OA?E?ANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss OAOIIEIA??OA I?AAI?CAOe??
OA?*OAAIIss

NAOIIIA AAEAIOEI AANEEUeIAE*

OAeE 641.528:6:547.128:641.856

IAOEIA? INIIAE ?IC?IAEE I?IA?ANEAIEO AIA?AO?A
IOIEIAeAEAIIss OA CAII?IAEOAAIIss ??AeEEO OA?*IAEO

I?IAeOEO?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.18.12 – i?ioeane oa aia?aoe

oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? oaoiieia?? oa
i?aai?caoe?? oa?/oaaiiy I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nio?i?eia Ieaenaiae? Na?a?eiae/,

?inoeooo i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? oa e??iiaaeeoeeie Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai??
Iaoe Oe?a?ie, cano. aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo c iaoeiai? ?iaioe;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaii??a Aaea??e Iaaeiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
o?i?/ii? oaoi?ee oa i?iieneiai? aeieia??;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nieiaae A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i. A.I. I?aeai?iiai Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie, caa. a?aeae?eii oa?iiaeeiai?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oieiaeo
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a oieiaeeeueii? oaoi?ee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 19 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.088. 01 Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oaoiieia?? oa i?aai?caoe?? oa?/oaaiiy ca
aae?anith: Oe?a?ia, 310051, i.Oa?e?a-51, aoe. Eei/e?anueea, 333.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oaoiieia?? oa i?aai?caoe?? oa?/oaaiiy ca
aae?anith: 310051, i.Oa?e?a-51, aoe. Eei/e?anueea, 333.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 19 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ieoaeeia A. I.

24

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Noai?aiiy i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy oa
caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a ? aia?ao?a aeey aeaioiaeaiiy i`yeiai ii?iceaa
(o?eca??a) c iie?ioaieie oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie ? aeieia?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ? aeoaea aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith a ca`yceo c? no??ieei
?icoe?aiiyi ia?aae? iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae? e oa?/oaaiiy, ye?
?aae?cothoue aeacai? i?iaeoeoe na?aae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o aaee/acieo
ianooaaao. Ia oeeo i?aei?e?inoaao canoiniaothoueny, ye i?aaeei,
ii?iceeuei? aia?aoe iecueei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ca aeoiaeii aioiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? – cae/aeii ia a?eueo 20…30 ea/aiae, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iieacieeii ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao 0,1…0,2 eAoaiae/ea. Aaeeea cia/aiiy
iaaaaeaiiai iieacieea ? iaeiei c oaeoi??a, ye? coiiaeththoue a?eueoo
aia?aii?noe?noue ae?iaieoeoaa a oe?eiio a Oe?a?i? a ii??aiyii? c oaeeie
e?a?iaie, ye NOA ? O?aioe?y. A ca`yceo c aia?aaoe/iith ? aeieia?/iith
neooaoe??th a e?a?i? ? iaiao?aeiith ? aeooaeueiith ?ic?iaea aia?ao?a
oeacaiiai i?ecia/aiiy c? cia/ii cieaeaiei iieacieeii ieoiieo
aia?aiaeo?ao i?e aeei?enoaii? aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo oieiaeiaaaio?a.
A?aeiia?aei? eiino?oeoeai? caoiaee aoee cai?iiiiiaai? oa ?aae?ciaai? a
?ioeo aia?aoao oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa, aea ia aoee canoiniaai? a aia?aoao
ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, aieiaiei
/eiii aiane?aeie a?aenooiino? a?aeiia?aeiiai iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? aace aeey i?iaeoieo ?ic?aooie?a i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a
oeueiai i?ecia/aiiy. Noai?aiiy oaeeo aia?ao?a ? ?o oe?iea i?aeoe/ia
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia? i?eianoe cia/iee aeiiii?/iee, nioe?aeueiee ?
aeieia?/iee aoaeo a iaooaaao Oe?a?ie.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
i?iaiaeeeanue o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie IAe? OAeAOIO
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, oaie 16-95-97A “?ic?iaea iaeaaeiaiiy aeey
iaea?aeaiiy oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a iaoiaeii oa?iiia?iaee”, 4-98-2000A
“?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?ao?a aeey iaea?aeaiiy iyeiai ii?iceaa,
eii/aii? ?eae oa oa?iinoaooaaiiy aioiaeo no?aa” oa ?i; aiia iia`ycaia
oaeiae ?c caoiaeaie c aeeiiaiiy Iii?aaeuenueei? oaiaee uiaei i?eieiaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa oa canoinoaaiiy iciii?oei?aieo oeaaeii?a, ui
cae?eniththoueny a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii? iaoiaeieia?? i?iaeooaaiiy i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a
ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a ? ?? oaoi?/ia
?aae?caoe?y. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ae??ooaaeeny oae?
aca?iiiia`ycai? iaoeiai-aeine?aei? oa ?iaeaia?i? caaea/?:

— anoaiiaeoe aeaea?aea aenieeo ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao a ?nioth/eo aia?aoao
aeey ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a ? aia?aoao aeey i?eaiooaaiiy
i`yeiai ii?iceaa oa iai?oeoe iai?yiee ?o cieaeaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeoe iiao, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio nenoaio ioieiaeaeaiiy iaii?a
i?ii?aeiei oieiaeiiin??i, anoaiiaeoe e?eoa??? aeai?o ?iaeo oieiaeiiin?y
? ?aoe?iiaeueieo cia/aiue iniiaieo eiino?oeoeaieo ? ?iai/eo ia?aiao??a
iiaiai aia?aoa;

— cae?enieoe iiaiee oaieiaee ? a?ae?aae?/iee ?ic?aooiie nenoaie
ioieiaeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaiiai iiaiai aia?aoa ? aecia/eoe iieaciee eiai
aia?aiaeiiii?/iino?;

— cae?enieoe ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a oieiaeeeueiiai aa?aaaoo aeey iiaiai
aia?aoa ioieiaeaeaiiy iaii?a i?e ?iaio? ia iciiiaacia/iiio oieiaeiaaaio?
R134A, aea?aoe ia?eo aa?aaaoo ? anoaiiaeoe ?aoe?iiaeueiee ?aaeei ?iaioe
aa?aaaoo;

— aea?aoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ia?aiao?e iie?ioaii? aaiiao??? aeie-oi?i
aia?aoa caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a, ui caaacia/othoue ?ioaineo?eaoe?th
oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae aeie-oi?i aei oieiaeiiin?y;

— cae?enieoe ?aoe?iiaeueiee aea?? ?iaeo oieiaeiiin?y aeey aia?aoa
caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a ? anoaiiaeoe oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? cia/aiiy
oaiia?aoo?e ? ia`?iii? aeo?aoe oieiaeiiin?y a nenoai? ioieiaeaeaiiy
aia?aoa;

— i?iaanoe iiaiee oaieiaee ? a?ae?aae?/iee ?ic?aooiie oaeineiiaeaiiai
aia?aoa caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a, a oiio /ene? aeia?ieea oieiaeeeueii?
iaoeie, ? ioe?ieoe aeinyaiooa cieaeaiiy ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao a aia?ao?;

— i?iaanoe ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio ?iaioe oieiaeeeueiiai aa?aaaoo
ia iciiiaacia/iiio oieiaeiaaaio? R404A, aea?aoe ia?eo aa?aaaoo ?
aecia/eoe eiai niiaeeaaio aeaeo?e/io iiooaei?noue;

— ae?iaeoe iaoeiao eiioeaioe?th i?iaeooaaiiy iiaiai oeii?ici??iiai ?yaeo
o?eca??a c? cieaeaieie cia/aiiyie iieacieea ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao ?
?ic?iaeoe ia oe?e iniia? aeai?eoi oaieiaiai ? a?ae?aae?/iiai ?ic?aooieo
oaoi?/ieo ia?aiao??a oeacaieo iiaeo aia?ao?a;

