IAOEIAI-AeINE?AeIEE AEIIII?*IEE ?INOEOOO I?I?NOA?NOAA AEIIII?EE OE?A?IE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Aieoaooeia

Aaiia TH???aia

OAeE 338:382

IAOEIAI-IAOIAeE*I? ICIIAE ?AOI?IOAAIIss AENII?OIEO CA’ssCE?A OE?A?IE A
OIIAAO O?AINOI?IAOe?? AEIIII?*II? NENOAIE

08.02.03 — I?aai?caoe?y, oi?aae?iiy, ieaioaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?eith

Aeena?oaoe?y

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

Iocaiia ?ai? ?aaiiae/

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Ee?a 1999

IAOEIAI-AeINE?AeIEE AEIIII?*IEE ?INOEOOO I?I?NOA?NOAA AEIIII?EE OE?A?IE

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a IAOEIAI-AeINE?AeIIIO AEIIII?*IIIO ?INOEOOO?
I?I?NOA?NOAA AEIIII?EE OE?A?IE

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee —

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Iocaiia ?ai? ?aaiiae/

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe —

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aoaee?i A?eoi? Na?a?eiae/

?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo i?iaeai aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?in??

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ao?aeianueeee ?ai? Aaeaioeiiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y”, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y —

?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a oi?aae?iiy
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iith ae?yeuei?noth (i.Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 25 » aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 13.30 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.801.01 ii i?enoaeaeaiith
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe i?e Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio
aeiiii?/iiio ?inoeooo? I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie oa
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai Ee?aa
(252103, IIN, Ee?a, aoe. Ae?oaeae ia?iae?a, 28).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? IAeA? I?iaeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie ( 252103, IIN, Ee?a, aoe. Ae?oaeae ia?iae?a, 28, ia?oee iiaa?o).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “23” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
Aaceethe A.A.

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ci?ie, ui a?aeaoeeny a aeiiii?/iiio
oa iie?oe/iiio noaiiaeu? Oe?a?ie, yea noaea iacaeaaeiith aea?aeaaith,
ia?ao?ae a?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee coiiaeee aeeaie?
iae?iaeiiii?/i? c?ooaiiy a noa?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaae. E?aa?ae?caoe?y ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? a?ae?a?a? no?aoaa?/io
?ieue a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae, noeioethth/e i?ioean ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue
oa noath/e aaaeeeaei /eiieeii no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee.

Ca ?iee iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ia caeiaoea aeciaiiy a na?o? ye noa’?eo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, noaea /eaiii aieeaiaeo i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e. Iaeiae iie?oe/i? oni?oe aein? a?ae/ooii ia
iaoa??ae?coaaeeny a aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ieaio, cie?aia a
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e noa??. Aiaeii/an ?iciaae ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco oa
?AA, ?ic?ea noaeeo ca’yce?a i?ecaaee aei e?ea?aeaoe?? a?aei?aoeueiaaii?
nenoaie ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, oi/a e iiaoaeiaaii? ia aaoi?eoa?ieo
canaaeao aea?aeaaii? iiiiiie??, aea caeaoii? aieeaaoe ia no?oeoo?oaaiiy
iinoaaie oa oi?ioaaoe iaai? oaiaeaioe?? o cae?eniaii? oi?aiaaeueieo
iia?aoe?e. Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoie aenii?oii? noa?e iaaoa
aacnenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?o, ui i?ecaaei aei cia/ieo ao?ao a aeiiii?oe?
aea?aeaae oa iineeeei e?ecia? yaeua a on?o aaeocyo ainiiaea?noaa. I?e
iiaeeaeaii? i?ioeano ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee i??i?eoaoi?
caaaeaiiy, ui noiyoue ia?aae aea?aeaaith, iiaeii? caciaoe iaaieo ci?i.
Ia?oi/a?aia? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae ?eieiaeo iniia iathoue iinooieoeny
aeiaaino?ieiaei oe?eyi caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. A oeeo
oiiaao oe?eani?yiiaaiee aea?aeaaiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy aenii?oo noa?
no?aoaa?/iei iai?yiii aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae.

Ieoaiiyi ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie oa
?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a i?enay/aia cia/ia
e?euee?noue i?aoeue a na?oia?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe?. Oae, iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy no/anii? oai??? i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? oa iaoiaee
aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co i?aee?a?iieo oi?aiaaeueieo a?aeiinei aeeeaaeai? a
i?aoeyo Ia?oaeea A., Eaiio’?aa A., Naioaeueniia I., Ii?oa?a I., Aoaaaao?
Aeae., ?ea/einueeiai O., E?oaiaia I., Aa?iiia ?., E?iaea?a N. oa ?i.
Iniaeeainoyi ?icaeoeo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? noa?e oa, cie?aia,
aenii?oieo ca’yce?a a ia??iae ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?enay/ai? ?ic?iaee
?in?enueeeo a/aieo Oiaeaaa I.I., Nia?oaea A.E., Aocaae?ia A.A., Ei/aoiaa
?. N., Oi?ioiaa A.I. oa ?i. Na?aae aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo a/aieo
aeiiii?/i?, ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei?, i?aaia? oa nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy a ?iaioao Aan?ae?ia A.O.,
Aoaee?ia A.N., Ao?aeianueeiai ?.A., Aieioeia A.A., E?noa?nueeiai E.E.,
E?aae?niaa A.?., Eoe’yiaiea Ae.A., Iiaeoeueeiai A.N., Iieuaiea A.I.,
Iai/aiea ?.A., Iaoiiiaa TH.I., Ii?o/ieea A.I., Iocaiiaa ?.?., ?oiyioeaaa
A.I., N?aeaiea A.?., O?e?iaiea A.N. oa ?i.

Nie?ath/enue ia ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a oe?e aaaaoia?aii?e oa
neeaaei?e noa??, oa, a?aoiaoth/e iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee ??
oai?aoe/ieo oa iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeieo aniaeo?a, aeioe?eueii cai?iiiioaaoe
eiiieaen oai?aoe/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeoe/ia
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie iaeneiaeueii? ca no/anieo e?eciaeo oiia ?aae?caoe??
oe?a?inueeith aea?aeaaith naiai iioaioe?aeo i?e ?ioaa?aoe?? aei
na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a. A aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? oaaao
aeoeaioiaaii ia ?aaoethaaii? aenii?oo oiaa??a, ciai?oiy oi?a?aey yeeie,
noaiiaey/e iaeaea a?n?iaeanyo a?aenioe?a caaaeueiiai ianyao aenii?oo,
aiaeii/an ia? no?eea iaaaoeaia naeueaei.

Aeooaeuei?noue oa ceiaiaeaii?noue aeacaieo i?iaeai coiiaeee aea?? oaie
aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeei?enoaii i?e aeeiiaii? oaie ?31-97
“Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? oa ia?niaeoea ?? ?icaeoeo”,
ui aeeiioaaeanue ia caiiaeaiiy I?iaeiiii?ee a?ae 17.03.1997 ?., oa oaie
?36-96 «?ic?iaea i?iaeoo Aea?aeaaii? I?ia?aie ?icaeoeo aenii?oiiai
iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie», ui aeeiioaaeanue ia aeeiiaiiy ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 30.11.1994 ?1.77/94 — ?I oa caiiaeaiiy
I?iaeiiii?ee a?ae 17.01.1996.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
na?oioi?aiaaeueieo a?aeiinei oa niaoeeo?ea oe?a?inueei? iiaeae? ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? noa?e.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooieee ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeuei? ca’ycee Oe?a?ie
ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia iaoe?iiaeueieo caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a 90-o
??. oa ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai ia??iaeo, oe?a?inueea ii?iaoeaii-caeiiiaeaa/a
nenoaia ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? noa?e o ?? ca’yceo c
i?ioeanaie ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai aeiiii?/iiai i?inoi?o.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo canaae ?aaoethaaiiy aenii?oieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie,
ni?yiiaaiiai ia aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaa i?aeia?iaeiiai iiae?eo
i?aoe? aeey ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee aoaio ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
/a?ac ea?iaaio ?ioaa?aoe?th o i?aeia?iaei? oi?aiaaeuei? a?aeiineie aeey
caaacia/aiiy c?inoaiiy ianya?a aenieioaoiieia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? a
no?oeoo?? iinoaaie.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaoiiaeei oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

— aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae i?iyao a Oe?a?i? iniiaieo co/anieo
oaiaeaioe?e o ?icaeoeo oi?aiaaeueieo a?aeiinei oa oi?ioaaii?
oiaa?iiioie?a ia na?oiaiio ?eieo

— i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co noaiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-caeiiiaeaa/i? nenoaie
?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? Oe?a?ie oa ?? aieeao ia iniaeeaino?
?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a aenii?oi?e noa??

