? anaa?/iiai aiae?co ?o
iaoeiaiai aei?iaeo.

O oeueiio aniaeo? i?eioeeiiaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea, aecia/iiai oe?a?inueeiai a/aiiai, iaeiiai c
ooiaeaoi??a iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, oea?eiaiiai, a?iiaaenueeiai
? iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a.

I?ae iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iith niaaeueiith ?aaia Ia??iea ?icoi??ii nenoaio
eiai ia?aeiiaiue oa ?aeae i?i oi?aae?iiy, iaa/aiiy, aeoiaaiiy, ui
ciaeoei nai? ?ice?eooy a iioae?eiaaieo ? iaiioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo:
a?o?aieo aeieoiaioao, oe?eueieo i?ae?o/ieeao, iin?aieeao aeey a/eoae?a
oa naiiina?oe, iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaeao, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo, ii?aaeieeao aeey
iieiae?, iin?aieeao aeey aaouee?a, neiaieeao, ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo
i?iiia?aeyo, oe?eueieo iieeoaao oiui.

Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea i?noeoue ?aea?, ye?
iiaeooue i?eneoaeeoeny a iei?oi?o oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy oa iiiaeaiiy
ci?noo ina?oe. Aiia aeeth/a? oe?ieee niaeo? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
i?iaeai, ui iiaeooue noaoe iniiaith /eneaiieo eo?n?a aeey aoc?a Oe?a?ie.
Oeei aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee oai?aoe/ia, a e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy. O iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? a/aiiai ciaeoee i?noea
iieiaeaiiy i?i caaacia/aiiy ?aeiino? oa ianooiiino? ?iaeeiiiai e
nioe?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy aocii, ea??aieoeoaa
i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? oiui.

Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia a/aiiai ? neeaaeiaith eiai
caaaeueii-iaoeiaiai aei?iaeo. Ia nueiaiaei? a e?oa?aoo?? i?i iaoeiao
niaaeueio ?aaia Ia??iea aeyaeaii eiie?aoi? iai?yie ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy:
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iee (A.Aeaenthe, I.Ie/eaei, A.Iaeai?iaea, A.Naaa/,
I.Eaae?anueeee, A.Eiaca?, N.Aieo?aaoeue, A.Iiaianthe, E.Eyoioeueea,
O.?iiye, oa ?io?); aeaea?aeiciaa/ee oa a?ae?ia?ao?/iee (A.Eyoioeueeee,
I.Ioce/oe, N.Aaeue/aiei, C.O?iaiee); aeaeaaie/ee ? ?aaeaeoi?nueeee
(O.E?aoa?, O.Iia?aaaiiee, I.Oeiioee); aiaineianueeee (A.Eieiaeiee,
C.O?iaiee, E.O?e?iiae/); iiaiciaa/ee (A.Ao?y/ie, A.No?aeue/oe,
E.Aiiaea?/oe); e?oa?aoo?iciaa/ee (I.Ieoaie/, ?.Nioaoeueea, A.Iaoeueei);
ao?eaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? (I.AEoeeinueeee, A.Ea/eai, ?.Oth?iaiei).

Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia aeineoue oe?ieee niaeo? an?o aeine?aeaeaieo
aniaeo?a niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea, cie?aia iaaeaaia?/ii?, ia iao iiaeyae,
iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiith caeeoa?oueny eiai iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
ae?yeuei?noue o ia??iae ai?a?aoe??, i?aoe? a/aiiai, iioae?eiaai? ia
noi??ieao ?aaeaaiaaieo iei aeaeaiue “??aeia iiaa”, “Iaoa eoeueoo?a”,
“A??a e eoeueoo?a”, “Neiai ?noeie” c ieoaiue oi?aae?inueeiai aeina?aeo a
aaeoc? ina?oe ca aeno?aiaeueieo oiia, caaacia/aiiy ina?oi?o no?oeoo?
aeeaeaeoe/ieie iaoa??aeaie, oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?nii? iniaenoino? oe?a?ioey,
?ie? oe?a?inueeeo i?ina?oiee?a o ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee a
Oe?a?i?, iaoeiai? aoeee oa iaoiaeieia?? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oiui.

Ia aeinoaoiuei i?eae?eaii oaaae ieoaiiyi ?ae?a?eiiai aeoiaaiiy, ye
caniao caaacia/aiiy iiaiioe?iiiai aeooiaiiai, o?ce/iiai ? ineo?/iiai
?icaeoeo iieiae?, aeniei? ii?aeueiino? e a?aeiino?, ethaia? aei
ia?oiaaouee?aueie. Aea/aiiy oa aiae?c oeeo i?iaeai oiiaeeeaeoue eia?/ia
ia’?aeiaiiy oe?eueieo ? aoc?anueeeo aeenoeeie?i ?aea?th a?oioiaiiai
i?ciaiiy ioi/oth/iai na?oo aeey ae?iaeaiiy no?eeiai na?oiaeyaeo e oi?iiy
iiaeeaethaaoe ? ?iciianthaeaeoaaoe caeiaoo? ciaiiy.

Ana icia/aia aeua coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
“Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aea? iai?yio iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe oa iaaeaaia?ee oaeoeueoaoo
nioe?ieia?? oa ineoieia?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea.

I?ia?aeiith aeoieith eiioeaioe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iiaeyae ia
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/io niaaeueio ?aaia Ia??iea ye ia nenoaio ia?aeiiaiue
oa ?aeae a/aiiai uiaei ea??aieoeoaa, iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, ui aeeeaaeai?
a iioae?eiaaieo oa iaiioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo ye ia oae?, ye? aieeaathoue
ia ?ica’ycaiiy aeooaeueieo i?iaeai o aaeoc? ina?oe.
Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea i?noeoue aeooaeuei? ?aea?,
ye?, ia iaoa ia?aeiiaiiy, iiaeooue aeiiiiiaoe iiaeieaoe noia?a/iino? a
oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy oa iiiaeaiiy ci?noo ina?oe. A i?e ?icaeyiooi ?
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue ina?oith
aaeocue Oe?a?ie oi?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano. I?aoe? a/aiiai o oe?e oea?ei?
iiaeooue neeanoe i?aea?oioy eo?n?a c ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?ee,
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, iniia eoeueoo?e
iiae, ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ae?oea?noaa, ?ae?a??ciaanoaa.

Iieiaeaiiy iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea a?oioothoueny
ia aeii?iaio? caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae ? aeeth/athoue
iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?. Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia a/aiiai
aaco?oueny ia aeina?ae? eiai ?iaioe a ina?oi?e noa??, iaeiie/aiiio a
aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. ?e i?eoaiaii? aeeaeia
iaa?oiooaaiiy iieiaeaiue, aeinooii?noue, aeooaeuei?noue. Nenoaia
iiaeyae?a oa ?aeae ?aaia Ia??iea ia ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe
ni?acao/ia c aecia/aiith o Aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa”
(Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy) nenoaiith no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue.

I?aeaioiaea iaeaooi?o oi?aae?ioe?a o aaeoc? ina?oe, aeeeaaea/?a aeueo
caeeaae?a ina?oe, a/eoae?a na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, nioe?aeueieo
i?aoe?aiee?a ia? aacoaaoeny ia ?aeayo ? oai?aoe/ii ocaaaeueiaiiio
i?aeoe/iiio aeina?ae? e iiaoaeiaaieo ia oe?e iniia? iiaeo oaoiieia?yo,
aeooaeueieo oai??yo, caeaoieo ni?eyoe ae??oaiith eiie?aoieo iaoeiaeo ?
iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue. Iieiaeaiiy iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie
?aaia Ia??iea a aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaenoaaeai? oaeei /eiii: e?eoa???
aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei caeeaaeii, ui ni?yiiaai? ia
?aae?caoe?th ca eiie?aoieo oiia ia iaaiiio aoai? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo;
aeoiai? ?aea?, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue i?aai?caoe?th naiino?eii? oa
iaaeaaia?/ii ea?iaaii? i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ? caaacia/othoue
ii?aeueia aaeineiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?; ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee, ui
?ice?eaathoue nooo?a? ca’ycee iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy;
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoiaee/i? aeiiae ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, eio?? noinothoueny
ci?noo iaa/aiiy o ??aeiiiiaieo ina?oi?o caeeaaeao, eiai i?eioeeie,
iaoiaee, oi?ie caeaaeii a?ae iinoaaeaii? iaoe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie oa i?ia?aeia ?aeay aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeee eiai
i?aaeiao ? iaoo.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea, ui noinothoueny aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy, iaa/aiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? a ina?oi?e ? aeoiai?e
noa?ao.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia’?eoeaia aena?oeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea ? aecia/aiiy i?noey
aei?iaeo a/aiiai a oe?a?inuee?e iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? oa i?aeoeoe?.

Ca?aeii c i?aaeiaoii ? iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaai? eiai
caaaeaiiy:

1) i?iaiae?coaaoe cae?eniai? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea;

2) aeaoe ocaaaeueithth/o oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? a/aiiai;

3) aeine?aeeoe iai?yie oai?/i? iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea;

4) aeyaeoe iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee eiai iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie;

5) c’ynoaaoe i?aeoiaee ?aaia Ia??iea aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a ina?oi?o caeeaaeao;

6) ?ice?eoe nooue iniiaieo iieiaeaiue i?aoeue o/aiiai i?i iaaeaaia?/ia
ea??aieoeoai i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?;

7) aecia/eoe iniiai? e?eoa??? aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei
caeeaaeii;

8) oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oeyoe ao?eaiiy iieiaeaiue
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea a i?aeoeeo aeui? oeiee,
?iaeeiia oa nioe?aeueia aeoiaaiiy;

9) ae?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia iie?ioaiiy ina?oi?o ?
aeoiaieo i?ioean?a o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie a/aiiai.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee i?ia?aei? iieiaeaiiy
oai??? i?ciaiiy, aca?iica’yceo caaaeueiiethaenueeiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeina?aeo a aaeoc? ina?oe, a oaeiae nioe?aeueii? coiiaeaiino? ina?oe ?
aeoiaaiiy a eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiio aeina?ae? oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?ee;
caeiie iaoeiaiai iiooeo ? ia’?eoeaiino? o aena?oeaii? eiai ?acoeueoao?a.
Aaoi? ea?oaaany i?eioeeiii eiie?aoiiai ?noi?e/iiai aiae?co yaeu ?
oaeo?a. O i?aoe? aeei?enoaii i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee iaoiae
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeeoi eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy i?iaeaie.

Aei aeaea?aeiciaa/i? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiaeyoue, ianaiia?aae, a?o?ai?
iaoa??aee, ui noinothoueny oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeieoiaio?a iniaenoiai
a?o?ao neia ?.Ia??iea i.Aiaoiey Ia??iea (Iueth-Ei?e, NOA), a?ae?ioaee oa
a?o?ao ?i. Na.Aieiaeeie?a (Eaeaa??, Eaiaaea), oiiae?a
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiai o?e?aeo Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaeaea?aea?o?ao
(O.582), Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa
oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie (O.1871; O.3830; O.3876; O.3030; O.2592; O.166;
O.1582; O.2582; O.2581), Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao
(O.1235); ?inoeoooo ?oeiien?a OeIA ?i. A.Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie
(O.23927) oa ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie (O.3;
O.59), a?ae?ioaee ?inoeoooo iiaiciaanoaa ?i. I.Iioaai?, a?aeae?e?a
?oeiien?a euea?anueeeo a?ae?ioae ?i. A.Noaoaieea ( O.57; O.232; O.29;
O.34; O.206; O.48; O.9) oa A.Aeiie/aiea, a?aeae?eo ?oeiien?a
Oeaio?aeueiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao o Eueaia? (O362; O.408; O.3 n/309).

Aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iioae?eiaai? aeaea?aea — iiiia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?ae?ia?ao?/i? ca??ieee, eaoaeiae aeaeaaieoeoa ?
a?ae?ioae, noaoo?, ioae?eaoe??, eaeaiaea??-aeueiaiaoe, a oaeiae
oiai/ania i?ana c oiiae?a iaoeiai-aeia?aeeiai? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?iai?
A.Aa?iaaenueeiai, Iaoe?iiaeueii? ia?eaiaionueei? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie,
Iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i. A.Noaoaieea IAI Oe?a?ie, Iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee
Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Aea?aeaaii? a?ae?ioaee
?in??, a?ae?ioaee ?inoeoooo aeine?ae?a Aieei? (A?ii?iaa, Eaiaaea). E??i
oiai, aoee a?oioiaii ii?aoeueiaai? ioae?eaoe?? ca?oa?aeii? oe?a?inueei?
ia??iaeeee — ianaiia?aae /aniien?a “??aeia iiaa”, “Iaoa eoeueoo?a”,
“A??a e eoeueoo?a”, “Neiai ?noeie”, ?aaeaaiaaieo ?aaiii Ia??ieii.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: a) oai?aoe/i? (i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, aea/aiiy
oa aiae?c a?o/eciyii? ? ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie; eeaneo?eaoe?y oa ocaaaeueiaiiy a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a;
ii??aiyiiy, c?noaaeaiiy oaeo?a; i?iaeaiii-oe?eueiaee aiae?c ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiue); a) aii??e/i? (aea/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue c
i?iaeaie, aan?aee, iaaiai?aiiy, aeeneon??).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, ui: a aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa
i?aaenoaaeaii iiaiioe?iio aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaiaoeee; a iaoeiaee ia?a aaaaeaii iia? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe, ye?
i?noyoue cia/iee iaa?aeiiee ?ai?oa oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae c oe?a?inueei?
iaaeaaia?ee, ui ni?eyoeia a?aeoai?aiith i?aaaeeai? ?noi???,
iaaeaoi?iiaaii? ?aeaieia?/ieie aee?eaeaiiyie; cae?eniaii eiiieaenio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie a/aiiai; a aeena?oaoe??
c?iaeaia ni?iaa aeaoe iaoia?aaeaeaio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaaeaaia?/ii?
niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea ia a?oio? a?eueo oe?ieiai caeo/aiiy oa aeeaieiai
aiae?co a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aeaea?ae, a oaeiae aea/aiiy ?aeae ?
iiaeyae?a ?aaia Ia??iea e??cue i?ecio ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a, ui coiiaeee
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?ee; aia?oa ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy i?i
aeooaeuei?noue i?iaiae?ciaaieo ?aaiii Ia??ieii cania?a oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie; anaa?/ii ?ice?eoi, yeei /eiii ?aai
Ia??iei aeinyaaa aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ina?oi?ie no?oeoo?aie;
aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee iaoeiai? i?aoe? ?aaia
Ia??iea, ui aeicaiey? iaaiith i??ith aena?oeeoe aniaeo caaacia/aiiy eiai
aeoeaii? oai?/i? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?; aaeeeo oaaao cina?aaeaeaii
ia i?iaeai? aoaeoeaiino? iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei
i?ioeanii, eiai aeeaeaeoeei-iaoiaee/iei caaacia/aiiyi; i?iaaaeaii
aiaeia?? c no/aniei iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iei ?ooii a Oe?a?i? ? ca ??
iaaeaie, c?iaeaii aeniiaie uiaei aeayei? oeeee?/iino? ?icaeoeo ina?oe ia
ii/aoeo ? a e?ioe? OO noie?ooy.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy noaiiaeyoue: iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea, cie?aia oeo,
ui noinothoueny cia/aiiy aeeaeaeoeei-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy c?inoaiiy
??aiy i?ioan?eii? iaenoa?iino? iaaeaaiaa; ae??oaiiy i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy
ina?oi?ie no?oeoo?aie; aiae?c iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae iaoeiai? i?aoe?
a/aiiai; aeyaeaiiy iiaeo iaoa??ae?a oa aeieoiaio?a, ye? noinothoueny
ae?yeueiino? ?.Ia??iea a aaeoc? ina?oe; caaaa/aiiy iaaeaaia?ee iaoeiaeie
aeniiaeaie uiaei iai?yi?a iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino? a/aiiai, ao?eaiiy eiai
?aeae o ??cii??aiaaeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a
oiio, ui eiai iaoa??aee, i?eioeeiia? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeicaieyoue
iaaeaaiaai oa iaoeiaoeyi ona?aeiieoe aaaii?noue aeina?aeo ?aaia Ia??iea,
aecia/eoe oeyoe ? niiniae eiai aeei?enoaiiy a ?aaeueii ?nioth/eo oiiaao.