— cae?enieoe ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a oieiaeeeueieo aa?aaao?a aeey iiaiai
oeii?ici??iiai ?yaeo o?eca??a i?e ?o ?iaio? ia aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo
oieiaeiaaaioao R134A ? R404A, ia?aoe ia?ee aa?aaao?a ? anoaiiaeoe
?aoe?iiaeuei? cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e eei?iiy oieiaeiaaaio?a;

— i?iaanoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oieiaeii?iaeoeoeaiino?
aa?aaao?a i?e ?iaio? ia iciiiaacia/ieo oieiaeiaaaioao, caeiiii??iinoae
oaieiia?aaea/? a nenoaiao ioieiaeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo iiaeo aia?ao?a,
oaieio?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ia?aieo oieiaeiiin??a a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae?
?iai/eo oaiia?aoo?, a oaeiae iniaeeainoae i?ioeano o?eca?oaaiiy c iaoith
ia?aa??ee neooiino? aenoiooeo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue;

— cae?enieoe aei?iaoaaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a ?ic?iaeaieo
i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy oa caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a, ioe?ieoe aeinyaiooo i??o cieaeaiiy ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao ?
ooi/ieoe cia/aiiy eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a iiaeo aia?ao?a;

— ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoe?th iiaeo aia?ao?a oeacaiiai i?ecia/aiiy, neeanoe
eiino?oeoi?nueeo aeieoiaioaoe?th ? ia?aaeaoe ?? ia caaiae-ae?iaiee aeey
i?aai?caoe?? aeioneo aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo ia?o?e iiaeo aia?ao?a;

— cae?enieoe eiiieaen caoiae?a c oe?ieiianooaaiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?ia?aneaieo aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo ? aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo aia?ao?a a
i?aeoeeo i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae? e oa?/oaaiiy, ye? ?aae?cothoue
ioieiaeaeai? oa caii?iaeai? iaii? ? i`yea ii?iceai na?aae ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie, ioe?ieoe aeiiii?/iee, nioe?aeueiee oa aeieia?/iee aoaeo
i?aeoe/iiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeacaieo iiaeo aia?ao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— cai?iiiiiaaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiee iiaee i?eioeei ae?? aia?aoa
ioieiaeaeaiiy iaii?a i?ii?aeiei e?aii?ei?aai?/iei oieiaeiiin??i, yeee
aea? ciiao i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? ciaioeoe ieoii? aia?aiaeo?aoe a
aia?ao? a 1,7 ?ace a ii??aiyii? c e?aueie aia?aoaie-aiaeiaaie;

— cai?iiiiiaaii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? eiino?oeoeai? caoiaee c
oaeineiiaeaiiy aia?aoa caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a o aeie-oi?iao, ye? aeathoue
ciiao ciaioeoe iieaciee ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao a aia?ao? ia 24% a
ii??aiyii? c ?nioth/eie aiaeiaaie;

— ?ic?iaeaii iiao iaoeiao eiioeaioe?th i?iaeooaaiiy i?ia?aneaieo
aia?ao?a aeey i?eaiooaaiiy iyeiai ii?iceaa (o?eca??a) c iieacieeii
ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao, cieaeaiei ia 30…50% a ii??aiyii? c ?nioth/eie
aiaeiaaie;

— aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo oaieiiai?iieo ? a?ae?aae?/ieo
ia?aiao??a aia?ao?a aeey ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a, ui caiacia/o? aeinyaiaiiy i?aeaeuaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa
aia?aiaeiiii?/iino? aeacaieo aia?ao?a;

— iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii aea?? iao?aaeeoe?eieo iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo
i?ii?aeieo oieiaeiiin??a aeey nenoai ioieiaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo
ii?iceeueieo aia?ao?a oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa, yeee caaacia/o? aeinyaiaiiy
i?aeaeuaii? aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino?, aeiaaia?/iino? oa aeieia?/ii?
aacia/iino? aeacaieo aia?ao?a.

Iiaecia oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue ?ic?iaeaieo aia?ao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ??oaiiyie
i?i aeaea/o 4 iaoaio?a Oe?a?ie ia aeiaoiaee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? oa
i?aeoe/iiio ai?iaaaeaeaii? i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy ?
caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c iie?ioaieie iieacieeaie
aia?aiaeiiii?/iino?, aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino? oa aeieia?/ii?
aacia/iino? aeey i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae? e oa?/oaaiiy noa?e iaeiai a?ciano
Oe?a?ie, ye? ?aae?cothoue ioieiaeaeai? oa caii?iaeai? iaii? na?aae
oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy e?a?ie. ?ic?iaeaii ii?iaoeaio aeieoiaioaoe?th
ia aia?ao ioieiaeaeaiiy iaii?a i?ii?aeiei e?aii?ei?aai?/iei
oieiaeiiin??i, aia?ao caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a o aeie-oi?iao c iie?ioaiith
aaiiao???th oa aeieia?/ii aacia/iei oieiaeiiin??i ? ia na??th
aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo o?eca??a c i?iaeoeoeai?noth a?ae 5 aei 20 ea/aiae, ye?
aeathoue ciiao caaacia/eoe iio?aao /eneaiieo i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai a?ciano
a Oe?a?i?. ?ic?iaeai? aia?aoe iiai?noth aioia? aei oe?ieiai i?aeoe/iiai
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ianooaaao an??? e?a?ie; i/?eo?oueny cia/iee
aeiiii?/iee, nioe?aeueiee ? aeieia?/iee aooaeo a?ae oe?ieiianooaaiiai
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia?ae?/aieo aia?ao?a. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai?
i?ae /an aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, iiaeooue aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaai?
aeey aeei?enoaiiy a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ? i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo
onoaiiaao, ye? ?ic?iaeythoue ii?iceeuei? aia?aoe aeey iio?aa oa?/iaeo
ae?iaieoeoa, a oaeiae o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao III ? IV ??aiy
ae?aaeeoaoe??, ui caeiathoueny i?aeaioiaeith niaoe?ae?no?a-?iaeaia??a ?
iaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a o aaeoc? ?ic?iaee e aenieoaoaoe?? iaeaaeiaiiy
oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa ? i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae? ? oa?/oaaiiy.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeai? aia?aoe ioieiaeaeaiiy ?
caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a oi?iaaaeaeaii ia oaeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie: AAO “Oieiaeiao”, i.Oa?e?a (aeo oi?iaaaeaeaiiy
a?ae 12.05.99), AAO Oa?e?anueea aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueea oaoiieia?/ia
ath?i oieiaeeeueieo iaoei (aeo oi?iaaaeaeaiiy a?ae 12.01.99), OIA
Iaoeiai-ae?iaie/i? o??ie “?cioa?i”, i.Oa?e?a (aeo oi?iaaaeaeaiiy a?ae
18.03.99), EI eaoa “?ona”, i.Oaiaein?y (aeo oi?iaaaeaeaiiy a?ae
15.12.98), CAO “Oaiaein?yiinoa/oi?a” (aeo oi?iaaaeaeaiiy a?ae 20.11.98),
AAO “Ii?en”, i.Oa?e?a (aeo oi?iaaaeaeaiiy a?ae 21.10.98), eiiaiaeeoia
oiaa?enoai “Eaoia ? Ei”, i.Oa?e?a (aeo oi?iaaaeaeaiiy a?ae 18.09.98).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, iioae?eiaaieo ?acii ?c
ni?aaaoi?aie, iieyaa? a:

— aiae?c? noaio i?iaeaie ? iinoaiiaoe? caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiue;

— neeaaeaii? i?ia?ai aeine?aeaeaiue ? ea??aieoeoa? ?o ?aae?caoe??th;

— ocaaaeueiaii? oa aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue;