— aea/aiiy ia?aaeoiia oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a
Oe?a?ie oa ?o niaoeeo?ee ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee;

— aecia/aiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?/ieo iai?yi?a aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy i?e ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aenii?oieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/iiai i?aeoiaeo uiaei ioe?iee iioaioe?eieo ianya?a
aenii?oieo iinoaaie a ei?ioeino?ieia?e ia?niaeoea?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ianooiieo iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo:

— aeyaeaiee aieea no/anieo iaaaoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee ia iineeaiiy e?eciaeo yaeu a no?oeoo?? aenii?oo, ye?
iieyaathoue a noeo?eiiio ia?iuoaaii? ianya?a i?iaeoeoe?? iecueeiai
nooiaiy ia?iaee oa nei?i/aii? ieoiii? aaae aenieioaoiieia?/ii?
i?iaeoeoe??, ui ia a?aeiia?aea? i?ia?aneaiei oaiaeaioe?yi ?icaeoeo
na?oiaeo ?eie?a oa iaiaaeo? aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?aeo ia?aaaa
i?aeia?iaeiiai oiaa?iiai?io aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
aea?aeaae;

— i?iaiae?ciaai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?ie oa aecia/aia
a?aeiia?aei?noue ?o iniiaieo iieiaeaiue no/aniei oaiaeaioe?yi
?aaoethaaiiy na?oiai? oi?a?ae?, ye? noi?ioaaeenue ia iniia? ??oaiue
O?oaaaenueeiai ?aoiaeo AAOO/NIO; aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia ia??iaeecaoe?y oa
iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? aoaie i?iaaaeaiiy ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeuei?e noa??, cie?aia, aoai ?icaoaeiae ?eieiaeo canaae,
aoai oaeaeei? e?aa?ae?caoe??, aoai iineeaiiy i?ioaeoe?ii?cio oa
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiia aei aenii?oii? ae?yeueiino?, ia iniia? /iai c?iaeaii
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aein? ia noai?aii aaeaeaaoiiai ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeuo
iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeieo
ae?iaieoeoa;

— ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y ?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oii? ae?yeueiino?, a iniiao
yei? iieeaaeaia i???ioaoe?y ia oi/eiao ?ioaa?aoe?th oe?a?inueei?
i?iaeoeoe?? a i?aeia?iaei? oaoiieia?/ii-oi?aiaaeuei? eaioethae i?e
iineeaii? aieeao aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, ni?yiiaaiiai ia i?iaaaeaiiy
naeaeoeaii? aeaiaaeoi?ii? iie?oeee, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ea?iaaiee ?icaeoie
aenieioaoiieia?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa, i?iaeoeoe?y yeeo caeaoia a?aeiia?aeaoe
no/aniei aeiiaai na?oiaiai ?eieo, oa caaacia/aiiy ?iii?oo, iaiao?aeiiai
aeey noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe??, aeey
/iai ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo cai?iiiiiaaiee eiiieaen caoiae?a a
aeiiii?/i?e, caeiiiaeaa/?e oa ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e noa?ao;

— aecia/ai? iniiai? i?eioeeie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a noa??
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? aenieioaoiieia?/iith i?iaeoeoe??th, na?aae yeeo
iniiaieie ? ?ic?iaea nenoaie no?oeoo?oaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo iia?aoe?e ia
eiiiainaoe?eieo oa aaainiaeo iniiaao, ni?yiiaaii? ia noeioethaaiiy
aenii?oo i?iaeoeoe?? aenieiai nooiaiy ia?iaee oa iaiao?aeiiai aeey ??
ae?iaieoeoaa ?iii?oo; noai?aiiy aeiiii?/ii-i?aai?caoe?eii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e i?e i?inoaaii? i?iaeoeoe?? ia ciai?oi?e ?eiie; ?ic?iaea
iie?oeee aeaaaeaiiai canoinoaaiiy iaiaaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a i?e caeo/aii?
aenieioaoiieia?/iiai ?iii?oo; i?eeiyooy iaeaoo i?aaiaeo aeo?a uiaei
caoenoo aioo??oiueiai ?eieo, ui ia? caaacia/eoe iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy a
aenii?oii-?iii?oi?e no?oeoo??;

— ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaeniee iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei cae?eniaiiy
ei?ioeino?ieiaiai i?iaiicoaaiiy ianya?a aenii?oo, caniiaaiee ia
aeei?enoaii? eiiieaeno iiaeaeae, cie?aia, aeno?aiieyoe?eii? oa
aeiiiiao?e/ii? c iiaeaeueoei ei?eaoaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a ia iniia?
i?ioeaaeo?e aenia?oii? ioe?iee, ui iaoiiaeaii niaoeeo?/ieie ia?aaaaaie
eiaeiiai oeio iiaeaeae i?e aiae?c? ?nioth/eo aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a oa
aeicaiey? canoiniaoaaoe aeaiee i?aeo?ae a no/anieo oiiaao ianoaa?eueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a aeniiaeao oa
i?iiiceoe?yo, ui aeieeaathoue c aiae?co no/aniiai noaio iniaeeainoae
i?aeoeee cae?eniaiiy aenii?oieo iia?aoe?e oa aaeaioaoe?? aei oiia
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiaaaeai? aei
??aiy aiae?oe/ieo caienie oa aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaeao.
Ie?ai? iaoa??aee aoee aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aiae?oe/ieo
aeieoiaio?a aeey aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. /Eeno a?ae
14.05.1998 ? 432/12991-03/ oa a aeine?aeaeaiiyo uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e ia?niaeoeaieo aenii?oieo iinoaaie, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue
AO»Oe??iiaen» /Eeno a?ae 08.05.1998 ?08-301/.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aoee
aeeeaaeai? ia eiioa?aioe??, i?iaaaeai?e a iaaeao i?iaeoo I?aeia?iaeiiai
iacaeaaeiiai oiiaeo “Oe?a?inuee? ?aoi?ie” — “?aoe?iiae?caoe?y
aenii?oii-?iii?oii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee”. — Ee?a, 1997 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aoee aeeeaaeai? a i’yoe
ioae?eaoe?yo, caaaeueiei ianyaii 2,3 ae.a., c yeeo /ioe?e, ianyaii 1,5
ae.a., iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi aaoi?ia?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai? aaoi?ii
iniaenoi. A ioae?eaoe?? o ni?aaaoi?noa? aaoi?ia? iaeaaeeoue aiae?c
no/anii? no?oeoo?e oe?a?inueeeo aenii?oieo oiaa?iiioie?a.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (198 iaeiaioaaiue).
Iniiaiee ci?no aeeeaaeaiee ia 183 noi??ieao, ?iaioa i?noeoue 38
oaaeeoeue, 6 ?ethno?aoe?e, 13 aeiaeaoe?a.

NO?OEOO?A ?IAIOE

ANOOI

?ICAe?E 1 I?aai?caoe?eii-?aaoeyoeai? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee

1.1 I?noea oa ?ieue i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? aeey ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee

1.2 No/ani? ?ino?oiaioe ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oa ?o canoinoaaiiy a na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?

1.3 Ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiee ?aaeei Oe?a?ie ia ??cieo aoaiao eiai
oi?ioaaiiy

Aeniiaee ia?oiai ?icae?eo

?ICAe?E 2 Aiae?c iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai aenii?oo

2.1 Aaiaeiiii?/i? c?ooaiiy a aeeiai?oe? ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo
ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie

2.2 Ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae aenii?oii? noa?e a
Oe?a?i?