I?aeaioiaeaia aaoi?ii iiiia?ao?y, ?ic?iaeai? i?ia?aie ? oaenoe eaeoe?e
(ai?iaiaai? a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea) iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? i?ae /an /eoaiiy eo?n?a eaeoe?e aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo,
i?e ?ic?iaoe? nai?ia?nueei-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue aeey nooaeaio?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie ??ciiai ??aiy.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ao?eaii o ci?no iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e “?iaeeiia aeoiaaiiy: oeyoe ?aae?caoe?? aeina?aeo ?aaia
Ia??iea a i?aeoeoe? ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy” (Na?oei. — 1999. — ? 1. —
N.26-28); iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie ? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c eo?no
“?iaeeiia aeoiaaiiy” ca iiaeoeueiith nenoaiith i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy
(Na?oei. — 1997. — ? 3. — N.28-29); oaeno?a eaeoe?e “Iaaeaaia?/i?
iiaeyaee ?.Ia??iea”, “Aeeaeaeoe/i? iiaeyaee ?.Ia??iea”, ye? aoiaeyoue
aei eo?no “Iaaeaaia?ea a ?iaiao”, “Ia?iaeia iaaeaaia?ea, “Iniiae
iaaeaaia?ee” aeey nooaeaio?a aoiai?oa?ieo oaeoeueoao?a oa a?aeae?eaiiy
nioe?aeueii? iaaeaaia?ee oaeoeueoaoo nioe?ieia?? ? ineoieia??
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. I?ia?aie iacaaieo eo?n?a
ca iiaeoeueiith ? ?aeoeiaiaith nenoaiith iaa/aiiy iaaiai?ai? e
caoaa?aeaeai? eaoaae?ith iaaeaaia?ee oaeoeueoaoo nioe?ieia?? oa
ineoieia?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (I?ioieie ? 1
a?ae 24 aa?aniy 1997 ?ieo).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?oeiien aeena?oaoe?? i?ieoia
eieaeoeaia iaaiai?aiiy c aiae?cii ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
ni?eueiiio c?a?aii? eaai?aoi??e n?iaeiiai aeoiaaiiy oa aeoiaii? ?iaioe o
caeeaaeao ?ioa?iaoiiai oeio ?inoeoooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie
(i?ioieie ? 1 a?ae 4 ethoiai 1999 ?.), can?aeaii? ?aaee oaeoeueoaoo
aoiai?oa?ieo oa noni?eueieo iaoe Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
“Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y” (i?ioieie ? 7 a?ae 11 aa?aciy 1999 ?.) oa
eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa (i?ioieie ? 7 a?ae 17 ethoiai 1999 ?.) ? ae?noaa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?th aei caoenoo ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee iaaiai?thaaeeny oeyoii aena?oeaiiy
iniiaieo iieiaeaiue o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo ?
aenooiao ?c aeiiia?aeyie oa iaoeiaeie iia?aeiieaiiyie ia eiioa?aioe?yo,
ia??ie?anueeeo /eoaiiyo o i?noao Ee?a? (16 n?/iy 1996 ?., 20 n?/iy 1997
?.), AEeoiie?? (5-6 aa?aciy 1997 ?.), Eueaia? (29 aa?aciy 1996 ?.);
aeei?enoaiiy ao??iiai /ano oe?a?inueeiai ?aae?i oa ?iiiiaeaiiy
(iino?eii); i?aai?caoe?? e?oaeeo noie?a oa aenoaaie i?aoeue ?.Ia??iea a
iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (28 aa?aciy 1997
?.); Oeaio?aeuei?e ina?oyinuee?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ci?noo ? iaoiae?a
iaa/aiiy I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (18 n?/iy 1997 ?.); Ee?anueeiio
Iao??a?oao? ni?eueii c Iaoe?iiaeueiith Eii?n??th c ieoaiue iiaa?iaiiy a
Oe?a?io eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae i?e Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie (22 n?/iy
1997 ?.); i?iaaaeaiiy iai?io iaoeiaei aeina?aeii c ia??ieiciaaoeyie
?inoeoooo aeine?ae?a Aieei? (Eaiaaea) oa neiii i?ioani?a Aiaoieai
Ia??ieii (NOA); ni?ai?aoe? c iaaeaaiaaie i?eaaoii? aaoi?nueei? oeiee
Ia??? *oia?ii? i. Eueaiaa, aoiai?oa?iiai e?oeath oa iaaeaaia?/iiai
eieaaeaeo ? 3 i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

A??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,
noi?ioeueiaaieo o ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/o?oueny canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno aca?iiiia’ycaieo iaoiae?a,
aaeaeaaoieo eiai iao? oa caaaeaiiyi; aeei?enoaiiyi cia/iiai ianyao
a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a oa niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie, nenoaiiei
aiae?cii aeyaeaieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo iaoa??ae?a.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a 25 i?aoeyo.
Ioae?eaoe?? iaeiiin?ai?.

Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aii?yaeeiaaii ? cae?eniaii
?aaeaeoe?th 3 iaoeiaeo ca??iee?a ca oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya ?? neeaaea?
350 noi??iie, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ioiieth? 401 iaeiaioaaiiy, c
ieo 14 ?iicaiieie iiaaie, 62 a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea, aecia/aii eiai
i?aaeiao, iaoo, eiioeaiooaeueio ?aeath, iaoiaee, caaaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi
iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i
ai?iaaoe?th oa ioae?eaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea —
ia’?eo iaoeiaiai aiae?co” — a?aoiaioiaaii nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiino?
i?iaeaie, aecia/aii iai?yie, ye? iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy,
aeeeaaeaii iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ianaiia?aae cacia/aii, ui iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea
o?eaaeee /an ia aoea i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. O
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? i?i ia? eoeiny iia?aeii ? nii?aaee/ii. I?i oea
na?ae/aoue aeyaeai? ioe?iee eiai iaoeiai? i?aoe?, i?aaenoaaeai? o
ca??ieeao, i?enay/aieo 20-e ? 30-e ??/ieoe? iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?
i?ioani?a, 75-e?ooth a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy, iiiia?ao?? A.Ianoa?aiea
“Ieo?iiieeo ?ea??ii- neoaeeoaeue Aiaia? ? ia?iaeia?” (1958), ia?en?
O.Iioo??e/oea “Eieaica??iy ieo?iiieeoa ?ea??iia” (1963),
iaoeiai-iiioey?iiio aeaeaii? N.ss?iony “Oaiiiai ?aaia Ia??iea
(ieo?iiieeoa ?ea??iia)” (1998). Iiaeia neacaoe, ui iaoeiaa i?aoey
a/aiiai ioe?ithaaeany acaaae?, c aeoeaioii ia cia/eiino? eiai
iiaiciaa/eo, ?noi?e/ieo ?ica?aeie. O aeine?aeaeaieo iaie aeaea?aeao ia
eoeiny i?i iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iee iai?yi eiai oai?/ino? ye ie?aiee. Eeoa
a o?iiieia?/iiio ii?yaeeo caaaeoaaeenue a?oe iaaeaaia?/iiai oeyoo
a/aiiai, iaaiaeeeeny iacae noai?aieo iei i?ae?o/iee?a oa iin?aiee?a.

Iaeieie c ia?oeo, ooi aaciina?aaeiuei i?enayoea nooae?? iaoeia?e i?aoe?
?aaia Ia??iea, aoee oe?a?inuee? a/ai?: I.Oeiioee (iiiia?ao?y “Aieaioa
?aaia Ia??iea: oe?a?iiciaa/? i?iaeaie a aea?aeaaioai?/?e, iaoeia?e,
?aaeaeoi?nuee?e oa aeaea/ie/?e ae?yeueiino?”), A.Eieiaeiee, I.Ee?thoei,
E.O?e?iiae/ (ei?ioeee ia?en a?ia?ao?? ? aiaineianueei? eiioeaioe??
“Ieo?iiieeo ?ea??ii”), C.O?iaiee (aeeoo?ienii-a?ia?ao?/iee ia?en “?aai
Ia??iei (ieo?iiieeo ?ea??ii): 1882-1972”, “Ia??ieia? aoi?ecie oa
naioaioe??”. I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a (1992-1999) a Oe?a?i? aeeoee
ae?oeii 9 iaoeiaeo ca??iee?a, i?enay/aieo ?aaiia? Ia??ieo. Aiie
aeae?oeoaai? ca iaoa??aeaie iaoeiaeo iia?aeiieaiue ia eiioa?aioe?yo,
iaoeiaeo “e?oaeeo noieao”, i?iaaaeaieo o Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, ?inoeooo? o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?anueeiio
i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiio ?inoeooo? oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a ?iai? Ai?ena
A??i/aiea, Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, AEeoiie?nueeiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea. Ia ?o noi??ieao
aeae?oeoaai? noaoo?, a yeeo aiae?cothoueny oae? iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea? ?aaia
Ia??iea: a) oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? o/i?anueei?
iieiae? (E.A?oeiaiei, A.A?e/oe, I.Aaa?ee?a, A.E?aioeueeee, O.Eth?eia,
I.Oiaiaoeue A.Oaniey); a) ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ??aeiiiiaieo iaia’yce?a o noa?o
ina?oe (I.Ie/eaei, A.Eyoioeueeee, I.Eoaeee?ia, A.*oaa?anueeee, I.Ii?ic);
a) iaoiaee/ia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey (A.Oea/oe, N.Aeieo???a, E.Iiiiaa,
A.Iiiiae/ E.Eyoioeueea, I.Ei?naeiaa, E.Iiiio); a) aeoiaia cia/aiiy
??aeii? iiae (E.Eyoioeueea, N.Aieo?aaoeue, A.?oaeaiei); ae) ?ae?a?eiee
eiiiiiaio o aeooiaiiio noaiiaeaii? iniaenoino? (A.Naaa/, I.Ci?e/). O
iacaaieo iaie ca??ieeao ai?uaii ?yae noaoae, ye? aca?iiaeiiiaiththoue
iaeia iaeio, aena?oeththoue ci?no iaa?aeiieo aeaea?ae, ?ethno?othoue
a?ia?ao?/i? oaeoe, iiaoi?ththoue aeeeaaeaio ?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie
?ioi?iaoe?th, cana?ae/othoue i?aeoe/io ?aae?caoe?th eiie?aoieo ?aeae
a/aiiai oiui.

Aeine?aeaeaiith iaoeiaiai aei?iaeo a/aiiai i?enay/ai? aeena?oaoe?ei?
?iaioe A.Iiaianthe “Aeoiaaiiy aoiaiii? iniaenoino? oeiey?a a
iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? ?aaia Ia??iea” oa O.?iiye “I?iaeaia aeoiaaiiy
o/i?anueei? iieiae? a niaaeuei? ?.Ia??iea ? oai?/a aeei?enoaiiy ?? a
no/ani?e oeie? Oe?a?ie”. O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? A.Iiaianthe
(1996) cae?eniaii iaoeiaee aiae?c iiaeyae?a ?aaia Ia??iea ia i?iaeaio
aeoiaaiiy aoiaiii? iniaenoino? oeiey?a. Aaoi?eith ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
nenoaio i?eioeei?a aeoiaii? oai??? ?aaia Ia??iea, ?ice?eoi iaoiaee
aeoiaaiiy aoiaiii? iniaenoino? a ?iaeei?, iaaoooy aeina?aeo aoiaiii?
iiaaae?iee, noeioethaaiiy oa iaa?thaaiiy. A.Iiaianthe aecia/eea oi?ie
?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy ca ?aaiii Ia??ieii. Aiia cana?ae/eea ?icaeyae
?aaiii Ia??ieii iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ye aaaeeeaiai iai?yio aeoiaaiiy
aoiaiii? iniaenoino?. Aeena?oaoe??th A.Iiaianthe caii/aoeiaaii iaoeiaee
aiae?c ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo yeinoae ? niiniae ?o oi?ioaaiiy ca ?aaiii
Ia??ieii aeey aeinyaiaiiy aenieiai ??aiy aoiaiii? iniaenoino? oeiey?a.
I?iaeaia, ?icaeyiooa aeine?aeieoeath ia aeena?oaoe?eiiio ??ai?, ia?
aeeaiea ao?eaiiy o niaaeuei? a/aiiai ? iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy O.?iiye (1997) ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi
iiia?aaei?o. O iueiio ?icaeyioo? ie?ai? ieoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy, aena?oeaii aeooiaii-eoeueoo?i? oe?iiino? ia?iaeii?
iaaeaaia?ee a i?aoeyo ?aaia Ia??iea. ?iaioa O.?iiye iiaea aooe
i???ioe?ii aeey iaoeiaoe?a uiaei aeyaeaiiy oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo i?i oo
/e ?ioo ae?eyieo iaoeiai? i?aoe? a/aiiai.

O aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.Iiaianthe oa O.?iiye cae?eniaii
aiae?c ?aeae ?aaia Ia??iea c i?iaeoe??th ia canoinoaaiiy a oe?euei?e
i?aeoeoe?.

I?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a o ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo Oe?a?ie c’yaeeiny ?yae
noaoae, a yeeo aaoi?e ?icaeyaeathoue iai?aeeia?io iinoaoue ?aaia Ia??iea
e??cue i?ecio a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a c a?aeiia?aeiei aiae?cii a?aeoai?aieo
o ieo iiae?e, aeoiie, aeinyaiaiue, i?i?aooie?a. O ?o /ene? ioae?eaoe??
A.Eyoioeueeiai “Eenoe iniaiaeo oiiae?a OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie ye aeaea?aei aei
aea/aiiy aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino? ?.?.Ia??iea” //A?o?ae Oe?a?ie. —
Aeae-ai “Oe?a?iiciaanoai”, 1995. — ? 1-3, “Iaa?aeii? aeieoiaioe i?i
aeeooy ?aaia Ia??iea (ia iaoa??aeao oiiaeo Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo o Eai’yioe?-Iiae?euenueeiio)” // Nooae?? c a?o?aii? ni?aae
oa aeieoiaioiciaanoaa. — 1996. — O.1; C.O?iaieea “Ieo?iiieeo ?ea??ii
(Ia??iei) ? ieo?iiieeo Aiae?ae Oaioeoeueeee i?i aeooiai?noue iiae a
aea?aeaaioai?/iio i?ioean? (?ao?iniaeoeaiee iiaeyae) //?icaoaeiaa
aea?aeaae. — 1994. — ? 8; ?.Oth?iaiei “?aai Ia??iei — ieo?iiieeo
?ea??ii” //Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. — 1995. — ? 2; I.Oeiioeea
“Iiaa?iaiiy eieae. Aei aeoiaeo eieae ?.Ia??iei “?noi??y oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae” //Iae?o?a ae?oeo. — 1996. — ?2 oiui. Ioae?eaoe??
iacaaieo aaoi??a ?noi?e/iiai ni?yioaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, cia/io e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a, ye? noinothoueny
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ?aaia Ia??iea, iioae?eiaaieo o iaoeiaeo
aeaeaiiyo, iiaeia ca?oioaaoe ca iai?yiaie: ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue
a/aiiai, i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?ae?a?eiiai aeoiaaiiy a eiai
oai?ao, aeoiaaiiy aoiaiii? iniaenoino? oeiey?a, iiaa ye can?a aeoiaiiai
aieeao oa iaoiaee/ia i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey aei o?ie?a. Ia iaoo aeoieo,
?yae i?eioeeiiaeo iieiaeaiue i?aoeue a/aiiai caeeoeeeny ia?ice?eoeie
aai iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiaioiaaieie. A iioae?eiaaieo ?iaioao aeina?ae/aieo
oa iieiaeeo aeine?aeiee?a ie?ai? ieoaiiy ?icaeyioo? eeoa /anoeiai. Oea
noino?oueny ia?aaeian?i i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c oi?ioaaiiyi iniaenoino?
a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie, naiiaaeineiiaeaiiyi oa iiaeieaiiyi ii/oooy
“iaioiaa?oino?” a oe?a?inueei? iieiae?, e?eoa??yie oni?oiiai
ea??aieoeoaa ina?oi?i caeeaaeii, ?ioi?iaoe??th i?i eiai
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue ? oai?/?noue, iaa?oiooaaiiyi oeyo?a
ao?eaiiy ?aeae o/aiiai a oeeee aoiai?oa?ieo i?aaeiao?a, ui aea/athoueny
o aocao Oe?a?ie, noa?o ?iaeeiiiai oa nioe?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy oiui.