— iniaeno?e o/ano? a i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a, i?aeaioiaoe?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue aei iioae?eoaaiiy oa neeaaeaii? cayaie ia
ia?aaeaa/ai? aeiaoiaee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oaoiieia?? oa i?aai?caoe?? oa?/oaaiiy
(Oa?e?a, 1981-1998 ??.) ia /eneaiieo neiiic?oiao ? ia?aaeao
niaoe?ae?no?a o aaeoc? oieiaeeeueii? oaoi?ee ? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo
ae?iaieoeoa (1987-1998 ??.), a oaeiae ia Ana?in?enuee?e iaoeiai –
oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?ia?aneai? oaoiieia?? oa iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo
ae?iaieoeoa» (Naieo – Iaoa?ao?a, 1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe iioae?eiaai? a 21 noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ?
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, c yeeo 6 noaoae iioae?eiaai? aac
ni?aaaoi??a, a oaeiae a 7 oacao aeiiia?aeae iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e
OAeAOIO (i.Oa?e?a) oa NIAAOIO (i. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, 7 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?
aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 363 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, i?noeoue 29 oaaeeoeue ? 53 ?enoiee, 12 aeiaeaoe?a. Nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 319 iaeiaioaaiue, c ieo 57 ?iicaiieo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo e caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio
? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i
?o i?aeoe/ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Aiae?c no/aniiai noaio i?iaeaie ioieiaeaeaiiy oa
caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a ? i?eaiooaaiiy iyeiai ii?iceaa” aeeeaaeaii
e?eoe/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c iacaaii? i?iaeaie oa aecia/aii
iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith noai?aiiy iaoeiaeo iniia aeey
?ic?iaee i?ia?aneaieo ii?iceeueieo aia?ao?a c iie?ioaieie
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieie iieacieeaie ? ni?eyoeeaith aeieia?/iith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith. I?iaeaie, iiaycai? c? noai?aiiyi aoaeoeaieo
ii?iceeueieo aia?ao?a, ae??ooaaee ?.A.*oiae, A.A.*eaeia, I.A.Aeeia,
I.I.Aieiae?i, I.I.Aeaieeia. Iaoiaee ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaieiiai?io a oeeo
aia?aoao cai?iiiiiaai? A.I.Aeaieeiaith, A.I.In?iiaith oa ?i.
Iaa?oiooaaiith aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo oaiei- ? oieiaeiiin??a c iie?ioaieie
oaoi?/ieie oa aeieia?/ieie iieacieeaie i?enay/ai? ?iaioe
I.A.Niaieaanueeiai, I.?.A?ey?aa, H.H.Remer; iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o
oaieio?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae aoee aaeineiiaeai? a i?aoeyo A.C.Aaeea?a,
Ae.E.O?i?ioa, TH.E.?anoi?ao?aa, B.A.Mitt. Ca inoaii?e /an iniaeeaiai
cia/aiiy iaaoee aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith iioeiaeueiiai aeai?o
oieiaeiaaaio?a aeey oieiaeeeueieo iaoei ii?iceeueieo aia?ao?a; oeeie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie caeiaeeny A.I.AEaeaciee, L.Lukas, G.Lorentzen,
H.M.Hughes. Ia oeae /an aia?aoe ioieiaeaeoaaiiy oa caii?iaeoaaiiy
iaii?a, a oaeiae aia?aoe aeey i?eaiooaaiiy iyeiai ii?iceaa (o?eca?e)
canoiniaothoueny ia /eneaiieo i?aei?e?inoaao oi?a?ae? e oa?/oaaiiy
Oe?a?ie, ia?aaaaeii a noa?? iaeiai a?ciano, ? ?o i?iaeoeoe?y
ei?enoo?oueny aaee/aciei iiieoii na?aae ianaeaiiy. An? oe? aia?aoe
iathoue aeoaea ??ciiiai?oi? eiino?oeoe?? oa oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?
iieacieee, aea, ca?aeii c ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeayeeie noooaaeie iaaeie?eaie,
aei yeeo ianaiia?aae iaeaaeaoue aenie? cia/aiiy iieacieea ieoiieo
aia?aiaeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai iaeeieoe? i?iaeoeoe?? oa aeieia?/ia
iaaacia/i?noue. Ia?oee c oeeo iaaeie?e?a coiiaeaiee a?aenooi?noth
aeinoaoiueiai iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo cia/aiue
?yaeo noooaaeo eiino?oeoeaieo ? ?iai/eo ia?aiao??a caaaeaieo aia?ao?a;
cie?aia, ia i?eae?eyeiny iaeaaeii? oaaae i?iaeai? aeai?o iioeiaeueieo
oei?a oieiaeiiin??a, ye? iaeneiaeueii a?aeiia?aeathoue anueiio eiiieaeno
no/anieo aeiia aei iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo i?ii?aeieo oieiaeiiin??a.
I?iaaaeaiee a oe?e ?iaio? aiae?c i?ea?a aei aeniiaeo i?i iaiao?aei?noue
caa?iooe oaaao ia aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy iao?aaeeoe?eieo –
e?aii?ei?aai?/ieo oieiaeiiin??a, cie?aia ?a/iaei ON-2-1, ON-2-1AA,
ON-O-5 i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa; i?aeoe/iiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith oeeo
?a/iaei caaaaea? a?aenooi?noue aeinoaoi?o aeaieo i?i ?o oaieio?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a 0iN. Ae?oaee c oeacaieo aeua
iaaeie?e?a – aeieia?/ia iaaacia/i?noue aia?ao?a, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny, –
coiiaeaiee canoinoaaiiyi a oieiaeeeueieo iaoeiao oeeo aia?ao?a
o?aaeeoe?eieo iciii?oei?aieo oieiaeiaaaio?a oeio R12 ? R502. I?iaaaeaiee
a ?iaio? aiae?c aeaa ciiao aea?aoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? aeueoa?iaoeae oeei
oieiaeiaaaioai – oeaaeii R134A ? noi?o oeaaeii?a R404A a?aeiia?aeii.
Oaeei /eiii, aoei aeyaeaii nooo?a? iaaeie?ee aeacaieo aia?ao?a ?
iai?/aii oeyoe ?o onoiaiiy ia iniia? aecia/aieo oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Caaaeueia iaoiaeeea aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue” anoaiiaeaii iai?yiee i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiaeee, ui
caaacia/othoue aeinoaoith oi/i?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a.
Aecia/aiiy oaieio?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae e?aii?ei?aai?/ieo ??aeeeo
oieiaeiiin??a ON-2-1, ON-2-1AA ? ON-O-5 a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 213…293E
i?e aoiinoa?iiio oeneo cae?enithaaeiny aaaaoi?aciai ai?iaiaaieie
aei??thaaeueieie iaoiaeaie, aea a aenia?eiaioaeuei? onoaiiaee aoei
aianaii iiaeeo?eaoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae ia?eo?a
aeine?aeaeaiue oa iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aei??thaaiue: aoee aaaaeai?
oieiaeeeuei? iaoeie aeey noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? a
oa?iinoaoao, i?ae?a?aii ?iai/o ??aeeio aeey oa?iinoao?a, cai?iai? aeaye?
aei??thaaeuei? i?eeaaee, oiui. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
oaieiiai?io ? ao?ao oeneo a nenoaiao ioieiaeaeaiiy iiaeo aia?ao?a aeey
ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a c oee?eoethth/ei e?aii?ei?aai?/iei
oieiaeiiin??i aoei noai?aii niaoe?aeueiee aenia?eiaioaeueiee noaiae,
noaia aoaeiae yeiai iieacaia ia ?en.1.

Iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
cae?enithaaeany no/anieie noaoenoe/ieie iaoiaeaie c aeei?enoaiiyi AII.
I?ioeaaeo?a ia?iaee aeeth/aea ia?aeiio i?aeaioiaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo, i???ioiaaio ia iiaeaeueoa aoaeoeaia canoinoaaiiy noaoenoe/ieo
iaoiae?a aeey iiaoaeoaaiiy caeaaeiinoae i?ae aaee/eiaie, ui
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny. Ia?aeiia i?aeaioiaea aeaieo aeeth/aea aoaie
ia/eneaiiy aea??eiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee (na?aaeiueiai a?eoiaoe/iiai
cia/aiiy, na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai a?aeoeeaiiy, noaiaea?oiiai
a?aeoeeaiiy na?aaeiueiai), a?aen?ao a?oaeo iioeaie ? ia?aa??ee
a?aeiia?aeiino? aeaieo ii?iaeueiiio caeiio ?iciiae?eo. Aeae? i?iaiaeeany
?aa?aneaiee aiae?c c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiino? (ye i?aaeei,
e?i?eii?) i?ae aeaiia aaee/eiaie, iai?eeeaae, i?ae
oieiaeii?iaeoeoeai?noth oieiaeeeueiiai aa?aaaoo ? oaiia?aoo?ith eei?iiy
oieiaeiaaaioo; ia/eneaiiy eiao?oe??io?a ??aiyiue ?aa?an??
cae?enithaaeiny iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a. Cia/ou?noue io?eiaieo
??aiyiue ?aa?an?? ia?aa??yeany ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??th O?oa?a. An? oe?
?ic?aooiee cae?enithaaeeny c aeei?enoaiiyi aeinooiieo ia oeae /an

noaiaea?oeciaaieo iaeao?a i?ia?ai aeey AII.

?en.1. Noaia aenia?eiaioaeueiiai noaiaeo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
oaieiia?aaea/? oa ao?ao oeneo a oee?eoeyoe?eiiio eiioo?? aia?ao?a
ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a: 1-iaeao aia?aoa; 2-aeia?iee
oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie; 3,11-cai??i? aaioee?; 4-e?aie aeey aeioneo iia?o?y
c onoaiiae; 5-oee?eoeyoe?eiee ianin; 6-aeeoa?aioe?eiee iaiiiao?;
7-?aaoethaaeueiee aie/anoee aaioeeue; 8-aaioeeue ceeaaiiy; 9-i??eeueiee
noaeai; 10-aiae?oe/i? oa?ace

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? c?acee iiaeo aia?ao?a, aeaioiaeai? ca?aeii c
?acoeueoaoaie oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a, iienaieo a ianooiieo ?icae?eao
aeena?oaoe??, i?ioiaeeee aei?iaoaaiiy c iaoith ia?aa??ee neooiino?
oai?aoe/ieo aeniiae?a ? ei?aaoaaiiy cia/aiue eiino?oeoeaieo ? ?iai/eo
ia?aiao??a. I?ia?aie aeeth/aee aei?iaoaaiiy, ni?euei? aeey an?o aeae?a
aia?ao?a (aei?iaoaaiiy oieiaeeeueieo aa?aaao?a i?e ?o ?iaio? ia
aeueoa?iaoeaieo oieiaeiaaaioao) ? niaoeeo?/i? aeey ie?aieo aeae?a
aia?ao?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?ic?iaea i?ia?aneaiiai aia?aoa ioieiaeaeaiiy
iaii?a i?ii?aeiei e?aii?ei?aai?/iei oieiaeiiin??i” iaa?oioiaaii iiao
eiioeaioe?th i?iaeooaaiiy oaeiai aia?aoa ia iniia? iiaoaeoaaiiy
iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeeiai?ee i?ioeano ioieiaeaeaiiy iaiith i?e
caaeaieo oiiaao. I?e aoaeoeai?e ?iaio? ia?ai?ooaaeueieo i?eno?i?a a
aa/eao c iaii?i iiaeia aaaaeaoe eiai oaiia?aoo?o i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaith
aeey anueiai ia?io iaiith (oea i?eiouaiiy aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
iiaeaeueoeie aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie). Ca oeeo oiia iiaeia
neeanoe aeey an??? iane iaiith, ui ioieiaeaeo?oueny, ??aiyiiy oaieiaiai
aaeaino aeey iane?i/aiii iaeiai i?ii?aeeo /ano d a oaeiio
aeaeyae?:picscalex100010009000003540000000000120000000000050000000902000
000000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010
00000050000000b0200000000050000000c02600240011200000026060f001a00fffffff
f000010000000c0ffffffb7ffffff00010000170200000b00000026060f000c004d61746
854797065000060000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000030000000000000
00000
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, (1)

aea n – ieoiia oaiei?ii?noue iaiith, Aeae/(ea. E);

m – iana iaiith, ea;

t – oaiia?aoo?a iaiith, iN;

k – ei?o?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/? a?ae iaiith, ui ioieiaeaeo?oueny, aei
ioieiaeaeoth/iai aaaioo e??cue no?ieo ci?eiaeea nenoaie ioieiaeaeoaaiiy,
ai?uaiiai a aa/ie c iaii?i, Ao/(i2 E);

FT – ieiua iiaa?oi? oe??? oaieiia?aaea/?, i2;

toe – oaiia?aoo?a ioieiaeaeoth/iai aaaioo, iN;

– eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae iaaeieeoiueiai iia?o?y aei no?iee
aa/ea c iaii?i, Ao/(i2 E);

SC – ieiua ciai?oiuei? iiaa?oi? no?iee aa/ea, i2;

ti – oaiia?aoo?a ciai?oiueiai iia?o?y, iN;

Qp – iiooaei?noue oaieiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui iaaeoiaeeoue aei aa/ea
a?ae ??cieo ciai?oi?o oaieiaeo aeaea?ae (cie?aia, Niioey), Ao.

??aiyiiy (1) iiaeia ia?aoai?eoe ia aeeoa?aioe?eia e?i?eia ??aiyiiy
ia?oiai ii?yaeeo:

?icaycaiiy ??aiyiiy (2) i?e ii/aoeia?e oiia? t(=0)=tii/ ia? aeaeyae:
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. (5)

Iio??aia oieiaeii?iaeoeoeai?noue (Qo) oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie aia?aoa

? ae?aaea?oueny oi?ioeith:
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. (7)

I?e i?iaaaeaii? oaieiaiai ?ic?aooieo ye oieiaeiiin?e aoei ia?aii
e?aii?ei?aai?/io ??aeeio ON-O-5 ia i?aenoaa? i??eoaaiue, aeneiaeaieo o
?icae?e? 1 aeena?oaoe??. Aiane?aeie cia/ii? ayceino? oe??? ??aeeie i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a 0iN ?aaeei ?? oa/?? a ci?eiaeeo ioieiaeaeaiiy
aia?aoa ? eai?ia?iei, ui a?aoiao?oueny i?e aeai?? e?eoa??aeueiiai
??aiyiiy oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae no?iee ci?eiaeea aei oieiaeiiin?y. Ne?ae
oaeiae iaoe ia oaac?, ui i?e eai?ia?iiio ?aaeei? oa/?? o aeaiooeo o?oaao
(ci?eiaeeao) i?e ia?aaeuaii? e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy /enea ?aeiieueaena:

aea Rk – ?aae?on e?eaeie ci?eiaeea, i;

dA – aioo??oi?e ae?aiao? o?oaee ci?eiaeea, i,

o iiia?a/iiio ia?a??c? o?oaee ci?eiaeea aeieea? aoi?eiia
(oee?eoeyoe?eia) oa/?y, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei noooaai? ?ioaineo?eaoe??
oaieia?aeaea/? a ci?eiaeeo. Ca oeeo oiia eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? (2)
a?ae no?iee ci?eiaeea aei oieiaeiiin?y aecia/a?oueny ??aiyiiyi:
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 –
eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino? oieiaeiiin?y Ao/(iE);

picscalex100010009000003ad0000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02400200021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffbdffffffc0010000fd0100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000600015000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000069040000002d01000008000000320ae80132010100000032001000
0000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01
010004000000f001000008000000320a80013b00010000006e000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f00101000300000000000000 –
e?iaiaoe/ia ayce?noue oieiaeiiin?y, i2/n.