2.3 Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo oe?a?inueeiai aenii?oo

Aeniiaee ae?oaiai ?icae?eo

?ICAe?E 3 Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? canaaee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aenii?oieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie

3.1 I?eioeeie aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?ee ii??aiyeueieo noaoe/ieo oa
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie

3.2 Eiioeaioe?y ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai aenii?oo oa oeyoe ??
?aae?caoe??

3.3 Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?iaiicoaaiith oe?a?inueeiai aenii?oo
ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee

Aeniiaee o?aoueiai ?icae?eo

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

NIENIE AEEI?ENOAIEO AeAEA?AE

AeIAeAOEE

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue, aecia/aii iaoo, caaaeaiiy,
i?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?co oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo oa ?aaoethaaiiy
i?ioean?a a na?oia?e oi?a?ae? oa iniaeeainoyi ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo
ca’yce?a a aeiiii?eao ie?aieo e?a?i. A ?iaio? cacia/a?oueny, ui
oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a na?oiai? oi?a?ae?, yea iniaeeai
yne?aai i?iyaeeanue a oiiaao ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee i?ney
Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, i?inoaaeo?oueny ? ia no/aniiio aoai?, oi/a ci?ie
oe?i ia aia?aiiin?? aeeeeeaee nooo?a? eieeaaiiy a ni?aa?aeiioaii? i?ae
ciai?oiueith oi?a?aeath ? ae?iaieoeoaii. A ia??iae 1990-1997 ??.
ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a na?oiaiai aenii?oo oiaa??a a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeei
6,5% ia ??e, ui ia?aaeuoaaei ye oaiie c?inoaiiy na?oiaiai i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa (2%), oae ? ca?eueoaiiy na?oiaiai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoo (2%).
Oey oaiaeaioe?y i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny i?e aiae?c? ia?aiao??a aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo ii ie?aieo a?oiao e?a?i — e?a?iao c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith, “iiaeo ?iaeono??aeueieo e?a?iao” I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac?? oa
e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie, ui
aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i c?inoaiiy ?ie? ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii?
noa?e ? ia ??ai? iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui a Oe?a?i? i?e ?icaoaeia?
?eieiaeo iniia aeiiii?ee iioaioe?ae ia?aaaa i?aeia?iaeiiai oiaa?iiai?io
iaeaaeiith i??ith ia aoa aeei?enoaiee. I?e c?inoaii? a?aee?eoino?
aeiiii?ee niinoa??aa?oueny nei?i/aiiy AAI oa ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??. C?inoath/a cia/aiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? o
oi?ioaaii? oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ?ethno?o? oaeiae i?iaaaeaia
ioe?iea aeeiai?ee ieoiii? aaae iai?yi?a aeei?enoaiiy AAI, yea
cana?ae/eea oaiaeaioe?th aei nei?i/aiiy c 1992 ?. ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo ca
aeeeth/aiiyi aenii?oo oa ?iii?oo.

A ?iaio? cacia/a?oueny, ui ca oiia aeii?ioth/i? neiioeaio?iaaiino?
na?oiaeo i?iieneiaeo oa o?iainiaeo iioie?a ia iaiaaeai?e e?eueeino?
iaea?eueo ?icaeiooeo e?a?i niinoa??aa?oueny iaaia ia??aiii??i?noue o
?iciiae?e? i?eaooeo i?e e?aa?ae?caoe?? na?oiai? oi?a?ae? /a?ac ??ci?
??ai? ?icaeoeo aai nooiaith caaa?oaiino? i?ioeano no?oeoo?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae. Iaeiei c cania?a eiiiainaoe?? oeueiai iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
ae?? ?eieiaeo nee ia no/aniiio aoai? ? a?aeiia?aeia aea?aeaaia iie?oeea,
i?iaaaeaiiy yei? aeiaaa? canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo cania?a ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo iia?aoe?e. A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y
?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy, a iniiao yei? iieeaaeaii ?iciiae?e ia
aeiiii?/i? oa aaei?i?no?aoeai?, oa aecia/ai? oaiaeaioe?? a canoinoaaii?
?o iniiaieo aeae?a. Cacia/a?oueny, ui e?a?ie c ?icaeiooith aeiiii?eith
oe?iei canoiniaothoue ??ciiiai?oi? ?ino?oiaioe aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
nai?? ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? noa?e, ocaiaeaeoth/e no?aoaa?th ??
?icaeoeo c i?aaeeaie i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo i?aai?caoe?e,
ei?enooth/enue ia?aaaaaie ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c ieie.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?icaeoeo aenii?oieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie cana?ae/ea ?o
iaaaeaioiaai?noue aei no/anieo i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy oiaa?iiioie?a a
na?oia?e oi?a?ae?. Canoinoaaiiy iaiaaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a c aieo ?yaeo
oi?aiaaeueieo ia?oia??a aeaaeae? a?eueoa aieeaa? ia oa?aeoa? iinoaaie
a?o/eciyii? i?iaeoeoe?? aei ??cieo ?aa?ii?a na?oo, ui i?ecaaei aei
cia/iiai nei?i/aiiy ianya?a iinoaaie oe?a?inueei? aenieie?ea?aeii?
i?iaeoeoe??. Aiaeia?/i? caoiaee (iaoa?eoi? iaiaaeaiiy, aioo??oi?
e?oeaicoaaiiy) ii/eiathoue aaeeaaoeny c aieo iaeaaaii?oiai
oi?aiaaeueiiai ia?oia?a — ?in??, ui noaei iaei??th c iniiaieo i?e/ei
nei?i/aiiy oiaa?iia?ao i?ae e?a?iaie a 1997-1998 ??.

A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo no/anieo
oi?aiaaeueieo a?aeiinei ia ??ai? na?oiaiai ?eieo, ye? noi?ioaaeeny i?ae
aieeaii ??oaiue O?oaaaenueeiai ?aoiaeo AAOO (1986-1993 ??.). Ia iniia?
aeine?aeaeaiue eiinoaoo?oueny, ui aoea aeinyaiooa aeiiiaeai?noue i?i
iaai? iaiaaeaiiy e?a?iaie-/eaiaie nai?? aaoiiii?? c ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? noa?e a iai?i ia i/?eoaaiiy i?eaooe?a a?ae
?ioaa?aoe?? oa ni?iuaiiy aeinooio ia ?eiee. A oeeo oiiaao e?a?ie
ia?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, a oiio /ene? ? Oe?a?ia, ei?enooth/enue ia?aaaaaie
caaaeueii? e?aa?ae?caoe?? na?oiai? oi?a?ae?, iathoue iiaeeeaino? aeey
oi?ioaaiiy ie?aeii? aenii?oii? iie?oeee ca oiia aeiaea?aeaiiy iaaieo
i?aaee o aeei?enoaii? aoaeoeaieo cania?a ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? noa?e, a?aoiaoth/e iaiao?aei?noue ?o aaeaioaoe??
aei iaoe?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee oa ?ic?iaee iiaeeo?eaoe?e, ocaiaeaeaieo c
aeiiaaie no/aniiai ?icaeoeo na?oiai? oi?a?ae?.

Ine?eueee ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiee ?aaeei e?a?ie cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?
iniaeeaino? ?? aoiaeaeaiiy aei na?oiainiiaea?/iai i?inoi?o, a ?iaio?
aoei i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaoeaii?-caeiiiaeaa/i? aace
?aaeaiaioaoe?? ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? a Oe?a?i? ca ?iee iacaeaaeiino?.
Nie?ath/enue ia aecia/ai? iniaeeaino?, anoaiiaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii o?e
aoaie ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueei? ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii?
noa?e, iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee yeeo iiaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1.

Cacia/a?oueny iaaia a?aeiia?aei?noue iniiaieo iieiaeaiue no/aniiai
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai ?aaeeio Oe?a?ie aeiiaai Na?oiai? i?aai?caoe??
oi?a?ae? (NIO) aei e?a?i ?icaeiooi? aeiiii?ee, ca?aeii c yeeie
?aaoethaaiith i?aeaea?oueny a iniiaiiio ?iii?o. Aiaeii/an c?iaeaii
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a iaaeao ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai ?aaeeio aea?aeaae,
oi?ioaaiiy yeiai a?aeaoaaeinue i?e a?aenooiino? aeaaaeaii? no?aoaa??, ia
aoei ?ic?iaeaii aaeaeaaoii? nenoaie caoiae?a, caeaoieo ni?eyoe
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? aenii?oieo iia?aoe?e.

Oaaeeoey 1

Iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai ?aaeeio a Oe?a?i?