I?eiaa?aeii cacia/eii, ui a Oe?a?i? c’yaeany ?yae ia?aaeaeaieo eiea
i?ioani?a: “Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a” (Ee?a: Aa?en, 1991),
“Aeio?enoeyinuee? a??oaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo” (Ee?a: Iaa?aae,
1993), “?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai ae?oea?noaa” (Ee?a: Eea?aeue, 1994), “Eo?n
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae” (Ee?a: Eea?aeue, 1996), “sse
iiaiaeeoeny o Aiaeiio o?ai?” (Ee?a: IAI “Oioia?aeaina?a?n”, 1993),
“Iaoea i?i ??aeiiiiai? iaia’ycee” (Euea?a: Oai?en, 1995). Aiie oaae
i?aeeyaathoue iaoeiaiio aiae?co.

C iaoith anaa?/iiai ?ice?eooy oaie aeena?oaoe??, iaie aoee aecia/ai?
iniiai? iai?yie iiooeo, ni?aa?aeiini? c eiai iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie ?
ni?yiiaai? ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oa oaeineiiaeaiiy, ia a?aoiaioiaaia
?ice?eooy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeieoeueei? i?aoe?.

Cae?eniaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy o oaeee niin?a oiiaeeeaeee canoiniaai?
iaoiaee oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy, ii??aiyiiy, c?noaaeaiiy,
?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co, aiae?co oa eeaneo?eaoe?? a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a.
Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe ae?eoee ia?aeiiaiiy, ui aaaaoa nai?th
i?iaeaiaoeeith iaoeiaa niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea caneoaiao? iiaeaeueoiai
aea/aiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeeoue, ui ia?aia
iaie iaoeiaa i?iaeaia aena?oethaaeanue iiia?aaeieeaie eeoa o?aaiaioa?ii
? ia noaea i?aaeiaoii ie?aii? i?aoe?. Iacaai? aeua a?o?ai? iaoa??aee oa
iioae?eiaai? aeaea?aea, aeicaieeee cia/iith i??ith aea/eoe ? aia?oa
iaoeiai aena?oeeoe oaio “Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea”.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e i?iaeaio, ie ea?oaaeeny i?eioeeiaie ?noi?ecio,
iaoeiaino?, iine?aeiaiino?, nenoaiiino?, iaoeiai? aoeee.

I?iaiae?ciaai? iaie iai?yie aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ? caaa?oaieie. Aea/aiiy
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea ? aeyaeaiiy iiaeo ??
aniaeo?a ? i?eioeeiiaith ni?aaith iieiaeeo iaoeiaoe?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Nooi?noue ? iniaeeaino? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? ?aaia Ia??iea” — i?iaiae?ciaaii ai?noiey?i? iaoa??aee oa
niiaaaee o/i?a ?aaia Ia??iea, ye? ?acii c ?ioeie, ? aeaea?aeii
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ?icaeyiooi
iniiai? iai?yie iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino? a/aiiai. Caeo/aiee oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae ia?aeiieeai cana?ae/ea, ui noaiiaeaiiy ?aaia Ia??iea ye
a/aiiai-iaaeaaiaa aecia/ea ?noi?e/iee ia??iae, a yeiio eiio aeiaaeinue
aeeoe e i?aoethaaoe, ni?ai?aoey c iaia?an?/ieie iniaenoinoyie, aeania
iaiieaaeea?noue, ?i?oe?aoeaa, ai?iiy iaeaaiaeeoe naith iaoeiao i?aoeth a
iaeiani?eyoeea?oeo oiiaao, cie?aia a ai?a?aoe??, cina?aaeeoe coneeey ia
iaeaoaeoeai?oeo iaoiaeao iaoeiaiai iiooeo, a oaeiae ai?iiy aecia/aoe
aeooaeuei? eiai iai?yie.

O ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny oaca i?i oa, ui ai?noiey?ia niaaeueia ?aaia
Ia??iea aea? ciiao ?aaeueii ioe?ieoe iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue
o/aiiai, oeueiio aeiiiiaaa? cao?eniaaia a i?e eiai noaaeaiiy aei
eiie?aoieo ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e oa a?aeaeaathoueny noinoiee c aecia/ieie
iniaenoinoyie Oe?a?ie, ?ice?eaa?oueny ae?yeuei?noue, yea ni?eyea
a?ae?iaeaeaiith oe?a?inueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa: noai?aiiy ??aeiiiiaieo
i?ae?o/iee?a oa ?ioeo aeaeaiue, ae?iaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ye?
noinothoueny ina?oe, a?aei?aoethaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aocii a
aeno?aiaeuei?e neooaoe??, i?aai?caoe?y iaoeiai? oa aeeeaaeaoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao ai?a?aoe??. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aei iioae?eoaaiiy
eeno?a ?aaia Ia??iea aeieo/eeeny oae? a/ai? ye N.Aaeue/aiei, I.Ioce/oe,
A.Eyoioeueeee, ?.Oth?iaiei, I.Oeiioee, C.O?iaiee. Aiie i?ieiiaiooaaee
ie?ai? eiai eenoe aei I.A?ooaanueeiai, I.Oaiiaaea, E.A?eaoeueeiai,
I.Iaeiaay, ?.O?aiea oa ?i..

Iaeaaaeeea?oeie aeey ?ice?eooy aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie noaee
ai?noiey?i? aeaea?aea, iia’ycai? c ia??iaeii ai?a?aoe?? ?aaia Ia??iea.
Iaie aia?oa iioae?eiaai? 11 eiai eeno?a aei ?.Naaioeeoeueeiai
(aee?aeoi?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iocath ?i. A.Oaioeoeueeiai o Eueaia?), 3 aei
I.Aa?a?inueeiai, 1 aei E.Nooaeeinueeiai, ii?eethaeiai? o?aaiaioe eeno?a
aei A.Aiaothea, A.Oo?aoa, ?.Iaeainueeiai, ?.?aeianueeiai,
A.Oaioeoeueeiai, E.No?ooaiy; i?iaiae?ciaaii ie?ai? oaeoe c
aaoia?ia?ao?/ii? o?iiieia?/ii? eaiae “Ii? aeeooy”, niiaaaee o/aiiai
“?yooaaiiy Oe?a?ie: ia oyaee?e neoaea? nai?io ia?iaeia?”. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ca ai?noiey???i ?aaia
Ia??iea i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue eiai ni?ai?aoeth c I.A?ooaanueeei o aeaeaii?
“Caienie oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa a Ee?a?”, A.A??i/aieii o
oe?eueii-eaeoe?ei?e eii?n?? oiaa?enoaa Ee?anueei? “I?ina?oe”,
?.Naaioeeoeueeei o ni?aa? iiooe?a aeaea?ae aeey iaoeiaiai aiae?co,
?.O?aieii aeey iaaoooy aeina?aeo iaoeiai? oa ienueiaiieoeueei? i?aoe?,
I.Iaeiaa?i c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy e?oa?aoo?e aeey ii?aoethaaiiy oa
iciaeiieaiiy, A.Oaioeoeueeei o ae??oaii? iaoe?iiaeueii-?ae?a?eieo
i?iaeai ? o.i.

Iii?oii ?icoe?eoe ia??? iaoeiaiai iiooeo aeicaieea aiae?c i?eaaoiiai
eenooaaiiy o/aiiai c ina?oi?ie ae?y/aie ??cieo ??ai?a. A?i i?ea?a aei
aeniiae?a i?i aaciina?aaeith o/anoue ?aaia Ia??iea a i?aai?caoe?? ?
noai?aii? A?onee?anueeiai aeuiai ii/aoeiaiai o/eeeua,
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa i?i eiai aianie o ni?aao
i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? iacaaieo ina?oi?o caeeaae?a, a oaeiae
caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano iaa/aiiy a ieo. Ai?noiey??e ?aaia Ia??iea aeaa
ciiao c’ynoaaoe, yeei aoa eiai iaoeiaee i?aeo?ae aei iaienaiiy i?aoeue
“Einoyioei ? Iaoiae?e, ?o aeeooy oa ae?yeuei?noue”, “Oe?a?inueea
e?oa?aoo?ia iiaa OO? noie?ooy” ? “E?ae?anueeee Aiinoie 1560-o ?ie?a”,
aei ia?aeeaaeo oe?a?inueeith iiaith A?ae??, noai?aiiy aeo?iae?a “??aeia
iiaa”, “Iaoa eoeueoo?a”, ia?aaeaeaiiy i?ae?o/iee?a ? iin?aiee?a aeey
oe?a?iiiiaieo oe?e oiui.

Aea/eaoe aeinooiio ai?noiey?io niaaeueio ?aaia Ia??iea, ie c’ynoaaee
eiei eiai iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo caoe?eaaeaiue; o?iiieia?/i? aeai?
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?; iacae ia?oeo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
a aaeoc? oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa, ye? ni?eyee ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
??aeiiiiaii? ina?oe; /eainoai ?aaia Ia??iea a oe?eueii-eaeoe?ei?e
eii?n?? oiaa?enoaa “I?ina?oa”, i/iethaaiiai c 1906 ?ieo Ai?enii
A??i/aieii, ? iai?yie eiai ae?yeueiino?, ni?yiiaaii? ia aii?yaeeoaaiiy
i?aaiieno, ?aoeaicoaaiiy iiainoai?aieo aoeaa??a oa a?aiaoee; iayai?noue
caoe?eaaeaieo eiioaeo?a c aeeeaaea/aie aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a,
i?aoe?aieeaie eieaica??aiue, ioca?a, ae?y/aie iaoee ? eoeueoo?e.

I?e ?icaeyae? oaie aeena?oaoe?? i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy iaea ia o?eueee
ai?noiey?ia niaaeueia a/aiiai, a e niiaaaee niiaeaeaeiee?a, ?io?
aeaea?aea, ui aeiiiiaaaee c’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? iaoiaeieia?? iaoeiai?
i?aoe? ?aaia Ia??iea. Oea, ia?aaeon?i, ?aeaieia?/iee oa?aeoa? iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aaeaea ii?aeiaiiy iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai iiooeo c aeiiaaie
aei eiai i?iaaaeaiiy, oi?iiy iaenoa?ii aeaieiooaaoe iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
iaoeiai? i?aoe? (a ?ac? iio?aae), a?aooaaiiy ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo
aeieeiaiiy aiae?ciaaieo oaeo?a ? iane?aee?a oeueiai oa ?io?.

Noae?noue ? iaiioeoi?noue aeoiee uiaei ?aeaieia?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy a/aiee
aeia?a i?aoeath a on?o aaeocyo nai?? iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?, — /e a
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iiae e eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio, /e a ia?aeeaaeaoeuee?e
ni?aa?, /e o noai?aii? i?ae?o/iee?a, iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, iaoiaee/ieo
ii?aaeiee?a, ye? iaaoee i?aeia?iaeiiai cia/aiiy. Aiae?c ii?aae ?aaia
Ia??iea a oea?ei? aeio?eiaiiy aeiia aei iaienaiiy iaoeiai? i?aoe?
caaaeyee ?o eiie?aoiino?, aeaaaeaiino? e aeeaei? ia ao?aoeee nai??
aeooaeueiino?.

Aeoiaey/e c iayaii? aeaea?aeueii? aace, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui
iniiaieie iai?yiaie iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino? ?aaia Ia??iea aoee:
aii?yaeeoaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? oa?i?iieia??; oeeaaeaiiy, oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ae?o/iee?a, iin?aiee?a; iie?ioaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iueiai ??aeiiiiaieo
iaia’yce?a, caaacia/aiiy ??aeiiiiaiiai iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a
a oiiaao ai?a?aoe??; iaaeaaia?/ia eenooaaiiy (?ioi?iaoeaia, aeia?aeeiaa,
eiinoeueoaoeaia) ia noi??ieao aeo?iaeo “??aeia iiaa”, caaacia/aiiy
?oa?eee “O?ii?ea oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiaiai ? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai
aeeooy” aeo?iaeo “Iaoa eoeueoo?a” iaaeaaia?/iith o?ii?eith.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iaaeie?ee oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? oa?i?iieia??
a/aiee aaa/aa o oiio, ui noai?thaaeany aiia c aaeeeei iao??ioeciii, aea
c iaeei oaoiaei aeina?aeii. Oiae /a?ac oaeee i?aeo?ae aei ni?aae
“?aaiethoe?y 1917 ?ieo, ui i?eianea aieth oe?a?inueeiio neiao, canoaea
ian aac nai?? iio??aii? iaoeiai? iiae”1 .

Aoaeo/e aaoi?ii ??cieo ca i?ecia/aiiyi iaa/aeueieo eiea ? iaoiaeee, ?aai
Ia??iei iaienaa ?yae i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo aaeineiiaeaiith i?ae?o/iee?a,
iniaeeai oeo, ye? i?ecia/athoueny aeey ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai
a?eo. Aiae?coth/e noai oiai/anieo i?ae?o/iee?a (aoeaa??a, /eoaiie) ?aai
Ia??iei i?eeoia aei oaeeo aeniiae?a: iaeaaaeeea?oith aeiiaith aei
eiaeiiai oe?a?inueeiai i?ae?o/ieea ? iaienaiiy eiai ??aeiith
e?oa?aoo?iith iiaith; oe?eueia oa?i?iieia?y iiaeiia aooe oe?a?inueeith;
i?ae?o/ieee iio??aii ae?oeoaaoe aac aeiaeii? ei?aeoi?nueei? iiieeee; o
eiaeiiio i?ae?o/ieeo iathoue aooe i?aaeeueii ?icnoaaeai? ?icae?eia?
ciaee; a?aiaoe/ia oa?i?iieia?y a eiaei?e eieaeoe? ioneoue aooe o?eueee
aeaaeai?/iith.

Iaaeaaia?/ia oai?/?noue ?aaia Ia??iea aaaiia e oei, ui a i?e ciaeoei
a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?aaiaiiy o/aiiai oeyoii ae?oeiaaiiai neiaa aieeiooe ia
iie?ioaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, ii/eiath/e c ii/aoeiai? eaiee.
Oe?iiith c oeueiai iiaeyaeo ? i?aoey iaaeaaiaa “A?aiaoeea iaei? Ean?”,
aeae?oeoaaia o aeo?iaeao “??aeia iiaa” ca 1933 ??e. Aeia?a aoei a, yeae
aiia, ye ? aaaaoi ?ioeo eiai aeaeaiue, noaee i?ae?o/iith eieaith o
eiaei?e ?iaeei?, iin?aieeii aeey o/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, aeeeaaea/?a
oe?a?inueei? iiae. Aeey a?aiaoeee, ii?aeiaaoe iaa/aeuei? ? aeoiai?
iaoiaee aieeao ia iniaeno?noue, ?aai Ia??iei i?eaeoiaa oaenoe aan?ae,
?iciia?aeae, a?aeiia?aeieo caaaeaiue, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia
oi?ioaaoe o oeiey?a ia o?eueee oe?eaa?noue aei ??aeii? iiae, a e
iaee?au? yeino?, oae? ye aca?iiiiaaaa, aa?/eea?noue, oaaaei?noue ? ?i
iiae?ai?.

Noai?aia a/aiei “Iaoea i?i ??aeiiiiai? iaia’ycee” ii?aeio? o nia? oe?eo
nenoaio aeoiaieo, iaa/aeueieo, ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae. Aiia
?ic?aoiaaia ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo ?iaioe ina?oi?o caeeaae?a
??cieo oei?a, oe?iia eiie?aoieie i?iiiceoe?yie aaoueeai, o/eoaeyi,
ea??aieeai ao?oe?a oa i?aai?caoi?ai iicaoe?eueiiai aeeooy iieiae?,
aeacaieie caniaaie ?aae?caoe?? a?aeiia?aeieo iieiaeaiue, iae?aneaieie
iaaeaaia?/ieie caaaeaiiyie. O i?e caeeaaeaii i?eioeeie
i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aeiino?, ianooiiino?, iine?aeiaiino? o i?iaaaeaii?
??aeiiiiaiiai iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy.

