Oa?eianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeaiiy caeicie/iiai o?ainii?oo

AON?ANUeEEE TH?ie Ieei/

OAeE 629.424.4: 621.335-833

IAOEIAI INIIAE NOAI?AIIss AOAEOEAIEO NENOAI OssAIAIAI

AEAEO?II?EAIAeO C OEPECTOPHEIE IA?AOAI?THAA*AIE AeEss

AAOIIIIIEO EIEIIIOEAIA

05.22.07 — ?ooiiee neeaae caeicieoeue

oa oyaa ii?caeia

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoii/ieo iaoe

Oa?eia 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?i «Nenoaie aeaeo?e/ii? oyae»

Oa?eianueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeaii? caeicie/iiai o?ainii?oo Iiiinoa?-

noaa o?ainii?oa Oe?a?iu

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? IAIANAIEI

Meeiea Aaneeueiae/, caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?ith

«Nenoaie aeaeo?e/ii? oyae» Oa?eianueei?

aea?aeaaii? aeaaeaii? caeicie/iiai o?ainii?oo

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe :

1. Aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aee?aeoi?

Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiai-aeineiaeiiai iinoe-

oooo aeaeo?iaiciaoaeiaieoeoaa,

i. Aeiii?iiao?ianuee A?AOAO

Aieoi? Oeaenaiae?iae/

2. Aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

«Aenieoaoaoeiy oa ?aiiio ?ooiiiai neeaaeo»

Oa?eianueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeaii? caeicie/-

iiai o?ainii?oo, i.Oa?eia EIEANIEE

Iaai Eocueie/

3. Aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caaiaeoea/ eaoaae?ith «Aeaeo?ioaoieea»

Oa?eianueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeaii? iinue-

eiai ainiiaea?noaa, i.Oa?eia NINEIA

Aiaoieie Aai?ai?ae/

I?iaiaeia i?aaiicaoeiy — Oa?eianueeee iieioaoii/iee oiiaa?neoao, ea-

oaae?a «Eieiiioeaiaoaeoaaiiy», Iiiicoa?noai

inaioe Oe?a?ie, i.Oa?eia

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny «_6_ «__05___1999 p. i 1400 aiaeeii a aoae.

417_ ia caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.820.04 i?e Oa?-

eianueeie aeaaeaii? caeicie/iiai o?ainii?oo ca aae?anith: 310050,

i. Oa?eia-50, ieiua Oae??aaoa, 7

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a aiaeiioaoei aeaaeaii?

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ocineaiee » 2″ __04___1999 ?

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee CAIA?A A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeena?oaoei?. Iniiaiee aeae caeicie/ii? oy-

ae ia iaaeaeo?eoieiaaieo aeieueieoeyo caeicieoeue Oe?a?ie — oaieiaicia.

Ii aeaiei 1994 ?ieo i?eieniee ia?e caeicieoeue Oe?a?ie neeaaeaa iaeaea

2200 iaeeieoeue iaaino?aeueieo oaieiaicia ?iciiiaiioiiai i?ecia/aiiy

i iiooaeiinoi. Ic ieo iaeaieueo ianiaeie ? oaieiaice:

2OA10 (424 iae.), 2OA116 (588 iae.), I62 (536 iae), OAI60 (231 iae.).

Iaiaa?iaa ?iaioa ia caeicie/ieo noaioeiyo oaeiae aeeiio?oueny oaiei-

aicaie. Ia?e iaiaa?iaeo oaieiaicia ia Oe?a?ii iaei/o? iiiaae 2100

iaeeieoeue. A iniiaiiio oea oaieiaice oeio *IA3 ?iciiiaiioieo iiaeeoi-

eaoe?e. Aeaeii, ui ca aeaa inoaiiio aeanyoe?i//y oaieiaice ia cacia-

ee na?eicieo oaoii/ieo oaeineiiaeaiue i oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iieacieea-

ie, ui canoa?iee, i?aeoe/ii ca aniia oaoiieiai/ieie oa aenieoaoa-

oeieieie ia?aiao?aie. Oiio a oiiaao noa?iiiy eieiiioeaiiai ia?eo,

iaiaaeaiinoi oiiainiaeo,ae?iaie/eo i o?oaeiaeo ?ano?nia iaaeoi aeoo-

aeueiith noa? i?iaeaia iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi aaoiiiiieo eieiiioe-

aia. Oea iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny i?eeiyoeie Iiiinoa?noaii o?ainii?oo Oe?a-

?ie i Oe?caeicieoeath ?ioaiiyie, ui aiaeaeoi a aeieoiaioi «Eiioeaioeiy

oa i?ia?aia ?ano?oeoo?ecaoei? ia caeicie/iiio o?ainii?oi Oe?a?ie».

Uiaei aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia, oi a aeeae/ee /an iaii/aii nienaoe

oaieiaice oeio OAI60, 2OA10E, ui aiaei?aoethaaee naie ?ano?n i ii?a-

eueii canoa?iee, a oaeiae iiiaeoe eieiiioeaiee ia?e Oe?a?ie iiaeie

iaaino?aeueieie ianaaee?nueeeie, iaiaa?iaeie oaieiaicaie oa aeecaeue-

ii?caeaie. A oaieiaicao iiaiai iieieiiiy,ii?aoeueiaaieo aaaeo/eie ca-

?oaiaeieie oi?iaie, ia iiaenoaai iiia?aaeiio iaoeiai-aeineiaeieo ?iaio

canoiniaaii iiai oaoii/ii ?ioaiiy a eiino?oeoei? eieiiioeaia.A ia-

?oo /a?ao,oea oi?ea?oueny oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy oyaiaeo aneio?iiieo

aeaeo?iaeaeaoiia (AAe), ui aeicaieeei nooo?ai iiaeaeueoe iaaeieiinoue,

eiaoioei?io oyae oa i?iaeoeoeaiinoue eieiiioeaia, iie?aueoe ?o noa-

oe/ii i aeeiaii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee, cieceoe iioi/ii aeo?aoe ia aen-

ieoaoaoeith i ?aiiio.Co/anii oaiaeaioei? ?icaeoeo eieiiioeaiaoaeoaaiiy

neeaaeathoueny c oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoai aneio?iiiiai oyaiai-

ai aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo,ui iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oniioiei aeinaiaeii aenieoaoa-

oei? eieueeio oeny/ eieiiioeaia.Oea aiai?eoue i?i oa,ui ?ioaiiy i?ia-

eaie oaeineiiaeaiiy aio/eciyieo aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia iaiiaeeeai

aac ooai?aiiy aieueoa i?ia?aneaieo nenoai oyaiaiai aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo

(OAI) i iiaeaeuaiiy ?o aoaeoeaiinoi. Aeey ?ioaiiy oei?? aaaeeeai? ia-

?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeaie noai?aii ni?eyoeeai ia?aaeoiiae,ui aa-

cothoueny ia aeinyaiaiiyo no/anii? aeaeo?iiiee oa ia?aoai?thaaeueii?

oaoiiee. Canoinoaaiiy oe?enoi?ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia aeaeo?iaia?ai? a

nenoaiao aaoiiiiiiai OAI ? yeinii iiaei i ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii

oaeineiiaeaiiy aio/eciyieo aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia. ?o aeei?enoaiiy

i?eaea? OAI iiai iioaa?aoeaii (nenoaiii) aeanoeainoi. A oie aea /an

i?iaeaia noai?aiiy aieueo oaeineiiaeaieo nenoai aaoiiiiiiai OAI c

oe?enoi?ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie niieo/aia c iaiaoiaeiinoth ?ioaiiy ii-

aeo neeaaeieo oa iao?aaeeoeieieo aeey no/aniiai eieiiioeaiaoaeoaaiiy

caaaeaiue, ca’ycaieo c iaaeinoaoiueith aea/aiinoth aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/ieo

i?ioeania a neeiaeo eaioethaao aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia, iaaeinoaoiueith

iaa?oioiaaiinoth oaoii/ieo ?ioaiue,ui i?eeiathoueny, iaiaoiaeiinoth ca-

aacia/aiiy oiia aeaeo?iiaaiioii? noiiniinoi oyaiaeo ia?aoai?thaa-

/ia c aeaea?aeii aeeaeaiiy i oyaiaeie aeaeo?iaeaeaoiaie, iioeiicaoei?th

?aaeeiia ?iaioe neeiaiai oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy. A ca’yceo ic

c?inoath/eie aeiiaaie aei yeinoi no/anieo aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia oa

c o?aooaaiiyi iaiaoiaeiinoi anieyei? aeiiiii? oiieeaii-aia?aaoe/-

ieo ?ano?nia oa aeaoioeeoieo aeaeo?ioaoii/ieo iaoa?iaeia a aeena?oa-

oei? aeeiiaii aeineiaeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaaii ia ae?ioaiiy aaaeeeai? i?ee-

eaaeii? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo iaoiaeia oa caniaia

oi?aaeiiiy aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/ieie i?ioeanaie a nenoaiao aaoiiiiiiai

OAI c oe?enoi?ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeany aiaeiiaiaeii aei Oeieueiai? eiiieaenii?

i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo o?ainii?oiiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie «O?ainii?o»,

ii athaeaeaoiei oaiai Iiiinoa?noaa o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie (oaia:»?ic?ia-

ea, iaeaooaaiiy oa aeineiaeaeaiiy ?aoeiiiaeueieo no?oeoo? aneio?iiiiai

oyaiaiai aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo aeey ia?niaeoeaiiai aeaeo?i?ooiiiai neea-

aeo»),ii caiiaeaiith Oe?caeicieoei (oaia:»I?iaaaeaiiy
aeineiaeaeaiue,?ic-

?iaea eiino?oeoi?nueei? aeieoiaioaoei?,oa aeiaiaeea noaiaeo aeaeo?e/ii?

ia?aaea/i aeecaeue — ii?caeo c aeaioacieie aneio?iiieie oyaiaeie aeae-

aoiaie») i o.ae.

Iaoa i caaea/? aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Iaoa ?iaioe iinoeoue ?ioaiiy iaoeiai-oaoii/ii? i?iaeaie

iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi nenoai OAI oeyoii ?icoe?aiiy ?o ooieoeii-

iaeueieo iiaeeeainoae oa iiaeaeuaiiy ea?iaaiinoi ca ?aooiie canoino-

aaiiy a neeiaeo noaiao OAI oe?enoi?ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia c o?aooaa-

iyi ciaiioiio iaiaaeaiue, ui iaeeaaeathoueny niaoeeoieith aaoiiiiieo ei-

eiiioeaia,a oaeiae a ooi/iaiii caeiiiii?iinoae i?ioieaiiy aeaeo?i-

aia?aaoe/ieo i?ioeania i a ii?aoethaaiii iaoiaeia oa caniaia oi?aa-

eiiiy oyaiaei aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiyi i OAI a oeieiio.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii? oeiei iaiaoiaeii ae?ioeoe ?yae ian-

ooiieo aca?iica’ycaieo caaaeaiue :

— neioac i aeineiaeaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo no?oeoo? aaoiiiiiiai OAI c oe-

?enoi?ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy noaiioaoiiee i ?aaeeiia ?iaioe neeiaeo ia?aoai?th-

aa/ia c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeoiee aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia i aeeiaiiee

?icaeoeo iiaeo ae?iaia neeiai? i neaaeino?oiiai? aeaeo?iiiee;

— aiaeic iiaeeeaeo aaa?ieieo noaiia a OAI oa neioac aoaeoeaieo ca-

niaia caoenoo iniiaiiai oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy;

— iiaeaeuaiiy yeinoi nenoai aaoiiaoe/iiai oi?aaeiiiy i ?aaoethaaiiy

OAI, oaeineiiaeaiiy aeaiaioia aaoiiaoeee;

— ii?aoethaaiiy a?eueo aeineiiaeeo iaoiaeia aiaeico, neioaco,?ic?aooi-

eo i aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue aeaiaioia i nenoai aaoiiiiii-

ai OAI a oeieiio;

— ii?aoethaaiiy caoiaeia, ni?eyoeeaeo eiiiiioaaiith oyaiaiai aeaeo?i-

iaeaaeiaiiy, ui ciiao noai?th?oueny, a iaiaaeaiiio i?inoi?i eociao

eieiiioeaa.

Iaoiaeeea aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? ia?niaeoeaii nenoaie oyaiaiai aeae-

o?ii?eaiaeo aaoiiiiiiai eieiiioeaa,a i?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiue — iniia-

ia i aeiiiiiaeia oyaiaa aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy.

I?e i?iaaaeaiii aeineiaeaeaiue aeei?enoaii iaoiaeieiai/ii iniiae

aeineiaeaeaiue aoaeoeaiinoi oaoii/ieo nenoai,aeeth/ath/e iaoiaee nenoai-

iiai aiaeico. Oai?aoe/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy aacothoueny ia oai?i? aeeoa?ai-

oeiaeueieo i iioaa?aeueieo ?iaiyiue, caniaao /enaeueiiai i aa?iiiieii-

ai aiaeico, oai?i? iao?eoeue. Aeineiaeaeaiiy aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/ieo i?i-

oeania a oe?enoi?ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ao OAI ciiiii-iinoieiiai no?oio

aeeiiaii niinia?i iiioaoeieiiai iiaeaethaaiiy neeaaeieo eiaiei — aeeoa-

?aioeiaeueieo nenoai, aenia?eiaioaeueii aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia ia-

oo?ieo noaiaeao i ia ?aaeueieo ia’?eoao.

Aeinoiai?iinoue iaea?aeaieo a aeena?oaoei? iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoaoia

iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ei?aeoiinoth i?eeiyoeo aeiiouaiue,
iaa?oioiaaiinoth

oai?aoe/iiai aiaeico,noieeith caiaeiinoth ?acoeueoaoia aiaeioe/ieo oa

aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue (iia?ioiinoue ?acoeueoaoia a noaoe/ieo

?aaeeiao ia ia?aaeuo? 5%, a aeeiaii/ieo ?aaeeiao — ia aieueoa 15%).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia :

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? a iaea?aeaiii iiaeo iaoeiai-iaa?oi-

oiaaieo ?acoeueoaoia a aaeoci ?ooiiiai neeaaeo caeicieoeue oa oyae

ii?caeia, ui ? iniiaith aeey ?ioaiiy aaaeeeai? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?

i?iaeaie ooai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo nenoai OAI c oe?enoi?ieie ia?aoai-

?thaa/aie aeey aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia:

— ?ic?iaeaiee i oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee niin?a neioaco iiaa?iaio-

ieo nenoai oaci-iiioeueniiai ea?oaaiiy (NIOE) aei?yiey/aie, ui

ea?othoueny (EA), i?e iai?oci i /anoioi aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy, ui cii-

iththoueny, i iia’ycaii c ?aaoethaaiiyi /anoioe iaa?oaiiy oyaiaiai

neio?iiiiai aaia?aoi?a (NA); i?e aeei?enoaiii aiaeiieo iaoiaeia

ceioaco ia iiaeia noai?eoe nenoaio oaciaiai oi?aaeiiiy c a?aie/-

iith oaeaeeiaei?th oa ic noaaieicaoei?th eiaoioei?ioo ia?aaea/i
aeieia

EA-NIOE a oeacaieo oiiaao;

— aeeiiaiee oai?aoe/iee aiaeic ?aaeeiia ?iaioe aia?eaeiiai EA, ui

neeaaea?oueny ic aeaio iineiaeiaii aeeth/aieo o?eoacieo ioeueiaeo oe-

?enoi?ieo noai i aeeaeoueny aiaeiiaiaeii aiae aeaio o?eoacieo
aeaea?ae

c aeiaieueiei oaciaei cnoaii iiae ieie; aeaii iaoaiaoe/iee iien ?a-

aoethaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa ia?aaeaoi/ieo eiaoioeiaioia aia?eae-

iiai EA, i?aoethth/iai a iaiiaea?iaaiiio oa ea?iaaiiio ?aaeeiao; aei

oeueiai /ano cacia/aii EA aeineiaeaeaii oieueee a ?aaeeii neiao?e/iiai

oi?aaeiiiy i i?e oieniaaiiio oaciaiio cnoai p/6 i?ae aeaiia aeaea?a-

eaie aeeaeaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae eiiiainaoe?? iaaei??ii? ?aaeoeaii? aia?a?? ia-

aaioaaeaiiy a ?iaa?oi?iiio OAI oaieiaico c AAe ? c aeaea?aeii aeea-

eaiiy, yeee ia ia? cai?ioii? i?iaiaeiinoi; iaoiae caniiaaiee ia

aaaaeaiii oaciaiai cnoao iiiaioia eiiooaoei? iiae ia?aeaeueii i?a-

oethth/eie aaoiiiiieie iiaa?oi?aie iai?oae (AII) ia eoo,e?aoiee ?o

eieueeinoi; oea aeicaieeei aiaeiiaeoeny aiae canoinoaaiiy niaoeiaeue-

ieo eiiiainoth/eo eiiaeainaoi?ia i caanoe aei iiiiioio ia’?i i ia-

no ia?aoai?thaaeueii? onoaiiaee;