?ieeIacaa aoaioIniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee1991-1994aoai ?icaoaeiae ?eieiaeo
iniiaAeaiiiiiie?caoe?y ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?; canoinoaaiiy aenii?oieo
iiaeaoe?a, eaio oa e?oeaic?e; aaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai aenii?oiiai
?aaeeio; a?aeiinii e?aa?aeuei? oiiae ?iii?oo; iai??e aaanoe eaiooaaiiy
oa e?oeaicoaaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a ?iii?oo; aeiiae iaia’yceiaiai i?iaeaaeo
/anoee aaethoieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue.1994-1997aoai e?aa?ae?ca-

oe??Ia?aaaaeia neanoaaiiy aenii?oieo oa?eo?a oa aenii?oiiai eaiooaaiiy;
neanoaaiiy iniiaieo iieiaeaiue niaoe?aeueiiai aenii?oiiai ?aaeeio;
iaiaaeaiiy ia?ae?eo oiaa??a, aenii?o yeeo aeiaaa? niaoe?aeueiiai
aeicaieo; iaiaaeaiiy aeiia iaiao?aeiiai e?oeaicoaaiiy ?iii?oo;
neanoaaiiy iaia’yceiaiai i?iaeaaeo /anoee aaethoieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue.1997-1998aoai iineeaiiy i?ioaeoe?i-

i?cioOaiaeaioe?y i?aeaeuaiiy aa?ciiai ieoa ia cia/io e?euee?noue
oiaa?ieo iiceoe?e, iai??e aaaaeaiiy iaoa?eoieo iaiaaeaiue ?iii?oo
n?eueainii?iaeoeoe??; iineeaiiy eiio?ieth ca cae?eniaiiyi aenii?oieo
iia?aoe?e, cie?aia, iaoiiaeaiiy iiaa?iaiiy IAeA i?e aenii?o?, ?icoe?aiiy
ia?ae?eo oiaa??a, aenii?o yeeo cae?enith?oueny oiiaiiaaaeaieie
noa’?eoaie, oei/aniaa caai?iia aeaacaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a i?iaeoeoe??,
cie?aia i?e oiaa?iiai?iieo iia?aoe?yo; iaaeaiiy iaaei?eueaiaeo oiia
?iii?oo i?e cae?eniaii? ie?aieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a; aaaaeaiiy
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?e eoi?ae? oa i?iaeaaeo aaethoe.

A ?iaio? a?aei?/aii, ui a ae?oaiio i?a??//? 1998 ?., a?aoiaoth/e aieea
o?iainiai? e?ece a ?in?? oa oneeaaeiaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaethoieo
iioie?a ia ?eieao NIAe, niinoa??aaeenue cia/i? ??ciiaaeoi?i? ci?ie a
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiio ?aaoethaaii? (iiiiaeaiiy aeiia iaia’yceiaiai
i?iaeaaeo 50% aaethoiiai i?eaooeo i?e aenii?o?, neanoaaiiy caai?iie
oiaa?iiai?iieo iia?aoe?e c e?ea?aeiith i?iaeoeoe??th c e?a?iaie NIAe,
ni?iuaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e oeeaaeaiiy aenii?oieo eiio?aeo?a oa ?i.),
iane?aeee yeeo ia aeaiiio aoai? ia iiaeooue aooe ioe?iai? iaeiicia/ii,
aea aiie cana?ae/othoue oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo oiia i?iaaaeaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo iia?aoe?e a Oe?a?i?.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii iiaeeaeaiee aiae?c aeeiai?ee
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie ?c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ??
ainiiaea?noaa, ui neeaeeny a iaaeao ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno
eieeoiueiai N?N?. A ?iaio? eiinoaoo?oueny, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia
aeinyaiaiiy a 1997 ?. aia?oa ca ?iee iacaeaaeiino? iiceoeaiiai
oi?aiaaeueiiai naeueaei (424 iei.aeie.), naeueaei oi?a?ae? oiaa?aie
caeeoeeiny a?ae’?iiei (-2896 iei.aeie.) ia oii? iineeaiiy iani?eyoeeaeo
oaiaeaioe?e a no?oeoo?? iinoaaie.

Niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy ieoiii? aaae ?ano?ni?iieo oiaa??a iecueeiai
nooiaiy ia?iaee, ae?iaieoeoai yeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao e?eoe/ii?
caeaaeiino? oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee a?ae ciai?oi?o iinoaaie aia?aiiin??a
oa ? aeieia?/ii oe?aeeeaei. Oae, ieoiia aaaa i?iaeoeoe?? /i?ii?
iaoaeo?a??, ui noaa?eueii noaiiaeoue a?eueoa o?aoeie caaaeueiiai ianyao
aenii?oo, a 1997 ?. ia?aaeueea 40%, ia?iuo?oueny aenii?o i?ia?aeueii?
i?iaeoeoe??. Aiaeii/an niinoa??aa?oueny “aeieaaiiy” i?iaeoeoe??
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy oa ?ioeo aeae?a aenieioaoiieia?/ieo oiaa??a, e?ea?aeii?
i?iaeoeoe?? oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? e?ioeaaiai niiaeeaaiiy. ?icaeoie
cacia/aieo oaiaeaioe?e a oi?a?ae? c e?a?iaie NIAe i?eca?a, cia/iith
i??ith, aei ao?aoe Oe?a?iith ?aiiia iinoa/aeueieea a?aeiinii
aenieioaoiieia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??, yea aiia iaea c /an?a eieeoiueiai N?N?.

Cia/io ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? iiceoeaiiai naeueaei a?ae?a?aee iineoae,
/anoea yeeo aeinyaea /aa?o? caaaeueiiai aenii?oo, i?e/iio aei 84% c ieo
i?eiaaea? ia iineoae o?ainii?oi?. Ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe oaeiae iayai?noue
“o?iueiaiai” oiaa?iia?ao, ianyae yeiai ia i?aeaeathoueny oi/iiio
ia?aooaaiith, aea, ca ioe?ieaie, ianyae oaeiai aeaeo ?iii?oo noaiiaeyoue
aei 4 ie?ae. aeie.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ia aeinyaiooa noaa?euei?noue o aecia/aii?
aaiaeiiii?/ieo i???ioe??a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?.
Oae, o 1997 ?., ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai, a?aeaoeiny ciaioaiiy
ianya?a ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo iia?aoe?e c e?a?iaie NIAe oa Aaeo??, a
oiio /ene? aenii?oo — ia 22,8%. Oaiaeaioe?y oi?ioaaiiy iiceoeaiiai
naeueaei caa?aaeanue a ia?oiio i?a??//? 1998?. ia oii? ??ceiai
nei?i/aiiy ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai ia?ao — ca n?i i?nyoe?a a?i
nei?ioeany ia 12%, ui eeoa /anoeiai iiaeia iiynieoe caeaoaaeaiiyi
iinoaaie oa o?aiceoo aaco. Aiaeii/an iecueea aeanoe/i?noue iiieoo ia
cia/io /anoeo oe?a?inueei? i?iaeoeoe?? oa ianoaa?euei?noue ?? ianya?a
iaiaaeothoue iiaeeeaino? aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? iinoaaie.

I?iaaaeaia a ?iaio? ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ia?aiao??a ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo e?a?i cana?ae/o?, ui no/aniee noai aenii?oieo ca’yce?a
ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiaaino?ieiaei ?ioa?anai Oe?a?ie oa iaaaoeaii aieeaa? a
?acoeueoao? ia aeiiii?/io aaciaeo aea?aeaae. /Oaaeeoey 2/.

Aiae?c aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i? aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
niaoeeo?ea no/aniiai noaio ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a aea?aeaae ?
a cia/i?e i??? iio?aeiith a?ae iniaeeainoae, oniaaeeiaaieo a?ae
ainiiaea?noaa eieeoiuei? ?aaeyinueei? ?anioae?ee, aea iniiaiee aeoeaio
?iaeany ia ?icaeoie ?ano?ni?iieo i?aei?e?inoa ia oii? aeinyaiaiiy
aenieiai nooiaiy ae?iaie/i? niaoe?ae?caoe??, ui noaei iani?eyoeeaith
ianoaaeiith i?e ?ic?ea? o?aaeeoe?eieo ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/ieo ca’yce?a.

Oaaeeoey 2

Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ie?aieo ia?aiao??a

ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? noa?e oa aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo
e?a?i a 1997 ?.

*anoea aenii?oo a AAI

(%)Ianya aenii?oo ia aeooo ianae.