O iieiaeaiiy oe??? i?aoe? ?aaia Ia??iea iaaieioaii i?i oa, ui ae??oaiith
i?iaeaie ??aeiiiiaii? ina?oe, iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
ai?a?aio?a iiaeii? ni?eyoe: “Ao?oee i?eoeeueiee?a ??aeii? iiae”oa
“Ao?oee ieaeaiiy ??aeii? iiae” i?e an?o i?aai?caoe?yo ? oiaa?enoaao;
aeooiaainoai, aieeaath/e ia “iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy nai?o a??ieo”;
aaoueee ? a/eoae?, ye? iathoue aeiiineoe ciaiiy ae?oyi nai?th iiaith,
caniiaaia i?e Oe?a?inueeiio I?aaineaaiiio Niai?? o A?ii?iac? oiaa?enoai
“Nithc oe?a?inueei? iieiae? Eaiaaee” ? iiae?ai? oiaa?enoaa o ?ioeo
e?a?iao.

Iaaeaaia?/ia eenooaaiiy ye iai?yi oai?/i? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
?aaia Ia??iea na?ae/eei i?i iino?eio caoe?eaaeai?noue o/aiiai
a?iiaaenueeith aeoieith uiaei ina?oi?o ieoaiue. C eeno?a, aeae?oeoaaieo
ia noi??ieao aeo?iae?a “??aeia iiaa”, aeia?aeo?iinue, ui i?ioani?ia?
aeiaiaeeeiny a?aeiia?aeaoe ia /eneaii?, ??ci? ca oaiaoeeith caieoaiiy
/eoa/?a. Na?aae ieo ? caieoaiiy i?ioan?eieo o/eoae?a, aaouee?a, i?inoi
aeiienoaa/?a, oe?eaaeo aei ie?aieo iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo i?iaeai.

I?ny/iee “Iaoa eoeueoo?a” ?ice?eaa? ua iaeei iai?yi iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? o/aiiai — iaaeaaia?/io o?ii?eo. A?i a?ae??ciy?oueny
aenieith ?ioi?iaoeai?noth. Aiae?c ??cieo iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu oa iiae?e,
iciaeiieaiiy c ieie iaaeaaia?a /a?ac ae?oeiaaia neiai iii?oii aieeaa? ia
ye?noue ?o i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Na?aae iniiaieo iaoa??ae?a
aeacaiiai ?icae?eo ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iia? iaoeia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy;
aeoiaaiiy o ?iaeeiao aeaeaoieo iniaenoinoae; aeeooy aecia/ieo
oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo-ina?oyi; aoaioaaiiy iai’yo? a?aeiieo ethaeae;
iia?aeiieaiiy a ?iicaii?e i?an? i?i aeinyaiaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a;
a?aee?eooy iiaeo caeeaae?a ina?oe, ioca?a a Oe?a?i? oa ca ei?aeiiii.

E??i iacaaieo iaie iai?yi?a iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino? ?aaia Ia??iea,
aeae?ey?ii iaaeaaia?/ia ?aoeaicoaaiiy oa i?aeaioiaeo iaeyae?a aeaeaiue
aeey iieiae? oe?eueiiai a?eo, oai?aiiy neiaiee?a, ii?eo ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a aeey oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aio?a.

I?iaiae?ciaai? o i?ioean? iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? iaoa??aee
i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?yi?a iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
oai?/ino? ?aaia Ia??iea ia ? inoaoi/iei, ine?eueee ?niothoue i?iaeaie c
iiaa?iaiiyi a?o?a?a o/aiiai c Iieueu?, Eaiaaee, a yeeo iiaeooue
i?noeoenue i?ea?iaeuei? aeieoiaioe, iaiao?aei? aeey iiaeaeueoiai aiae?co
eiai ae?yeueiino? ye iaaeaaiaa-i?aeoeea ? oai?aoeea.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano o i?aoeyo ?aaia Ia??iea” —
iaa?oioiaothoueny iiaeyaee ?.Ia??iea ia cia/aiiy ye?niiai aeeaeaeoe/iiai
caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano aeeeaaeaiiy, ci?noo i?ae?o/iee?a oa iaa/aeueieo
iin?aiee?a, aiae?co?oueny eiai eiioeaioe?y ??aeiiiiaieo iaia’yce?a.

C iaoith anaa?/iiai ?ice?eooy i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny o iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? ?aaia
Ia??iea, iaie i?iaiae?ciaaii eiai i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy, ye?
iieyaathoue o: ianoaiaea?oiiio noaaeaii? iaaeaaiaa aei iniauaiiy o?ieo
?icaeaaaeueiei iaoa??aeii; canoinoaaii? aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a
iaa/aiiy; aeio?eiaii? iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo i?eioeei?a; ei?enooaaii?
i?ae?o/ieeaie oa iin?aieeaie aaoi?eoaoieo aaoi??a; aeanieie oa
oe?eueieie a?ae?ioa/ieie iaaeoiaeaeaiiyie aeia?aeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o.
Aeneiaethaai? iei naiai /ano ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ?icaeyioo? ? aea/ai? c
o?aooaaiiyi aeina?aeo, aeinyaiooiai ina?oiueith aaeoccth Oe?a?ie,
i?eneoaeaoueny iie?ioaiith iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy ae?oae ? iieiae? a
no/anieo oiiaao.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a/aiee o oeaio? oaaae noaaea: a) a?aeiia?aei?noue
i?ae?o/iee?a, iin?aiee?a, iai/iino? a?eiaei iniaeeainoyi ae?oae;
a) canoinoaaiiy a i?ae?o/ieeao oa iin?aieeao iaoeiai?
oa?i?iieia?? c o?aooaaiiyi a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae o/i?a; a) aeei?enoaiiy
neiaiee?a ia o?ieao ??cieo oei?a; a) aeio?eiaiiy a ina?oiueiio
i?ioean? aeeaiei i?iaeoiaieo eeane/ieo iaoiae?a ? i?eioeei?a iaa/aiiy;
ae) noai?aiiy o oeieao a?ae?ioae, ye? caaeiaieueiyee a iio?aae
a/eoae?a-i?aaeiaoiee?a i?ae /an i?aeaioiaee aei o?ie?a.

Ia cia/iiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae? aeiaaaeaii cia/ei?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo
iiaeyae?a o/aiiai ia ci?no iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e ? a?aei?/aii ?o
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy: iiaa oaeno?a i?ae?o/iee?a ? iin?aiee?a ia? aooe
no/aniith, e?oa?aoo?iith; iaiao?aeii i?iaeoiaii noaaeoenue aei
?ici?uaiiy a eieaao ?ethno?aoe?e, oaaeeoeue oa ?ioeo a?ao?/ieo
cia?aaeaiue; ci?no i?ae?o/iee?a oa iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a ??aeiiiiaii?
oeiee iio??aii iiiiaithaaoe oaenoaie iao??ioe/iiai, ii?aeueii-aoe/iiai,
e?a?ciaa/iai oa?aeoa?o; caaaeaiiy ? ai?aae i?ae?o/iee?a iathoue
a?aeiia?aeaoe a?eiaei iniaeeainoyi o/i?a; ie?ai? oaie, i?aaenoaaeai? o
i?ae?o/ieeao oa iin?aieeao, ia? noi?iaiaeaeoaaoe eiiaioa? aaoi?a;
ye?noue ioi?ieaiiy (iai??, ?ici?? o?eoo?a, eieuei?e ?ethno?aoe?e,
yne?aa?noue cia?aaeaiiy oiui) iiaeiia a?aeiia?aeaoe iaeaeuei
noaiaea?oai, iiyniaiiy o/iyi iaa?aeiieo oa iaeia?aeiieo oa?i?i?a aaaeaii
iiaeaaaoe ia noi??ieao aeaeaiue; i?e aii?yaeeoaaii? eiaeiiai i?ae?o/ieea
/e iin?aieea aa?oi aeio?eioaaoeny aeaaeai?/ii? oa?i?iieia??,
a?aiaoe/ieo, noee?noe/ieo, neioaene/ieo, ioieooaoe?eieo aeiia.

O/aiei, iaaeaaiaai, aaoueeai a?i ?aaeea aeiiaeeai noaaeoenue aei
aaeeaaiiy oa?i?i?a, ine?eueee iacaai? iniae iathoue aaciina?aaei?e aieea
ia iieiaeue, a oea iaeeaaea? ia ieo a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?? iiao.
Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy cana?ae/o? eiai aeeaiea i?iieeiaiiy o nooue
a?aiaoe/ii?, iaoaiaoe/ii?, i?e?iaeie/i? oa ?ioi? oa?i?iieia??, yeo
aeiiinyoue aei iieiae? ianoaaieee, ? i???iooaaa ia caaacia/aiiy ??
?aeiino?. Naith aeiiao iiynithaaa oei, ui ?aei?noue iaoeiai?
oa?i?iieia?? aeiiiiaaa? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? iaoee ? aieeaa? ia
ci?oeiaiiy ?aeiino? anueiai ia?iaeo.

Iniaeeao oaaao a ?icae?e? i?eae?eaii aiae?co eiioeaioe?? ??aeiiiiaieo
iaia’yce?a ?aaia Ia??iea. O aeine?aeaeaii? iaaieioaii ia oiio, ui “Iaoea
i?i ??aeiiiiai? iaia’ycee” ?aaia Ia??iea ii?aeio? nenoaio aeoiaieo,
iaa/aeueieo, ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae, ye? ?ai?oa ia ?icaeyaeaeeny
a?o/eciyieie a/aieie. Nooue ??aeiiiiaieo iaia’yce?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aeiaea?aeoaaoe ?o iaiao?aeii o aea?aeaaieo onoaiiaao, oeie?, ?iaeei?,
oea?ea?, iicaoe?eueieo caeeaaeao, ai “iiee aeeaa iiaa — aeeoeia e
ia?iae, ye iaoe?iiaeuei?noue. Ia noaia iiae — ia noaia e
iaoe?iiaeueiino?: aiia aaoue ?icii?ioeoueny iii?ae aeoae/ei ia?iaeii”2.
Iaie aecia/aii ?aae?? aeae?eaiiy iaoee i?i ??aeiiiiai? iaia’ycee a
ie?aio iaoeo, ?icaeyiooi ?? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ? aeacaii
oeyoe aea/aiiy.

Ne?ae a?aooaaoe, ui iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith eiioeaioe?? ?aaia Ia??iea
i?i ??aeiiiiai? iaia’ycee ? caaaeuei? i?aeoiaee (aii??e/iee,
neooaoeaii-i?ioeanoaeueiee, aiae?oeei-i?iaiinoe/iee) oa iieiaeaiiy i?i
?icaeoie aoiaiii? iniaenoino?, i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy. Ca?aeii ?c
cai?iiiiiaaieie i?aeoiaeaie, noeoii?noue iieiaeaiue, ye? ? neeaaeiaeie
iaoiaeieia?/ii? eiioeaioe??, ?icaeyaeathoueny ye oe?e?ni?,
aca?iiiia’ycai? eiiiiiaioe.

1. Iieiaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie aeooiaii-ii?aeueii? iniaenoino? a?oioo?oueny
ia aaeineiiaeaii? na?oiaeyaeieo iiceoe?e iieiae? oeyoii canoinoaaiiy a
/ene? ?nioth/eo cania?a aaeineiiaeaiiy ina?oiueiai i?ioeano a e?a?i?
??aeii? iiae ye aieiaiiai ? iaeaaaii?oiai caniao.

2. Iieiaeaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino?
iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae oe?ii?niiai
oa?aeoa?o /a?ac canai?iiy iieiaeaeth Oe?a?ie nenoaie ciaiue, oi?iue ?
iaae/ie ??aeiith iiaith.

3. Iieiaeaiiy i?i caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ina?oith i???ioo?
ia iioe?aiiy ??aeiiiiaii? iie?oeee a ??cii??aiaaeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao
/a?ac ona?aeiieaiiy aaaiiino? iaieiae?iiy ??aeiith iiaith ?o ea??aiee?a.

Aeooaeuei? aniaeoe eiioeaioe?? ??aeiiiiaieo iaia’yce?a ?aaia Ia??iea:
??aaiue aieiae?iiy ??aeiith iiaith o/eoae?a ??cieo oao?a, noai
eiioaeooaaiiy iaaeaaia?a c aaoueeaie c ieoaiue ??aeiiiiaiiai aeoiaaiiy;
i?aai?caoe?y “Ao?oe?a ieaeaiiy ??aeii? iiae” a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo
caeeaaeao ??cieo oei?a. O ?iaio? iaa?oioiaothoueny oeyoe ?aae?caoe??
eiioeaioe?? ??aeiiiiaieo iaia’yce?a ?aaia Ia??iea. Aiie caiaeyoueny aei
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee oa aei aeeeaaeaiiy an?o i?aaeiao?a no/aniith
oe?a?inueeith e?oa?aoo?iith iiaith, noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy ??aeiiiiaieo ina?oi?o caeeaae?a,
caaacia/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy ao?oe?a, ye? ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy
aieiae?iiy ??aeiith iiaith, caaaa/aiith ci?noo ??aeiiiiaii? ina?oe
?aeayie iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy.

Ine?eueee i?aeoeeith noni?eueiiai aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino? aeiaaaeaii, ui
oeiea a eiaei?e aea?aeaa? aaee/acia neea, yea cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?
aeieth ia?iae?a, aeoaea aaaeeeai, ye? i?eioeeie ? ye? iaa/aeuei?
i?aaeiaoe iieeaaeai? a iniiao oe?eueii? ina?oe. Ioaea, iiaeaii
eiinoaooaaoe, ui aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ?aai
Ia??iei iia’ycoaaa c eiai ye?niei caaacia/aiiyi aeeaeaeoe/ieie
iaoa??aeaie, a oiio /ene?: iaa/aeueiith e?oa?aoo?ith ??aeiith iiaith oa
aeio?eiaii? iaaeaaiaaie ??aeiiiiaieo iaia’yce?a.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e — “Iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy oa
oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? a iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? ?aaia Ia??iea”
-i?enay/aiee aena?oeaiith ieoaiue i?i iniaeno?noue iaaeaaiaa o
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio aiae?c? ?aaia Ia??iea oa ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii
iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy, aeia?? aeeeaaea/?a ? noeioethaaiiy ?oiuei? ?iaioe.

O ?icae?e? cacia/aii, ui cae?enieaoe oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?iaeaie
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiei i?ioeanii, oi?ioaaiiyi oa
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiyi iniaenoino? o iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? ?aaia
Ia??iea ie ca?oioaaee a?aeiia?aeiee iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy ca oaiaie,
ye? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iacaao ia?aa?ao?a.

Ianaiia?aae ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy i?i iniaeno?noue iaaeaaiaa o
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio aiae?c? ?aaia Ia??iea. Iath/e aaeeeee aeina?ae
iaaeaaia?/ii? ?iaioe, ?aai Ia??iei ona?aeiiethaaa aeiyoeiai aaaiia
cia/aiiy iaaeaaiaa ye iniiaii? iinoao? a ina?oiueiio caeeaae?,
i?aai?caoi?a, ea??aieea ? o/anieea iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. A?i
aieeaa o nooi?noue i?ioan?iiae?cio ianoaaieea, ae??ciyth/e i?e oeueiio
aeooiai? eiiiiiaioe, ye? caeeaaeai? a iniia? eiai iaaeaaia?/ii?
eoeueoo?e. Ia eiai aeoieo, aeoiaaiiy, iaa/aiiy oa i?aeaioiaea aei
iaeaooiueiai aeeooy iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo a?iiaaeyi caeaaeaoue a?ae
??aiy ina?/aiino? oa iaenoa?iino? iaaeaaiaa. I?e oeueiio iathoue aaao ia
eeoa iaoeia? ciaiiy, a e iniaeno? ?ene eiai oa?aeoa?o, o? yeino?, aac
yeeo inoaii?e ia ciiaea ia?eoenue o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?: a?aeai?noue
iaoe?iiaeuei?e ?aea?, aeia?inia?nia noaaeaiiy aei aeeiioaaii? ?iaioe.

O iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? i?ioani?a i?iaiae?ciaaia ae?yeuei?noue
aaaaoueio i?ina?oiee?a, iaaeaaia?a, ye? i?aoethaaee o ??ci? ia??iaee
iaoi? ?noi???, ui ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eo?n? eaeoe?e “Oe?a?inueea
eoeueoo?a” oa ia noi??ieao aeo?iae?a “??aeia iiaa” ? “Iaoa eoeueoo?a”.
Iaie aeae?eaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?aoeue o/aiiai, ye? noinothoueny
oeueiai ieoaiiy, a naia: o/eoaeue ia? iineeaii i?aoethaaoe iaae
oaeineiiaeaiiyi nai?o oaoiaeo yeinoae, iniaeeai ai?iiyi ni?eeoaaoeny;
a?i iiaeiai a?aoiaoaaoe aeina?ae iiia?aaeiee?a, caaaeath/e ia oa, ui
Oe?a?ia c aeaai?o /an?a iaea aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo iaaeaaia?a; aeoiaio
?iaioo c iieiaeaeth aeina?ae/aiee ianoaaiee a?oioo? ia a???; a
eiiiaoaioe?th i?aai?caoi?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano aoiaeeoue
oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a oi?iiy i?aaeeueii ioe?ithaaoe a/eiee oeo, ooi
oeo?a?oueny naiai ia?iaeo; o/eoaeue ciaia’ycaiee aa/eoe iiieeee ae?oae ?
noaaeoeny aei ieo oa?iey/a oa iaa?aaeii.

Aoaeo/e ea??aieeii iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, o/eoaeue ye ethaeeia oai?/a,
ia? a??eoe o cae?aiino? ae?oae, i?iaoaeaeoaaoe ? i?aeo?eioaaoe ?o
i?aaiaiiy aei i?ciaiiy. Eiio iaeaaeeoue ?icaeaaoe o aeeoeie aaaeaiiy
aeiiiiiaoe eiaeiiio, ooi oiai iio?aao?, ia i/?eoth/e ca oea aeiaai?iaee.
Naia o/eoaeue ia? aeiiiiiaoe o/iyi c?icoi?oe aaaii?noue ??aeii? iiae,
aaaeeea?noue a??e a Aiaa. A?aeiia?aeii aei naiai ??aiy na?aeiiino? ?
oe?ioe na?oiaeyaeo a?i niiioea? ae?oae iane?aeoaaoe eiai i?eeeaae,
i?aaiooe aenieiai ??aiy naii?aae?caoe??.

Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue ?aaia Ia??iea ni?aaeea cia/iee aieea
ia ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ? oeiee. O aaaaoueio eiai
i?aoeyo iaaieioo?oueny ia ?ie? o/eoaey o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?,
ethaeeie aeooiaii?, ii?aeueii?, caeaoii? ia?aaeaoe o/iyi nai?
ia?aeiiaiiy ? a??o. No/aniei iaaeaaiaai aeiaiaeeoueny i?eae?eyoe cia/io
oaaao oi?ioaaiith oa ii?aeueiiio aaeineiiaeaiith iieiaeeo ethaeae,
i???iooaaoe ?o ia naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, ona?aeiieaiiy naiiaeinoaoiino?,
ine?eueee noie?ooyie oe?a?inueeee ia?iae ia?aaoaaa i?ae aieeaii ?ioeo
ia?iae?a, ui aaiaoe/ii a?aeaeeiny o ineo?oe? iei?oi?o iieie?iue.

Aei i?e/ei ciaoe?iaiiy ethaeeie ?aai Ia??iei a?aeiinea ae?iaeaio o
iiia?aaei? aeanyoe??//y oaiaeaioe?th aei iioaie ie?aieo iaoe?e ?
i?eieaeaiiy cia/eiino? ?ioeo. O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii iaaeaaia?/i?
caniae iiaeieaiiy ii/oooy “iaioiaa?oino?” o i?aaenoaaiee?a iieiaeiai
iieie?iiy, aeacaii ?noi?e/i? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy a ie?aieo oe?a?ioe?a
iano?eeeo ?en oa?aeoa?o, iaaiaaiaiino? o nai?o iiaeeeainoyo. Oeueiio
aeiiiiiaei ona?aeiieaiiy iaie iieiaeaiue i?aoeue a/aiiai, cie?aia “Ii?
i?iiia?ae?”, “Eieaa iaoiai aoooy ia /oaeei?”, “Aa?aae?ii ana nai?
??aeia”, “Iaoea i?i ??aeiiiiai? iaia’ycee”, “Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a”,
“Oaae?ii Aiaa oe?a?inueeith iiaith”, a yeeo iaaieioaii ia iaiao?aeiino?
aeoiaoaaoe iieiaeue a??ith, ?noi???th, ??aeiith iiaith, aaia?ao??th,
oi?ioth/e aenie? ii?aeuei? yeino? iniaenoino?: a?aeaeai?noue Oe?a?i? ?
?? ia?iaeia?, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca aeeiiaio ni?aao ? aeani? a/eiee,
aa?aaeeeaa noaaeaiiy aei i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a oa noai?aieo
ni?aa?o/ecieeaie iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae, ai?ae?noue ca ?noi?e/ia
ieioea naiai e?ath oiui.

sse na?ae/aoue i?iaiae?ciaai? aeaea?aea, ?aai Ia??iei o aeoiaaii? a??ith
aaa/aa ae?iaeaiiy o iieiae? a?aeaeaiino? aaouee?anuee?e a???,
ona?aeiieaiiy ?? iioiaeaeaiiy, ia?aeiiaiino? o aenieiina?/aiino?
a?o/eciyiiai aeooiaainoaa ? cia/aii? iieeoae, yea iaa/a? oa?i?iiy,
iineeth? a??o a naaa, aeiiiiaaa? ai?ioeny ?c ceii oa noaa?aeaeoaaoenue o
aeanieo a/eieao.

Iaeaaeia i?noea o ?icae?e? a?aeaaaeaia aeoiaaiith ?noi???th, ine?eueee
inoaiiy, ca ?aaiii Ia??ieii, ? caniaii ia?aeiiaiiy. Cie?aia, aeieeaaeii
iaa?oioiao?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui iiaeieaiith iieiaeaeth ii/oooy
“iaioiaa?oino?” aeiiiiaaa? iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c oaeeo ?noi?e/ieo yaeu ye
eicaoeoai, ?icaeoie ??aeiiiiaii? ina?oe o ??ci? ia??iaee noaiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa na?ae/aiiy a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a i?i
ae?yeuei?noue aecia/ieo iinoaoae, niiaaaee ?iicaioe?a i?i Oe?a?io oiui.

Iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a aiae?co iaaeaaia?/iiai ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii
oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? ca ?aaiii Ia??ieii ? noaaeaiiy aei ??aeii? iiae
ye caniao aieeao ia na?aeii?noue iieiaeeo ethaeae i?e iayaiino?
aaaeaiiy aeieaoe a?ae/oooy aeanii? iani?iiiaeiino?, iaaiaaiaiino?,
ia??oo/ino?. Aiaeii/an aeacaii ia Ia??ieiaa aa/aiiy aeoiaiiai aieeao
aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie, aaaii?noue iioe?aiiy na?aae o/i?a oa nooaeaio?a
ciaiue i?i aaeaea aaia?ao?/ia ?ici?uaiiy iaoi? aea?aeaae, ?? aaaao?
i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne.

Aiae?c eiie?aoieo iaoa??ae?a aeicaieea aea/eoe ieoaiiy i?i iiaeieaiiy
ii/oooy “iaioiaa?oino?” a oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aio?a. Aeyaeaii, ui aei
/enea iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo cania?a aieeao ia na?aeii?noue
ni?aa?o/eciee?a, ye? i?iaeeaathoue ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie, ?aai Ia??iei
a?aei?n ?iaeeiia aeoiaaiiy, iia’ycai? c oaioaaiiyi ??aeiiiiaieo
iaia’yce?a i?ano oa ia??iaeeeo.

Ie?aii oaaae iio?aao? aieea iaaeaaiaa ia oi?ioaaiiy oa
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?. ?aai Ia??iei cacia/aa, ui iaiao?aeii
a/eoe iieiaeue iaae?aoeny ioae?ino?, yea, ia eiai aeoieo, iieyaa? o
ae?iaeaii? ai?iiy ethaeoe, i?iuaoe, oai?eoe aeia?i, aooe ieeina?aeiei,
ciaoiaeeoe ?aae?noue o i?aoe?.

I?ioani? i?eae?eea aaaaoi oaaae ieoaiith ?ie? caaeiaieaiiy a?ae
aeeiiaii? ?iaioe ? aieeao inoaiiuei? ia aca?iinoinoiee o eieaeoea?. A?i
aoa aiaaiaiee, ui eiaeai, naiiaaeineiiaethth/enue, ia? a/eoeny
i?aoethaaoe o iiai?e caiae? c eieaeoeaii.

I?eiaa?aeii cacia/eii, ui aca?iinoinoiee a eieaeoea?, eieaeoeaia i?aoey,
i?eioeeie ia’?aeiaiiy a eieaeoea ia iia? aeey oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?ee.
Aaeeeiai cia/aiiy ieoaiiyi eieaeoeaii? i?aoe? iaaeaaaea ia?iaeia
iaaeaaia?ea. Naiai /ano A.Iaea?aiei cacia/aa, ui eieaeoea iiaeeeaee ca
oiiae, yeui a?i ia’?aeio? ethaeae ia caaaeaiiyo ae?yeueiino?, ei?enii?
aeey noni?euenoaa. I?ae i?iaeiaaeoth/e oeth aeoieo, A.Nooiieeinueeee
iaaieiooaaa, ui eieaeoea — oea aeooiaia ni?euei?noue ethaeae.

Oi?eaeueieie, ia iao iiaeyae, ? iieiaeaiiy i?aoeue o/aiiai i?i ii?aeueia
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?: caaaa/aiiy aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e,
?aoe?iiaeueio i?aai?caoe?th ?icoiiai? oa o?ce/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
ae?iaeaiiy iiaaae aei ea??aiee?a nai?? aea?aeaae oa aeciaiiy
aeinyaiaiue ioi/oth/eo, a?aooaaiiy aeina?aeo aeooiaiiai caaaa/aiiy
noa?oeo i?aaenoaaiee?a naiai ?iaeo, aaoaaee?a ia?iaeo ? o.?i. A?i
i???iooaaa iieiaeeo ethaeae ia ae?iaeaiiy o nia? oaiiaeeaiai noaaeaiiy
aei an?o ethaeae acaaae?, a aei aecia/ieo iniaenoinoae naiai ia?iaeo,
cie?aia. Aaeaea eeoa ca oaeeo oiia iiaeeeaee iinooi oia?aae, iiaeeeaa
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy. “Iioaia iaeei iaeiiio — oea iniiaa neee”, —
i?iiia?aeoaaa ieo?iiieeo ?ea??ii (?aai Ia??iei). ?aai Ia??iei
aeoeaiooaaa oaaao iieiae? ia aaaiiino? aca?iii?aeo?eiee, aeia??e iaeei
aei iaeiiai, a/anii? aeiiiiiae, ai “o?aaaae?y iaoiai ia?iaeo a oiio, ui
a?i ia ai?? aeieaeaoe aaeeeeo ethaeae”3

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy oa
oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? o iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? ?aaia Ia??iea
o?nii iia’yco?oueny c aaeaeith oi?aae?inueeith ae?yeuei?noth ea??aieea
eiie?aoiiai ina?oiueiai caeeaaeo. Aiae?c aeaea?ae oiai /ano aeicaiey? c
iaai?noth oaa?aeeoe: noeioethaaiiy ?iaioe iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a,
iaia’yceii yeeo ? ia o?eueee iaa/aoe, a e oaeineiiaethaaoe ii?aeuei?
yeino? aeoiaaioe?a, o ia??iae oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ?aaia Ia??iea
a?aeaoaaeiny oeyoii ?aaoethaaiiyi ca?ia?oii? ieaoe oa eaeoe?eiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, caaacia/aiiy aeeeaaea/?a iaiao?aeiith e?oa?aoo?ith,
noai?aiiyi ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey ?o iaoeiai? i?aoe?.

C iaaaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? oaeo?a aeia?i/eiii? ae?yeueiino? i?i?no?a
ina?oe ?aaia Ia??iea aeie?aieth?ii na?ae/aiiy eiai oo?aioe i?i
iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy oa ii?aeueia caioi/aiiy o/eoae?a ? nooaeaio?a.
O n?/i? 1918 ?ieo iei aoei caoaa?aeaeaii caeiiii?iaeo i?i ca?eueoaiiy
aeiiiiiae ia oo?eiaiiy ina?oyi, a ia?aae oei cae?eniaii ?yae caoiae?a,
iia’ycaieo c iie?ioaiiyi aeeooy nooaeaionoaa.

O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? ia iaeei ?ac aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia
iniaeeainoyo oa?aeoa?o ?aaia Ia??iea ye oi?aae?ioey, eiai i?aeoiaeao aei
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai eaae?iai? iie?oeee oa caaacia/aiiy ??aiy aeeeaaeaiiy o
a?aeiia?aeieo ina?oi?o caeeaaeao. Aaaaea?ii ca iaiao?aeia iaaieineoe, ui
iniiaieie i?eioeeiaie eiai ae?yeueiino? o i?aeai?? oa noeioethaaiiy
?iaioe eaae??a aoee: aoiai?ci, aeaaaeai?noue, ?ioi?iiaai?noue,
aiaaiai?noue. Ca iaoeie ia?aeiiaiiyie, ?icaeyiooa a aeena?oaoe??
i?iaeaia iaaeaaia?/iiai ea??aieoeoaa i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino?, yea ao?eaia o iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? ?aaia
Ia??iea, oe?eeii iiaea ni?eyoe i???ioaoe?? no/anieo iaaeaaia?a o
iiaeeeainoyo aeei?enoaiiy eiai aeina?aeo ?iaioe c oeeo ieoaiue. Aiia
i?noeoue cia/io e?euee?noue ?aeae, ii?aae, i?iiiceoe?e o/aiiai,
aeooaeueieo aeey i?aai?caoi??a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a
??cii??aiaaeo ina?oi?o caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? — “Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yi?a ?aae?caoe??
?aeae iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea a no/ani?e nenoai?
ina?oe” — ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy ao?eaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaia Ia??iea a ci?no eo?n?a
aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo aoc?a Oe?a?ie, oi?aae?inueeo i?aeoeeo oa ?iaeeiia ?
nioe?aeueia aeoiaaiiy.

Ia iao iiaeyae, aeey ona?aeiieaiiy ? iiai?oiai aena?oeaiiy oaie
aeena?oaoe??, aeioe?eueii aoei aeacaoe eo?ne aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo, ye?
iiaeooue /eoaoenue o aocao Oe?a?ie ca iaoa??aeaie i?aoeue ?aaia Ia??iea,
aai a ye? iiaeia aeeth/eoe eaeoe??, ?ic?iaeai? ia iniia? iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue o/aiiai. Ui iaie ? aoei c?iaeaii.

O i?aoeyo ?aaia Ia??iea ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy aena?oeaii
ae?yeuei?noue oea?eiaieo a?aonoa o ni?aa? iioe?aiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i?,
aianie Ino?icueei? oa Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueei? aeaaeai?e, ina?oiueiai
ina?aaeeo Ii/a?anueei? Eaa?e a ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ? i?aeoeee,
aeinyaiaiiy aecia/ieo ina?oi?o ae?y/?a (Einoyioeia Ino?icueeiai, Aeieo?a
Ooioaea, Ia?n?y Aaee/eianueeiai, ?iaa Ii/a?anueeiai, A?nai?y Iaoe??ae/a,
eiycy Aieiaeeie?a, eiyc?aie Aiie Anaaieiae?aie) oa aianie oe?a?inueeeo
aaoueiai?a o ?icaoaeiao a?o/eciyieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a oa
caaacia/aiiy ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Iaaaaeai? iaie a?aeiiino? iaiao?aei? aeeeaaea/ai ?noi??? a?o/eciyii?
iaaeaaia?ee, ine?eueee a oaeiio neiioeaio?iaaiiio aeaeyae? aiie ua ia
iaaiaeeeenue ? iathoue ni?eyoe ona?aeiieaiith nooaeaioaie ieoaiue
?icaeoeo ina?oe a Oe?a?i? c iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei iaoeo aei?a.

O ?icae?e? iacaaii iaoeia? i?aoe? ?aaia Ia??iea, ye?, ia iao iiaeyae,
caaaaoyoue aeeeaaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy eo?no ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae. Ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae o?nii
iia’ycai? c iaaeaaia?/ieie i?ioeanaie /an?a aei?a?iiaenueei? aeiae,
aeeth/ath/e eiyaeo (?O — O?V aa.), eeoianueeee (O?V — OV? aa.),
iieuenueeee (1569-1654 ??.) oa iineianueeee ia??iaee (1654-1798 ??.),
/ane ?oneo?eaoe?? (1917-1923 ??.), oe?a?i?caoe?? (1923-1933 ??.),
“eiioi?caoe??” (?.I.), ine?eueee iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy ia ??cieo
?noi?e/ieo aoaiao, iacaaaeath/e ia nai???aei?noue oi?i i?aai?caoe??,
cae?enithaaeiny /a?ac iiao, ye can?a ethaenueeiai ni?eeoaaiiy, ye can?a
aeoiaiiai, i?aai?coth/iai oa ?icaeaaeueiiai aieeao.