— aeeiiaii oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioeieueiinoi canoinoaaiiy ia

ia?niaeoeaieo aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaao nenoai OAI c aeaioacieie

aeieaie AII-AAe; oei aeniiaee aacothoueny ia ?acoeueoaoao aiaeico

oei/aniaeo aa?iiiie iaaiioiiai iioieo a iiaio?yiiio caci?i AAe

( i?e m ? 2 ), aiaeico aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/ieo i?ioeania a AII, yei

iieacaee iiaeeeainoue ni?iuaiiy neeiai? noaie OAI i cieaeaiiy i?e-

aeecii a 2 ?ace aeiaeaoeiaeo ao?ao a AAe i?e ianiioni?aeaeueiiio aee-

aeaiii; iaaaaeaii niiniae oaoii/ii? ?aaeicaoei? oaeeo nenoai i

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo oacieo no?oiia AAe oa neioaco ii-

oeiaeueieo e?eaeo oacii? iai?oae AEI,iaaaaeaii niiniae ?o oaoii/-

ii? ?aaeicaoei? i ?ic?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo oac-

ieo no?oiia AAe oa iaoiae neioaco iioeiaeueieo e?eaeo oacii? iai-

?oae AII;

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae neioaco oaeaeeiaeith/eo eiai/ieo caoenoia oyai-

aiai aeieo NA-A (A — neeiaee iaea?iaaiee aei?yiey/), caniiaaiee

ia aacia?a?aiiio eiio?iei oacieo iai?oa NA,aeyai oa iaeaioeoiea-

oei? aaa?ieiiai noaio c iciaeith iaeii/anii? ?iaiinoi iioaioeiaeia

anio oac oi/ ae a iaeiie ic ci?ie oyaiaiai NA; i?eno?i? caoenoo,

ui ?aaeicothoue cacia/aiee i?eioeei, ni?aoeueiaothoue i?e anio
aeaeao

ei?ioeeo caieeaiue ia aioei iinoieiiai i ciiiiiai no?oio /e i?e

i?iai? aeiaieueiiai /enea iea/ A, a /an ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy ia ia?aae-

uo? o?eaaeinoi ia?iiaeo aeeaey/i? iai?oae; i?eno?i? caoenoo, ui

canoiniaothoueny a noaiao aio/eciyieo oaieiaicia,caciiaaii ia ei-

io?iei ?icieoei iioaioeiaeia iiae ioeyie ci?ie oyaiaiai NA, ia ?a-

aaothoue ia neiao?e/ii ei?ioei caieeaiiy i ia iathoue aenieith oaeae-

eiaei?th;

— aeaii oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo i?eioeeiia iiaoaeiae aaaaoi-

nooiii/aoeo aacoaea?ieo caoenoia oyaiaiai aeieo AII-AAe; a yeinoi

ia?oiai nooiaiy oaeiai caoenoo ?aeiiaiaeiaaii eiai/iee caoeno,ui

ni?oeueiao? a ?aci iaeiiooaoei? iea/a aieiaieo oe?enoi?ia iiaa?oi-

?a, aeieo? iiaea/o ea?oth/eo iiioeuenia ia i?ioeoacii oe?enoi?e i

caeienith? i?enei?aio iiaoi?io eiiooaoeith aaa?ieiiai iea/a, ia aei-

ioneath/e ia?aeeaeaiiy iiaa?oi?a i?e oiiaii — iaa?iooeo aiaeiiaao

oe?enoi?ia; ae?oaee nooiiiue ni?aoeueiao? i?e ia?aeeaeaiii iiaa?oi-

?a, aeeth/a? oe?enoi?iee ei?ioeicaieea/ (OEC) i i?ioyaii ia?-

oi? (iiceoeaii?) iiaoaeei eieeaaeueiiai ia?aca?yaeo eiiaeainaoi?a

oieueo?o aeieea? aaa?ieiee iiaa?oi? aiae aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy, a i?i-

oyaii ae?oai? iiaoaeei — aeieea? OEC, ia aeiioneath/e aeieeiaiiy

oaea?ieo iaoaii/ieo aieeaia ia aeaiaioe oyaiaiai i?eaiaeo; ca?o-

aiaeii oaieiaice c aneio?iiiei OAI aiaeiai/ieo caoenoia ia iathoue.

Aeianaii ia caoeno iaoeiai iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe ? oai?a-

oe/iith aacith aeey ae?ioaiiy iaoeiai — oaoii/ii? i?iaeaie ooai?aiiy

aoaeoeaieo nenoai OAI c oe?enoi?ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie aeey oaieiai-

cia aio/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui iaiiai i?iaeoothoueny aai iiaea?ii-

cothoueny.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

— oai?aoe/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy oa iiaeoethaaiiy aoaeoeaii? nenoaie OAI

ciiiii-iinoieiiai no?oio c oe?enoi?ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie,a yeiio

aeei?enoaii iaeneiaeueii aiaei?aoeueiaaii a oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa oa

aenieoaoaoei? na?ieii oyaiai aeaeo?iaeaeaoie iinoieiiai no?oio c

iineiaeiaiei caoaeaeaiiyi (OAAe)*;

— aeineiaeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiaaiioieo i?ioeania a aeaioacieo nenoaiao AIH-

-AAe, ?ic?iaea iaoiaeia neioaco iioeiaeueieo e?eaeo oacii? iai?oae

[7] oa ?ic?aooieo oacieo nooiia aeaioaciiai AAe* , iaa?oiooaaiiy

* Ooo ? aeae? iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iioae?eiaa-

ieie oacaie aeiiia?aeae ? iaoa??aeaie eiioa?aioe?e oa nai?ia??a.

aeioeieueiinoi canoinoaaiiy aeaioacieo oyaiaeo aeieia AEI-AAe a OAI

aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia

— ii?aoethaaiiy iiaa?iaioii? nenoaie aaoiiaoe/iiai ea?oaaiiy (NAE)

oyaiaiai aneio?iiiiai aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo oaieiaica [24];

— ii?aoethaaiiy iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oyaiaeo oa ?aaoethaaeueieo oa?ae-

oa?enoee aneio?iiiiai OAI aaoiiiiiiai eieiiioeaa c AII, ui o?a-

oiao? ?iaioo NAE, iaeiiieiinoue iaaiioiiai eaioethaa oyaiaeo AAe oa

ianeioni?aeaeueiinoi ?o iai?oae aeeaeaiiy;

— aeineiaeaeaiiy aieeao ioeuenaoeie no?oio aeeaeaiiy a aaaaoiaeaeaoiiiio

OAI c AII oa AAe ia noaaieueiinoue oyaiaeo oa ?aaoethaaeueieo oa?ae-

oa?enoee aaoiiiiiiai eieiiioeao;

— ioeiiea aiaeoeeaiiy ?iciiaeieo e?eai? iaaiioiiai iioieo a iiaio?y-

iiio caci?i AAe aiae neioni?aeaeueiiai caeiio aeey ?iciiiaiioieo ne-

noai AIH-AAe i?e m ? 2 [9];

— aiaeic aeaeo?iiaaiioieo i?ioeania oa aeineiaeaeaiiy ?aaoethaaeueieo

oa?aeoa?enoee aia?eaeieo EA o ?iciiiaiioieo ?aaeeiao eiai ?iaioe

i?e aeiaieueiiio oaciaiio cnoai iiae aeaiia neiao?e/ieie o?eoacieie

aeaea?aeaie aeeaeaiiy [10,11];

— ii?aoethaaiiy i?eioeeiia iiaa?iaioiiai oi?aaeiiiy oe?enoi?ieie ae-

i?yiey/aie a oiiaao, eiee ciiiththoueny iai?oaa oa /anoioa aeaea?aea

aeeaeaiiy [8].

?iaioe [2,7-11,24] iaienaii aaoi?ii. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaio [1,

3,23] iaeaaeaoue aaoi?ai a ?iaiie ii?i. A noaooyo [4-6,12-23], yei

iioaeieiaaii a niiaaaoi?noai, aiaeaeoi ?acoeueoaoe ?iaio, aeeiiaieo

iiae iaoeiaei ea?iaieoeoaii aaoi?a. A ieo aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue iinoaiia-

ea iaoeiaeo caaaeaiue, iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyoia i iaoiaeia ?o ?ioaiiy,

aiaeic ?acoeueoaoia.A ?iaioao [25,26] iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a aec-

ia/aiee aeiaiaeeaie i?i oai?/o o/anoue a noai?aiii aeiaoiaeia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? a ?ic?ia-

oei iaoiaeia neioaco, ?ic?aooieo, aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue nen-

oai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai OAI c oe?enoi?ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie i caniaia

?o oaoii/ii? ?aaeicaoei?. Iniiaii aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoei? aaoi?a

aeei?enoaii i?e noai?aiii eiiieaeoia oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy,

i?e noai?aiii iaeaoieo oa aeineiaeieo oaieiaicia, a oaeiae a i?ioeani

i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa aenieoaoaoeieieo aeineiaeaeaiue. Aeei-

?enoaiiy ?acoeueoaoia iaoeiai? ?iaioe aaoi?a iiaeoaa?aeaeaii i?eeea-

aeaieie aei aeena?oaoei? aeoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aiae IAeI
«Aeaeo?iaaaeiao»

(i. Oa?eia), IAI OE «Eieiiainueeee caaiae» (i. Eieiiia, ?iniy), IAI

«Aeaeo?ioaoiiea» (ca?ac iiaei?e?inoai ESTEL AS,i.Oaeeiii,Anoiiiy).

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?-

oaoeieii? ?iaioe aeiiiaiaeaeeny oa iaai?thaaeeny ia Ananithciie iaoei-

ai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? «Ooai?aiiy eieiiioeaia aaeeei? iiooaeiin-

oi oa iiaeaeuaiiy ?o oaoii/iiai ?iaiy» (Ai?ioeeiaa?aae,1981?.), III

Ananithciie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? «I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo eiei-

iioeaiaoaeoaaiiy» (Eoaainuee,1990 ?.), Ananithciie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie

eiio. «I?iaeaie noai?aiiy ?ooiiiai neeaaeo c aneio?iiieie oyaiaeie

aeaeaoiaie» (Iineaa, 1986 ?.), ?anioaeieainueeie (iiaeia?iaeiie) oei-

ei-naiiia?i «Iie?ii?ioeani?ii nenoaie ca’yceo oa oi?aaeiiiy ia ca-

eicie/iiio o?ainii?oi» (Aeoooa, 1986…1998 ?.?.), II Iiaeia?iaeiie

iaoeiai — oaoii/iie eiio. «I?iaeaie noai?aiiy ?ooiiiai neeaaeo c

aneio?iiieie oyaiaeie aeaeaoiaie» (?eaa, 1990 ?.), II Iiaeia?iaeiie

eiio. «Noai oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aeaeo?i?ooiiiai neeaaeo» (Ii-

ai/a?eanuee, 1997 ?.), iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo eiio. eaoaae? Oa?AeACO oa

oaoiaoeia caeicie/iiai o?ainii?oo.

O iiaiiio ianyci iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? aeieeaaeaeeny ia iioe-

?aieo caniaeaiiyo eaoaae?e «Nenoaie aeaeo?e/ii? oyae» Oa?eianueei?

aea?aeaaii? aeaaeaii? caeicie/iiai o?ainii?oo o?aaiy 1996 ? oa 30

o?aaiy 1998 ?.

Ioae?eaoei?.

Iniiaiee ciino aeena?oaoei? aiaeaeoi a 1 iiiia?aoi?, 33 noao-

oyo,34 aaoi?nueeeo iinaiae/aiiyo,40 iioaeieiaaieo iaoa?iaeao oa oa-

cao aeiiiaiaeae ia iiaeia?iaeieo, Ananithcieo, ?anioaeieainueeeo iaoei-

ai-oaoii/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo oa naiiia?ao, aeeth/ath/e iaoeiai-oaoii/-

ii eiioa?aioei? Oa?AeACO.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, naie ?icaeieia oa aeniia-

eo, ui aeeth/athoue 298 noi?iiie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 75 noi?iiie c

iaethieaie, 14 oaaeeoeue. Nienie eioa?aoo?e ic 225 iaca (a oiio /en-

ei 33 caei?aeiiieo aeaea?ae) oa aeaio aeiaeaoeia, yei iinoyoue 52 noi-

?iiee.

C I I N O ? I A I O E

O anooii iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeena?oaoei? oa aeaia

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, iieacaii inioaaiiy aaeeei? i?ee-

eaaeii? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie,iia’ycaii? ic iaiaoiaeiinoth oaeineiiaeaiiy

OAI aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia ia aaci noaoe/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia aeae-

o?iaia?ai?, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoa oa iniiaii caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy.

A ia?oiio ?icaeiei i?iaiaeiciaaii iioi/iee noai oaieiaicii-

ai ia?eo a Oe?a?ii oa a e?a?iao aeaeaeiai ca?oaiaeaey i iaa?oioiaaii

inioaaiiy cia/ii? i?eeeaaeii? iaoeiai-oaoii/ii? i?iaeaie, iia’yca-

ii? c iaiaoiaeiinoth oaeineiiaeaiiy aio/eciyieo aaoiiiiieo eieiiioe-

aia. Iieacaii,ui iaeiei c ea?aeeiaeueieo oeyoia ae?ioaiiy oei?? i?ia-

eaie ? iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi nenoai aaoiiiiiiai OAI ia aaci aei-

nyaiaiue ia?aoai?thaaeueii? oaoiiee.A caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo,nenoaia aa-

oiiiiiiai OAI, ye aeayea oeieiniinoue, i?aaenoaaey? niaith noeoiiinoue

ie?aieo aeaiaioia (oyaiai aeaeo?e/ii iaoeie, aia?aoo?a oi?aaeiiiy

i ?aaoethaaiiy, i?eno?i? caoenoo ), ui ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaieo niia-

aiaeiioaiiyo iaeei c iaeiei.A ia? aeiaeaoeiai aaiaeyoueny oe?enoi?ii ia-

?aoai?thaa/i. A ca’yceo c oeei,OAI iaaoaa? iiai niaoeeoi/ii nenoaiii

(iioaa?aoeaii) aeanoeainoi, yei ia iaeaaeaoue aei inioth/i? nenoaie i

aeiaeiiio c aoiaeieo a ia? aeaiaioia. Caeaaaeinue ae oneeaaeiaiiy OAI

i?eaaaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy iaaeieiinoi eieiiioeaa,aea iani?aaaei i?e oe-

?enoi?iiio oi?aaeiiii neeiaeie aa?aaaoaie ? iiaeeeainoue ia aeniei-

yeiniiio ?iaii ae?ioeoe i?iaeaio iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi OAI oa

eieiiioeaa a oeieiio:

— iiaeaeueoe oyaiai-aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee aaoiiiiieo eieiii-

oeaia c OAI ciiiii-iinoieiiai no?oio ca ?aooiie iioeiicaoei? ?a-

aeeiia ?iaioe neeiaiai oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy;

— canoinoaaoe ia ia?niaeoeaieo eieiiioeaao aieueo i?inoi i iaaeieii

aneio?iiii aeaeo?iaeaeaoie o aeaeyaei oyaiaeo;

— iiaeiyoe ia (15…20)% eiaoioei?io oyae eieiiioeao ca ?aooiie

iiaeaeuaiiy aei?noeinoi aeaeo?iiaoaii/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oyaiaeo

aeaeo?iaeaeaoiia i?e ao?aoi c/aieaiiy;

— iiaeaeueoe eoeueoo?o ianeoaiaoaaiiy eieiiioeaia i nei?ioeoe /ano-

eo aaaeeeo ?iaio ii ?aiiioo oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy.