(aeie.)Ianya AAI ia aeooo ianae.

(aeie.)Ianya i?yi ?iic. ?iaano. ia aeooo ianae.

(aeie.)Iieaciee i?iieeiaiiy ?iii?oo

(%)O?aioe?y26.649482377339318.8I?ia//eia25.356842562216423.6Aaeeei-a?eoa
i?y28.448352213565429.3I?aae.
Ei?ay38.1296196226239.6Iaeneea30.2677418012930.3Iieueua25.3666349812735.
2*ao?y57.52212505412568.5Neiaa//eia56.4163436173170.6?in?y22.65943060421
7.5Oe?a?ia40.52809801248.2

Iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui ca ?iee iacaeaaeiino? ia aoei cae?eniaii
a?ae/ooieo caoiae?a uiaei ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ainiiaea?noaa, /ei aoei
coiiaeaii caa?aaeaiiy iaaaoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?e oi?ioaaii? aenii?oieo
iinoaaie. Aiaeii/an i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieaciee?a aaeocae, i?iaeoeoe?y
yeeo ? aecia/aeueiith a no/ani?e no?oeoo?? aenii?oo Oe?a?ie, cana?ae/o?
iecueeo aoaeoeai?noue oaeiai oa?aeoa?o ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? aeey
?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, a ia?iuoaaiiy ianya?a iinoaaie iiynith?oueny
iaiaaeaieie iiaeeeainoyie iaaeoiaeaeaiue eioo?a c ?ioeo aeaea?ae.

A?aoiaoth/e cacia/ai? oaiaeaioe??, aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? a?aeiia?aei?
naeoi?e na?oiaiai oiaa?iiai ?eieo oa i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee ii
aecia/aiith aeenia?n?? aenii?oieo oe?i ii oiaa?ieo iiceoe?yo iecueeiai
nooiaith ia?iaee, ye? iathoue cia/io ieoiio aaao a no?oeoo??
oe?a?inueeeo aenii?oieo iinoaaie, ia iniia? /iai c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui
ia?niaeoeae aenii?oo oeeo aeae?a i?iaeoeoe?? ? a oe?eiio ianoaa?eueieie
ye a ?ic??c? eieeaaiue oe?iiaiai ??aith, oae ? ca ianyaaie oi?a?ae?.
Aiaeii/an ianyae iinoaaie oiaa??a, ia?aiao?ai na?oiai? oi?a?ae? yeeie
aeanoea? iaea?eueo aeeiai?/i? oaiie ?icaeoeo (ie?ai? aeaee
i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy, i?iaeoeoe?y oa?iaeieia?/ii? aaeoc? oa ?i.), a
no?oeoo?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aenii?oo ? iacia/ieie oa iathoue oaiaeaioe?th
aei nei?i/aiiy.

Aieea cacia/aieo iaaaoeaieo oaeoi??a i?aeneeth?oueny a?aenooi?noth
?icaoaeiaaii? aenii?oii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, aeina?aeo oa a?aei?aoeueiaaii?
no?aoaa?? aeoiaeo ia na?oia? ?eiee o a?eueoino? i?aei?e?inoa,
iaeii?aeeiiaai?noth ?o ae?e a oe?e noa??, iaa?aeiia?aeieie ye?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?iaeoeoe?? oa iana?oeo?eiaai?noth cia/ii? ?? /anoeie,
ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei nei?i/aiiy iiaiiaaieo ?eie?a caooo oa i?iaieo?
iani?eyoeea? oiiae cae?eniaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo iia?aoe?e a ??cieo ?aa?iiao
na?oo, a oiio /ene? ? a ?in??.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaioe?th ?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oieo
ca’yce?a aea?aeaae oa ?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaeniee iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae uiaei
ioe?iee iioaioe?eieo ianya?a iinoaaie i?iaeoeoe??.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai a ?iaio? e?eoe/iiai iaeyaeo a?aeiinieo ia?aaaa
Oe?a?ie a?aecia/aii, ui ?o iioaioe?ae ia aoei ?aae?ciaaii iaeaaeiith
i??ith aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? noa?e.
Caaaeath/e ia cacia/ai? oaeoe, c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue
ci?ie oaiaeaioe?? noeo?eiiai oi?ioaaiiy aenii?oieo iinoaaie oa iineeaiiy
?aaoethth/iai aieeao aea?aeaae i?e iiaeaeueoiio ?ioaa?oaaii? Oe?a?ie a
na?oiainiiaea?nuee? noinoiee. A ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii eiiieaen caoiae?a,
ye?, ia nie?ath/enue ia aaei?i?no?aoeai? canaaee, iathoue ia eeoa
caa?aaoe ?eieiao i???ioaoe?th ?icaeoeo aenii?oieo ca’yce?a, aea iaaeaoe
?e a?eueoi? ni?yiiaaiino? ia e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao. Aea?aeaaiee aieea
iiaeiai aenooieoe eaoae?caoi?ii noai?aiiy ia?aaeiaeo niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
ae?iaieoeoa, ye? iathoue noaoe aacith aeey ?icaeoeo aeeiai?/ieo
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe?. Oey iaoa iiaea aooe
aeinyaiooa /a?ac noai?aiiy ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy
noa?e aenii?oieo iia?aoe?e. I?e oi?ioaaii? oaei? nenoaie iathoue aooe
a?aoiaai? ci?ie o no?oeoo?? oiaa?iiioie?a a na?oia?e oi?a?ae? oa a
i?ioeanao oi?ioaaiiy no/anieo ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e, aea oi?aiaaeueiee iai?i ia?a??n o
iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/ia oa ?iaanoeoe?eia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai. Oiio aeooaeueiei
noa? iiaeieaiiy «aeaeiaoaii-iina?aaeieoeueei-caooiai?» iiaeae?
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? Oe?a?ie, yea ? iio?aeiith a?ae ?nioth/iai e?eciaiai
noaio ainiiaea?noaa, oa ?ic?iaea no?aoaa?? iiai? aca?iiae??
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ?c na?oiaei, ui ia?aaeaa/aoeia ?icaeoie ia
o?eueee noa?e ia?ao, a e ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ii an?o eaieao
ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano. I?e oeueiio iathoue aooe noai?ai?
oiiae aeey ao?eaiiy a i?aeoeeo iaaeinoaoiuei ?icaeiooi? i?ii?aeii? eaiee
i?ae aeinyaiaiiyie ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoee oa noa?ith ae?iaieoeoaa.

E?ecia? oiiae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia no/aniiio aoai? iaoiiaeththoue
cae?eniaii?noue caaaeaiue ?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oo eeoa i?e i?iaaaeaii?
naeaeoeaii? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, ui ia?aaeaa/aoeia, c iaeiiai aieo,
canoinoaaiiy aei eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeieo ae?iaieoeoa i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaeo
iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy, a c ?ioiai — noeioethaaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?iii?oo,
ui ? iaiao?aeiei aeey ?icaeoeo ia?aaeiaeo naeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iniiaith ?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oieo iinoaaie iathoue noaoe aecia/ai?
ia?niaeoeai? no?oeoo?iooai?thth/? iai?yie:

— i???ioaoe?y aeoiaeo ia ciai?oi? ?eiee ia ie?aieo e?ioeaaeo
oe?a?inueeeo oiaa??a, a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia iueiio iaaieo
eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeieo aaeocaaeo oa i?aeaaeocaaeo aeie?a, oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?iaeoeoe?? yeeo iathoue aecia/aoeny ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
eii’thieoo?e a?aeiia?aeieo naeoi??a ?eieo c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeainoae
aeeth/aiiy aei neeaaeo noaeeo i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo
eaioetha?a;

— ?ic?iaea nenoaie ianeoaiaoaaiiy i?inoaaiiy aenii?oii?
aenieioaoiieia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ia ciai?oi? ?eiee, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
caaacia/aiiy eiiieaeno aeiiii?/ii-i?aai?caoe?eieo oa oi?aae?inueeeo
oi?i, iioeiaeueiiai oa aeinoaoiueiai ia o?eueee aeey ae?iaieoeoaa, a e
aeey oo?eiaiiy iaaiiai naeoi?o na?oiaiai ?eieo (ca ?aooiie aeiaoaeiae
o?iainiaeo oa na?a?nieo eaioetha?a oa ?i.); noai?aiiy ia iniia? ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e iiaeeeainoae aeey oi?ioaaiiy oe?i ia oiiaao
N?O i?e aenii?oieo iia?aoe?yo;