Aeoiaey/e c oi?ioee oai??? oaieiia?aaea/? (i?e iaeiio oa?i?/iiio iii??
no?iee o?oaee ci?eiaeea):
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, (12)

aea 1 – eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae iaiith, ui ioieiaeaeo?oueny,
aei

no?iee ci?eiaeea, Ao/(i2E),

? ?acoeueoaoo ia/eneaiiy 1 ca oi?ioeaie oai??? oaieiia?aaea/?
(oaieia?aeaea/a a oiiaao a?eueii? eiiaaeoe??), aecia/a?ii, ui i?e 1 =
460 Ao/(i2E) iio??aia cia/aiiy 2 noaiiaeoue 353 Ao/(i2E).

A?ae?aae?/iee ?ic?aooiie aia?aoa aea? aaee/eio ao?ao oeneo a o?aeo?
oieiaeiiin?y ? = 3,34 105Ia. Iaiao?aeio iiaea/o Voe = 0,785 10-4i3/n ?
iai??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 (g=9,81i/n2
— i?enei?aiiy neee oyae?iiy, =1135 ea/i3 – aonoeia oieiaeiiin?y) iiaea
caaacia/eoe, iai?eeeaae, ?ioi?iee coa/anoee ianin ?C-7,5. I?e e.e.ae. =
0,4 iiooaei?noue eiai i?eaiaeo noaiiaeoue Ni=65 Ao.

Iieaciee ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe?? a iiaiio
aia?ao?:
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, (13)

aea Nono – onoaiiaeaia iiooaei?noue aia?aoa, Ao;
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 –
i?iaeoeoeai?noue aia?aoa, ea/n,

aei??aith? 0,0166 eAoaiae/ea, ui a 1,67 ?ace iaioa a?aeiia?aeiiai
iieacieea aeey aia?aoa-i?ioioeio II – 0,0278 eAoaiae/ea. I/aaeaeii, ui
oeae aea?ao a aia?aiaeiiii?/iino? aeinyaiooi ca ?aooiie ??ceiai
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aia?aoa caaaeyee canoinoaaiith iiaiai
i?eioeeio ioieiaeaeaiiy iaiith i?ii?aeiei e?aii?ei?aai?/iei
oieiaeiiin??i. Ca?aeii c no/anieie aeieiaiaia?aaoe/ieie oyaeaiiyie,
iie?ioaiiy aia?aiaeiiii?/iino? aia?aoa ? ni?eyoeeaei ? a aeieia?/iiio
a?aeiioaii?, oiio ui ciaioo? aianie i?aoethth/eo aia?ao?a aei aoaeoo
aeiaaeueiiai iioaie?iiy ee?iaoo. Aeieia?/ia /enoioa iiaiai aia?aoa
caaacia/o?oueny oaeiae aeei?enoaiiyi a eiai oieiaeeeuei?e iaoei? iiaiai
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oieiaeiaaaioo R134A.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “?ic?iaea i?ia?aneaiiai aia?aoa caii?iaeoaaiiy
iaii?a e?aii?ei?aai?/iei oieiaeiiin??i” aeeeaaeaii iaoeia? iniiae
noai?aiiy aia?aoa oeueiai i?ecia/aiiy c iaoith ciaioaiiy iieacieea
ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe??. Oey iaoa aeinyaa?oueny
oeyoii iioei?caoe?? aaiiao??? aeie-oi?ie, aeei?enoaiiy
e?aii?ei?aai?/iiai i?ii?aeiiai oieiaeiiin?y aeey aaiie i?e
?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeai?? oaeaeeino? eiai ?ooo a aaii? ? ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? aeie-oi?i c iaii?i, ui iaeii/anii caio?ththoueny a aaiio.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeniiae?a, c?iaeaieo o ?icae.1, i?eeia?ii aei aeei?enoaiiy
ye oieiaeiiin?e aeey aeaiiai aia?aoa e?aii?ei?aai?/io ??aeeio ON-O-5, ui
a iaea?eueo iiai?e i??? a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei aei?noeei aeiiaai aei
oaiei- ? oieiaeiiin??a. sse oieiaeiaaaio aeey iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai
oieiaeeeueiiai aa?aaaoo, yeee ia oeae /an i?aoeth? ia iciii?oei?ai?e
noi?o? R502, a iiaiio aia?ao? ia?aaeaa/aii canoiniaoaaoe aeueoa?iaoeaiee
oieiaeiaaaio R404A.

Aoea ia?aia iioei?ciaaia aaiiao??y aeie-oi?ie i?noe?noth 60 ni3 – ?en.2.
Aiia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae o?aaeeoe?eii? (aeecueei? aei eoa?/ii?)
aaiiao??? oei,

?en.2. Aeie-oi?ia c iie?ioaiith aaiiao???th (i?noe?noue – 60 ni3)

ui oiaueia oa?o iaiith a iai?yieo caii?iaeoaaiiy (ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio aei
iai?yieo ?ooo oieiaeiiin?y) c?iaeaia yeiiiaa iaioith – 20 ii i?e
i?noeino? aeie-oi?ie 60 ni3 (i?e iaio?e oiauei? aeieeiooue oneeaaeiaiiy
c caiiaiaiiyi aeie-oi?i iaii?i ? aeeo/aiiyi aioiaiai caii?iaeaiiai
i?iaeoeoo c aeie-oi?i). I?ney oeueiai cae?enithaaany oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie
aia?aoa c iaoith aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aia?aoa ? iio??aii?
oieiaeii?iaeoeoeaiino? oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie i?e ?? ?iaio? ia iiaiio
oieiaeiaaaio? R404A. I?e i?eeiyoeo cia/aiiyo iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ?aaeei
oa/?? a aaii? oa c?aeioaaeueieo o?oaao aia?aoa ? eai?ia?iei.
E?eoa??aeueia ??aiyiiy oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae no?iee aeie-oi?ie aei
oieiaeiiin?y ca oeeo oiia ia? aeaeyae:

– eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/?, Ao/(i2E);
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 –
eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino? oieiaeiiin?y Ao/(iE);
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 –
e?iaiaoe/ia ayce?noue oieiaeiiin?y, i2/n;
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 – na?aaei?e ?ici?? aeie-oi?ie a iai?yieo ??
iao?eaiiy oieiaei-iin??i, i (aeey aeie-oi?ie i?noe?noth 60 ni3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0,054i);

w2 – oaeaee?noue oa/?? oieiaeiiin?y a aaii?, i/n (ca i?eeiyoeo oiia
w2=0,061 i/n).

I?e iaeii/aniiio caio?aii? 48 aeie-oi?i o aaiio i?iaeoeoeai?noue aia?aoa
aei??aith? G = 3,210-3 ea/n = 11,5 ea/aiae. Iaiao?aeia
oieiaeii?iaeoeoeai?noue oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie aia?aoa ca oeeo oiia ia?
aooe ia iaioa Q0 = 1000 Ao. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai cia/aiiy, aoei
i?iaaaeaii oaieiaee ? a?ae?aae?/iee ?ic?aooiie aeia?ieea oieiaeeeueii?
iaoeie aia?aoa. Aoa i?eeiyoee ai?eciioaeueiee aeia?iee eiaeooio?oaiiai
oeio; eiai aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e aoee ia?ai? c o?aooaaiiyi aaaa?eo?a
aia?aoa a oe?eiio. Eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? a o?oaeao aeia?ieea (no) c
o?aooaaiiyi eai?ia?iiai ?aaeeio oa/?? ia/enethaaany ca aeiiiiiaith
e?eoa??aeueiiai ??aiyiiy
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 – aioo??oi?e ae?aiao? o?oaee
aeia?ieea, i;

L – aeoeaia aeiaaeeia o?oaie, i;
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 –
aeeiai?/ia ayce?noue oieiaeiiin?y, Ian (cia/aiiy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?aeiia?aea? oaiia?aoo?? no?iee o?oaee aeia?ieea);

wo? – oaeaee?noue ?ooo oieiaeiiin?y a o?oaeao, i/n.