Iaoeiai iniiae ooai?aiiy OAI no/anieo aio/eciyieo oaieiai-

cia aoee caeeaaeaii a ?iaioao I.?. Aeaen??aa, A.Ae. Noaiaiiaa, I.I.

Ina?aa, E.ss. Aaeeaeue.A oai?ith aneio?iiiiai OAI i oyaiaeo ia?aoai-

?thaa/ia iiiioiee aianie c?iaeee I.A. ?ioaiia, A.O. Ao?eia, A.N.

Eo?aania, TH.A. Aeeia, TH.I. Iiueeia. Noai?aiith no/anieo nenoai aa-

oiiaoe/iiai oi?aaeiiiy aaoiiiiiiai OAI i?enay/aii ?iaioe A.I. Ei-

no?iiiia, A.I. Caaa?iy, I.I. A?iiiaa. I?ioa, iaeiie/aiee aei oeueiai

/ano oai?aoe/iee aacen i aeinaiae i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaie ia aeicaieythoue

a iiaiie ii?i ae?ioeoe ieoaiiy noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo nenoai aaoi-

iiiiiai OAI.Aeey oi?ioaaiiy ia?niaeoeaieo aa?iaioia ae?ioaiiy i?i-

aeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoai OAI, aeyao ianooaaia iaaecia/aiinoi ii

eiaeiiio c aa?iaioia i ?o cinoaaeaiiy ii aoaeoeaiinoi cai?iiiiiaa-

ia eeaneoieaoeiy nenoai OAI. I?e ?? i?iaaaeaiii o aeaeyaei iaeaieueo

/ioei aiaeaeoi? eaoaai?i? i?eeiyoi eieueeinoue ia?aoai?aiue aeaeo?i-

aia?ai?, a o aeaeyaei aeinoaoiueiai i?eciaeo ( e?eoa?ith ) i?eeiyoee

aeae ?? ia?aoai?aiiy.Iniaeeao aeooaeueiinoue oey eeaneoieaoeiy caeiaoea

a oiiaao aacoieiiiai c?inoaiiy iioieia iaoeiai-oaoii/ii? oa iaoa-

ioii? iioi?iaoei?,ui iaaeoiaeeoue. Aiia ia ae/a?io? anio iiaeeeaeo aa-

?iaioia no?oeoo? neeiaiai eiea OAI aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia,aea aea?

iiaeeeainoue /ioei aecia/eoe oei aeaeo?iia?aaea/i,neeaae neeiaiai oy-

aiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy a ?? neeiaiio eiei i aeacaoe i?ecia/aiiy

oa oei noaoe/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia a nenoaiao ia?niaeoeaiiai OAI.

Aiaeic iaoeiai-oaoii/ii? iioi?iaoei? o aaeoci nenoai OAI

no/anieo aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia iieaco?, ui o?eaaei oaiaeaioei? ?o

?icaeoeo iia’ycaii aeeeth/ii c aneio?iiiei aeaeo?ii?eaiaeii. I?ioa

aeai? aa?iaioo OAI aeey eiie?aoiiai oeio eieiiioeao iiaea aooe ae-

eiiaiee oieueee aianeiaeie aiaeico i cinoaaeaiiy aa?iaioia ii oeiei-

io ?yaeo iieacieeia. Oiio ia?oi/a?aiaei noa? caaaeaiiy ii?aoethaaiiy

iaoeiaeo iniia noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo nenoai OAI ia i?eioeeii ?o aea-

eiiiiceoei? (ia ocaaaeueiaiiio i aeaoaeueiiio ?iaiyo).A yeinoi oi?ia-

eiciaaiiai e?eoa?ith aoaeoeaiinoi aeey ioeiiee ia?niaeoeaieo nenoai

OAI a ?aieao eiioeaioei? iioeiicaoei? i?eeiyoee e?eoa?ie iaeaieueoiai

na?aaeiueiai ?acoeueoaoo, ui ia? aeanoeainoi aaeaeeoeaiinoi. Noi?ioeth-

aaii iniiaii iieacieee aoaeoeaiinoi ia?niaeoeaieo nenoai OAI.

A ae?oaiio ?icaeiei i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ii
oaein-

eiiaeaiith oyaiaeo aeaeo?iia?aaea/ ciiiii-iinoieiiai no?oio ia aaci

canoinoaaiiy oe?enoi?ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia a neeiaie noaii i a noaii

aia?aiiinoa/aiiy aeanieo iio?aa aaoiiiiiiai eieiiioeao.

Ae?ioaia aaaeeeaa i?eeeaaeia i?iaeaia, yea iia’ycaia c ?ic-

iiuaiiyi neeiaeo ia?aoai?thaa/ia, ui iaiiai noai?ththoueny, a iaiaaea-

iiio i?inoi?i eociao eieiiioeaa oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia oaieiaicao

?ic?iaeaiith aaoi?ii nenoaie aia?aiiinoa/aiiy aeanieo iio?aa c na-

iicaoaeaeaiiyi NAA oa oe?enoi?ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie a eaioethaao caoae-

aeaiiy oyaiaeo NA.Oeueiio ni?eyei oaeiae ia’?aeiaiiy oyaiaeo NA a ?aee-

iee aeaeo?iiaoeiiee aa?aaao, canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeoieo i?eno?i?a

aaoiiaoeee i aeeeth/aiiy ie?aieo aeaeo?iiaoeiieo caoaeieeia. Aia?oa

a i?aeoeoei aio/eciyiiai oaieiaiciaoaeoaaiiy cacia/aii oaoii/ii ?i-

oaiiy iiney anaai/ieo oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue

canoiniaaii ia oaieiaicao OA120, 2OA121, OAI75, OA136. I?e ooai-

?aiii nenoai naiicaoaeaeaiiy NAA c EA onoaiiaeaia iaaoaeoeaiinoue

NIOE, ?iaioa yeeo a?oioo?oueny ia ?aaeicaoei? oe?ieiaaeeaaiiai aa?-

oeeaeueiiai i?eioeeio oi?aaeiiiy c eiiieieie aai a?eeineionieie oa-

ciaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui iai?oaa oa /anoi-

oa oaieiaicieo NA ciiiththoueny (ii oiiaai ?o ?iaioe) a oe?ieeo ia-

aeao, a a nenoaii naiicaoaeaeaiiy NAA a ?aci iacaeaaeiiai oi?ioaaiiy

eooo ea?oaaiiy oe?enoi?aie /a?ac eaioetha aeeaeaiiy EA caaaeaee oi?io?

aioo?ioiie eiioo? iiceoeaiiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo, ui inoioii ii-

ai?oo? aeeiaiieo nenoaie a oeieiio. Oiio aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii iiooe oa

oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aoaeoeaieo aeai?eoiia iiaa?iaioiiai ea-

?oaaiiy oe?enoi?aie EA.A iniiao ?ic?iaeaiiai aeai?eoio iiaa?iaio-

iiai ea?oaaiiy iieeaaeaiee i?eioeei eioaa?oaaiiy a /aniaie iaeanoi

iiaeiioaa?aeueii? ooieoei? Fi(wt), yea aoiaeeoue aei oi?ioee ia/eneaiiy

na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy iai?oae ia aeoiaei iaaeaii? noaie EA. Iioaa?o-

aaiiy a eiaeiiio c eaiaeia ea?oaaiiy aaaeaoueny c ioeueiaeie ii/aoei-

aeie oiiaaie,i?e/iio ca ii/aoie aiaeeieo i?eeiyoee iiiaio aeeth/ai-

iy aeaiiai oe?enoi?a, yeee aiaeiiaiaea? aeaiaaeaioiie aeiiaeiie noaii.

Iioaa?oaaiiy i?iaaaeeoueny aei iiiaioo aeoiaeo iaaeaiiai oe?enoi?a c

?iaioe. Aeai?eoi oi?ioaaiiy eooo aeeth/aiiy (a) oe?enoi?ia EA

caaaeueiiio aeaei iieno?oueny ae?acii:

( 1 )

aea F(d) — ia?ainia ii aiaeiioaiith aei ooieoei? Fi(wt) i?e

wt = a;

Um — aiieiooaea oacii? iai?oae aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy;

te — iinoieia /ano iioaa?aoi?ia a eiaeiiio ic eaiaeia

N?OE;

Uee — eiioeaaa cia/aiiy iioaa?aeo ia iiia?aaeiueiio iioa?aaei

iioaa?oaaiiy.

Iiaa?iaioia NIOE, iiaoaeiaaia ii iienaiiio aeua aeai?eoio, caaac-

ia/o? noaaieicaoeith eiaoioei?ioo ia?aaea/i aeiea EA — NIOE, ia? a?a-

ie/io oaeaeeiaeith oa aenieo ia?aoeiaeicaoeniinoue.

A ae?oaiio ?icaeiei iieacaii oaeiae, ui iaiaeii?aciai ni?iae

oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoai aaoiiiiiiai OAI ciiiii-iinoieiiai no?oio c

iaea?iaaieie A ia aeaee aiae/ooieo ?acoeueoaoia i ui oniioia ae?i-

oaiiy oei?? i?iaeaie iiaeeeai i?e aeei?enoaiii a OAI oe?enoi?ieo

ia?aoai?thaa/ia i?e caa?aaeaiii o?aaeeoeieieo OAAe iineiaeiaiiai caoae-

aeaiiy.Caa?aaeaiiy a neeiaie noaii oaieiaico iaeneiaeueii aiaei?aoeuei-

aaieo o ae?iaieoeoai oa aenieoaoaoei? ne?ieieo OAAe i?e aeaoioeeoi ia-

oa?iaeueieo oa ae?iaie/eo ?ano?nia iiaea aeaoe oaeaeeee oa inoioiee

aeiiiii/iee aoaeo,ai ia aeiaaa? aeey ?aaeicaoei? /eiaei? ia?aaoaeiae

ae?iaieoeoaa i ooai?aiiy iiai? ?aiiioii? oa aenieoaoaoeieii? aace.

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia oa aeineiaeaeaia oe?enoi?ia noaia aaoiiiiiiai

OAI ciiiii — iinoieiiai no?oio, ui ia aiaeiiio aiae o?aaeeoeieieo ne-

noai aeicaiey?:

— i?e ao?aoi c/aieaiiy iiaeaeueoe i?ioeaoeniaaeueii aeanoeainoi ei-

eiiioeaa ca ?aooiie aaoiiaoe/iiai ia?aaiaeo OAAe a ?aaeei eaaciia-

caeaaeiiai caoaeaeaiiy;

— ?aaeicoaaoe ?aaeei ieaaiiai ineaaeaiiy iiey OAAe i, aiaeiiaiaeii,

iiaeaeueoe iioaa?aeueiee EEAe aeaeo?iia?aaea/i a oyaiaiio ?aaeeii;

— iiaeaeueoe aoaeoeaiinoue noaie aeaeo?e/iiai aaeueioaaiiy ca ?aoo-

iie oe?enoi?iiai ea?oaaiiy caoaeaeaiiyi OAAe oa aeeeth/aiiy ic eii-

oo?o ?aaoethaaiiy eaiaeo no?oio caoaeaeaiiy oyaiaiai NA;

— cia/ii nei?ioeoe eieueeinoue neeiai? eiioaeoii? aia?aoo?e;

— iiaeaeueoe i?ioeaaa?ieii aeanoeainoi OAI oeyoii ?aaeicaoei? oaeae-

eiaeith/iai «n?oeiaiai» caoenoo;

— ?aaeicoaaoe a?eueo aoaeoeaii aeai?eoie oi?aaeiiiy OAI.

Aaoiiiiiee OAI ciiiii-iinoieiiai no?oio, ye ia’?eo aeineiae-

aeaiiy, noaiiaeoue neeaaeio aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/io nenoaio iaiaaeaii? ii-

ooaeiinoi. Aiia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaaaoi/eneaiiinoth oa ?icioiaiio-

iinoth aeaiaioia, ianoiaeinoth ?o ii oeio ca’yceo,iayaiinoth o nenoa-

ie iioaa?aoeaieo ooieoeie,yeeo iaia? o /anoei neeaaeiaeo ?? aeaiai-

oia. Aeineiaeaeaiiy oeueiai OAI aeeiiaii niiniaii iiioaoeieiiai
iiaeaeth-

aaiiy (II). No?oeoo?ia noaia nenoaiii? iiaeaei oe?enoi?iiai OAI

i?eaaaeaia ia ?en.1. Iicia/aiiy: OAe? i NAe? — aiaeiiaiaeii aeiee oi?-

ioaaiiy i ?ioaiiy nenoaie aeeoa?aioeieieo ?iaiyiue;AON — aeie oi?io-

aaiiy noaio aaioeeia ia?aoai?thaa/a;A?I — aeie ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao-

?ia; Fea? oa Fa — eiai/ii aaeoi?e aiaeiiaiaeii ea?oaaiiy oa noaio

aaioee?a ia?aoai?thaa/a.

Canoinoaaiiy oaoiieiai? iiioaoeieiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeicaieeei

aac inoioieo aeiiouaiue aeineiaeeoe aeaeo?iiaaiioii i?ioeane a aaoiii-

iiiio oe?enoi?iiio OAI ciiiii-iinoieiiai no?oio, aecia/eoe iieac-

ieee yeinoi aeaeo?e/ii? aia?ai?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeaeo?iiaaiio-

io noiiniicoue aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy c ia?aoai?thaa/aie, i iniiaii oao-

iieiai/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie a oeieiio. Aiaeic ?acoeueoaoia ii-

aeaethaaiiy a ?aaeeiao oyae i?e iiaiiio oa i?e iineaaeaiiio iiei OAAe,

ao?aoi c/aieaiiy,?aaeeiao aeaeo?e/iiai aaeueioaaiiy iiaeoaa?aeea i?e-

aaaeaii aeua ia?aaaae oe?enoi?iiai OAI o ii?iaiyiii c o?aaeeoeieieie

nenoaiaie oa iieacaa aeioeieueiinoue eiai canoinoaaiiy ia oaieiaicao,

cie?aia, aeey iiaea?iicaoei? inioth/iai eieiiioeaiiai ia?eo.

A ?aaeeii aeaeo?iaeeiaii/iiai aaeueioaaiiy OAI ae?iaeaeo?oueny a

aeai iaeiieiioo?ii noaie aeey eaioethaia yei?y OAAe oa i?inoo noaio

eaioethaia ?o no?oio caoaeaeaiiy, ui neeaaea?oueny ic aeaio
iineiaeiaii

aeeth/aieo o?eoacieo ioeueiaeo oe?enoi?ieo EA. Aeaea?aeaie aeeaeaiiy

aia?eaeiiai EA neoaeaoue aeai cnoiaii a i?inoi?i o?eoacii noaoi?ii

iaiioee oyaiaiai NA. Oiio,ui oaei noaie ?aiioa ia aeineiaeaeoaaeeny,

iinoaea iaiaoiaeiinoue a ?o aeaoaeueiiio aea/aiii. Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaiee

oai?aoe/iee aiaeic ?iaioe aia?eaeieo EA aeey caaaeueiiai aeiaaeeo,

eiee oaciaee cnoa • iiae aeaiia o?eoacieie aeaea?aeaie aeeaeaiiy iiaea

i?eeiaoe aeiaieueia cia/aiiy. Aeyaeaii oa aeieeaaeii aeineiaeaeaii ian-

ooiii /ioe?e ?aaeeia ?iaioe noaie :

— ?aaeei 1: ani oe?enoi?e i?aoeththoue a aeiiaeiiio ?aaeeii;

— ?aaeei 2: oe?enoi?e aiiaeii? a?oie i?aoeththoue a aeiiaeiiio ?aaeeii,

oe?enoi?e eaoiaeii? a?oie i?aoeththoue a ea?iaaiiio ?aaeeii;

— ?aaeei 3: oe?enoi?e aiiaeii? a?oie i?aoeththoue a ea?iaaiiio ?aaeeii,

oe?enoi?e eaoiaeii? a?oie i?aoeththoue a aeiiaeiiio ?aaeeii;

— ?aaeei 4: ani oe?enoi?e i?aoeththoue a ea?iaaiiio ?aaeeii.