— ?icaeoie iiaeo oi?i aenieioaoiieia?/iiai aenii?oo oa caeo/aiiy
?iii?oo, caeaoiiai ni?eyoe ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, cie?aia, oi?ie “a?aeeeaaeaiiai” aenii?oo ia iniia?
ia?niaeoeaiiai o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie oa ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeoe?? a iaaeao aeiaaino?ieiaeo i?ia?ai; nenoaie no?aoaa?/ieo
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui ia?aaeaa/a? iaaeaiiy i??i?eoaoo a
aaainiaeo iinoaaeao i?e caaacia/aii? aecia/aieo aeae?a ?iii?oo oa
?ic?iaeo oe?eani?yiiaaieo iia?aoe?e (e?ceiao) ia eiiiainaoe?ei?e iniia?
i?e iaoiiaeaii? /anoee a?o/eciyii? aenieioaoiieia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? a
no?oeoo?? ?ic?aooie?a;

— ia?niaeoeaia i???ioaoe?y ia noai?aiiy ia iniia? aieeaa?a, ye?
ii?aeiothoue a?aeiia?aeia iaoeiaa oa oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy, cii
niaoe?aeueiiai aeiiii?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai ?aaeeio, caeaoieo noaoe
ina?aaeeii noai?aiiy i?iaeoeoe?? c aecia/aieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

A ?iaio? oaeiae aoee aecia/ai? iaiao?aei? ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeiee
caoiae?a, caeaoieo anaa?/ii caaacia/eoe i?aeoe/io ?aae?caoe?th aeacaieo
iai?yi?a ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aenii?oo /Noaia 1/:

— eii’thieoo?iee aeie, yeee ia? aacoaaoeny ia aeae?eaii? ca aeiiiiiaith
iacaeaaeii? aenia?oece i?aei?e?inoa, i?iaeoeoe?y yeeo iioaioe?eii
ni?iiiaeia a?aeiia?aeaoe aeiiaai a iaaeao iniiaieo iai?yi?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aenii?oieo iinoaaie;

— o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iee aeie, aeioe?euei?noue yeiai iaa?oioiaaia
iani?eyoeeaeie aeiiii?/ieie oiiaaie ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iiiaeaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?, ? ni?yiiaaiei ia aecia/aiiy eiie?aoieo caoiae?a
?aaoethaaiiy aenieioaoiieia?/iiai aenii?oo a e?aaeeoi?e, no?aoia?e,
iiaeaoeia?e oa ieoi?e noa?ao;

— caeiiiaeaa/ee aeie, iieeeeaiee, c iaeiiai aieo, iaaeaoe i?aaiaa oa
?inoeoooe?iiaeueia caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? aeaiiai eiiieaeno, a c
?ioiai, noai?eoe aeiaeaoeia? aaaeae? oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai
i?inoi?o, na?aae yeeo: ?ic?iaea nenoaie i?aaiaeo aeo?a uiaei caoenoo
aioo??oiueiai ?eieo oa nenoaie i?aaiaeo aeo?a uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? aenieioaoiieia?/iith i?iaeoeoe??th;

— ?ioi?iaoe?eii-ia?eaoeiaiaee aeie ? iaiao?aeiei aeey caaacia/aiiy
iaeaaeiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai-eiinoeueoaoeaiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy noa’?eo?a
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee
eaae??a.

Aeoiaey/e c iaiao?aeiino? oi?ioaaiiy iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? nenoaie
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aenii?oo aenieioaoiieia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??,
c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?? eii?aeeiaoe?? ye c
iaaea?aeaaieie ia’?aeiaiiyie aenii?oa??a c iaoith ocaiaeaeaiiy
aenii?oii? aaeocaai? iie?oeee c ?aoi?iaie, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny ia
aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?, oae ? c no?oeoo?aie ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, ui
ni?yiiaaii ia iioeiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/iiai
iioaioe?aeo iaaii? oa?eoi???.

Ianoaa?euei?noue no/anii? aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??, ui cia/iith i??ith
aieeaa? ia aenii?o i?iaeoeoe??, iaoiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee a
?iaio? eiiieaeniiai iaoiaee/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ei?ioeino?ieiaiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy ianya?a aenii?oieo iinoaaie. Aaaeeeaith oiiaith
aeinyaiaiiy a??ia?aeiino? oa aenieiai nooiaith iaa?oioiaaiino?
i?iaiicieo ioe?iie ? aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeno iiaeaeae, a naia,
aeno?aiieyoe?eii? oa aaaaoioaeoi?ii? ?aa?an?? c iiaeaeueoei neioacii
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?e i?ioeaaeo?? aenia?oii? ioe?iee.

14

Noaia 1

Ocaaaeueiaia noaia ?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie

Eiiieaen aea?aeaaieo caoiae?a naeaeoeaii? i?aeo?eiee aenieioaoiieia?/ieo
aenii?oii???ioiaaieo ae?iaieoeoa

Eii’thieoo?iee aeie

O?iainiai-aeiiii?/iee aeie

— ?ic?iaea nenoaie iaaeaiiy i?eueaiaeo e?aaeeo?a oa ?o no?aooaaiiy;

— /anoeiaa aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a noai?aiiy
ia?aaeiaeo aenii?oi-i???ioiaaieo ae?iaieoeoa;

— ?ic?iaea nenoaie no?aooaaiiy aenii?oo a?ae iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa
aaethoieo ?ecee?a

— ?aaoethaaiiy eaeueeoeyoe?? oe?i c iaoith ciaioaiiy iaae?iaie/eo
aeo?ao;

— aaaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea i?e aenii?o? o iaaeao aeiaaino?ieiaeo
eiio?aeo?a;

— aio/ea ?aaoethaaiiy oe?i ia iineoae, ui iaaeathoueny iiiiiie?yie;

— eiie?aoecaoe?y oiia ieoieo i?euea i?e ?iii?o? aeey ?icaeoeo
aenieioaoiieia?/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa;

— ?ic?iaea nenoaie e?ceiaiaeo i?iaeaae.- aecia/aiiy niaeo?a ae?iaieoeoa,
i?iaeoeoe?y yeeo ia? ?icaeaaoeny a iaaeao aaciaeo iai?yi?a
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aenii?oieo iinoaaie;

— ?ic?iaea eiiieaeno i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai oa oi?aae?inueeiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeoiaeo oiaa?o ia ciai?oi? ?eiee;

— no?oeoo?oaaiiy aenii?oieo iia?aoe?e c iaoith ?icaeoeo iiaeo oi?i
aenieioaoiieia?/iiai aenii?oo oa caaacia/aiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo ?iii?oieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue.

Caeiiiaeaa/ee aeie

— noai?aiiy ?inoeoooe?iiaeueii-caeiiiaeaa/iai noi?iaiaeaeaiiy
i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy eiiieaeno ?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oieo ca’yce?a;

— ?ic?iaea iaeaoo i?aaiaeo aeo?a uiaei caoenoo aioo??oiueiai ?eieo a?ae
iinoaaie, ye? ? ia’?eoii aeaii?iao aai noaneaeoaaiiy c aieo ?ioeo
aea?aeaa;

— ?ic?iaea i?eioeei?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a noa?? ciai?oiuei?
oi?a?ae? aenieioaoiieia?/iith i?iaeoeoe??th, ni?yiiaaieo ia
noeioethaaiiy aenii?oo i?iaeoeoe?? aenieiai nooiaiy ia?iaee oa
?iaanoeoe?eieo ?iii?oieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue.

?ioi?iaoe?eii-ia?eaoeiaiaee aeie

— noai?aiiy no?oeoo? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy noa’?eo?a
ciai?oiuei-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, a iaaeao yeiai ia?aaeaa/eoe:
caaacia/aiiy aeinooio aei a?aeiia?aeieo aac aeaieo, iaea?aeaiiy
ia?aaeeiio?aeoieo eiinoeueoaoe?e oa aenia?oec, iii?oi?eia aea/aiiy oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy eii’thieoo?e iioaioe?eieo ?eie?a caooo, ?icaeoie iai?yio
noaeiio?aeoaoe??;

— ?icaeoie a iaaeao ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai, i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, iai?yio i?aeoe/ii-iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie uiaei
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai a aenii?oi?e noa??;

— ?icaeoie y?ia?eiai-i?aaenoaaieoeue-ei? ae?yeueiino? ae?iaiee?a
aenieioaoii-eia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe??;

— ?icaeoie a nenoai? i?aeaioiaee eaae??a iai?yio uiaei caoenoo
aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a i?e ae??oaii? aioeaeaii?iaiaeo eiioe?eo?a oa
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae i?aeaea?aeaaieo oi?aiaaeueieo oaiae oa
aeiiiaeaiinoae.