?ic?aooieiaa anoaiiaeaia iiooaei?noue iiaiai aia?aoa noaiiaeoue Nono=
1521 Ao. Oea cia/aiiy i?eaeecii a 3,2 ?ace iaioa, i?ae aeey
aia?aoa-i?ioioeio E?EIEAA 500. A oie aea /an i?iaeoeoeai?noue
inoaiiueiai a 2,5 ?ace a?eueoa. Ioaea, iieaciee ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao o
iiaiio aia?ao?, yeee aei??aith?:
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,

i?eaeecii ia 24% iaioee, i?ae aeey aia?aoa-i?ioioeio (nono=0,173
eAoaiae/ea). Oeei aecia/a?oueny iie?ioaiiy aia?aiaeiiii?/iino?,
aeinyaiooa a iiaiio aia?ao?. Ia iaio aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii ? eiai iiaia
aeieia?/ia aacia/i?noue caaaeyee canoinoaaiith aaniethoii iaoe?aeeeaiai
e?aii?ei?aai?/iiai oieiaeiiin?y ON-O-5 ? aeueoa?iaoeaiiai oieiaeiaaaioo
R404A.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “?ic?iaea na??? aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo ? aeieia?/ii
aacia/ieo aia?ao?a aeey i?eaiooaaiiy iyeiai ii?iceaa (o?eca??a)” iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaii ? ?aae?ciaaii eiino?oeoe?? iiaiai oeii?ici??iiai ?yaeo
o?eca??a c i?iaeoeoeai?noth a?ae 5 aei 20 ea/aiae, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny
a?ae ?nioth/eo aiaeia?a ciaioaiith iiooaei?noth aeaeaoi?a ?iai/iai aaea,
iayai?noth caoiae?a c ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaieiiai?io a ioieiaeaeoaaeuei?e
?oaaooe? ?iai/i? eaia?e oa ciaioaiiyi oa?i?/iiai iii?o oaieiia?aaea/?
a?ae i?iaeoeoo, a oaeiae canoinoaaiiyi iciiiaacia/ieo oieiaeiaaaio?a o
oieiaeeeueieo iaoeiao. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi
iine?aeiaiiai ?ic?aooieo ?aoe?iiaeueieo cia/aiue an?o iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? oa ?iaioe o?eca?a c aeei?enoaiiyi oai?aoe/ieo
oi?ioe; oeae aeai?eoi neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo aoai?a.

1. Aea?? ?ioa?aaeo cia/aiue aaaeaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? na??? o?eca??a ca
aeoiaeii aioiai? i?iaeoeoe?? c oaoiieia?/ieo i??eoaaiue; aeey
i?aei?e?inoa noa?e iaeiai a?ciano, ye? ?aae?cothoue ia?aaaaeio
a?eueo?noue ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa iyeiai ii?iceaa ianaeaiith,
?aoe?iiaeueieie iaaeaie aeacaiiai ?ioa?aaeo ? oae?: G=5…20 ea/aiae =
(1,39…5,55)10-3ea/n.

2. Aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo cia/aiue ii/aoeiai? (tii/) ? e?ioeaai? (te?i)
oaiia?aoo? aeo?aeii? oa?/iai? noi?o?, ui ia?iaey?oueny. C aia?aaoe/ieo
i??eoaaiue ne?ae onoaiiaeoe i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy tii/= +70N ?
iaeneiaeueia oaoiieia?/ii i?eionoeia cia/aiiy te?i:=-50N.

Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui i?e ?icoe?aii? ?ioa?aaeo (tii/…te?i) nooo?ai
c?inoa? aaee/eia:

qc=?ii/ – ?e?i, (20)

yea aecia/a? e?euee?noue oaieioe, ui a?aeaiaeeoueny a?ae 1ea noi?o? a
i?ioean? caii?iaeoaaiiy. Cia/aiiy ieoiii? aioaeuei?? ?ii/ oa ?e?i noi?o?
a?aeiia?aeathoue oaiia?aoo?ai tii/ ? te?i ? aecia/athoueny ca
aeia?aeeiaeie oaaeeoeyie. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e cia/aiiy ? c?inoa?
(iniaeeai oaeaeei – i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a 00N), ui coiiaeth? caaaeaia
ci?iaiiy qc.

3. Aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai cia/aiiy ieiu? iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io FO
?iai/i? eaia?e o?eca?a ia i?aenoaa? ia/eneaiiy aaee/eie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, yea oa?aeoa?eco? iio??aio
oieiaeii?iaeoeoeai?noue oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie i?e ia?ooii?e noi?o?, oiaoi
ia ii/aoeo i?ioeano o?eca?oaaiiy, ca oi?ioeith:
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, (21)

aea iiiaeiee 1,2 a?aoiao? oaieii?eieeae a ?iai/o eaia?o ?c ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua (e??cue iai?iaeaeaiiy aia?aoa oa ?acii c iia?o?yi, yea
iiaea?oueny a eaia?o aeey iane/aiiy ?i noi?o?). Aaee/eia FO
aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

aea Ro – oa?i?/iee ii?? oaieiia?aaea/? a aia?ao?, i2E/Ao;
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 – iii?iaeueia oaiia?aoo?a
eei?iiy oieiaeiaaaioo
(picscalex100010009000003ba000000020015000000000005000000090200000000040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 = -150N).

4. Aecia/aiiy Ro ooai?th? ie?aiee aoai aeai?eoio. Oey aaee/eia
aecia/a?oueny ye

aea i – eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae no?iee ioieiaeaeoaaeueii?
?oaaoee ?iai/i? eaia?e aei eeiey/iai oieiaeiaaaioo, Ao/(i2E);

no – oiaueia oe??? no?iee, i;

no – eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino? iaoa??aeo no?iee, Ao/(iE);

– oiaueia iaii?iaeaiiai oa?o noi?o?, yeee iino?eii ia?aaoaa? ia
no?ioe? ?iai/i? eaia?e, i;

3 – eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino? oeueiai oa?o, i;

i – eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae i?iaeoeoo aei no?iee ?iai/i?
eaia-?e, Ao/(i2E).

Iniaeeaiai aiae?co iio?aao? eeoa aaee/eia oiaueie iaii?iaeaiiai oa?o . A
?nioth/eo aia?aoao aiia aecia/a?oueny eiino?oeoeaiei i?ii?aeeii i?ae
e?ioeyie eiiaoie ?iai/iai aaea ? no?ieith ?iai/i? eaia?e ? iiaea
aeinyaaoe 0,5…1,5 ii. Ioe?iea ca aeiiiiiaith oi?ioee (23) iieaco?, ui ca
oeeo oiia neeaaeiaa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 iiaea iaaeaaaoe iniiaiee
aianie o iiaio aaee/eio Ro, ui ciooo? iaaei?aaaeaii ca?eueooaaoe
oieiaeii?iaeoeoeai?noue oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie. Oiio i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiai?
na??? o?eca??a aoa ia?aaeaa/aiee eiino?oeoeaiee cao?ae c iaoith
iaeiiai?oiai aeeo/aiiy iaii?iaeaiiai oa?o – canoinoaaiiy i?aei?oaeeiaieo
eiiaoie. I?e ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai caoiaeo aaee/eio iiaeia i?eeiyoe
??aiith i?e?iaei?e oi?noeino? iiaa?oi? ?iai/i? eaia?e; aeey noaeaaeo
o?oa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,1 ii.
Oiae? oi?ioea (23) i?eeia? oaeee ae?ac:

ieae/a, ca aeiiiiiaith aeayeeo eiino?oeoeaieo caoiae?a iiaeia ca?eueoeoe
i aei 10000 Ao/(i2E) ? aeua; a a?aie/iiio aeiaaeeo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,510-3 i2E/Ao ia?ii:
Ro=Ro2=0,510-3i2E/Ao. Oaeei /eiii, a oi?ioeo (22) aeey ?ic?aooieo FO
ne?ae i?aenoaaeyoe Ro c o?aooaaiiyi caaaeaieo eiino?oeoeaieo caoiae?a –
a?ae 1,010-3 aei 0,510-3i2E/Ao; aoaeoeai?noue oeeo caoiae?a
aecia/a?oueny aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii (?icae. 6).