?aea? ?aaia Ia??iea i?i eoeueoo?o iiae, cina?aaeaeai? a eiai iiaiciaa/eo
i?aoeyo, iathoue noaoe noa?aeiaaeie o eo?n? “Iniiae eoeueoo?e iiae”. Ca
?aaiii Ia??ieii iaeaaaeeea?oei o aea/aii? oeueiai eo?no ? ona?aeiieaiiy
?ie? iiae ye aeyao oi?ie eoeueoo?e, a iiaiiai aaaaonoaa oa ieeicao/iino?
— ye ?? aaaeeeaeo yeinoae.

Aiae?c eiie?aoiiai iaoa??aeo ?noi?e/ieo iiiia?ao?e oa aeayeeo aeecueeeo
ioae?eaoe?e o/aiiai oiiaeeeaea iaa?oiooaaiiy eiie?aoieo ?noi?e/ieo
iiae?e, ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ye? ia? aaaiia cia/aiiy aeey oeo, ooi /eoa? ?
aea/a? eo?n ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. A oai?ao ?aaia Ia??iea a?aoiaioiaaii
?ice?eoi i?e/eie ie?aieo ?noi?e/ieo ae?e, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?o ?icaeoie, a
oaeiae cia/aiiy aeey ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie, aeyaeaii nooo?a? i?ioe??//y a
iiaeyaeao aecia/ieo ?noi?e/ieo iinoaoae, aeaii aeanio ioe?ieo oiai /e
?ioiai yaeua, ui iaaiith i??ith ci?ith? iiaeyaee, ye? noaee
o?aaeeoe?eieie, a oea aacia?a/ii iicia/eoueny ia oi?ioaaii? ia?aeiiaiue
no/anii? iieiae?. ?noi?e/i? i?aoe? ?aaia Ia??iea a?aecia/athoueny
aenieith ?ioi?iaoeai?noth, yea aaco?oueny ia caeiaooeo o/aiei c a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a oaeoao, ?ioeo i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyo aeinoia??iino? aiae?ciaaieo
iiae?e. Iniaeeai oe?iieie ? i?ei?oee aei ieo, c yeeo aeia?aeo?iiny
aeaoae? i?i noni?euei? yaeua eiie?aoiiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo.

Ie?aiith noi??ieith niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea ? iai?aoethaaiiy c ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai ae?oea?noaa. sse a?aeiii, i?aoe? ?aaia Ia??iea, ye
aeine?aeieea oe?a?inueeiai eieaiae?oeoaaiiy, ?c oe?eeii c?icoi?eeo
i?e/ei caiia/oaaee aai ioe?ithaaee iaaaoeaii. Inoaii? aacoaaeiny ia
?aeaieia?/ieo iinooeaoao, ui aoee iai?aieie a ?aaeyinuee? /ane. O iao
/an aiie iiaeooue aooe iniiaith a?aeiia?aeiiai eo?no, ine?eueee o/aiei
?icaeyiooi i?iaeaie ae?oea?noaa ia Aieei?, Aaee/ei?, Ee?auei?,
*a?i?a?auei?, Iiae?ee? ? o.i. a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo. Iei i?aaenoaaeaii
aaaiiee aeia?aeeiaee iaoa??ae c oeueiai ieoaiiy, cie?aia aeacaii ia
o?nio aca?iiae?th ae?oea??a ?c ina?oyiaie.

Aacia?a/ii, ne?ae a?aooaaoe ?ae?a??ciaa/? i?aoe? a/aiiai, a yeeo
?icaeyaea?oueny ?noi??y, aaia?ao?y, eoeueoo?ieia?y oea?eae. Iniaeeao
oaaao a ieo i?eae?eaii i?aaineaai?e a???, ?? aeoiaiiio oa?aeoa?o. ?aea?
?ae?a??ciaa/eo i?aoeue o/aiiai iathoue aooe ao?eaieie a eo?n
“?ae?a??ciaanoai”, yeee /eoa?oueny a eiaeiiio aoc? Oe?a?ie ? ia?
iaia?an?/ia cia/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo naiina?aeiiino? , oi?ioaaiiy
oa?aeoa?o oa noaiiaeaiiy iiaeyae?a ? ia?aeiiaiue no/anii? iieiae?.

Iieiaeaiiy iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?aaia Ia??iea iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey
naiino?eiiai iiiiaiaiiy iieiaeaeth ciaiue i?i ?icaeoie iaaeaaia?/ii?,
?noi?e/ii?, o?eieia?/ii?, ?ae?a??ciaa/i? oa ?ioeo aaeocae a?o/eciyii?
iaoee. Caeo/aiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ia?aeiieeai cana?ae/ea
aeooaeuei?noue aeina?aeo ?aaia Ia??iea ye o/aiiai-oi?aae?ioey c iaeyaeo
ia i?ioeane, ui iei? a?aeaoaathoueny a ina?o? ? iia’ycai? c
i?aai?caoe??th, ci?noii ? oi?iaie oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei caeeaaeii oa
i?eeaaeeie aei iueiai no?oeoo?aie. Ai?iiy oi?aae?ioey aooe i?eeeaaeii
aeey ni?a?ia?oiee?a o noaaeaii? aei nai?? ni?aae iaeaaeeoue, ca ?aaiii
Ia??ieii, aei /enea iaeaaaii?oeo e?eoa???a oni?oiiai ea??aieoeoaa aocii.
I?aeaeuaiith noaoono iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo, yeei a?i ea?oaaa, ni?eyei
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iei iiaaoi?nueeeo ia oie /an ?aeae o nenoaio i?eeiio
aa?oo???io?a, ca?aooaaiiy iieiae? ia i?aeaioia/? eo?ne, caaacia/aiiy ?o
iaiao?aeiith ?ioi?iaoe??th.

Oaeoe iacaia?a/ii na?ae/aoue, ui aaeaeee aea?? oi?i oi?aae?iiy aocii
caaacia/o? iaeaaeiee noai eiai ?icaeoeo, iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia aeeiiaa/o
aeenoeeie?io i?aeeaaeeo, aeeeeea? i?aeo?eieo iiceoe?e oi?aae?ioey c aieo
aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? oeo, ooi iaa/a?oueny. O/aiee aaa/aa o
ii?aeiaii? oi?aae?iiy aocii ? i?eeaaeeie aei iueiai ina?oi?ie
no?oeoo?aie iiaeeea?noue ye?niiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c
caaacia/aiiyi iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. A?i o?eiaa i?ae iniaenoei
eiio?ieai ?iaioo oi?aa?neoaoo ? a?iiac?? aeey aei?ineeo oa eo?n?a
oe?a?iiciaanoaa. O ca’yceo c ianoaaeiaie, ui neeaeeny, ?aai Ia??iei
aei?iaoaaa aoaeoeai?noue iaeii/aniiai ia?aaoaaiiy ia iinaae? i?i?no?a ?
?aeoi?a. A?i aeaaa i?i iioe?aiiy aeina?aeo ci?noiaiiai oi?aae?iiy
ina?oi?ie no?oeoo?aie. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui a e?a?i? eoea ai?ioueaa ca
aeaaeo ? aoei oyaeea aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua, ?aeoi? ? i?i?no? aeieeaaeaa
on?o coneeue aeey ae??oaiiy aaaaoueio i?iaeai, ui noinoaaeeny
iaoa??aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy nooaeaioa, a/eoaey, aeeeaaea/a.

sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?aai Ia??iei i?aaioa
caaacia/eoe nooaeaio?a e?oa?aoo?ith, iaiao?aeiith aeey iaa/aiiy;
iniaenoi aeaaa i?i iiiiaiaiiy a?ae?ioa/ieo oiiae?a, i?aai?ciaoaaa
caeoi?aeth eiea o i?eaaoieo in?a, i?eeiyooy ?o a aea?oiie oiui.

?aaeueiei caoiaeii, ni?yiiaaiei ia aeinyaiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy iaa/aiiy o aoc? e i?eeaaeeo aei
iueiai no?oeoo?ao aoei a/ania iioae?eoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, noai?aiiy i?e Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? iie?a?ao?/ii? aace.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a oi?aae?inuee?e ae?yeueiino? ?aaia Ia??iei
i?inoaaeo?oueny ii?aeiaiiy aaoi?eoa?ii? oi?ie ea??aieoeoaa c
aeaiie?aoe/iith. Aaoi?eoa?i?noue aoea iaiao?aeiith ca ?aaeueieo oiia ?
iia’ycoaaeany c ia?aaoaaiiyi a/aiiai iaeii/anii ia e?eueeio iinaaeao.
Aeaeai?a oaeoeueoao?a, ?ioeo iinaaeiaeo in?a i?ecia/aa a?i iniaenoi.
?aaeei iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o aoc? aoa eiio?ieueiaaiei.

Ia aeaiie?aoe/i?noue oi?aae?iiy oi?aa?neoaoii aeaco? iayai?noue o aoc?
naiaoo, ?aaee oaeoeueoaonueeeo noa?ino oa i?ioani?nueei? ?aaee ? ?o
ni?ai?aoey o ae??oaii? eiie?aoieo ieoaiue iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai ci?noo, a
oaeiae a?eueiee ao?ae aei eaa?iaoo ?aeoi?a aeey ?ica’ycaiiy aoaeue-yeeo
i?iaeai.

Aiae?c aeaea?ae i???ioo? ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeina?aeo ?aaia Ia??iea a
i?aeoeeo ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy oa nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe. Iaie aea/ai? ?aea?
?aaia Ia??iea ?icaeoeo aca?iinoinoie?a aaouee?a ? iaaeaaia?a, aaouee?a ?
i?aaenoaaiee?a nioe?aeueieo ina?aaee?a, aaouee?a ? oea?eae o ae??oaii?
i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy no/anii? iieiae?.

Aoaeo/e aeeaiei ia?aeiiaiei o nee? a??e, ui ciaeoei iaa?oue
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iaca? ?aaeaaiaaiiai iei aeo?iaeo “A??a ? eoeueoo?a”,
Ia??iei iaaieiooaaa, ui a??a ia? aooe aeeaieith, ioneoue aooe
ae?yeueiith, ia? aooe ia?aeiieeaith. Nai?th iiaeaeaeieoeueeith i?aoeath
a?i ana aeeooy ooaa?aeaeoaaa ?aeath neoae?iiy ??aeiiio ia?iaeia? /a?ac
neoae?iiy Aiaia?. Eiai aeeooy ? ae?yeuei?noue ia?aeiiothoue ian a oiio,
ui a??a niiioea? ethaeeio aei i?aoe? ca?aaee aeaaa naiai ia?iaeo; ??
noie?iiy, ui ? oeaio?ii aioo??oiueiai aeooiaiiai na?oo, iaaeeoa? ia
i?aaaaei? a/eiee. Ie ia?aeiiai?, ui i?e ii?aeiaii? coneeue ?iaeeie c
iiaeeeainoyie iaaeaaia?a ? ?ae?a?eieo ae?y/?a iiaeia aeinyaoe aaaiieo
?acoeueoao?a o aeoiaaii? a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, nei?enoaeiiny noaiith, ui naia niaith
aeaoaeiao?oueny ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co i?aoeue ?aaia Ia??iea, a naia:
?iaeeia + nioe?aeueia na?aaeiaeua, ?iaeeiia + nioe?aeueia aeoiaaiiy. Ca
aoaeue-yeeo oiia oea aca?iiae?y, ia?aieaoaiiy aca?iiaieea?a. Aaoueee
a?aeaeathoue ae?oyi nai? ciaiiy, na?e aeina?ae, o oiio /ene? ?
i?ioan?eiee, ae?oe caaeiaieueiythoue naith i?e?iaeio iio?aao i?ciaiiy.
Oei naiei i?aeo?eio?oueny ca’ycie iieie?iue.

?aai Ia??iei noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui iio??aii iaaeaaaoe ?iaeeiai iiaeeea?noue
i?aeo?eioaaoe ca’ycee c nioe?aeueieie ina?aaeeaie, ye? i?aoeththoue ia
iie?ioaiiy ineo?/iiai caei?ia’y, ni?eythoue ciyooth aeeoo?aiai
iai?oaeaiiy. A?i iaaieiooaaa, ui ae?oe, aenooiath/e iiaiii?aaieie
i?aai?caoi?aie eiie?aoieo ni?aa, i?e/iio oeo ni?aa, ye? ?o aeoaea
oe?eaaeyoue, ii/oaathoue naaa iiaiioe?iieie ? aaaeaieie noni?euenoao.

O iei?oi?o oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo eiai ii?aaea ?
aeiaie? neooiith, ine?eueee a nioe?aeueieo ina?aaeeao o iieiae? iiaeia
oi?ioaaoe iaae/ee o?oaeiai? oa o?ce/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ii?aeuei? e
aeooiai? yeino?. Ia ia?aeiiaiiy ?aaia Ia??iea anueiio oeueiio iathoue
ni?eyoe aea?aeaai? i?aaie, ni?eea ienueiaiiee?a, oea?eaa c? nai?i
aeooiaainoaii, nii?oeai? i?aai?caoe??, oaao?aeuei? ae?y/?, a/ai?.

I?aoe? i?ioani?a iiaeooue aooe iin?aieeaie, aeiiii?aeiiai e?oa?aoo?ith o
i?aeaioiaoe? aaouee?a, iaaeaaia?a, aeooiaainoaa, i?aaenoaaiee?a
nioe?aeueieo neoaea aei ?icaeyaeo c aeoiaaioeyie eiie?aoieo iiiyoue,
i?iaeai, neooaoe?e. I?iaiae?coaaaoe ?o o oaeiio aniaeo?, aaaaea?ii, ui
aiie ia ao?aoeee nai?? aeooaeueiino?, a oiio oe?eeii iiaeooue
i?eneoaeeoeny ni?aa? aeoiaaiiy, oei naiei caaaaoeaoe iaaeaaia?/io iaoeo
? i?aeoeeo. O /ene? oaeeo eiea “Ii? i?iiia?ae?”, “ sse aeeoe ia na?o?”,
“Neiai ai a?ai’y ethoa: Iaoea i?i a??o”, “O?e?aia?iee o?ano c? ne?niei
i?aei?aeeii – iaoe?iiaeueiee o?ano Oe?a?ie”, “sse iiaiaeeoenue o Aiaeiio
o?ai?”, “Aa?aae?ii ana nai? ??aeia” oa ?i. Ienai? o iai?ino? aeey iaoi?
aea?aeaae /ane, aiie, a??ia?aeii, iaoeiooue iaaaeyeee aieea ia aaouee?a,
aeiiiiiaeooue ?i ?icaeaaoe o ae?oae ii/oooy ai?aeino? ca Oe?a?io,
aaaeaiiy aaeineiiaethaaoe na?e oa?aeoa?, na?oiaeyae.

Cia/ia i?noea a ?icae?e? a?aeaaaeaia i?aeoe/iiio ao?eaiith iieiaeaiue
i?aoeue o/aiiai a noa?o nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe ? ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy.

Aea/aiiy iieiaeaiue iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea aeaei
iiaeeea?noue ona?aeiieoe ? aena?oeeoe ia noi??ieao aeine?aeaeaiiy nooue
?aeae a/aiiai, ye? i?aoaiaeothoue ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a oiiaao no/aniiai
?icaeoeo ina?oiuei? aaeoc?.

O aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeianai? ia caoeno.

1. Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea — oea nenoaia iiaeyae?a
oa ?aeae a/aiiai, ao?eaieo a iioae?eiaaieo oa iaiioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo. O
iiia?aaei? aeanyoe??//y c i?e/ei ?aeaieia?/ii? oia?aaeaeaiino? aiia ia
aeine?aeaeoaaeany. A?aoiaoth/e aenieo caoe?eaaeai?noue no/anieo
oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a iaoeiaei aei?iaeii ?aaia Ia??iea, a
aeena?oaoe?? aeacaii, ui iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia iaaeaaiaa, yea ?
neeaaeiaith aaaaoi? iaoeiai? ? ooaeiaeiuei? niaaeueie, o oaeiio aniaeo?
?icaeyiooa aia?oa.