*aoaa?oee ?aaeei aeineiaeaeaiee a ianooiieo aa?iaioao ea?oaaiiy:

— neiao?e/ia oi?aaeiiiy, aeey yeiai aeiaaa?oueny oinoue iacaeaaeieo

eaiaeia oaci-iiioeueniiai ea?oaaiiy;

— ianeiao?e/ia oi?aaeiiiy ( o?e iacaeaaeieo eaiaeo oi?aaeiiiy ) ic

neio?iiicaoei?th aiae aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy c A?N, ui aeia?aaeaea? ;

— ianeiao?e/ia oi?aaeiiiy ( o?e iacaeaaeieo eaiaeo oi?aaeiiiy ) ic

neio?iiicaoei?th aiae aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy c A?N, ui aiaenoa?.

Aiaeic ?aaeeiia ?iaioe aia?eaeiiai EA oa caniaia eiai oi?aa-

eiiiy aeicaieea aiaeaeaoe ie?aaaao /aoaa?oiio ?aaeeio ?iaioe i?e ia-

neiao?e/iiio oi?aaeiiii ic niio?iiicaoei?th aiae aeaea?aea c A?N, ui

aiaenoa?. Oiaei ?aaoethaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aia?eaeiiai EA ia? aea-

eyae:

( 2 )

a eiaoioei?io ia?aaea/i ( o aiaeiinieo iaeeieoeyo ) aeipiaith? :

( 3 )

Canoinoaaiiy a caieiooeo NAE aia?eaeiiai EA, yeee i?aoeth? a

?aaeeii ianeiao?e/iiai oi?aaeiiiy c neio?iiicaoei?th aiae aeaea?aea

aeeaeaiiy c A?N, ui aeia?aaeaea?,ia ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ic-ca iayaiinoi a

eiai ?aaoethaaeueiie oa?aeoa?enoeoei cii,yei aiaeiiaiaeathoue iiceoeaiei

oa aiae’?iiei cia/aiiyi eiaoioei?ioo ia?aaea/i.

A o?aoueiio ?icaeiei ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy, ca’ycaii c iiaeaeua-

iiyi aoaeoeaiinoi aaoiiiiiiai OAI c o?eoacieie AAe oa AII, i ?ic-

oe?aii oai?aoe/iee aacen aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy oaeeo nenoai.

Cie?aia,ooi/iaii cia/aiiy iaeiiai c iieacieeia aoaeoeaiinoi

OAI, ca’ycaiiai c iiaiei aeei?enoaiiyi aieueii? iiooaeiinoi ia?aei-

iiai aeaeaoia i?e ?iaioi OAI ia oieueee ii a?aie/iie oyaiaie oa?ae-

oa?enoeoei,aea i a /anoeiaeo ?aaeeiao. Aeey oeueiai aeeiiaii oai?aoe/-

iee aiaeic a?aie/iiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe aaoiiiiiiai OAI c AAe ii oiiai

eiai coaoe/ii? noieeinoi. Onoaiiaeaia caeiiiii?iinoue ciiie a?aie-

oei noaoe/ii? noieeinoi aneio?iiiiai OAI a caeaaeiinoi aiae aeaeo

aeiiiii/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aeiiiai aeaeaoia i?e ?iaioi eieiii-

oeaa a ?aaeeiao iiaii? i iaiiaii? iiooaeiinoi:

, ( 4 )

aea Nna(wae) — aeiiiii/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ia?aeiiiai aeaeaoia.

Ae?ac (4) i iioi ?ic?aooieiai oi?ioee,yei iaea?aeaii aianeiaeie aia-

eico,aeicaieythoue aaea ia noaaei? i?iaeooaaiiy i?aaeeueii ia?aoe ia?a-

iao?e oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy oa iaoaii/ii? ia?aaea/i.

C oei?th ae iaoith aeineiaeaeaii oaeiae oiiae eiiiainaoei?
iaaeii?-

ii? ?aaeoeaii? aia?ai? a aaaaoiaeaeaoiiiio OAI aaoiiiiiiai eieiii-

oeao c AII oa AAe i?e caaaeueiiio aeaea?aei aeeaeaiiy, ui ia ia? cai-

?ioiuei? i?iaiaeiinoi. Oiiaith iiaii? eiiiainaoei? ?aaeoeaii? aia?ai?

iaaaioaaeaiiy a oaeie nenoaii ? iaeiiiai?aaeaiinoue iioieo aia?ai? a

eaioei iinoieii? iai?oae. A o?eoaciie nenoaii AII-AAe oey oiiaa ae-

eiio?oueny i?e c > 0,525. sseui aiaeaoaa?oueny cieaeaiiy eiaoioeiaioo

iiooaeiinoi oyaiaiai AAe, ui iiaeeeai i?e ao?aoi c/aieaiiy, a eaioei

iinoieii? iai?oae a iaaii iiiaioe /ano iioie aia?ai? ciiith? naie

iai?yi. Aeey eiiiainaoei? oei?? iaaeii?ii? ?aaeoeaii? aia?ai? cae/ae-

ii onoaiiaeththoue niaoeiaeueii eiiiainoth/i eiiaeainaoi?e. A ?iaioi ii-

eacaii, ui iaeaieueo aoaeoeaiei niiniaii eiiiainaoei? iaaeii?ii? ?a-

aeoeaii? aia?ai? ? neio?iiia oi?aaeiiiy aniia oyaiaeie aeieaie

AII-AAe c ?iaiiii?iei oieniaaiei cnoaii iiae ieie ia iioa?aaei ei-

iooaoei? iaeeii/iiai iiaa?oi?a. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?aie/ia cia/aiiy

eiaoioei?ioo iiooaeiinoi iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?e yeiio ua caeienith?oueny

iiaia eiiiainaoeiy ?aaeoeaii? aia?ai?, aecia/a?oueny ae?acii:

( 5 )

aea a?aie/iee ?aaeei aa?=a=ao?(-1/6f1Oi) ianooia? i?e cia/aiiyo

/anoioe aeoiaeii? iai?oae iiaa?oi?a f1 oa ia?aiao?ao iaaaioaaeaiiy

Oi, eiee aeeiio?oueny oiiaa:

( 6 )

aea ei?aii oeueiai ?iaiyiiy iathoue oice/iee ciino i?e 0,5 F a F 1.

Cie?aia, i?e neio?iiiiio oi?aaeiiii o?ueiia oyaiaeie aeieaie AII-

-AAe ic oaciaei cnoaii iiae ieie ia p /9 iiaia eiiiainaoeiy ?aaeoea-

ii? aia?ai? oyaiaeo AAe iiaeeeaa i?e cieaeaiii ?o eiaoioei?ioo iiooae-

iinoi aei c = 0,18. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaiii iaaeii?iith ?aaeoeaiith

aia?ai?th caeienith?oueny iiae oyaiaeie aeieaie AII-AAe e?icue
caaaeueii

oeie eaiee iinoieii? iai?oae. Noiooi? iiaeaeuaiiy /anoioe oa cie-

aeaiiy aiieiooaee ioeuenaoeie no?oio ia aeoiaei A aeicaiey? iiiiiico-

aaoe anoaiiaeaio ?iiinoue eiiaeainaoi?ia oieueo?o i inoioii cieceoe

iano oa aaaa?eoe ia?aoai?thaaeueii? onoaiiaee a oeieiio.

?ic?iaeaiee ooi/iaiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo oacieo no?oiia a

nenoaii AII-AAe i?e oi?aaeiiii aieiaieie oe?enoi?aie AII ii caei-

io qo=const, aea qo iaeaaeeoue iioa?aaeo [2p/3; p]. Aii ? ni?iuaiiyi

iaoiaeo aa?iiii/ieo neeaaeiaeo oa aaco?oueny ia aeiiouaiii i?i ?ia-

iinoue no?oiia aeueo aa?iiiie, ?ic?aoiaaieo aeey noai caiiuaiiy c

ia?aiao?aie AAe ia aiaeiiaiaeieo /anoioao i aeey noaie caiiuaiiy ca-

aaeueiiaaiiai AAe. I?ioeaaeo?a ?ic?aooieo ieoo?aeo cia/aiue oaciiai

no?oio AAe niiniaii aeaio neeaaeiaeo caiaeeoueny aei:

— aeaeieaiiy ia?oi? aa?iiiiee aeeaey/i? iai?oae;

— ciaoiaeaeaiith oa iiaenoiiaoaaiith neioni?aeaeueii? neeaaeiai?
oaciiai

no?oio (ye ?icieoei ?aaeoeie coaie caiiuaiiy AAe aeey ia?oi? aa?ii-

iiee oa noaie caiiuaiiy aeey caaaeueiiaaiiai AAe ia ia?oo aa?iiii-

eo oacii? iai?oae) i ianeioni?aeaeueii? neeaaeiai? (?aaeoeiy noaie

caiiuaiiy caaaeueiiaaiiai AAe ia iiaio oacio iai?oao iiaa?oi?a).

Oi?ia oacii? iai?oae AII i?e 2p/3 F qa F p oa eiai neeaaeia?:

(neioni?aeaeueia i noia iai?oa aeueo aa?iiiie), i?eaaaeaii ia ?en.2.

Iaea?aeaii aiaeioe/ii ?ioaiiy ieoo?aeo cia/aiue oaciiai no?oio ia

anio aeaa’yoe iioa?aaeao iinoieiino? e?eai? oacii? iai?oae a ooie-

oei? eoo?a i?iaiaeiiai noaio oe?enoi?ia (qo) oa ?aaeoeaieo aeiiaeia

(qae), ui i?e aaaaeaiii aiieiooaeii? Gn i eooiai? Qn eiioooth/eo ooi-

eoeie, iiaeia iiaeaoe o aeaeyaei iaeiiai ae?aco :

( 7 )

aea Zc,j — ia?aiao?e noaie caiiuaiiy AAe aeey neioniiaeaeueii?

neeaaeiai? oaciiai no?oio;

U1m,y — aiieiooaea i oaciaee cnoa neioniiaeaeueii? neeaaei-

ai? oacii? iai?oae;

q — iioi/iee eoo.

Ii oeueiio ae?aco aeey oieniaaieo cia/aiue qo i qae (e?eaa iai?oae ca-

aeaia) iiaeia c aenieith oi/iinoth (iia?ioiinoue ia aieueo 5%) ?ic?aoi-

aoaaoe na?aaeii ii iiaeoeth, aeith/i i iieiai cia/aiiy oacieo no?oiia

ia iaaeao iioa?aaeia, a oiio /enei, ?o ia?aaeeiiooaoeieiiai i ia?aae-

aaa?ieiiai cia/aiiy. ?ioaiiy ae cai?ioiueiai caaaeaiiy (aecia/aiiy

oi?ie oacii? iai?oae) aeiaaa? ia/eneaiiy eooo qae oa i?ecaiaeeoue aei

iaiaoiaeiinoi ?ioaiiy o?ainoeaiaeaioieo ?iaiyiue.

I?iaiaeiciaaii iiaeeeai aa?iaioe noai AII. Iieacaia aeioeieue-

iinoue canoinoaaiiy a aaoiiiiiiio OAI AII c aiieiooaeiei ?aaoethaai-

iyi iai?oae, a aeey cieaeaiiy ?o iani-aaaa?eoieo iieacieeia ia no-

/aniiio aoaii ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeeiioaaoe iiaa?oi?e ia aaci iaeiiiia-

?aoeieieo oe?enoi?ia na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeiaei? c iaeiiiiey?iith
iecueei-

aieueoiith N-eiiooaoei?th oa aeaioiia?aoeieieie oe?enoi?aie a eiioo?ao

eiiooaoei?.

Ia iiaenoaai ?acoeueoaoia aeeiiaiiai aaoi?ii ?aiioa oai?aoe-

/iiai aiaeico aeaeo?iiaaiioieo i?ioeania a nenoaii AII-AAe ii iaoi-

aeo iaeii?? ?aaeoei? i?e caeiii oi?aaeiiiy iiaa?oi?ii qo=5p/6 ca-

i?iiiiiaaii caniae oi?ioaaiiy neaiaeia cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo ii no?oio oa
iaaiioiiio iioieo AAe. Iaoiaee/ia iia?ioiinoue aeii?o aeoeaiiai
?aaeoeaiiai i iiaiiai cia/aiue oaciiai no?oio ia ia?aaeuo? 2,5%, a

iia?ioiinoue aeii?o iaaiioiiai iioieo ia ia?aaeuo? 5%. ?acoeueoaoe
oai?aoe/ieo oa

aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue aeei?enoaii i?e noai?aiii oaieiaico
OA120 naeoeieiith iiooaeiinoth 4000 e.n. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee
aac?ainoaoiiai iano?ithaaiiy aeaeo?iia?aaea/i oaieiaico c AII i AAe oa
aenieoaoaoeieieo inieoia. I?iaaaeaii oyaiai — aia?aaoe/ii inieoe
oai-

eiaico OA120 ia caeicieoeyo ION, a i?ioeani yeeo aeinyaiooi ani
?ic?aooieiai ia?aiao?e OAI. Ca /an oyaiaiaia?aaoe/ieo inieoia oaieiaic
aeeiiaa i?iaia iiiaae 5000 ei.

Iaeneiaeueia iana aaioaaeieo ii?caeia neeaea 5100 o. ?acoeueoaoe
oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue iiaeoaa?aeeee
ia?niaeoeaiinoue oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo nenoai aneio?iiiiai
OAI.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icaeiei i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue
nenoai OAI c AI i AAe, /enei oac yeeo ia aei?iaith? o?ueii.

I?iaaaeaiiy oaeeo aeineiaeaeaiue aeeeeeaia iaiaoiaeiinoth
iiaeaeuaiiy oyaiai-aia?aaoe/ieo iieacieeia aneio?iiiiai OAI.
Iieacaiaiiaeeeainoue ?ioaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy oeyoii iieiioaiiy oi?ie
aiaeia?aoa aaeoi?o iaaiioiiai iiey a iiaio?yiiio caci?i AAe i i?e
aeeiiaiii oiia aeaeo?e/ii? ?iaiiaaae aneio?iiii? iaoeie, yea aeeaeoueny

ianeioni?aeaeueiith iai?oaith aiae AII. Inoaii? oa?aeoa?eco?
caeieniaiinoue oiia aeaeo?iiaaiioii? noiiniinoi AII i AAe o anueiio iiei
?iai/eo ?aaeeiia. Aeineiaeaeaiiy aacothoueny ia aiaeici oei/aniaeo
aa?iiiie iaaiioiiai iiey a iiaio?yiiio caci?i aaaaoioacieo aneio?iiieo

iaoei i?e aeeaeaiii ?o ianeioni?aeaeueiith iai?oaith aiae ia?aoai?thaa/a

/anoioe. Onoaiiaeaii, ui aeey aeeiiaiiy oiia aeaeo?e/ii? ?iaiiaaae

aneio?iiii? iaoeie c neiao?e/iith m-oaciith iaiioeith ia noaoi?i (aea

m > 2), yea aeeaeoueny ianeioni?aeaeueiith iai?oaith aiae AII,
iaiaoiaeii,

uia oi?ie oacieo iai?oa i aiaeiiaiaeieo ?i noia?ieo oacieo A?N aoee

oioiaeii. A iaei?inoieoiio aeiaaeeo oea aeinyaa?oueny aa?iaoei?th /enea

oac nenoaie c iaeii/aniei oi?ioaaiiyi iaiaoiaeii? oi?ie aeeaey/i?

iai?oae. Oiiae aeaeo?e/ii? ?iaiiaaae caaaeaee aeeiiothoueny aeey noa-

oi?ieo iaiioie AAe c iaia?iei /eneii oac i?e aeeaeaiii ?o aiae iin-

oiaeo AII oi?? ae oaciinoi. I?ioa, yeui ciino ia?oi? aa?iiiiee a

caaaeueiiio aeith/iio cia/aiii iai?oae aeey o?eoaciiai AII i?e iiaii-

io oi?aaeiiii aei?iaith? 0,955, oi i?e iiaeaeuaiii oaciinoi nenoaie

aa?iiiieiee neeaae aeoiaeii? iai?oae AII iiai?oo?oueny,iai?eeeaae i?e

m = 5 Ei = 0,922. A i’yoeoaciie nenoaii AII-AAe iiaeeeai iiaeaeuai-

iy Ki aei 0,985, a a ianeiao?e/iie oanoeoaciie nenoaii — aei 0,988,

ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiaoiaeiinoi oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoinooiii/aoeo e?eaeo

oacii? iai?oae oa aei iaaei?aaaeaiiai oneeaaeiaiiy noai AII.