Aeiaeaoeia? eii?aeeiaoe?ei? caoiaee i?e ?aoi?ioaaii? aenii?oo

— i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? iaaea?aeaaieo aaeocaaeo ia’?aeiaiue aenii?oa??a /a?ac
iaaeaiiy ?i noaa?e?caoe?eii?, eii?aeeiaoe?eii?, ia?eaoeiaiai? oa
noeioethth/i? ooieoe?? i?e oi?ioaaii? aenii?oii? aaeocaai? iie?oeee; —
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, ui ia?aaeaa/a? noai?aiiy
?aeaioeo?eaoe?eii? aace aeaieo ae?iaiee?a ?aa?iio c iaaieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?o i?iaeoeoe??;

— ni?eyiiy a?aeiiaeaiith eiiia?aoe?eieo ca’yce?a ia aac? o?aaeeoe?eii?
i?ae- oa aioo??oiueiaaeocaai? niaoe?ae?caoe?? o aenieioaoiieia?/ieo oa
i?aoeai?noeeo ae?iaieoeoaao c e?a?iaie – o?aaeeoe?eieie oi?aiaaeueieie
ia?oia?aie, cie?aia caioi/aiiy ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ia ??ai? ie?aieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ?ioeo onoaiia iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a, noai?aiiy ni?eueieo
oi?aiaaeueieo iaeao, ?io?ano?oeoo?ii-oi?aiaaeueieo oa ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
nenoai.

20

I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?ic?aooiee ii aecia/aiith
iioaioe?eieo ianya?a oiaa?iiai aenii?oo Oe?a?ie a ei?ioeino?ieia?e
ia?niaeoea? aeicaieeee iaea?aeaoe ?acoeueoaoe i?eeiyoiiai ??aith
a??ia?aeiino?. Aeioe?euei?noue oaeiai i?aeoiaeo iaoiiaeth?oueny
iiaeeea?noth, caaaeyee ye?nii a?aei?iiei iniaeeainoyi eiaeiiai oeio
iiaeaeae i?e a?aeia?aaeaii? ?nioth/eo oaiaeaioe?e oa aca?iica’yce?a a
aeiiii?oe?, noi?ioaaoe iaea?eueo a??ia?aeiee ocaaaeueiaiee aa??aio
i?iaiicieo aeaieo.

AENIIAEE

1. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui a
Oe?a?i? ca oiia aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? e?ece ia noai?aia
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueia nenoaia, caeaoia ni?eyoe aeiiii?/iiio c?inoaiith.
Aiaeii/an ?ici?? ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo eaio, ye? noaa?eueii
noaiiaeyoue a?eueoa o?aoeie aioo??oiueiai aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoo aea?aeaae,
cana?ae/o?, ui Oe?a?ia cia/iith i??ith aaea ?ioaa?iaaia a
na?oiainiiaea?nuee? ca’ycee, aea oeae i?ioean iaaoa ia aeaiiio aoai?
iaaoaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o.

2. ?icaeoie aenii?oieo ca’yce?a, ui a?aeaoaaany aac aeaaaeaii?
no?aoaa??, iaoiiaea noeo?eia oa iaaoaeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e
iinoaaie, yea ? iio?aeiith a?ae ?nioth/iai e?eciaiai noaio
ainiiaea?noaa. Anoia?a/ i?ia?aneaiei oaiaeaioe?yi ia na?oiaeo oiaa?ieo
?eieao, a oe?a?inueeiio aenii?o? a?aeaoaathoueny iaaaoeai? c?ooaiiy, ui
aeyaey?oueny a ia?iuoaaii? /anoee iaoa??aei?iii? i?iaeoeoe?? iecueeiai
nooiaiy ia?iaee oa ciaioaii? ieoiii? aaae aenieioaoiieia?/ii?
i?iaeoeoe??. Iecueea aeanoe/i?noue iiieoo ca iiceoe?yie, ui aecia/athoue
aenii?oio niaoe?ae?caoe?th Oe?a?ie, iaoiiaeea iaaio/eee oa?aeoa?
aenii?oo, cia/iee nooi?iue eiai caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?i ciai?oi?o
ianoaaei, ni?iaieoaaea iineeaiiy aeene?ei?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo ae?iaiee?a
ia na?oiaeo ?eieao oa oaiaeaioe?th ciai?oiueiai oeneo i?e oi?ioaaii?
aenii?oieo iioie?a.

3. Oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai ?aaeeio Oe?a?ie a?aeaoaaeinue
aacnenoaiii, i?e a?aenooiino? ?aeeii? aeey ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? noa?e
iaa?oioiaaii? iie?oeee ?icaeoeo. Oaeee oa?aeoa? eiai noaiiaeaiiy ia aoa
caeaoiei iaaeaoe ?icaeoeia? aenii?oo iaiao?aeii? ni?yiiaaiino? ia
aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaa i?aeia?iaeiiai iiae?eo i?aoe? aeey caaacia/aiiy
oiia aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy no/aniiai
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ciai? a oe?eiio i?eaaaeai? o
a?aeiia?aei?noue ?c aeiiaaie NIO aei e?a?i ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ca?aeii
yeei ?aaoethaaiith i?aeaea?oueny a iniiaiiio ?iii?o.

Aiaeii/an /a?ac iineeaiiy iani?eyoeeaeo yaeu a aeiiii?oe? ia no/aniiio
aoai? i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y iineeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca
cae?eniaiiyi aenii?oieo iia?aoe?e, iaeiae oae? caoiaee ia caeaoi?
cieueoe iniiai? i?e/eie iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a a no?oeoo?? iinoaaie. Oiio
ia no/aniiio aoai? aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi, ni?yiiaaiei ia ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aenii?oieo oiaa?ieo ca’yce?a, ? ?ic?iaea
i?eioeei?a ?aaoethaaiiy a noa?? ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?
aenieioaoiieia?/iith i?iaeoeoe??th, nenoaie caoiae?a uiaei caoenoo
aioo??oiueiai ?eieo oa a?aeiia?aeiiai caeiiiaeaa/i-?inoeoooe?iiaeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy.

4. Aiae?c aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i? aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie,
ui niaoeeo?ea no/aniiai noaio ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a aea?aeaae
a cia/i?e i??? coiiaeaia iniaeeainoyie, oniaaeeiaaieie a?ae
ainiiaea?noaa eieeoiuei? ?aaeyinueei? ?anioae?ee, oa iia?eueieie oaiiaie
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aeiiii?ee ia no/aniiio aoai?.

5. Iecueea aoaeoeai?noue ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? iaoiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy c iaoith caaacia/aiiy
ci?i oaiaeaioe?e o ?icaeoeo aenii?oieo ca’yce?a oa aoaeoeaiiai
?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oii? no?oeoo?e. A?aoiaoth/e iaiaaeai?noue ia aeaiee
/an aea?aeaaieo ?ano?n?a, no?aoaa?/iei iai?yiii ia? noaoe naeaeoeaia
noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo aeeiai?/ieo eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa oa noai?aiiy
i?iaeoeoe?? aaeaeaaoiiai ye?niiai ??aiy, caeaoii? ?ioaa?oaaoeny a
noaa?euei? oaoiieia?/ii-oi?aiaaeuei? ca’ycee na?oiaiai ?eieo oa ni?eyoe
no?oeoo?i?e ia?aaoaeia? a?o/eciyiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Ao?eaiiy cacia/aii?
eiioeaioe?? ia?aaeaa/a? aeaaaeaiee aea?aeaaiee aieea a noa??
caeiiiaeaa/iai oa o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo
aenieioaoiieia?/ieo niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ae?iaieoeoa, a oaeiae a
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiinoeueoaoeai?e oa ia?eaoeiaia?e ?io?ano?oeoo??
i?iaaaeaiiy aenii?oieo iia?aoe?e.