2. Cae?eniaii aiae?c iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaaeaaia?/ieo
?aeae ?aaia Ia??iea ? anoaiiaeaii, ui eiai iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
niaaeueia ia aoea i?aaeiaoii aiae?co a/aieie o aeaeaieo ieie i?aoeyo. Ia
?icaeyaeaeany aiia ye ?aeeia oe?ea e no/anieie aeine?aeieeaie. O
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo a/aieo-oe?a?iiciaaoe?a aoee i?iaiae?ciaai?
aea?aeaaioai?/?, iiaiciaa/?, e?oa?aoo?iciaa/?, ?noi?e/i?, o?einionuee?,
?ae?a??ciaa/?, aeaeaaie/? ? ie?ai? iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe niaaeueie.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaaeaaia?/ieo
?aeae ?aaia Ia??iea aeicaieeee ona?aeiieoe noai aea/aiiy ii?ooaii?
i?iaeaie ia no/aniiio aoai? oa ae?eoe aeniiaeo i?i iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo nooae?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeyaeaiiy
cia/oueo aeey iaoi? nenoaie ina?oe ?aeae, iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
niaaeueie a/aiiai.

Aeey ae??oaiiy aecia/aieo o aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy ie
canoinoaaee iaoiaee oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy, ii??aiyiiy,
c?noaaeaiiy oaeo?a, iiooeiaiai oa nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaaeaaia?/ieo
yaeu, aiae?co a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a oa e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae,
?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c.

3. O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? ?aai Ia??iei ioa?aeoa?eciaaiee ye iaia?an?/ia
iniaeno?noue a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ina?oe oa iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee.
Oeueiio ni?eyei aeyaeaiiy noa?e iaoeiaeo caoe?eaaeaiue a/aiiai,
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?ioean iaienaiiy, aeaeaiiy ? iioe?aiiy iei ie?aieo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, na?ae/aiue eiai i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy naiai
ioi/aiiy, iaoa??ae?a i?i o/anoue a ina?oiueiio oa iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiio
aeeoo? Oe?a?ie ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy oa ia??iaeo ai?a?aoe??.

4. Iaoiaeieia?/ieie canaaeaie iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a/aiiai
aoei: ?aeaieia?/iee oa?aeoa? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, inieneaiiy
iaoiae?a, aeia?? aeaea?ae ? ?o ia’?eoeaia ioe?iea, e?eoe/ia noaaeaiiy
aei aeeiioaaii? ?iaioe. Aaeaeiny aeyaeoe aoaeoeai? iaoiaee
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a/aiiai, iniiaieie na?aae yeeo aoee
ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, caiice/aiue, neiaie?/iee oa o?einionueeee.
Aeine?aeaeaii, ui i?ia?aeieie i?eioeeiaie iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue o/aiiai aoee i?e/eii?noue ? iane?aeeia?noue.

5. Iniiaieie iai?yiaie oai?/i? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia
Ia??iea iiaeia aaaaeaoe noai?aiiy “iaoee i?i ??aeiiiiai? iaia’ycee”,
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? oa?i?iieia??, iaaeaaia?/ia ?aoeaicoaaiiy,
iaaeaaia?/ia eenooaaiiy (?ioi?iaoeaia, eiinoeueoaoeaia oa aeia?aeeiaa),
oeeaaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo aeaeaiue, aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai iaoe?iiaeueii?
ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy a oiiaao ai?a?aoe??, aeaeaiiy i?ny/iee?a “??aeia
iiaa” ? “Iaoa eoeueoo?a”, a yeeo ioae?eoaaeenue, cie?aia, iaoeia? i?aoe?
aecia/ieo a?o/eciyieo a/aieo, aena?oethaaeeny iiae?? a iaooe? oa ina?o?
Oe?a?ie oiui.

6. Aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a caeeaaeao ina?oe, ca
?aaiii Ia??ieii, ia?aaoaa? o ae?aeaeoe/i?e caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy
aeeeaaeo iaoa??aeo iaaeaaiaaie, aeio?eiaiiy ieie ??aeiiiiaieo
iaia’yce?a, a oaeiae ye?nieo i?ae?o/iee?a, iaa/aeueieo ? iaoiaee/ieo
iin?aiee?a.

Ia iniia? cae?eniaiiai ?aaiii Ia??ieii aiae?co i?ae?o/ieea c iaaeaaia?ee
iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaa/aeuei? eieaeee iiaeii? a?aecia/aoeny
i?inoioith ? yni?noth aeeeaaeo iaoa??aeo, aei?a/iith ? c?icoi?eith
oii?iiaaiith oa?i?iieia??th ? i???ioaoe??th eiai ci?noo ia canoinoaaiiy
o aeeeaaeaoeuee?e, iaa/aeuei?e i?aeoeoe? oa ?iaeeiiiio aeoiaaii?.

Aeeaeaeoe/i? iiaeyaee ?aaia Ia??iea ia ae??oaiiy i?iaeai aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano aeeth/athoue aeiiaeea?noue aei aeaeaaoe?a
oa oeeaaea/?a iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e, i???ioaoe?th ?o ia aenieiye?nia
ooaeiaeiuei-oaoi?/ia ioi?ieaiiy, caaacia/aiiy iaoeiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei
a?aeai?o iaoa??aeo.

7. O /ene? iieiaeaiue ?aaia Ia??iea i?i iaaeaaia?/ia ea??aieoeoai
i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy ? oae?, ui noinothoueny iniaenoino? iaaeaaiaa. Na?aae
oeeo iieiaeaiue — iino?eia i?aaiaiiy aei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano, o/anoue o noai?aii? i?ae?o/iee?a oa iin?aiee?a; aeania
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, iai?i aeina?aeii, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?ioi?iiaaiino?,
aaaeeea?noue aeio?eiaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai aoeeaoo, iniaeeai iiaiiai, aeya
iino?eiiai ?ioa?ano aei aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeiieo o/aieo c a?aeiia?aeii?
aaeoc? iaoee, iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe o nai?e i?aeoeoe?
i?ae?o/ieee, iin?aieee aaoi?eoaoieo aaoi??a, oa?iei?noue o/eoaey o
noaaeaii? aei iiieeie nai?o o/i?a, oi?ioaaiiy o ieo ai?iiy i?aaeeueii
ioe?ithaaoe a/eiee ?ioeo, i???ioaoe?y o iaa/aeueii-aeoiai?e i?aeoeoe? ia
a??o naiai ia?iaeo. Nooue iniiaieo iieiaeaiue o/aiiai i?i iaaeaaia?/ia
ea??aieoeoai i?ioeanii oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? iieyaa? o aieea?
iaaeaaia?a ia i?ioean iiaeieaiiy ii/oooy “iaioiaa?oino?” a oe?a?inueei?
iieiae?, ?? naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, i?aaiaiiy aei naii?ice?eooy,
naii?aae?caoe??. Iaaeaaia?/ia caniae iiaeieaiiy ii/oooy “iaioiaa?oino?”,
ca ?aaiii Ia??ieii ?: aeoiaaiiy a??ith, iiaith ??aeiiai ia?iaeo,
?noi???th, aaia?ao??th oiui.

Iniiai? oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? — ae?iaeaiiy ai?iiy aooe
ni?aaaaeeeaei, ieeina?aeiei, oaiiaeeai noaaeoenue aei ea??aiee?a,
ia?aieo ia?iaeii. Iniiai? ?ene ii?aeueii aeineiiaei? iniaenoino? —
ethaia aei aeeaeiueiai, ai?iiy a??ii neoaeeoe nai?io ia?iaeia?, a/anii
i?iuaoe, aeeoe c /enoith nia?noth.

8. Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie aoaeoeaiiai ea??aieoeoaa ina?oi?ie no?oeoo?aie,
ye? iaee i?noea a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ?aaia Ia??iea aoee:
noeioethaaiiy ?iaioe iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a oeyoii eii?aeeiaoe?? ?o
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe c o?aooaaiiyi eaae?o?eaoe?eieo ??ai?a aeeiioaaiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ni?eyiiy a i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai? oa oai?/i? iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aoe? i?aeeaaeeo, noai?aiiy ae?oeiaaieo i?aai?a aeey ioae?eoaaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a, caaacia/aiiy
ii?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee a a?iiaaenuee?e oa iie?oe/i?e ?iaio?. Aaaiiei
e?eoa???i aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? ni?eyiiy ni?aae?oaeiino? aeeeaaea/?a
? iieiae?, cie?aia nooaeaio?a, ai?iiy ea??aieea aooe i?eeeaaeii aeey
ni?a?ia?oiee?a o noaaeaii? aei nai?? ni?aae.

9. Ao?eaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie
?aaia Ia??iea a no/ani?e nenoai? ina?oe iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny oeyoii
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiai oi?aae?inueeiai aeina?aeo. Oeae aeina?ae iieyaa?: o
/?oe?e nenoai? i?eeiio aei aoco; i?aai?caoe?? aeiaoc?anueei? i?aeaioiaee
oa aeeooy nooaeaio?a, caeo/aiiy ?o aei ?aiaoeoi?noaa, eaeoi?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?, a?iiaaenueei? ?iaioe; o noai?aii? a?ae?ioa/ieo oiiae?a,
?ic?aoiaaieo ia oeo, ooi iaa/a?, ? oeo, ooi iaa/a?oueny, caaacia/aiiy ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, iino?eia aeioeiiieaeooaaiiy; ia?aaoaaiiy a
aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?yo ia aeae?eueeio ea??aieo iinaaeao iaei???
aenieieaae?o?eiaaii? ? aeina?ae/aii? iniae; o o?niiio eiioaeo? ea??aieea
c i?aeeaaeeie; ?aaoeyoe?? aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae o iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae? c
iaoith aeeaeaeoeei-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy iaeaaeiiai ??aiy iaa/aiiy
oa aeeeaaeaiiy; o aaeaeiio aeai?? naiai ioi/aiiy: i?ecia/aiiy
canooiiee?a, caeaoieo aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e o i?aeoeeo
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, ai?iaaoe?? iiaeo iaoiaeee; aeia??
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a c? ciaiiyi ??aeii? iiae, noaaeai iaaeaaia?/ii?
?iaioe ca oaoii, iayai?noth a?aeiia?aeieo aeieoiaio?a i?i oa?i?i
ia?ai?aeaioiaee o niaoe?aeueieo caeeaaeao, iaoe?iiaeuei?noue, i?noea
i?iaeeaaiiy; caeo/aiiy aei aeeeaaeaiiy o iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae? a?aeiieo
a Oe?a?i? oa ca ?? iaaeaie niaoe?ae?no?a, a?aeaeaieo oe?a?inuee?e ?aea?
a/aieo, o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? yeeo i??i?eoaoiith ? oai?/?noue.

Aeioe?eueii ao?eeoe o ci?no eo?n?a aoiai?oa?iiai oeeeeo aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie oaeeo ye ?noi??y ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii?
iaaeaaia?ee, ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, iniiae eoeueoo?e
iiae, ?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai ae?oea?noaa, ?ae?a??ciaanoai iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea.

Iniaeeai aaaiieie aeey nooaeaio?a ? aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a ? ??ciiai ?iaeo
eiiaioa?? ?aaia Ia??iea aei nai?o i?aoeue, iniiaai? ia a?o?aieo
aeaea?aeao, iaoa??aeao noa?iae?oe?a, ?iaeeiieo a?o?aao ie?aieo in?a, ye?
?ice?eaathoue oa ?ioi?iaoe?eii aeiiiaiththoue iaeia?aeii? noi??iee
aeeooy ie?aieo ?noi?e/ieo ae?y/?a, e?oa?aoo?ieo aa?i?a, ooi/iththoue
o?ae iiae?e, eiie?aoecothoue ? ooi/iththoue aaia?ao?/i? iacae. O
aoc?anuee?e i?aeoeoe? iaoa??aee iiiia?ao?e ?aaia Ia??iea iaiao?aei? aeey
i?aeaioiaee o/aieo aei aenooi?a ia?aae neooa/aie eo?n?a i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe i?aoe?aiee?a ina?oe, aeey iie?ioaiiy eaeoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo eo?n?a, ui ?o /eoathoue ?noi?eee iaaeaaia?ee, aeeeaaea/?
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai ae?oea?noaa, ?ae?a??ciaanoaa oiui.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeae a/aiiai a i?aeoeeo ?iaeeiiiai oa nioe?aeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny /a?ac aea/aiiy eiai i?aoeue, ui
neoaoaaoeiooue aeia?aeeiaith e?oa?aoo?ith aai ?ioi?iaoe?eieie
aeaea?aeaie aeey i?aai?caoe?? eaeoe?e, nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue,
eiioa?aioe?e c ieoaiue aeoiaaiiy a ?iaeei?, cono??/ae iaaeaaia?a c
aaoueeaie aeoiaaioe?a aeey ae??oaiiy ie?aieo i?iaeai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ae?a?eiiai eiiiiiaioo o ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy, oaeineiiaeaiiy
iniaenoino?.

I?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?aeae o/aiiai c ieoaiue ?iaeeiii-nioe?aeueiiai
aca?iiaieeao iathoue eii?aeeioaaoeny ae?? i?ae aeaiia iacaaieie
nioe?aeueieie ?inoeoooe?yie, oiaoi “?iaeeia — nioe?aeueia na?aaeiaeua”,
caaacia/oaaoenue ?o ni?ai?aoey o ?icaeoeo ?ioaeaeooaeueieo cae?aiinoae
oa ii?aeueieo ia?aeiiaiue iieiae?.

10. Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie ae?iaeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a, o/eoae?a oe?e, iaaeaaia?a
iicaoe?eueieo onoaiia, ye?, ia iao iiaeyae, ni?eyoeiooue ?icaeoeo ina?oe
a aea?aeaa?. Aiie, cie?aia, aeeth/athoue aeoea?caoe?th i?ioeano
iciaeiieaiiy c oai?aie ?aaia Ia??iea, eiai i?ae?o/ieeaie, iin?aieeaie,
oaaeeoeyie; ?ic?iaeo eiie?aoieo ieai?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o noa?o
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/?a aeueo oa na?aaei?o ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a eiioeaioe?? ??aeiiiiaieo iaia’yce?a ?aaia Ia??iea;
i?aai?caoe?th o an?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao “Ao?oe?a ieaeaiiy ??aeii?
iiae” aeey caaacia/aiiy aeineiiaeiai iaieiae?iiy oe?a?inueeith iiaith
a?iiaaeyiaie Oe?a?ie; caaacia/aiiy iaaeaaia?a ??cieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a ?ioi?iaoe??th i?i iiae?? a ina?o? oa iaooe? oeyoii ioae?eaoe??
o i?io?eueieo aeaeaiiyo o?ii?ee ina?oiuei-iaoeiaiai aeeooy a Oe?a?i? oa
ae?anii??; noai?aiiy a nenoai? ia?ai?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a
eo?n?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia oi?ioaaiiy o iaaeaaia?a iiaiiai aoeeaoo, ai?iiy
i?aaeeueii ni?eeoaaoeny i?ae niaith, c o/iyie oa aaoueeaie; i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ea??aiee?a ina?oi?o no?oeoo? /a?ac
iciaeiieaiiy ?o c aeina?aeii aecia/ieo iaaeaaia?a, a oiio /ene? e ?aaia
Ia??iea; noeioethaaiiy noai?aiiy aaoi?nueeeo eo?n?a o aocao Oe?a?ie, ye?
a?oiooaaeenue ae ia iaoa??aeao i?aoeue ?aaia Ia??iea; aeaeaiiy ca??ieea
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoeue a/aiiai aeey caaacia/aiiy a?ae?ioae
ina?oi?o caeeaae?a c iaoith yeiaeoe?oiai iciaeiieaiiy c ieie iaaeaaia?a
on?o ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie; i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea ? i?iiaaaiaea eiai
iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae ia noi??ieao ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, ia ?aae?i ?
oaeaaa/aii? Oe?a?ie; i?aai?caoe?th iaoeiaoeyie-ia??ieiciaaoeyie
eiioa?aioe?e, iaoeiaeo “e?oaeeo noie?a”, iaaeaaia?/ieo /eoaiue aeey
iaaiai?aiiy ? iioe?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeina?ae ?iaioe, iaoiaee/i? iai?aoethaaiiy oiui c i?iaeaie a noa?o iaoee
? ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

11. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiiiiaee aecia/eoe eiei iniiaieo
ieoaiue, ui iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai ?ica’ycaiiy:

a) iaiao?aeia aea/aiiy ina?oiueiai cia/aiiy aianeo oe?a?inueeeo
i?ina?oiee?a ca iaoa??aeaie iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia
Ia??iea; a) aeey aeei?enoaiiy iiceoeaiiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo
aeioe?eueii ?icaeyiooe ina?oith ae?yeuei?noue aaoueiai?a Oe?a?ie ca
oaeoaie ?noi?eei-?ae?a?eieo iiiia?ao?e ieo?iiieeoa ?ea??iia; a) c iaoith
canoinoaaiiy caeiaooe?a iaaeaaia?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee ? nain
i?inoaaeeoe oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo aeui? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ca iaoeiaith
niaaeueiith ?aaia Ia??iea; a) a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai
oe?eueieoeoaa iio?aao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
o 1918-1920 ?ieao ca iaoa??aeaie ?noi?eei-?aeaieia?/ieo ia?en?a ?aaia
Ia??iea.