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii niiniae neioaco iioeiaeueii? oi?ie oacii?

iai?oae AII aeey aneio?iiii? iaoeie aeiaieueii? oaciinoi:

— ii caaeaiiio aiaeia?aoo ocaaaeueithth/iai aaeoi?o iaaiioiiai iiey AAe;

— niiniaii aa?iiiieiiai aiaeico.

Iiae iioeiaeueiith ?icoii?oueny oi?ia oacii? iai?oae AAe, ui ia i?e-

caiaeeoue aei iaaeii?iiai oneeaaeiaiiy noaiioaoiiee AII, ia? aenieee

neeaae ia?oi? aa?iiiiee a caaaeueiiio aeith/iio cia/aiii, a oaeiae ca-

aacia/o? iiaio aeaeo?iiaaiioio noiiniinoue nenoaie AII-AAe aeiaieue-

iie oaciinoi a onio ?iai/eo ?aaeeiao.

Iiaeaeuaiee neeaae ia?oi? aa?iiiiee o aeoiaeiie iai?oci AIH

i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo ao?ao a AAe oa aei iiaeaeuaiiy
EEAe

ani?? nenoaie OAI. Ii cacia/aiei iaoiaeeeai aeeiiaiee neioac iioe-

iaeueieo e?eaeo oacii? iai?oae aeey AAe ?iciiiaiioii? oaciinoi oa

aeineiaeaeaii ?aaeeie ?iaioe aeaeaoiia. Iai?eeeaae, ia ?en.3 i?eaaaeaii

?acoeueoaoe neioaco e?eaeo oacii? iai?oae aeey aeaioacii? nenoaie

AII-AAe ii caaeaiiio aiaeia?aoo iaaiioiiai iiey AAe aeey aeaio aeaeia

neiao?i? ainae oacieo iaiioie.Anoaiiaeaii,ui a aeaioaciiio AAe oii-

ae aeaeo?iiaaiioii? noiiniinoi c AII aeeiiothoueny i?e aoaeue-yeie

oi?ii i?eeeaaeaii? iai?oae. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui a aeaioaciie ia-

oeii, ini oacieo iaiioie yei? aca?ii ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii, ani oei/a-

niai aa?iiiiee iai?oa a niieo/aieo oacao oioiaeii aei?iaiththoue ioeth.

Iiaeeeai ni?iuaiiy neeiai? noaie aeaioaciiai OAI o ii?iaiyiii c

o?eoaciei aa?iaioii oeyoii aeeo/aiiy c ia? a?iiicaeeeo oieueo?ia

aeueo aa?iiiie i eiioaeoi?ia ciiiiiai no?oio. I?e oeueiio nei?i/o-

?oueny aeo?aoa iiaei oa aeaoioeeoieo aeaeo?ioaoii/ieo iaoa?iaeia,iiae-

aeuothoueny oyaiai-aia?aaoe/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee aaoiiiiiiai aeaeo?i-

i?eaiaeo a iiiiiaeueiiio ?aaeeii i i?e oaeaeeinoyo aeua iiiiiaeueieo.

Aeeiiaii oai?aoe/iee aiaeic aeaeo?iiaaiioieo i?ioeania o

aeaioaciie nenoaii AII-AAe i?e ocaaaeueiaiie e?eaie oacii? iai?oae,

yeee i?eaaaeaii ia ?en.4a. Ia ?en.4a i?eaaaeaii caeaaeiinoi U1/U i?e

??ciiiaiioiiio ii?aeiaiii ia?aiao?ia q i a ocaaaeueiaii? e?eai?

oacii? iai?oae. Ae?ace, ui iienothoue oacii no?oie AAe aeey ocaaaeue-

iaii? e?eai? oacii? iai?oae (noaoe/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy), iathoue aeaeyae

. ( 8 )

;

Ia iiaenoaai oeeo ae?acia iaea?aeaii ?ic?aooieiai niiaaiaeiioaiiy, ui

aeicaieyoue aecia/eoe ani ia?aiao?e aeaioacii? nenoaie AII-AAe, yei

iaiaoiaeii i?e ?? i?iaeooaaiii.

I?iaiaeiciaaii ?iciiiaiioii aa?iaioe noai oyaiaeo AII i

?aeiiaiaeiaaii ?aoeiiiaeueii no?oeoo?e aeaioacieo nenoai AII-AAe, ui

ni?iuothoue neeiao noaio OAI aaoiiiiiiai eieiiioeao a oeieiio.

A i’yoiio ?icaeiei aeeiiaii oai?aoe/ii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii

aeineiaeaeaiiy oyaiaiai aeieo NA-A a aaa?ieieo ?aaeeiao.

Iiaeaeuaii aeiiae aei aaciaee ?ooo i iaaeieiinoi aaoiiiiieo

eieiiioeaia aeeeeeathoue iaiaoiaeiinoue a i?iaaaeaiii aeineiaeaeaiue
iiaeo

nenoai OAI a aaa?ieieo ?aaeeiao c iaoith noai?aiiy aieueo aoaeoeaieo

caniaia caoenoo neeiaiai oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy. Aeey no?oeoo?

OAI no/anieo oaieiaicia c aeaeo?iia?aaea/aie ciiiii-iinoieiiai oa

ciiiiiai no?oio oa?aeoa?iei ? iayaiinoue caaaeueiiai aeaiaioo — oy-

aiaiai aeieo NA-A. Oyaiaee aeie NA-A neeaaea?oueny ic NA c aeaiia

o?eoacieie iaiioeaie ia noaoi?i, cnoiooeie a i?inoi?i ia eoo 30

aeaeo?e/ieo a?aaeonia, i aeaio iinoiaeo iaea?iaaieo A,ui aeeth/athoue-

ny ia?aeaeueii aai iineiaeiaii.

A ?iaioi i?iaiaeiciaaii i?eno?i? caoenoo oyaiaeo aeieia

NA-A no/anieo oaieiaicia, a oiio /enei i oi, ?iaioa yeeo caniiaa-

ia ia eiio?iei ?icieoei iioaioeiaeia iiae ioeyie ci?ie oyaiaiai NA.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?eno?i?, ui canoiniaothoueny, ia aieiaeithoue aeinoao-

iiie /ooeeainoth oa oaeaeeiaei?th, aai ia ?aaaothoue ia neiao?e/ii ei-

?ioei caieeaiiy (EC) a eaioethaao noaoi?ieo iaiioie NA, aai ia EC a

eaioethci iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Aeey ooai?aiiy aieueo aoaeoeaieo i?eno?i?a caoenoo aeiaaaei-