6. Ca iiia?aaei?ie ioe?ieaie cai?iiiiiaai? a ?iaio? oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee
ii ?aoi?ioaaiith aenii?oii? no?oeoo?e oa i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai iaoiaee/ii-i?aai?caoe?eiiai oa
caeiiiaeaa/i-ii?iaoeaiiai caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? i?ia?aie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oo aea?aeaae oa caeaoi? ni?eyoe
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? noa?e Oe?a?ie.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Aieoaooeia A.TH. Aiae?c noaio ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie
ia no/aniiio aoai?.// Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. — Ee?a:
IAeA? I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. — 1996. — aei.2. — N.14-18.

2. Aieoaooeia A.TH. Oa?aeoa?enoeea yeiiiie/aneiai epecena eae ninoiyiey
oepaeineie yeiiiieee ia niapaiaiiii yoaia.// Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. — Ee?a: IAeA? I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. — 1997.- aei.3.
— N.11-19.

3. Aieoaooeia A.TH. Iniiai? iaipyie aeapaeaaii? i?aeo?eiee aenii?oo.//
Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. — Ee?a: IAeA? I?iaeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — aei.4. — N.41-49.

4. Iocaiia ?.?., Noueinueea ?.TH., Aieoaooeia A.TH. I?noea Oe?a?ie a
na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yceao (?icae.8.1). Aenii?o oa ?iii?o i?iaeoeoe??
(?icae.8.2).//Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie: iioaioe?ae, ?aoi?ie, ia?niaeoeae.: A 5
o./ Ee?a: IAeA? I?iaeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. — 1996. — O.1: Iaeyae aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie ca 1990-1994 ?iee. — N.331-347.

5. Aieoaooeia A.TH. Iniiai? iai?yie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oii? iie?oeee a
Oe?a?i?.// ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y aeiiii?ee oa ?aoe?iiae?caoe?y
aenii?oii-?iii?oii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a: ?inoeooo na?oiai?
aeiiii?ee oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — aei.10. —
N.20-24.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aieoaooeia A.TH. Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iciiae ?aoi?ioaaiiy aenii?oieo
ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.02.03 — I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy, ieaioaaiiy ?
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?eith. — Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo
I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/aii iniaeeainoyi o?ainoi?iaoe??
aenii?oieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie a e?eciaeo oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. I?iaiae?ciaai? no/aniee noai oa ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy
aenii?oii? noa?e aea?aeaae. Aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? oa aoaie oi?ioaaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai ?aaeeio a Oe?a?i?. Iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i
iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy ?ie? aea?aeaae i?e ?aoi?ioaaii? aenii?oii?
no?oeoo?e oa cai?iiiiiaaiee eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei eiai ?aae?caoe??.
?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaeniee iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaiicoaaiiy ianya?a
aenii?oieo iinoaaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ciai?oiy oi?a?aey, aenii?oia no?oeoo?a, ?eieiaa
o?ainoi?iaoe?y, aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy, ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueia
caeiiiaeaanoai, eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aieoaooeia A.TH. Iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneea iniiau paoipiepiaaiey yeniipoiuo
naycae Oepaeiu a oneiaeyo opainoipiaoeee yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu. —
?oeiienue.

Aeennapoaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.02.03 — Ipaaiecaoeey oipaaeaiey, ieaiepiaaiey e
ainoaeapnoaaiiiai paaoeepiaaiey yeiiiieee. — Iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee
yeiiiie/aneee einoeooo Ieienoapnoaa yeiiiieee Oepaeiu. — Eeaa, 1998.

Enneaaeiaaiea iinayuaii iniaaiiinoyi opainoipiaoeee yeniipoiuo naycae
Oepaeiu a epeceniuo oneiaeyo iapaoiaea e puii/iui ioiioaieyi.
Ipiaiaeecepiaaiu niapaiaiiia ninoiyiea e ipaaeiinueee oipiepiaaiey
yeniipoiie noapu ainoaeapnoaa. Iipaaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe e iniiaiua yoaiu
oipiepiaaiey aiaoiaoipaiaiai paaeeia Oepaeiu. Iainiiaai auaiae i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe oneeaiey piee ainoaeapnoaa ipe paoipiepiaaiee yeniipoiie
no?oeoo?u e ipaaeeiaeai eiiieaen iapiipeyoee ii aai paaeecaoeee.
?acpaaioaiu eiiieaeniue iaoiaee/aneee iiaeoiae e ipiaiicepiaaieth
iauaiia yeniipoiuo iinoaaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiaoiyy oipaiaey, yeniipoiay no?oeoo?a, ?uii/iay
o?ainoi?iaoeey, ainoaeapnoaaiiia paaoeepiaaiea, aiaoiaoi?aiaia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eiieopaioiua ipaeiouanoaa.

SUMMARY

Golubushina A.Y. The scientific and methodical principles of reformation
of Ukrainian export trade relations under conditions of economic system
transformation. — Manuscript.

The dissertation for candidata degree in economics by speciality
08.02.03 — Organization of management, planning and regulation of
economy. — The Research Economic Institute of Ministry of Economy of
Ukraine. — Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to specific problems of transformation of
Ukrainian exports under crisis conditions of transition to market
economy. Prerequisites for reforming of Ukraine’s export sphere as
necessary preconditions for development of it’s international economic
activity are reviewed in considering contemporary economic
globalizations trends. Tendencies of the world trade development at the
current stage as well as specific peculiarities of Ukraine’s foreign
trade sphere development have been analyzed.

A generalization, systematization and classification of means of state
regulation of foreign trade activity in the world have been carried out
and peculiarities of use of main types of the means have been defined. A
process of formation of Ukrainian foreign trade legislation has been
studied on the basis of which three main stages of export sphere market
development, differing by the level of the state influence on foreign
trade activity, have been determined.

A diversified complex analysis of Ukrainian export links have been
performed as well as its’ structure, geo-economic reference-points and
prerequisites for its’ formation. It was pointed out the impact of
distinguishing features of current economic crisis on the negative
events in supply structure. The latter manifested itself as spontaneous
increase in volume of low-processed products and decrease in share of
high-technology products. At the same time, the unprogressive tendencies
in contemporary export structure were analyzed on the basis of previous
experience of Ukraine’s economic development.

An important aspect of presented study is the analysis of peculiarities
of the world trade with manufactured goods and raw materials, especially
in the context whether commodity structure of Ukraine’s exports
corresponds to the current progressive tendencies of the development of
the world commodities markets. Different growth performance in the
value of merchandise export among the primary product categories in the
world trade is largely due to divergent price development. For
industrial products, all groups registered stable positive growth,
indicating that this product category was one of the principal factors
behind strong volume growth of world commodity trade.

A special attention was given to such aspects as an analysis of
development and using comparative advantages and competitive advantages
of Ukraine’s economy at the current stage.

On the basis of the research performed, author came to conclusion that
current Ukraine’s export commodities links were inefficient ones and
substantiated necessity of strengthening of state influence on the
development of export activity over the period of economic reforms.
Concrete recommendations were suggested to increase efficiency of the
state regulations of Ukrainian export sphere.

A concept of re-structuring of export links has been developed, which is
based on the state regulation when dynamic competitive advantages are
being created. Main structure-creating directions to reform export trade
flows have been determined. It has been proposed to promote purposeful
development of narrow spectrum of high-technology Ukrainian industries,
which production can be integrated into stable industrial-technological
chains in the world market, as well as to create incentives for
technological imports that is necessary for development of competitive
national production.

Principal methodical and organization state instrument of real reforming
of Ukraine’s export structure are elaborated and formed. Peculiarities
of putting the concept proposed into practice under current crisis
economic conditions stipulated necessity to work out all-round state
regulation to develop competitive industries in the sphere of foreign
trade with high-technologies, management of financial and economic
conditions for development of progressive enterprises, and information,
consulting and marketing structure of export activities.

The specific unfavorable conditions of implementation of forecasting in
contemporary Ukraine’s external economic sector were revealed. To carry
on sound policy of developing commodity export links, there has been
devised a diversified methodical approach to forecast volumes of exports
that is founded on use of set of econometric models with subsequent
adjustment of results on the basis of expert assessment.

The recommendations proposed can be used for working out state program
of Ukrainian export sphere development.

Key words: foreign trade, export structure, market transformation, state
regulation, foreign trade legislation, competitive advantages.

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