Cae?eniaia iaie oe?iea aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iiaei, iaeiae, ioiieoe an?o
aniaeo?a iaoeiai? acaaae? ? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia
Ia??iea, cie?aia. Aiii ? ni?iaith ?o ??ciinoi?iiiueiai aiae?co.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoi a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea:
Iiiia?ao?y.- E.: I?aaaea ss?ineaae/?a, 1998. — 339 n.

2. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. ?aai Ia??iei-i?aai?caoi? ina?oiueiai aeeooy o
1918-1920 ?iee//Iaiae??aaoeue:Ina?oyinueeee aeo?iae. — 1996. — ? 4-5. —
N.54-61.

3. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea // Na?oei. —
1997. — ? 1(3). — N.67-70.

4. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. ?aai Ia??iei i?i ??aeiiiiai? iaia’ycee // Ii/aoeiaa
oeiea. — 1999. — ? 2. — N.56.

5. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. ?iaeeiia aeoiaaiiy: oeyoe ?aae?caoe?? iaaeaaia?/ieo
?aeae ?aaia Ia??iea a i?aeoeoe? ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy // Na?oei. — 1999.
— ? 1. — N.26-28.

6. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiei caeeaaeii a i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? ?aaia Ia??iea // Aeaea?aea.-1999.- ? 1-2.-N.13-16.

7. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue ?aaia Ia??iea // A?niee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea: Na??y: Nioe?ieia?y.
Ineoieia?y. Iaaeaaia?ea.- E.: Eiain.-1996.- N.207-212.

8. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Aeaea?aea a?/ii? aeooiaiino?: Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea a iaoe?iiaeuei?e oeie? // ??aeia oeiea. — 1997.
— ? 1. — N.69-70.

9. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. ?aai Ia??iei i?i caniae iiaeieaiiy ii/oooy
“iaioiaa?oino?” a oe?a?inueei? iieiae? // Iaiae??aaoeue. Ina?oyinueeee
aeo?iae. — 1999. — ? 2. — N.64-65.

10. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue ?aaia Ia??iea ia??iaeo
ai?a?aoe??// Iaiae??aaoeue. Ina?oyinueeee aeo?iae. — 1999. — ? 3 (20). —
N.68-70.

11. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Eenoe ?.Ia??iea aei ?.Naaioeeoeueeiai ye aeaea?aei
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a/aiiai // Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E.: Ciaiiy.- 1999. — N.105-112.

12. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. ?aai Ia??iei i?i aeaeaiiy aeey oe?eueiiai aaeeoeo //
Ina?oyiei. — 1999. — ? 4. — N.27-28.

13. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. ?aae?? ao?eaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaia Ia??iea a ci?no eo?no ?noi??? a?o/eciyii?
iaaeaaia?ee // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea. Na??y:
Iaaeaaia?ea. — 1999. — ? 4. — N.72-75.

14. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. ?aai Ia??iei i?i aeoiaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ?iaeei? //
Oe?a?inueea ?iaeeia: Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee. — E.: EI?OA, 1998. —
N.110-112.

15. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ia?aeeaae ?aaiii Ia??ieii (ieo.
?ea??iiii) A?ae?? oe?a?inueeith iiaith // Aaeaoaiue iaoee: Iaoeiaee
ca??iee. — Aei.2. — E.:EAeO.- 1997. — N.55-59.

16. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Ai?noiey?ia niaaeueia ye aeaea?aei aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea (1920-1944 ??.) // ?aai
Ia??iei (ieo. ?ea??ii) ? aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-na?aeiii? iniaenoino?:
Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — E.: EI?OA.-
1997. — N.49-57.

17. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Iniaeno?noue iaaeaaiaa o iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio
aiae?c? ?aaia Ia??iea // O/eoaeue. — 1999. — ? 5-6. — N.46-51.

18. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Ina?oiy oa iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue ?aaia
Ia??iea ia Oieinueei-I?aeeynueeeo caieyo (Iieueua) o 1940-1944 ?ieao //
Aaeaoaiue iaoee: Iaoeiaee ca??iee.- Aei.2. — E.: EAeO. — 1997. —
N.20-24.

19. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Aeeaeaeoe/ia caaacia/aiiy ??aiy aeeeaaeaiiy o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiai?e i?aeoeoe? ?aaia Ia??iea // O/eoaeue. — 1999. — ?
7-8. — N.60-67.

20. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. I?noea iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie ?aaia Ia??iea
(ieo.?ea??iia) a nenoai? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ea??aieo eaae??a
ina?oe // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ea??aieo eaae??a
ina?oe: Ca??iee noaoae. — E.: ?IEEEI.- 1996. — N.249-253.

21. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. I?aea?? oa noeioethaaiiy ?iaioe aeeeaaea/?a o
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ?.Ia??iea // Iaoea ? ina?oa. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. — E.: O?auaoee.- 1997. — N.303-313.

22. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Iniaeno?noue ieo?iiieeoa ?ea??iia a niiaaaeao eiai
neia Aiaoiey Ia??iea // ?aaiIa??iei e ooaa?aeaeaiiy aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe
oa iaoee a Oe?a?i?: Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue ia
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? 4-5 aa?aciy 1997
?ieo. — AEeoiie?: AEo?oiiae.- 1997. — N.34-35.

23. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. ?iaeeiia aeoiaaiiy. ?iai/a i?ia?aia ? iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c eo?no “?iaeeiia aeoiaaiiy” ca iiaeoeueiith nenoaiith
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy (?.Ia??iei — ?? iiaeoeue, ? nai?ia?) // Na?oei. —
1997. — ? 3(97). — N.28-29.

24. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. ?noi??y Ii/a?anueei? Eaa?e o iaoeiaeo caoe?eaaeaiiyo
ieo?iiieeoa ?ea??iia (?aaia Ia??iea) // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
“Ii/a?anueeee iiianoe? a eiioaeno? ?noi??? oa aeooiaiino? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo” . — Oa?iii?eue.- 1995. — N.48-50.

25. Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Aianie ?aaia Ia??iea a ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee // ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? iaoee ia iaae? oeny/ie?oue:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — Ee?a, 1999. — N.194-196.

Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?oeiieno ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y
iaaeaaia?ee. — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — Ee?a,
1999.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aiae?co?oueny iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
niaaeueia ?aaia Ia??iea, ?icaeyaea?oueny nooue eiai iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae.
Ia iniia? iiiia?ao?e, i?ae?o/iee?a, iin?aiee?a, aeia?aeiee?a, a oaeiae
iaoa??ae?a ai?noiey?ieo aeaea?ae iaa?oioiaothoueny ieoaiiy
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a/aiiai, iaoiaeieia?? eiai iaoeiai?
i?aoe?, ?ice?eaathoueny iniiai? iai?yie iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oai?/ino?
?aaia Ia??iea. Aena?oeth?oueny aiae?c ?aaiii Ia??ieii iniaenoino?
a/eoaey ??aeiiiiaii? oeiee, cia/aiiy aeeaeaeoeei-iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeeaaeaiiy a i?e, cia/aiiy ci?noo
i?ae?o/iee?a ? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy.
?icaeyaea?oueny noai?aia a/aiei eiioeaioe?y ??aeiiiiaieo iaia’yce?a.
?ice?eaathoueny caniae oi?ioaaiiy oa ii?aeueiiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy
iniaenoino? ye iniiae ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa ca ?.Ia??ieii.
Ocaaaeueiththoueny ci?no ? oi?ie oi?aae?iiy ina?oi?i caeeaaeii, e?eoa???
aeiai?o aeeeaaea/?a ? noeioethaaiiy ?oiuei? ?iaioe o i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? a/aiiai. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaothoueny iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie i?ioani?a a eo?nao ?noi???
a?o/eciyii? iaaeaaia?ee, ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, iniia
eoeueoo?e iiae, ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?ae?a??ciaanoaa o aocao, a i?aeoeoe?
?iaeeiiiai oa nioe?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia, ai?a?aoe?y, ai?noiey??e,
iaoiaeieia?y, ??aeiiiiaia ina?oa, aeia?? eaae??a, noeioethaaiiy ?iaioe,
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy, naiioaeineiiaeaiiy, eiioeaioe?y.

Ia?ooeaae/ A.A. Iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneia ianeaaeea Eaaia Iaeaiei. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey a aeaea ?oeiiene ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a
iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey
iaaeaaiaeee. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. — Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?oaony iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneia ianeaaeea Eaaia
Iaeaiei, ?anniao?eaaaony nouiinoue aai iaaeaaiae/aneeo eaeae. Ia iniiaa
iiiia?aoee, o/aaieeia, iiniaee, ni?aai/ieeia, a oaeaea iaoa?eaeia
yienoiey?iuo enoi/ieeia iainiiauaaaony nouiinoue iaaeaaiae/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e iaoiaeieiaey iao/iie ?aaiou o/aiiai, ?ane?uaathony
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai oai?/anoaa Eaaia Iaeaiei.
I?aaenoaaeai aiaeec ee/iinoe ee/iinoe oeieueiiai o/eoaey a inaauaiee
Eaaia Iaeaiei, cia/aiea aeeaeaeoeei-iaoiaee/aneiai iaania/aiey, cia/aiea
niaea?aeaiey o/aaieeia e o/aaiuo iiniaee aeey iiauoaiey o?iaiy
i?aiiaeaaaiey e iao/aiey. ?anniao?eaaaony eiioeaioeey o/aiiai,
eanathuayny iaycaiiinoae iaaeaaiaia iaoeeiiaeueiie oeieu inouanoaeyoue
i?aiiaeaaaiea ia ?iaeiii ycuea. Auyaeythony oeacaiiua a aai ?aaioao
n?aaenoaa oi?ie?iaaiey e ii?aeueiiai naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey ee/iinoe
o/auaainy, eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaii n aeeyieai
iaaeaaiaa. Oeacuaathony oi?iu oi?aaeaiey o/aaiui caaaaeaieai, e?eoa?ee
iiaeai?a i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneeo eaae?ia e noeioee?iaaiey eo ?aaiou,
eniieuecoaiua a i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aiiai. Oai?aoe/anee
iainiiauaathony aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai
ianeaaeey i?ioanni?a a aocao i?e /oaiee eo?nia enoi?ee ioa/anoaaiiie
iaaeaaiaeee, enoi?ee oe?aeineie eeoa?aoo?u, iniia eoeueoo?u ycuea,
enoi?ee Oe?aeiu, ?aeeaeaaaaeaiey, a oaeaea a i?aeoeea naiaeiiai e
nioeeaeueiiai ainieoaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneia ianeaaeea, yiea?aoeey,
yienoiey?ee, iaoiaeieiaey, ioa/anoaaiiia ia?aciaaiea, iiaeai? eaae?ia,
noeioee?iaaiea ?aaiou, aeeaeaeoeei-iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea,
naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiea, eiioeaioeey.

Marushkevich A.A. Pedagogical heritage of Ivan Ogienko. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree in pedagogical science by speciality
13.00.01 — theory and history of pedagogy. — The Kyiv University of
Taras Shevchenko.- Kyiv. — 1998.

The author points out the volume of pedagogical heritage of Ivan Ogienko
(famous Ukrainian scientist, church, public and political man, one of
the founders of national education in the Ukraine), the essence of his
pedagogical ideas. The thesis points out that the position of scientific
haritage of professor ground on the dominate of allhuman values, which
include national pecularities and examine in investigation as historical
and pedagogical regularities, upbringing ideas, organization principles,
didactic and methodic demands and recomendations, which presents the
system of his views, maintaining in his published and unpublished
works. The degree of studing this problems by native and foreign
scientists is analysed. The thesis also points out that during the
soviet period of our society, the scientific and pedagogical heritage of
Ivan Ogienko was unmeritedly out of scientific investigations and the
name of scientist was withdrawn from scientific use. The essence of main
conception idea, which consists in understanding of scientific and
pedagogical haritage of Ivan Ogienko as complex of archives’ scientific
and literal sources complete the experience of teacher-manager,
organizer of youth upbrining, that help to solve the actual problems in
the sphere of education. On the basis of monographs, text-books,
materials of letters and other sources the author grounds the essence
of pedagogical activity and the methodological aspects of scientific
work of Ivan Ogienko, finds out the main directions of his scientific
and pedagogical work. The dissertation presents the analysis of school
teachers’ personality in the light og Ivan Ogienko heritage, the
importance of didactic and methological security, the role of text-books
contents for rising the level of teaching and studing. Additionally the
scientist’s conception of national school teachers’ duty to teach in
native language is shown. The means of formation and moral
self-perfection of pupils’ personality, their connection with teacher’s
influence, indicated in Ivan Ogienko works, are revealed. The author
underlines such means of pedagogical influence as children’s attitude to
the faith of their people, native language, native history and
geography. The thesis points out that the main directions of person’s
moral self-perfection Ivan Ogienko consided in rise of spiritual
culture, correct organization of mental and manual labour, in formation
the respect to the leaders of native state and recognition the
achievements of other people, the use of experience of mental enrichment
of eldest generation of their families, people in whole. The thesis deal
with issues of educational establishment management, the criteria of
recruitment of educational staff, as well as the use of incentives to
stimulate the work of teachers. It is underlined that the teacher must
constantly perfect his skill, take into consideration the predecessors’
experiment, based the upbringing work on the faith of his people, form
the pupils’ skill to value correctly the actions of other people. The
possible of scientific heritage of Ivan Ogienko in secondary education
establishments in Ukraine has been considered, particularly within the
courses of history of the Ukrainian pedagogic, history of the Ukrainian
literature, fundumentals of the culture of language, history of Ukraine,
study of religions in higher educational establishments. Also the
pedagogical heritage of Ivan Ogienko has been analyses in the light of
its introduction into the family and school education. The necessity of
alternate guidance in concrete situation is underlined. The thesis
states the fact, that the investigation of Ivan Ogienko works is
necessary for teachers, parents, social men in order to solve some
problems, to do possible the unification of the school and high school
subjects with the idea of profound cognition of the world, for working
out the skills of deeping the knowledges. The author points out the main
directions, which can be investigate in future, sucn as the lighting the
meaning of Ukrainian instructors’ contribution in the development of
native education on the materials of scientific and pedagogical haritage
of Ivan Ogienko, studing of historical experience of pedagogical
activity of Ukrainian getmans on the facts of historical divine
monographs of scientist, analysis of the tends of development of
Ukrainian national school during 1918-29, shown in his ideological
essays.

Key words: pedagogic heritage, emigration, methodology, native language
education, personnal recruitment, stimulation of work, didactical and
methodical maintance, self-realisation, conception.

I?aeienaii ei ae?oeo 02.09.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16.

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 2.0. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 2.0.

Iaeeaae 100. Cai. 354.

i.Ee?a-5, aoe. *a?aiiia?i?enueea, 57/3, e.201.

Oiaa?enoai(Ciaiiy( Oe?a?ie

Aeaeaaieoeoai oa iia?aoeaia iie?a?ao?y

227-41-23, 294-71-27

1 Ia??iei ?.?. ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? iiae a Ee?a? // ??aeia
iiaa. — 1936. — ? 2. — N.81.

2 Ia??iei ?.?. Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a. — Ee?a: Aa?en, 1991. — N.240.

3 Ieo?iiieeo ?ea??ii. Ii? i?iiia?ae?. — A?ii?iaa: ?AeA, 1973. — N.110.

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