ny ii?aoethaaiiy iaaeieieo caniaia iaeaioeoieaoei? iiiai?ieo aaa?ieieo

noaiia. Aeey oeueiai aaoi?ii aeineiaeaeaia ?iaioa aeieo NA-A a ii?iaeue-

ieo oa aaa?ieieo ?aaeeiao i iaea?aeaii iiai iaoeiai ?acoeueoaoe, ui

aeicaieeee oaeineiiaeeoe aeai?eoie iiaoaeiae i?eno?i?a caoenoo NA i

A. O aeaeyaei aa?aioiaaiiai aeaea?aea iioi?iaoei? i?i aeieeiaiiy aaa-

?i? a oyaiaiio aeioei NA-A aeei?enoaiee oaeo i?i ianooi a iaaiee

iiiaio /ano ?iaiinoi ieoo?aeo cia/aiue anio o?ueio oacieo iai?oa

oi/ ae a iaeiie c ci?ie oyaiaiai NA. Iieacaii, ui oea caaaeaee aiaeao-

aa?oueny a oyaiaiio aeioei NA-A i?e g< p/3 (g - eoo eiiooaoe?? aaioeeia) i oieueee oiaei, eiee aeieea? aoaeue-yea ic iiiai?ieo aaa- ?ie: neiao?e/ii oa ianeiao?e/ii EC ia aioei ciiiiiai /e iinoieiiai no?oio neeiai? aei?yiii? onoaiiaee,i?iaith aoaeue-yeiai /enea aaioe- eia aei?yiey/a. Aaa?ieiee noai oyaiaiai aeieo NA-A iiaeia iaeaioe- oieoaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith iaei?inoioiai aeao/eea, aeeiiaiiai, iai?ee- eaae, ia noaaieio?iiao aai noaainoi?ao. Aeao/eee aaa?ieiiai noaio iiaeeeth/athoueny aei aeaiaeia ioey i oacieo iaiioie a eiaeiie ic ci?ie oyaiaiai NA. Aeoiaeiee neaiae ia ni?aoethaaiiy caoenoo oi?io?oueny ie?aiei eiai/iei aeieii, a yeiio aeeiiothoueny oaeiae iia?aoei? aaeueaaii/ii- ai ?ica'ycoaaiiy i caiai'yoiaoaaiiy oaeoo aaa?ieiiai noaio. Aeey aeiyoeo iiieeeiaeo ni?aoeueiaeaaiue caoenoo,iiaeeeaeo i?e ?iaioi aei- eo NA-A a ii?iaeueiiio ?aaeeii c iiaeaeuaieie cia/aiiyie eooo eiio- oaoei? (aei?yiii iinoe i?aoeththoue a o?aoueiio aai a /aoaa?oiio ?aaee- iao, eiee iaeii/anii aeeth/aii ii o?e aai /ioe?e aaioeey), a eiai/- iee aeie aaiaeeoueny oaeiae iioi?iaoeiy i?i ?iaaiue iai?oae ia aeoiaei A. Oea aeicaiey? aeieoaaoe aeoiaeiee neaiae i?eno?ith caoenoo ca aiae- nooi?noth aaa?ieiiai noaio. Iiaeaeuaii cia/aiiy eooo eiiooaoei? iiae- eeai i?e ?iaioi eieiiioeaa a ioneiaeo ?aaeeiao, ui aiaeiiaiaea? ?i- aioi OAI a ciii iaiaaeaiiy no?oio.Aeieeiaiiy aaa?i? a aeioei NA-A a oeeo aeiaaeeao ia aeeeeea? iaaaciaee i ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaaeno?o- iaie ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy. Ii ?acoeueoaoao aeeiiaieo oai?aoe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia aeieoiaioaoeiy i aeaioiaeaii ni?iaii c?acee i?eno?i?a caoenoo ei- ai/iiai oeio.Aenia?eiaioaeueii (ia noaiaei oa ia ?aaeueiiio oaieiai- ci) iiaeoaa?aeaeaii i?aaeeueiinoue oai?aoe/iiai aiaeico aaa?ieieo ?a- aeeiia a oyaiaiio aeioei NA-A oa iaaeieia ooieoeiiioaaiiy ni?iaieo c?aceia i?eno?ith caoenoo i?e iiioaoei? iiiai?ieo aaa?ieieo noaiia. *an ni?aoethaaiiy caoenoo ia ia?aaeuo? o?eaaeinoi ia?iiaeo aeeaeth/i? iai?oae. A oinoiio ?icaeiei i?iaaaeaii aiaeic oa aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo aaa?ieieo noaiia a oyaiaiio aeioei AII-AAe i noi?ioeueiaaii i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae aoaeoeaieo nenoai caoenoo. Oyaiaee AII ? iaeaieueo e?e- oe/iei aeaiaioii OAI aei ia?aaeuaiiy a?aie/ieo ia?aiao?ia i aeya- ey? /eiaeee aieea ia i?ioeaaa?ieii aeanoeainoi OAI oa aaoiiiiiiai eieiiioeao a oeieiio. Aiaeic iiaeeeaeo aaa?ieieo noaiia a aeioei AII-AAe aeicaieea aeyaeoe iniiaii aeaee aiaeiia, noi?ioethaaoe caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy iaeaieueo oa?aeoa?ieo aoaiia ?icaeoeo aaa?ieiiai i?ioeano oa neioa- co aoaeoeaieo i?eno?i?a caoenoo. Iieacaii, ui a ia?aaaaeiie aieue- oinoi aeiaaeeia ia?aeiii aiaeiiae ? oiiaii-iai?ioii, i?e/iio iae- aieueo /anoeie c ieo ? iaeiiooaoeiy iea/a aieiaieo oe?enoi?ia ii- aa?oi?a.Oaea aiaeiiaa iaeaea caaaeaee aeeeeea?oueny ii?ooaiiyie ?aaee- io eiiooaoei? oa oa?aeoa?eco? ia?oee aoai ?icaeoeo aaa?ieiiai i?i- oeano. Ia ia?oiio aoaii aeieea? ianeiao?iy oacieo iai?oa AII i ii- /eia?oueny iioaineaia c?inoaiiy oacieo no?oiia aeaeaoio. Ia ae?oaiio aoaii aeieea? iaeaieueo iaaacia/iee aaa?ieiee ?aaeei - aeaioacia ia- ?aeeaeaiiy iiaa?oi?a.Ae?oaee aoai aaa?ieiiai i?ioeano noi?iaiaeaeo?oue- ny oaea?ieie no?oiaie EC c aieo eiiaeainaoi?ia oieueo?o oa oyaiaeo aeaeo?e/ieo iaoei,a oaeiae /eiaeeie iaoaii/ieie aieeaaie ia aeecaeue oa aeaiaioe oyaiai? ia?aaea/i. O aeaeyaei aaciaiai aiaeioe/iiai niiniao aiaeico ia?aaeaaa- ?ieieo i?ioeania a nenoaii AII-AAe ia ia?oiio aoaii aaa?ieiiai noa- io (iaeiiooaoeiy oe?enoi?ia AII) ia?aiee niinia aeaio neeaaeiaeo, aeieeaaeii iienaiee a ?icaeiei 3.?iciianthaeaeaiiy oeueiai niiniao ia ae- iaaeie aiaeico aaa?ieieo i?ioeania i?e iaeiiooaoei? aaco?oueny ia aei- iouaiii i?i caa?aaeaiiy aaee/eie i ciaeo oacii? iai?oae ia ianooi- iiio iioa?aaei iiney eiiooaoei?, yea ua ia noaeany. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieia ia?aaeaaa?ieieo no?oiia a nenoaii AII-AAe c ia?aiao?aie aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy coiniaii aei oaieiaico OA120 aeicaieeee aecia/eoe ciio iaeaieueo aaaeeeo ?aaeeiia c oi/ee ci?o iiaeeeainoi ?aaeicaoei? caoenoo aiae iaeiiooaoei? i ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe oaeaeeiaeith oaeiai caoenoo a iaaeao (300...400) ien. Ia ae?oaiio aoaii ?icaeoeo aaa?ieiiai i?ioeano /a?ac ei?io- eicaieiooo oaco AII i?io?ea? noia no?oiia : ie(t) = iei(t) + ieo(t) + iei(t), ( 9 ) aea iei(t), ieo(t), iei(t) - aiaeiiaiaeii, neeaaeiai no?oiia ei?ioei- ai caieeaiiy aeieo NA-A, eiiaeainaoi?a oieueo?o oa AAe. Oa?aeoa? ciiie aaa?ieieo no?oiia iei (t) oa ieo (t) i nii- niae ?o ia/eneaiue caaaeueiiaiaeiii. No?oi ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy aeae- aoia iei(t), ui caeaaeeoue aiae caiano aia?ai? a iaaiioiiio iiei AAe, iiaeia aecia/eoe ic oiiae, ui i?e ia?aeeaeaiii iiaa?oi?a i?inoi?iai ?ioi?a i?aaenoaaeythoueny iaii?ooieie aaeoi?aie uiaei nai?o iaiioie i ciiiththoueny eeoa ii ii- aeoeth. Iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?o aeeeeea? ciiio aca?iiiai i?inoi?iaiai ii- eiaeaiiy aaeoi?ia iioieic/aieaiiy.A iiiaio ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy aae- i?eaeecii ?iaii ii iiaeoeth i iaeaea caiaathoueny ii iai?yio. Ii caeii/aiii iaiiaia?iiaea iioieic/aieaiiy noaoi?a oa ?ioi?a iathoue noi?ioeaii iai?yiee i i?eaeecii ?iaii ii iiaeoeth. Aianeiaeie oeueiai iaaiioii no?oie noaoi?a i ?ioi?a caieea- thoueny aeeeth/ii ii oeyoao ?icniyiiy i no?oie AAe aeinyaathoue /eiaeeo aaee/ei : ( 10 ) aea Us - iiaeoeue i?inoi?iaiai aaeoi?o iai?oae ia?oi? aa?iiiiee aei iiiaioo ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy; Ts'=Ls'/rs - ia?aoiaeia iinoieia /ano noaoi?a; Tr'=Lr'/rr - ia?aoiaeia iinoieia /ano ?ioi?a; s - ?acoeueooth/ee eiaoioei?io ?icniyiiy. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo aaee/ei no?oiia i?e iaeiiooaoei? oe- ?enoi?ia i oaea?ieo no?oiia i?e ia?aeeaeaiii iiaa?oi?a, a oaeiae ?a- coeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo, aeicaieeee ioeiieoe ?o e?aoiinoue ia ?iaii 4...5 o aiaeiioaiii aei iiiiiaeueieo cia/aiue. Ioaea, iiaeeeai noai?aiiy ?aeeiiai aeeiiaa/iai i?eno?ith caoenoo i?e aeieeiaiii oeeo aeaio aeaeia aaa?ie. Aeey aeeeth/aiiy oaea?ieo aieeaia ia aeecaeue oa aeaiaioe iaoaii/ii? ia?aaea/i caaaeueiee /an ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy caoenoo ia iiaeiai aooe aieueoa 1 in. Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?eioeei iiaoaeiae eiiieaeniiai aaaaoinooiii- /aoiai caoenoo oyaiaeo aeieia AII-AAe, caniiaaiee ia aacoieiiiio eiio?iei ?o noaio, aeyao oa iaeaioeoieaoei? aoaiia aeieeiaiiy aaa- ?ieieo i?ioeania, ae?iaieoeoai ea?oth/iai aieeao ia aiaeiiaiaeii aeei- iaa/i i?eno?i? caoenoo. O aeaeyaei ia?oeo aeaio nooiaiia eiiieaen- iiai caoenoo ?aeiiaiaeiaaii : - eiai/iee caoeno iiia?aaeaeoaaeueiiai oeio aiae iaeiiooaoei? iea/a aieiaieo oe?enoi?ia, ui ia aeiionea? aeaioaciiai ia?aeeaeaiiy AII; - oaeaeeiaeith/ee aacoaea?iee caoeno, yeee ni?aoeueiao? i?e aeieeiaiii aeaioaciiai ia?aeeaeaiiy iiaa?oi?a. A ?aci oniioiiai aiaeiiaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiinoi iiaa?oi?a, ui aiaeeacaa, nenoaia caoenoo aeeth/a? i?eno?ie aaoiiaoe/iiai iiaoi?- iiai aeeth/aiiy. sseui a AII aeieeathoue iaiiaa?iaii aiaeiiae, iaia- oiaeii aeeth/aoe o?aoie nooiiiue caoenoo, o aeaeyaei yeiai iiaeooue ao- oe aeei?enoaii aiaeiii i aeia?a aiaei?aoeueiaaii i?eno?i? caoenoo ooi- ooth/i? aei? c oe?enoi?ieie aai iaoaii/ieie ei?ioeicaieea/aie, i oi?ioaaoe neaiae ia aeieiaiiy OAI aeey eieaeicaoei? ianeiaeeia aaa- ?ieiiai i?ioeano. A ?iaioi i?eaaaeaii i?eeeaaee oaoii/ii? ?aaeicaoei? no?oeoo? oa eiie?aoieo i?eno?i?a caoenoo a oiio /enei, i ?yaeo aeao/eeia, ui iaiaoiaeii aeey caeieniaiiy aacoieiiiai eiio?ieth ca noaiii oe?enoi?- ieo iea/ ia?aoai?thaa/a oa aeey ?aaeicaoei? aoaeoeaieo aeai?eoiia aaaaoinooiii/aoiai caoenoo oyaiaiai aeieo AII-AAe. Nueiiee ?icaeie i?enay/aiee ieoaiiyi oaeineiiaeaiiy NAE OAI aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia c aeaeo?iia?aaea/ath ciiiiiai no?oio. Aia?aaoe/ia nenoaia aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia iinoeoue ?yae ea- ?iaaieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia aia?ai?: aeecaeue, NA-A i AII-AAe. NAE oaei? neeaaeii? nenoaie iiaeiia iaoe,i?eiaeii, aeai aaoiiiiii iiaenenoaie: iiaenenoaio ?aaoethaaiiy aeecaey i iiaenenoaio ?aaoethaaiiy OAI. A ?i- aioi i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaii? aaoi?ii iiae- nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy OAI (a iiaeaeueoiio - NAE). NAE OAI iinoeoue aeaa ?aaoeyoi?e ic ciiiiith no?oeoo?ith: ?aaoeyoi? caoaeaeaiiy (?A) oyai- aiai NA, ui caaacia/o? oiiae noiinii? ?iaioe OAI c aeecaeai, i ?a- aoeyoi? /anoioe (?*), ui caaacia/o? ?iaioo oyaiaeo AAe ii eaaciii- oeiaeueiei caeiiai /anoioiiai oi?aaeiiiy. ?* ? iiaeii?yaeeiaaiei ii aiaeiioaiith aei ?A i caeienith? iiaa?iaioia o?eciiia ?aaoethaaiiy AAe. A ?aaeeii oyae ?A oi?io? iaiaoiaeii ciaiioii aiia?aiei/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee aeieo NA-A a ooieoei? no?oio iaeaieueo iaaaioaaeaii- ai oyaiaiai AAe, a a ?aaeeii aaeueioaaiiy caeienith? neiaeeoth/a ?aao- ethaaiiy iai?oae NA-A ca iai?oaith ia aaeueioaaeueiiio ?acenoi?i. Aeey iiaeaeuaiiy yeinoi ?aaoethaaiiy oa aeeeth/aiiy aieeao ianoaaieueiinoi eiaoioei?ioo oi?ie neaiaeo cai?ioiueiai ca'yceo ii no?oio iaeaieueo iaaaioaaeaiiai AAe a ?A iaiaoiaeii oi?ioaaoe neaiae cai?ioiueiai ca'yceo ii no?oio o aeaeyaei ?icieoei: ( 11 ) aea te - iinoieia /ano eioaa?oaaiiy; Uin(t) - neaiaee cai?ioiueiai ca'yceo ii no?oio AAe; Uon(t) - iooieueo?iaaii neaiaee ii no?oio AAe; n - iiia? i?aoethth/iai oyaiaiai aeieo AII-AAe (1 < n < N); N - caaaeueia eieueeinoue oyaiaeo aeieia AII-AAe. Neioaco no?oeoo?e ?aaoeyoi?a /anoioe ia?aaeoaaei aeineiaeaeai- iy caeiiia iioeiaeueiiai /anoioiiai oi?aaeiiiy c iaoith aeai?o ia- caeaaeieo ciiiieo. Aiaeiii, ui ?aaeei ?iaioe AAe iaeiicia/ii aecia/a- ?oueny caaaeaiiyi aoaeue-yeeo o?ueio iacaeaaeieo ciiiieo. A yeinoi iaeii?? c ieo aeioeieueii ia?aoe iiaeoeue no?oio noaoi?a, ui caaea?oueny ?A. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo noaia caiiuaiiy AAe caiaeeoueny oieueee aei noaie caiiuaiiy eiea ?ioi?a. A ?iaioi iieacaii, ui i?e i?eioniaiio caa- aeaiii no?oio noaoi?a aeaeo?iiaaiioiee iiiaio AAe ia caeaaeeoue aiae /anoioe iaa?oaiiy ?ioi?a, a caaaeaiiy iioeiaeueiiai oi?aaeiiiy cai- aeeoueny aei caaacia/aiiy iaeneioia iiiaioo i?e caaeaiiio no?oii noa- oi?a. Oiaei aeey iaeiicia/iinoi ?aaeeio ?iaioe OAI aeinoaoiuei caaeaoe oieueee ua iaeio iacaeaaeio ciiiio i ooieoeiiiaeueii iia'ycaoe ?? c no?oiii noaoi?a. O aeaeyaei ae?oai? iacaeaaeii? ciiiii? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii oaei ia?aiao?e: - eooe iiai?ioo aaeoi?ia no?oio noaoi?a i ?ioi?a uiaei aaeoi?o A?N aai eoo iiae ieie; - iiaeoei aaeoi?ia no?oio ?ioi?a i no?oio iaiaaii/oaaiiy; - iaaiioiee no?oi /e /anoioa aaniethoiiai eiacaiiy. Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ii iiaeeeainoi iioeiicaoei? ?aaeeiia ?iaioe OAI ani ?icaeyiooi aa?iaioe iaeaioe/ii. Aeey ni?iuaiiy nenoaie ?a- aoethaaiiy /anoioe o aeaeyaei ae?oai? iacaeaaeii? ciiiii? aeioeieueii i?eeiyoe ia?aiao? iaaiioiiai no?oio AAe, ai iaea?aeaiiy neaiaeo cai- ?ioiueiai ca'yceo ii oeueiio ia?aiao?o ia i?aaenoaaey? oaoii/ieo o?oaeiiuia. Iieacaii oaeiae, ui iane/aiiy iaaiioiiai eiea oyaiaeo AAe inoioii aieeaa? ia caeaaeiinoue aeaeo?iiaaiioiiai iiiaioo,ciiuo- th/e aeno?aioi oei?? ooieoei? a iaeanoue a?eueo iecueeeo aiaeiinieo cia- /aiue iaaiioiiai iioieo. Aieea iane/aiiy AAe ia oa?aeoa?enoeee OAI onoaathoueny aaaaeaiiyi a eaiae ?aaoethaaiiy iaaiioiiai iioieo niaoei- aeueiiai iaeiiieiiai aeieo c oa?aeoa?enoeeith O=F(I1), ?ic?aoiaaii? ?c oiia: ( 12 ) aea I0 - no?oi iaiaaii/oth/iai eiioo?o; xii - iiaeoeoeaiee iii? eiioo?a,ui iaiaaii/o?, i?e aaciaie /anoioi. Oea aeicaiey? a ia?oeo aeaio ciiao (aiaeiiaiaeii i?e I1 = const oa i?e ?1 = const) ?aaoethaaoe OAI ii iioeiaeueiei caeiiai, ui aeecueei aei caeiio iiiiiaeueieo ao?ao. A o?aoie ciii ?aaoethaaiiy (?aaeei ineaaeaiiy iiey),ui iaiaoiaeia aeey ?icoe?aiiy oaeaeeiniiai aeiaiaciio eieiiioeaa, oyaiai AAe ?aaoeththoueny ii caeiio U1 = I1i?e ?1 = = const. Oea icia/a?, ui aeopnoei caaeaii o?e eii?aeeiaoe i ui iioi/iee noai oyaiaeo AAe aecia/aii oaea a i?inoi?i o?ueio iacaeaaeieo ciiiieo. Oiio iioeiicaoeiy OAI a iaaeaiiio ?a- aeeii iaiiaeeeaa. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oyaiaeo i ?aaoethaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee aaoiiiiiiai eieiiioeaa c eiaica i?e aaoiiaoe/iiio iaeieii iane/aiiy oyaiaeo AAe. Iniaeeainoue oei?? iaoiaeeee a oiio, ui aiia ioneiaeeiao? i?ioean ?iaioe ?aaoeyoi?a oa aaoiiaoe/ii o?aoiao? a?aie/ii ?aaeeie ciiie caeiiia ?aaoethaaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue NAE OAI ciiiiiai no?oio ia aiaeiaiaiio ia/enethaaeueiiio eiiieaeni, ia noaiaeao oa ia ?aaeueiiio oaieiaici iiaeoaa?aeeee iniiaii oai?aoe/ii aeniiaee,iaea?