5. C oaoiieia?/ii? i?aeoeee a?aeiii, ui ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ?iai/ith
aeiaaeeiith loe ? aioo??oi?i ae?aiao?ii doe oeee?iae?a (?iai/i? eaia?e)
o?eca?a ia? noaiiaeoe loe : doe = 4 : 1. Oiae? ieiua iiaa?oi? oeee?iae?a
aoaea noaiiaeoe FO = doeloe = 4 d2oe, ? ?aoe?iiaeuei? cia/aiiy doe ? loe
iiaeia ia/eneeoe ii ciaeaeai?e aeua aaee/ei? FO ye:

3 – aonoeia caii?iaeaii? noi?o?, ea/i3
(3picscalex1000100090000038800000002001200000000000500000009020000000004
00000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005
0000000b0200000000050000000c02400140011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010
000000c0ffffff2500000000010000650100000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970
650000200010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00
02040000002d01000008000000320a00013c0001000000bb000a00000026060f000a00ff
ffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc01020222537973
74656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000000000ce0200700
ea/i3).

Ciaiiy aaee/eie mi aea? ciiao ia/eneeoe o?eaae?noue caii?iaeoaaiiy
ii?oe?? ii?iceaa:
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.
(28)

A naith /a?ao, aeoiaey/e c ia/eneaieo aaee/ei mi ? 3, iiaeia
?aoe?iiaeueii i?aai?coaaoe i?ioean ?aae?caoe?? aioiai? i?iaeoeoe??
niiaeeaa/ai.

7. Aeae? ia/eneth?oueny e?ooiee iiiaio ia ?iai/iio aae? o?eca?a ca
oi?ioeith
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,
(29)

aea i – coneeey ia iaeeieoeth aeiaaeeie e?ioe?a ?iai/eo eiiaoie, I/i;

anoaiiaeth?oueny aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii, c o?aooaaiiyi oaoiieia?/ieo
aeiia aei eiinenoaioe?? iyeiai ii?iceaa.

8. Aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e eei?iiy oieiaeiaaaioo ti, yea a i?aoethth/iio
o?eca?? ia? aooe aeaui ieae/ith, i?ae iii?iaeueia oaiia?aoo?a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-150N:

Ine?eueee oieiaeii?iaeoeoeai?noue aoaeue-yeiai aa?aaaoo nooo?ai c?inoa?
c i?aeaeuaiiyi ti, oi oi?ioea (31) oaeoe/ii ? ??aiyiiyi c iaeiei
iaa?aeiiei, aeey ?icaycaiiy yeiai o?aaa ciaoe eiie?aoiee aeae
caeaaeiino? Qi(ti) aeey aeaiiai aa?aaaoo. Aea/aiiy aeia?aeeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e iieacaei, ui i?eaeaoieie aeey aia?ao?a oe??? na??? ?
na?aaeiueioaiia?aoo?i? aa?aaaoe ii AINO 22502-83, ye? o?aaeeoe?eii
i?aoethaaee ia oieiaeiaaaio? R12(ACy1250(2) – ia R22). Oiio aoa
i?iaaaeaiee ia?a?aooiie caeaaeiinoae Qi(ti), a oaeiae aeaeo?e/ii?
iiooaeiino? Na (ti) ia oiiae ?iaioe c aeei?enoaiiyi aeueoa?iaoeaieo
oieiaeiaaaio?a R134A ? R404A (inoaii?e – o?eueee aeey aa?aaaoo
ANy1250(2)); i?e oeueiio canoiniaoaaeeny lg?-?-ae?aa?aie aeey iiaeo
oieiaeiaaaio?a ? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i eiao?oe??io iiaea/? eiii?ani??a
oeeo aa?aaao?a. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo ?ic?aooie?a i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en.3. I?e
a?aeiieo cia/aiiyo te?i , Ro ? Fo ca aeiiiiiaith ?en.3 i?aeae?athoueny
i?eaeaoiee aa?aaao ? cia/aiiy ti o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ??aiyiiyi (30),
i?ney /iai aecia/a?oueny a?aeiia?aeia aaee/eia Na.

?en.3. ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? oieiaeii?iaeoeoeaiino? (Qi) ? aeaeo?e/ —

ii? iiooaeiino? (Na) a?ae oaiia?aoo?e eei?iiy (ti) aeey na?aaeiuei —

oaiia?aoo?ieo aa?aaao?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia aeueoa?iaoeaieo oiei —

aeiaaaioao (oeacaieo ieae/a a aeoaeeao), i?e oaiia?aoo?? iaaei —

eeoiueiai iia?o?y ti=200N:

1, 1 – AN400(2) (R134A); 2, 2 – AN500(2) (R134A);

3, 3 – AN630(2) (R134A); 4, 4 – AN800(2) (R134A);

5, 5 – ANy1250(2) (R404A)

9. Aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? iiooaeiino? i?eaiaeiiai aeaeo?iaeaeaoia
?iai/iai aaea:
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, (32)

aea ae – e.e.ae. aeaeaoia (cae/aeii i?eeiathoue cia/aiiy ae = 0,8).

10. Aecia/aiiy anoaiiaeaii? iiooaeiino? o?eca?a:

Nono = Na + Nae + Na, (33)

aea Na – iiooaei?noue i?eaiaeiiai aeaeaoia aaioeeyoi?a, ui caaacia/o?
iia?o?yia ioieiaeaeaiiy eiiaeainaoi?a a oieiaeeeueiiio aa?aaao?, Ao.

11. Ia/eneaiiy iieacieea ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeoe??:
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. (34)

I?iaaaeaiee ?ethno?aoeaiee ?ic?aooiie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeeeaaeaiei
aeai?eoiii iieacaa, ui oaeei oeyoii iiaeia caaacia/eoe cia/aiiy
nonopicscalex10001000900000388000000020012000000000005000000090200000000
0400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000
050000000b0200000000050000000c02200160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000
10000000c0ffffff5500000020010000750100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479
70650000100010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c
0002040000002d01000008000000320a00013b0001000000bb000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000000000000,07eAoa
iae/ea ? ieae/a, ui i?eaeecii a 2 ?ace iaioa, i?ae aeey ?nioth/eo
aia?ao?a-aiaeia?a.

A oaae. 1 iaaaaeaii iniiai? a?aeiiino? i?i ie?ai? oeie o?eca??a ?c
ni?iaeoiaaiiai oeii?ici??iiai ?yaeo; a oaeno? aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii
oaeiae ? a?eueo aeaoaeueio oaaeeoeth caaaeaieo aeaieo i?i an? oaoi?/i?
ia?aiao?e ?ic?iaeaieo o?eca??a, a oiio /ene? i?i aea?? oieiaeeeueieo
aa?aaao?a ? i?eaiaeieo aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a ?iai/iai aaea. Cia/aiiy i a
oaae.1 io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii (?icae. 6).