- aeaii aaoi?ii, i iiaeoaa?aeeee aoaeoeaiinoue cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?eioeeio iioeiicaoei? nenoai aneio?iiiiai OAI. A ?iaioi oaeiae iieacaii ia?niaeoeaiinoue i ?aoeiiiaeueii oey- oe iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy NAE OAI aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia ia aa- ci iie?ii?ioeani?ieo caniaia, i?eaaaeaii iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe ii?aoeth- aaiiy i aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue iie?ii?ioeani?ii? NAE OAI ia- naaee?nueeiai oaieiaico OAI70 N283. A E N I I A E E A aeena?oaoei? eiiieaenii c ?aeeieo iaoiaeieiai/ieo iiceoeie ae?ioaia iaoeiai-oaoii/ia i?iaeaia iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi aaoi- iiiieo eieiiioeaia oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy ?o aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aaea/ ia aaci aeinyaiaiue ia?aoai?thaaeueii? oaoiiee. Iieacaii, ui canoinoaai- iy oe?enoi?ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia i?eaea? OAI iiai nenoaiii aeanoeain- oi, ui aeicaiey? iiaeaeueoe cia/aiiy aenieoaoaoeieiiai EEAe i eiaoi- oei?ioo oyae eieiiioeaa, iiaeaeueoe iaaeieiinoue i cieceoe /enei aiae- iia oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy, ?aaeicoaaoe aieueo aoaeoeaii aeai- ?eoie oi?aaeiiiy, ae?ioeoe caaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? aaoiiaoecaoei? aa- oiiiiiiai eieiiioeaa,cieceoe caaaeueii aeo?aoe ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy i ?aiiio. Iniiaii iaoeiai ?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee i ?aeiiaiaeaoei? : 1. Onoaiiaeaii, ui aeaeo?iia?aaea/a ciiiii-iinoieiiai no?oio c iaea?iaaieie A oa OAAe iineiaeiaiiai caoaeaeaiiy, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny ia aio/eciyieo oaieiaicao, iaiaaeo? iiaeeeainoue iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoea- iinoi OAI no/anieo oaieiaicia. Iieacaii,ui canoinoaaiiy oe?enoi?- ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia c iao?aaeeoeieiith nooeoo?iith iiaoaeiaith caiinoue iaea?iaaieo A ciiia? oei iaiaaeaiiy i aeicaiey? : - iiaeaeueoe ia (6...10) % eiaoioei?io oyae oaieiaico oeyoii ia?a- aiaeo aoenoth/eo OAAe a ?aaeei eaaciiacaeaaeiiai caoaeaeaiiy; - ?aaeicoaaoe ?aaeei iiaieueiiai ineaaeaiiy OAAe i iiaeaeueoe na?aae- iueiaenieoaoaoeieiee EEAe aeaeo?iia?aaea/i a ciii aenieeo oaeaeein- oae ?ooo ia (1...1,5) %; - iieiioeoe noaoe/ii oa aeeiaii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeo?iia?aaea/i oaieiaico a ?aaeeii aeaeo?e/iiai aaeueioaaiiy ca ?aooiie canoino- aaiiy oe?enoi?iiai caoaeaeaiiy OAAe i aeeeth/aiiy c eiioo?o ?aaoeth- aaiiy oyaiaiai NA; - iiaeaeueoe i?ioeaaa?ieii aeanoeainoi aeaeo?iia?aaea/i ca ?aooiie ?aaeicaoei? oaeaeeiaeith/iai "nioeiaiai" caoenoo; - caanoe aei iiiiioio eieueeinoue neeiai? eiioaeoii? aia?aoo?e. A oe?enoi?iiio OAI caa?aaeaii iaeneiaeueii aiaei?aoeueiaaii a oiiaao ae?iaieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoei? na?ieii oyaiai aeaeo?e/ii ia- oeie, ui aeicaiey? oaeaeei oa c iiiiiaeueieie aeo?aoaie ai?iaaaeeoe yeinii iiao aeaeo?iia?aaea/o ia oaieiaicao, ai ia aeiaaa? ia?aao- aeiae ae?iaieoeoaa oyaiaeo aeaeo?e/ieo iaoei i aeiei?iiii? ?aeiino- ?oeoei? aenieoaoaoeieii? oa ?aiiioii? aace. 2. ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia aia?aiiinoa/aiiy aeanieo iio?aa c naii- caoaeaeaiiyi NAA i oe?enoi?ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie a eaioethaao caoaeaeai- iy oyaiaeo aaia?aoi?ia. ?ic?iaeaii oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee iaoiae neioaco iiaa?iaioieo NIOE. Iaoiae caniiaaiee ia i?eioeeii iioaa?o- aaiiy o /aniaie iaeanoi iiaeiioaa?aeueii? ooieoei?,yea aoiaeeoue o ae- ?ac aeey na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy aei?yieaii? iai?oae EA, i oi?ioaaiiy ea?oth/iai iiioeueno oeyoii aiaeeieo ciaiioiueiai neaiaeo oi?aaeiiiy aiae eiioeaaiai cia/aiiy iioaa?aeo, ui caiai'yoiao?oueny ia iiia?a- aeiueiio aeoeaiiio iioa?aaei oi?aaeiiiy.Iiaa?iaioia NIOE oi?io? ei- iieii i noaaieueii ?aaoethaaeueii oa?aeoa?enoeee EA iacaeaaeii aiae ciiie aaee/ei iai?oae i /anoioe aeeaey/i? ciiiii? iai?oae.Iieacaia aoaeoeaiinoue canoinoaaiiy iiaa?iaioieo NIOE i oe?enoi?ieo EA a nenoaiao naiicaoaeaeaiiy oaieiaicieo NA. 3. I?iaiaeiciaaii ?aaeeie ?iaioe aia?eaeiiai aei?yiey/a, ui ? aeoeaiith /anoeiith oe?enoi?iiai ia?aoai?thaa/a a OAI ciiiii-iinoie- iiai no?oio (a ?aaeeii aeaeo?e/iiai aaeueioaaiiy). Aia?eaeiee aei?y- iey/ neeaaea?oueny c aeaio ioeueiaeo o?eoacieo oe?enoi?ieo noai i aee- aeoueny aiae aeaio o?eoacieo ci?ie oyaiaiai NA. Aiaeic aeaeo?iiaaii- oieo i?ioeania aeeiiaiee aeey caaaeueiiai aeiaaeeo, eiee oaciaee cnoa iiae aeaiia aeaea?aeaie aeeaeaiiy EA iiaea i?eeiaoe aoaeue-yei oieniaaii cia/aiiy ia iioa?aaei (0 F y F p/6). Aeineiaeaeaia ?iaioa aia?eaeii- ai EA a iaea?iaaiiio, iaiiaea?iaaiiio i ea?iaaiiio ?aaeeiao, iaea?- aeaii iaoaiaoe/iee iien eiai ?aaoethaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee. ?aeiiai- aeiaaia ?iaioa aia?eaeiiai EA a ?aaeeii, ui oi?aaey?,c ianeiao?e/iei oi?aaeiiiyi i c neio?iiicaoei?th ii A?N, ui aeia?aaeaea?. ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aeineiaeaeaiue ? iiaei iaoeiaei aeeaaeii a oai?ith ea?iaaieo aei?yiey/ia. 4. C o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeoiee aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia aeineiaeaeaia nenoaia OAI c AII oa AAe i ?icoe?aii oai?aoe/iee aacen aeey oaeinei- iaeaiiy oaeeo nenoai. Onoaiiaeaia caeiiiii?iinoue ciiie iaaei noa- oe/ii? noieeinoi aneio?iiiiai OAI a caeaaeiinoi aiae aeaeo aeiiiii/- ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aeiiiai aeaeaoia i?e ?iaioi eieiiioeaa a ?a- aeeiao iiaii? i iaiiaii? iiooaeiinoi, ui aeicaiey? oaea ia noaaei? i?iaeooaaiiy iioeiicoaaoe ia?aiao?e OAI. Aeineiaeaeaii oiiae eiiiai- naoei? iaaeii?ii? ?aaeoeaii? aia?ai? a aaaaoiaeaeaoiiiio OAI c aeaea- ?aeii aeeaeaiiy, ui ia ia? cai?ioiuei? i?iaiaeiinoi. Iieacaii, ui iaeaieueo aoaeoeaiei ? niinia neio?iiiiai oi?aaeiiiy oyaiaeie aei- eaie AII-AAe c ?iaiiii?iei oieniaaiei oaciaei cnoaii iiae ieie ia iioa?aaei eiiooaoei? iiiaeeiieiai iiaa?oi?a, ui aeicaiey? oyaiaei AAe iaiiithaaoeny iaaeii?iith ?aaeoeaiith aia?ai?th /a?ac oeie eaiee iin- oieii? iai?oae. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue aneio?iiiiai OAI oa eiai neeaaeiaeo /anoei ia noaiaeao i ia oaiei- aici. 5. Aeeiiaii ?icoe?aiiy aiaeioe/iiai iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo e?eaeo oaciiai no?oio AAe a o?eoaciie nenoaii AII-AAe ii aeaii neeaaeiaei ia aeiaaeie, eiee eoo aeeth/aiiy aieiaieo oe?enoi?ia AII iiaea i?eeiaoe aoaeue-yei oieniaaii cia/aiiy ia iioa?aaei [2p/3; p]. Iaea?aeaii ae?a- ce aeicaieythoue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe na?aaeii ii iiaeoeth, aeith/i oa ieoo?ai cia/aiiy oacieo no?oiia AAe a eaacinoaoe/ieo ?aaeeiao,a oaeiae iiei- ai cia/aiiy no?oiia ia iaaeao iioa?aaeia oa ?o ia?aaeaaa?ieia cia- /aiiy. Iia?ioiinoue ?ic?aooieia aeey eeano caaaeaiue,ca'ycaieo c aia- eicii aaoiiiiieo nenoai OAI, ia ia?aaeuo? 5%. 6. Ia iiaenoaai aiaeico oei/aniaeo aa?iiiie iaaiioiiai iiey a iiaio?yiiio caci?i aaaaoioacieo AAe i?e aeeaeaiii inoaiiio ianeio- ni?aeaeueiith iai?oaith aiae AII ?ic?iaeaii niiniae neioaco iioeiaeue- ieo e?eaeo oacii? iai?oae ii caaeaiiio aiaeia?aoo aaeoi?a iaaiioii- ai iiey i iieacaii iaiaaeaiiy,i?eoaiaiii o?eoaciei nenoaiai. Aian- eiaeie cinoaaeaiiy o?aaeeoeieieo o?eoacieo nenoai c iioeie iiaeeeaeie aa?iaioaie aeey canoinoaaiiy a OAI ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeaioacii nenoaie AII-AAe, yei aeicaieythoue ci?inoeoe neeiao noaio eieiiioeaa oa i?ea- eecii a aeaa ?ace cieceoe aeiaeaoeiai ao?aoe a AAe.Aeeiiaii oai?aoe/- iee aiaeic aeaeo?iiaaiioieo i?ioeania a aeaioaciie nenoaii AII-AAe i?e ocaaaeueiaii? aeainooiii/anoi? ia iiaia?iiaei e?eai? oacii? iai- ?oae i iaea?aeaii aiaeioe/ii ae?ace, ui aeicaieyoue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ani iaiaoiaeii ia?aiao?e OAI.E?eaa oacii? iai?oae iioeiiciaaia ii iae- neioio neeaaeo ?? ia?oi? aa?iiiiee a caaaeueiiio aeith/iio cia/aiii i?e oiiai noaiii? i?inoioe AII. 7. C iaoith iiaeaeuaiiy oiia aaciaee ?ooo eieiiioeaia i ?ic?ia- ee aoaeoeaieo caniaia caoenoo oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy aeeiiaii aeineiaeaeaiiy nenoai OAI a aaa?ieieo ?aaeeiao. sse aaciaa no?oeoo?a aaoiiiiiiai OAI aeey aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?aia no?oeoo?a neeiai? noaie oaieiaica c oyaiaeie aeieaie NA-A oa AII-AAe, ui a iaeaieueoie ii?i aiaeiiaiaea? aeiiaai iiaeiaiinoi na?ieieo i ia?niaeoeaieo eieiiioe- aia.I?eioeei aei? caoenoia aeieo NA-A i?e anio aeaeao aaa?ieieo noa- iia (ei?ioei caieeaiiy ia noi?iii iinoieiiai i ciiiiiai no?oio, i?iaith aeiaieueiiai /enea aaioeeia) caniiaaiee ia aeyaeaiii iiiai- oia /ano, eiee iioaioeiaee anio oac aoaeue-yei? c o?eoacieo iaiioie oyaiaiai NA iaeii/anii i?eeiathoue iaeiaeiai cia/aiiy.?iaioa caoenoia oyaiaiai aeieo AII-AAe a aaa?ieieo ?aaeeiao (iaeiiooaoeiy iea/ ai- eiaieo oe?enoi?ia AII i aeaioacia ia?aeeaeaiiy iiaa?oi?a) caniiaaia ia aacoieiiiio eiio?iei noaio oe?enoi?ia, aeyaeaiii i iaeaioeoiea- oei? aoaiia aeieeiaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aaa?ieiiai i?ioeano, oi?ioaaiii ea?oth/iai aieeao ia aiaeiiaiaeii nooiaii caoenoo.?aeiiaiaeiaaii ian- ooiii nooiaii caoenoo oyaiaiai aeieo AII - AAe: caoeno iiia?aaeaeo- aaeueiiai oeio aiae iaeiiooaoei? aieiaieo oe?enoi?ia oa oaeaeeiaeith/ee aacoaea?iee caoeno, yeee ni?aoeueiao? a ?aci ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy a iiaa?oi?i.Cai?iiiiiaaii oai?aoe/ii niiniae ?ic?aooieo aeaeo?iiaa- iioieo i?ioeania i?e aaa?iyo a nenoaii AII - AAe. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?a- ooieia i aenia?eiaioaeueii aeineiaeaeaiiy aaa?ieieo i?ioeania iieacaee iiaeeeainoue canoinoaaiiy ?aeeiiai aeeiiaa/iai i?eno?ith aeey cacia- /aieo nooiaiia caoenoo. ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeaii aeao/eee aeey aacoiei- iiai eiio?ieth ca noaiii iea/ AII, iaiaoiaeii aeey ?aaeicaoei? aoae- oeaieo aeai?eoiia aaaaoinooiii/aoiai caoenoo. 8. Aeey OAI aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia c AAe ?ic?iaeaia NAE ic cii- iiith no?oeoo?ith, ui iinoeoue aeaa ?aaoeyoi?e: ?C oa ?*. ?C caaacia- /o? oiiae noiinii? ?iaioe aeecaey i OAI. ?*, ui ? iiaeii?yaeeiaaiei ii aiaeiioaiith aei ?C,caeienith? iiaa?iaioia o?eciiia oi?aaeiiiy /an- oioith aeeaeaiiy oyaiaeo AAe. Neioac ?* caniiaaiee ia ?acoeueoaoao aiaeico iioeiaeueieo caeiiia /anoioiiai oi?aaeiiiy (o aeaeyaei e?e- oa?ith iioeiaeueiinoi i?eeiyoa oiiaa iaea?aeaiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeai- ai iiiaioo AAe i?e caaeaiiio no?oii noaoi?a). ?ic?iaeaia i?eaiiaeue- ia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oyaiaeo i ?aaoethaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ei- eiiioeaa, yea aiaeneiaeeiao? i?ioean ?iaioe NAE i yea a?aoiao? iaei- iieiinoue iaaiioiiai eaioethaa AAe oa ianeioni?aeaeueiinoue iai?oae aeea- eaiiy. Iieacaia aeioeieueiinoue iie?ii?ioeani?ii? ?aaeicaoei? oi?aaeii- iy ani?th aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/iith nenoaiith oaieiaico. 9. Iniiaii iaoeiai ?acoeueoaoe ?aaeiciaaii i?e ooai?aiii i ae- i?iaoaaiiyo aeineiaeieo c?acoeia oyaiaiai aeaeo?iiaeaaeiaiiy, i?e ai?iaaaeaeaiii ia aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaao nenoaie naiicaoaeaeaiiy NAA, i?e ooai?aiii oa aenieoaoaoeieieo aei?iaoaaiiyo oaieiaicia OA120 c OAI ciiiiiai no?oio i OAI70 c iie?ii?ioeani?iith nenoaiith oi?aaeii- iy.Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeoaa?aeaeothoueny aeoaie i?i aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoa- oia iaoeiai? ?iaioe aaoi?a a IAeI "Aeaeo?iaaaeiao" (i. Oa?eia), a IAI OE "Eieiiainueeee caaiae" (i. Eieiiia, ?iniy), a IAI "Aeaeo?i- oaoiiea" (ca?ac iiaei?e?inoai ESTEL AS, i. Oaeeiii, Anoiiiy). Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaie a ianooiieo ?iaioao : 1.Yeaeo?e/aneea ia?aaea/e ia?aiaiiiai oiea oaieiaicia e aacioo?- aiaicia /A.Ae. Noaiaiia, A.E. Aiaea?n,A.A. I?a/enneee, TH.E. Ao- naaneee.- I.: O?ainii?o, 1982.- 255n. 2.Aonaaneee TH.E. Niiniau e ono?ienoaa oi?ie?iaaiey neaiaeia ia- ?aoiie nayce a yeaeo?iia?aaea/ao oaieiaicia n aneio?iiiuie aeaeaaoaeyie. Iaci?iay eioi?iaoeey //Na?ey 10. Yeaeo?iiai?oaei- aaiea iiaeuaiii-o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. Oyaiaia e e?aiiaia yeae- o?iiai?oaeiaaiea. ( Yeaeo?iaicu. Iaiieueiue yeaeo?io?ainii?o", Eioi?iyeaeo?i.- Iineaa.- 1983.- Aui.4.- N.1-40. 3.Aonaaneee TH.E., Iieoi?ae N.I. Aaa?eeiua ?aaeeiu e ono?ienoaa caueou aaoiiiiiiai oyaiaiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea ia?aiaiiiai oiea. Iaci?iay eioi?iaoeey. //Eioi?iyeaeo?i "Oyaiaia e e?aiiaia yeae o?iiai?oaeiaaiea. Yeaeo?iaicu. Iaiieueiue o?ainii?o".- ON - 10. Iineaa.- 1982.- N.1-20. 4.Aeaenaaa A.I., Aonaaneee TH.E.,Iaaeeineee I.A. Caueoa oaieiaic- iuo aaia?aoi?ii-aui?yieoaeueiuo onoaiiaie //O?oaeu AIEOE "En- neaaeiaaiea oceia e aa?aaaoia oaieiaicia". - Eieiiia.- 1978. - Aui.47. - N.134-140. 5.Ao?eia A.O.,Aonaaneee TH.E.,Iieoi?ae N.I.,No?ieia A.N. Aiaeec i?ioeaiaaa?eeiuo ninoiyiee a oyaiaii aaoiiiiiii eiaa?oi?a ia- i?yaeaiey iaoiaeii aeaoo ninoaaeythueo // O?oaeu AIEOE, Eieiiia, 1985.- Aui.61.- N.65-71. 6.Aonaa I.A., Aonaaneee TH.E., Aeoa?ianeee A.A., Caaa?ee A.E.,Ia- iiiia A.A.,Ia?/aiei A.N.,Ica?iie I.O.,Iieoi?ae N.I. Iee?ii?i- oeanni?iue eiio?ieea? aicaoaeaeaiey aa?aaaoa oaieiaica //Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia "Oaieiaiciia e yia?aaoe/aneia yeaeo?iiai?oaei- aaiea".- Oa?ueeia: IEE caaiaea "Yeaeo?ioyaeiao".- 1989.- Aui.1.- N.13-21. 7.Aonaaneee TH.E. Auai? ia?aiao?ia e?eaie oaciiai iai?yaeaiey aeaoooaciiai oyaiaiai aeiea AEI-AAe: // Eioi?iaoeeiiii-oi?aaeyth- uea nenoaiu ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa.-1998.-N6.-N. 8.Aonaaneee TH.E. Eiaa?eaioiia oi?aaeaiea oe?enoi?iuie aui?yie- oaeyie i?e eciaiaiee iai?yaeaiey e /anoiou enoi/ieea ieoaiey: // Eioi?iaoeeiiii-oi?aaeythuea nenoaiu ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ai- nii?oa.- 1997.- N3.- N.35-38. 9.Aonaaneee TH.E.?ani?aaeaeaiea iaaieoiiai iioiea a aicaeooiii ca- ci?a AAe i?e ianeionieaeaeueiii ieoaiee: // Eioi?iaoeeiiii-oi?aa- eythuea nenoaiu ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa. - 1998. - N3. - N. 86-88. 10.Aonaaneee TH.E. ?aaoee?iai/iua oa?aeoa?enoeee aea?eaeiuo oe?en- oi?iuo aui?yieoaeae a oi?aaeyaiii ?aaeeia: // Eioi?iaoeeiiii - oi?aaeythuea nenoaiu ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa. - 1997.- N 5/6. - N.66-70. 11.Aonaaneee TH.E. ?aaoee?iai/iua oa?aeoa?enoeee iieooi?aaeyaiuo aea?eaeiuo aui?yieoaeae, ?aaioathueo a iaoi?aaeyaiii e iieooi- ?aaeyaiii ?aaeeiao : // Eioi?iaoeeiiii - oi?aaeythuea nenoaiu ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa.- 1997.- N4.- N.70-75. 12.Aonaaneee TH.E.,Aa?oiaeyae A.A.,Ia?/aiei A,N.,Iineia A.E. Ecia- ?aiea oiea ia auoiaea aaoiiiiiuo eiaa?oi?ia iai?yaeaiey //YI "I?aia?aciaaoaeueiay oaoieea".- 1974.- N11[58].- N.8-11. 13.Aonaaneee TH.E.,Caeeciye A.I.,Iineia A.E.,Eaieion A.N.,No?ieia A.N. Aii?inu iiaeaee?iaaiey nenoaiu eiaa?oi? iai?yaeaiey-anei- o?iiiue aeaeaaoaeue-iaa?ocea a oyaiaii yeaeo?ii?eaiaea oaieiaica // O?oaeu AIEOE "Enneaaeiaaiea oceia e aa?aaaoia oaieiaicia." -Eieiiia.- 1978.- Aui. 47.- N.125-133. 14.Aonaaneee TH.E., Eaaiaiei A.E., Ieiiiia A.I.,?iaa/aa N.E.,Oea- /aiei A.I. E aii?ino i aaia?aoi?iii oi?iiaeaiee aneio?iiiiai oyaiaiai aeaeaaoaey i?e ia?aie/aiee ii iaaieoiiio iioieo // Aanoiee OIE "Yeaeo?iiaoeiino?iaiea e aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iiuoeai- iuo i?aaei?eyoee".- Oa?ueeia, 1983.- N206, aui.8.- N.29-31. 15.Aonaaneee TH.E.,Eaaiaiei A.I.,?iaa/aa N.E. Ia?niaeoeau eniieue- ciaaiey aeaoooaciuo aneio?iiiuo aeaeaaoaeae a oyaiaii yeaeo?i- i?eaiaea // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai iieeoaoie/aneiai einoeoooa.- 1987.- aui.247.- N.5-7. 16.Aonaaneee TH.E., Eaaiiaa A.I. Enneaaeiaaiea onoie/eainoe nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey aaia?aoi?a yia?ainiaaaeaiey oaieiaica OY120 //YI "Oyaiaia e iiaeuaiii-o?ainii?oiia yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiea".- 1982. - N2[80].- N.4-6. 17.Aonaaneee TH.E., Eaaiiaa A.I., O?aiaieia N.A. Nenoaia yia?ai- niaaaeaiey nianoaaiiuo ioaeae oaieiaica OY120 //Enneaaeiaaiea yeaeo?e/aneeo ia?aaea/.- O?oaeu AIEOE.-Eieiiia.- 1977.- Aui.45. -N.152-156. 18.Aonaaneee TH.E.,Iaaeeineee I.A.,Eaieion A.N.,THeeeia A.I.Ono?ie- noai aeey ecia?aiey oieia aaoiiiiiiai o?aooaciiai oyaiaiai ei- aa?oi?a //O?oaeu AIEOE, Eieiiia 1985.- aui.61.- N.47-52. 19.Aonaaneee TH.E., Iineia A.E., Iaaeeineee I.A., Eaeiueia A.N.Ec- ia?aiea iaaieoiiai iioiea oyaiaiai aneio?iiiiai yeaeo?iaeaeaa- oaey // YI "Oyaiaia e iiaeuaiii-o?ainii?oiia yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaa- iea".- 1979.- N2[62].- N.14-17. 20.Aonaaneee TH.E.,Iieoi?ae N.I.,Iaaeeineee I.A. ?an/ao oaciuo oi- eia eiaa?oi?a iaoiaeii aeaoo ninoaaeythueo //YI "Oyaiaia e iiaeu- aiii-o?ainii?oiia yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiea".- Iineaa. Eioi?iyeaeo- ?i.- 1984.- aui.6[96].- N.6-8. 21.Eaaiaiei A.I.,?iaa/aa N.E.,Ieiiiia A.I.,Aonaaneee TH.E., Aace- eiaa Y.A. Ioeuenaoeey yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai iiiaioa i?e ianeionie- aeaeueiii ieoaiee aneio?iiiiai aeaeaaoaey // Ecaanoey AOC'ia "Yeaeo?iiaoaieea".- 1985.- N9.- N.46-51. 22.Caeeciye A.I.,Eaieion A.N.,Aoaeieoeeee A.A.,Aonaaneee TH.E.,Iin- eia A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea ia AAI yeaeo?iia?aaea/e oaieiaica OY120 a ?aaeeia oyae //O?oaeu AIEOE "Enneaaeiaaiea oceia e aa?aaaoia oaieiaicia".- Eieiiia.- 1978.- Aui.47.- N.148-153. 23.Iieoi?ae N.I., Aonaaneee TH.E. Aeao/eee ninoiyiey oe?enoi?iuo iea/ oyaiauo i?aia?aciaaoaeae //Aii?inu ?ac?aaioee e yenieoa- oaoeee aaoiiiiiuo noaoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaoaeae iiaeaeaeiiai nin- oaaa.- Oa?ueeia: Iaaeaocianeee nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia.- 1990.- N.105-111. 24.A.n.411599 NNN?, IEE I02? 7/74, A 60L 11/08. Ono?ienoai aeey aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey nei?inoe iiiaiaeaeaaoaeueiiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea ia?aiaiiiai oiea / TH.E. Aonaaneee (NNN?).- N177722158/24-7; Cayaeaii 07.12.71; Iioae. 15.01.74, Athe.N2. 25.A.n.1203629 NNN?, IEE I 02I 7/122. Niinia caueou aaoiiiiiiai iinoiaiai oe?enoi?iiai eiaa?oi?a iai?yaeaiey e ono?ienoai aeey aai inouanoaeaiey / TH.E.Aonaaneee, N.I.Iieoi?ae, A.O.Ao?eia, TH.I.Aaneeueaa,A.I.Oaaei?ia,I.E.Oaoiaa (NNN?).- N37666954/24-07; Cayaeaii 06.07.84; Iioae. 07.01.86, Athe.N1. 26.A.n.1294658 NNN?, IEE A 60L 15/20. Ono?ienoai aeey ?aaoee?iaa- iey oaieiaiciiai aneio?iiiiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea n i?aia?aciaaoa- eai oiea /TH.E.Aonaaneee, N.I.Iieoi?ae (NNN?).-N3935103/25-11; Cayaeaii 30.07.85; Iioae. 07.03.87, Athe.N9. A I I O A Oe I ss Aon?anueeee TH. I. Iaoeiai iniiae noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo nen- oai oyaiaiai aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo c oe?enoi?ieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie aeey aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoii/ieo iaoe ii niaoeiaeueiinoi 05.22.07 - "?ooiiee neeaae caeicieoeue oa oy- aa ii?caeia".- Oa?eianueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeaiiy caeicie/iiai o?ainii?- oo, Oa?eia, 1998. I?eaaaeaii iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe ?iaio, ca'ycaieo c iiaeaeuaiiyi aoaeoeaiinoi ia?niaeoeaieo aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaia i oaeeo, ui ii- aea?iicothoueny,ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy oe?enoi?ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia a nenoaiao oyaiaiai aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo. C ?aeeieo iaoiaeieiai/ieo iiceoeie i?iaiaeiciaaii iiaeeeai aa?iaioe iiaoaeiae aieueo aeineiiaeeo nenoai oyaiaiai aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo ciiiii - iinoieiiai oa ciiiiiai no?oio c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeoiee ?o canoinoaaiiy ia aaoiiiiieo eieiiioeaao. Iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy noaoe/ieo ia?aoai?thaa/ia i?eaea? oyaiai- io aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo iiai iioaa?aoeaii aeanoeainoi. Aeaii oai?aoe/iee aiaeic ?iai/eo i?ioeania a iniiaieo aoceao oa a ia?niaeoeaieo nen- oaiao aaoiiiiiiai oyaiaiai aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo a oeieiio, i?eaaaeaii ?a- coeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue ia iiioaoeieieo iiaeaeyo, ia- oo?ieo noaiaeao oa ia iaeaoieo i aeineiaeieo eieiiioeaao. Ia iiaenoa- ai iaea?aeaieo a ?iaioi ?acoeueoaoia aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? ii ooai?aiith aoaeoeaieo nenoai aaoiiiiiiai oyaiaiai aeaeo?ii?eaiaeo. Eeth/iai neiaa: aaoiiiiiee eieiiioea, oyaiaee aeaeo?ii?eaiae, noaoe/iee ia?aoai?thaa/, ea?iaaiee aei?yiey/, aaoiiiiiee iiaa?oi?, oyaiaee aeaeo?iaeaeaoi, nenoaia ea?oaaiiy. A I I I O A Oe E ss Aonaaneee TH.E. Iao/iua iniiau nicaeaiey yooaeoeaiuo nenoai oyaiaiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea n oe?enoi?iuie i?aia?aciaaoaeyie aeey aa- oiiiiiuo eieiiioeaia. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/an- eeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.07 - " Iiaeaeaeiie ninoaa aeaeaciuo aei?ia e oyaa iiacaeia". - Oa?ueeianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey aea- eaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa, Oa?ueeia, 1998. I?eaaaeaiu iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaio, naycaiiuo n iiauoaie- ai yooaeoeaiinoe iiaea?iece?oaiuo e ia?niaeoeaiuo aaoiiiiiuo eiei- iioeaia ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey oe?enoi?iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae a eo nen- oaiao oyaiaiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea. N aaeeiuo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iiceoeee ?iaiaeece?iaaiu aiciiaeiua aa?eaiou iino?iaiey aieaa niaa?oaiiuo nenoai oyaiaiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea ia?aiaiii-iinoiyiiiai e ia?aiaiii- ai oiea n o/aoii niaoeeoeee eo i?eiaiaiey ia aaoiiiiiuo eieiiioe- aao. Iieacaii, /oi i?eiaiaiea noaoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaoaeae i?eaea- ao oyaiaiio yeaeo?ii?eaiaeo iiaua eioaa?aoeaiua naienoaa. Aeai oai- ?aoe/aneee aiaeec ?aai/eo i?ioeannia a iniiaiuo oceao e a ia?niae- oeaiuo nenoaiao aaoiiiiiiai oyaiaiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea a oeaeii, i?e- aaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ia eieoaoeeiiiuo iiaeaeyo, iaoo?iuo noaiaeao e ia iaeaoiuo e iiuoiuo eieiiioeaao. Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo a ?aaioa ?acoeueoaoia aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii nic- aeaieth yooaeoeaiuo nenoai aaoiiiiiiai oyaiaiai yeaeo?ii?eaiaea. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaoiiiiiue eieiiioea, oyaiaue yeaeo?ii?e- aiae, noaoe/aneee i?aia?aciaaoaeue, oi?aaeyaiue aui?yieoaeue, aaoi- iiiiue eiaa?oi?, oyaiaue yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeue, nenoaia oi?aaeaiey. A B S T R A C T Gusevskiy Yu.I."Scientific basis for creating effective trac- tion electric drive systems with thyristor converters for autono- mic locomotives". - Manuscript. A thesis for the academic degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences competition on the speciality 05.22.07 ("Railroads rol- ling stock and traction of train").-Kharkiv State Academy of Rail Transport, Kharkiv, 1998. The main results of the work aimed at increasing efficien- cy of autonomic locomotives being modernized and designed by ap- plying thyristor converters in their traction electric drive sys- tems are given. Eventual versions of creating more efficient al- ternating and direct current traction electric drive systems (TED), considering specifics of their usage at autonomic locomo- tives have been analysed based on one methodological position. It has been shown that the employment of static converters provides TED with new integration properties.An analysis of operation pro- cesses in main units and in designed TED systems of autonomic lo- comotives is given. The results of simulation model experiments, on-site stand trials,dummy and experimental locomotives tests are presented. Employment of thyristor rectifiers in alternating - direct current transmission makes it possible to preserve within the po- wer circuit the commercial series-excitation direct-current trac- tive motors which are well developed under production and service condition. Compared with conventional systems,the tractive elect- ric drive with thyristor converters has new favorable properties, such as: - more efficient locomotive velocity regulation by means of grad- ual relaxation of tractive electric motor field ; - locomotive thrust coefficient increase throush realizing the principle of traction electric motors quasiseparate excitation by boxing; - traction electric drive operating efficiency increase under electric braking condition. The thesis proves that long-term tendencies of TED systems development are due only to the application of asynchronous trac- tion electric motors (AD) and self - excited voltage invertors (SVI). For deeper estimation of possibility of employment of such systems at autonomic locomotives, additional research on TED sys- tems with SVI and AD was necessary. The research has shown that conventional three-phase SVI - AD systems possess neither optimum energetic, nor mass - dimensions, qualities. Preference should be given to two-phase systems. Theoretical and experimental research on TED systems with two - phase SVI and AD has been carried out; their operating mode is optimized, principles of electromagnetic processes calculation are worked out, and application recommenda- tions are presented. The results of theoretical and experimental research on automatic TED under emergency conditions are shown. Complex high- -speed protection of synchronous tractive generator and rectify- ing installation is elaborated; it activates in cases of a break- down of the arbitrary number of rectifiers or any kind of a short circuit on the input or output of the rectifier. SVI-AD traction unit eventual emergency conditions analysis permitted to under- stand the most frequent failure causes and stages of emergency process development. Principles of multistage shock-free protec- tions versions are proposed. They work on the basis of continious control of SVI thyristors arms current status,detection and iden- tificaton of emergency process origin and development stages, working-out of control effect for appropriate protection cascade stage. For TED with AD,a simple and effective system of automatic regulation is developed; the results of its trial are also given in the thesis. On the basis of the results obtained, recommenda- tions for devising an effective autonomic traction electric drive are summarised. Key words: autonomic locomotive, traction electric drive, static converter, regulated rectifier, self-excited invertors, tractive electric motor, control system. AAOI?AOA?AO aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy IAOEIAI INIIAE NOAI?AIIss AOAEOEAIEO NENOAI OssAIAIAI AEAEO?II?EAIAeO C OEPECTOPHEIE IA?AOAI?THAA*AIE AeEss AAOIIIIIEO EIEIIIOEAIA AON?ANUeEEE TH?ie Ieei/ Aiaeiiaiaeaeueiee ca aeione e.o.i., aeioe. Iieyeia A.I. Iiaeienaii aei ae?oeo _25_ 03.99 ?. Oi?iao iaia?o 60o80 1/16. Iaii? aeey ?iciiiaeoaaeueieo aia?aoia Ae?oe ionaoiee. Oiiaieo ae?oe. a?e. 2,0. Iae.- aeae.a?e. 2,25 Caeac N_194 Iaeeaae 100 aec. Aacieaoii. Aeaeaiiy Oa?AeACO, 310050,i.Oa?eia-50,ie. Oae??aaoa, 7 Ae?oea?iy Oa?AeACO, 310050,i.Oa?eia-50,ie. Oae??aaoa, 7

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