O oinoiio ?icae?e? “ ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o
iaaiai?aiiy “ iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo c iaoith
ia?aa??ee oai?aoe/ieo ioe?iie aai io?eiaiiy ii??ieo aeaieo aeey
oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a; iaoiaeeeo aenia?eiaio?a oa ?o ia?iaee aoei
aeeeaaeaii a ?icae.2. Aei??thaaiiy oieiaeii?iaeoeoeaiino? (Qi) ?
aeaeo?e/ii? iiooaeiino? (Na) na?aaeiueioaiia?aoo?ieo ?
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aa?aaao?a ii AINO 22502-83 i?e ?o ?iaio? ia
iciiiaacia/ieo oieiaeiaaaioao R134A ? R404A a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e eei?iiy (ti) i?aeoaa?aeeee aeinoaoith oi/i?noue oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?aooie?a oeeo caeaaeiinoae a ?icae.5 (a oaeiae ie?aieo ioe?iie a
?icae. 3,4). ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae ?ic?aooieiaeie ? aei??yieie cia/aiiyie
Qi ia ia?aaeuoaaee 1%, cia/aiiyie Na – 1,5%. Oaeei /eiii, iaaaaeai?
caeaaeiino? Qi(ti) ? Na(ti) ooai?ththoue iaae?eio aaco aeey
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o oeio ? ?aaeeio ?iaioe oieiaeeeueiiai aa?aaaoa i?e
i?iaeooaaii? i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy
??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a.

Oaieio?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ??aeeeo e?aii?ei?aai?/ieo oieiaeiiin??a ON-2-1,
ON-2-1AA ? ON-O-5 i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoee aeine?aeaeai? a
?ioa?aae?

Oaaeeoey 1

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaeo aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo o?eca??a

A?aecia/aeueia iaeiaioaaiiyG,

ea/aiaeEiino?oeoeai? caoiaeei,

Ao/(i2E)Ro 103,

i2E/Ao“I??y-I”5C ia?oi?aoi?ii-oo?aoe?caoi?ii a ioieiaeaeoaaeuei?e
?oaaooe? ?iai/i? eaia?e28000,86“?iae-I”8C i?aa?aiiyi aioo??oiuei?
iiaa?oi? ioieiaeaeoaaeueii? ?oaaoee35000,78“Aio?ii-I”10C ia?oi?aoi?ii –
oo?aoe?caoi?ii ? n?oeith a ioieiaeaeoaaeuei?e ?oaaooe? ?iai/i?
eaia?e69000,645“Eueiaeeiea-I”12C eai?ey?ii-ii?oaaoei oa?ii ia aioo??oi?e
iiaa?oi? ioieiaeaeoaaeueii? ?oaaoee90000,61“Aaeaeueaaen-I”18C
eai?ey?ii-ii?oaaoei oa?ii ? ia?oi?aoi?ii-oo?aoe?caoi?ii a
ioieiaeaeoaaeuei?e ?oaaooe?110000,59“Aeuea?on-I”20C eai?ey?ii-ii?oaaoei
oa?ii ia aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi? ioieiaeaeoaaeueii? ?oaaoee ? i?aa?aiiyi
iiaa?oi? oaieiiai?io120000,58

oaiia?aoo? 213…293 E (-60…200N). Iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo aeaea ciiao io?eiaoe oae? ai?ieneiaoe?? oaiia?aoo?ieo
caeaaeiinoae aonoeie (), eiao?oe??ioa oaieii?ia?aeiino? (), aeeiai?/ii?
ayceino? () ? ieoiii? ?ciaa?ii? oaiei?ieino?
(picscalex100010009000003b2000000020015000000000005000000090200000000040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) (oi/i?noue ai?ieneiaoe?e – 0,5…1%):

picscalex1000100090000037e0100000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c024004a00b1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffaeffffff600b0000ee0300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000d00010000000fb02e7fdf400000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a9d029b0201000000280010000000fb02e7fdf4000000
00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000
08000000320a9d02300401000000290009000000fa020000100000000000000022000400
00002d0100000500000014023802a1090500000013023802440b15000000fb0260fe0000
000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc7a04000000
2d01020004000000f001010008000000320ae503ee0901000000d20008000000320a8f01
b20901000000e00008000000320aa002560601000000e00008000000320aa00216030100
0000d20015000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e00007a040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320aa0023100
020000006c6e15000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d657320
4e657720526f6d616e00007a040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320af701
810a01000000310008000000320a08033e07010000006f0010000000fb0260fe00000000
00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010200
08000000320aa0025a08010000002b0008000000320aa0020905010000003d0008000000
320aa002a101010000006d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000
fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d010200
04000000f001010003000000000000ffffff, (37)

picscalex100010009000003a20200000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02a00220151200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffbdffffffe01400005d0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000900010000000fb02e5fdf400000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a7d01dc0101000000280010000000fb02e5fdf4000000
00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000
08000000320a7d01700301000000290010000000fb02e5fdf40000000000900100000002
0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a7d01
d50d01000000280010000000fb02e5fdf400000000009001000000020002001053796d62
6f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a7d014f13010000002900
10000000fb02d7fdf400000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000204000000
2d01000004000000f001010008000000320a7c018014010000005d0010000000fb02d5fc
f400000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000
f001000008000000320a7b01ed08010000005b0015000000fb0260fe0000000000009001
000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00007c040000002d0100000400
0000f001010009000000320a8001e310030000003239330015000000fb0260fe00000000
00009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc7c040000002d01
010004000000f001000008000000320a80014f0e01000000d20015000000fb0260fe0000
000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00007c04000000
2d01000004000000f001010008000000320a80011d0901000000310015000000fb0260fe
0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc7c0400
00002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a8001960501000000f10008000000320a
8001560201000000d20008000000320a8001310001000000f10015000000fb0220ff0000
000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc7c04000000
2d01000004000000f001010008000000320a30020a0d01000000f00015000000fb02e0fe
0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc7c0400
00002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ae8017c0c01000000f10015000000fb02
e0fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00007c
040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320ae801110703000000323933001500
0000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e00cc7c040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ae801720601000000f000
08000000320ae8010d0101000000f00010000000fb0260fe000000000000900100000002
0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8001
ab0f010000002d0008000000320a80015e0b01000000610008000000320a8001210a0100
00002b0008000000320a80014904010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100
0000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc
040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000006e000b. (38)

Eiao?oe??ioe ??aiyiue (35) – (38) iaaaaeai? a oaae. 2.

Oaaeeoey 2

Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a ai?ieneiaoe?e (35)-(38)

Eiao?oe??ioOieiaeiiin?eON-2-1ON-2-1AAON-O-5293, ea/i3102210351144104,
E-17,557,708,01293, Ao/(iE)0,1710,1740,186103, E-11,211,191,19ao,ln
(iIan)-7,01-5,70-5,53a110-3, ln (iIan)E3,142,922,68np293,
Aeae/(eaE)178717201601picscalex100010009000003d2000000020015000000000005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, E-11,912,031,84Ca aeiiiiiaith ??aiyiue (35) –
(38) aoee ?ic?aoiaai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? ua o?ueio oaieio?ce/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee – e?iaiaoe/ii? a’yceino?
(picscalex10001000900000388000000020012000000000005000000090200000000040
0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050
000000b0200000000050000000c02600160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100
00000c0ffffff3d000000200100009d0100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706
50000300010000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000
2040000002d01000008000000320a00013b00010000006e000a00000026060f000a00fff
fffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010202225379737
4656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000000000000000),
eiao?oe??ioa oaiia?aoo?ii?ia?aeiino? (a) ? /enea I?aiaeoey (Pr) c
aeei?enoaiiyi oi?ioe:

aeine?aeaeaiue ao?ao oeneo ? oaieiia?aaea/? a ?ic?iaeaieo i?ia?aneaieo
aia?aoao ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe
i?aeoaa?aeeee neooi?noue oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a, aeeeaaeaieo
a ?icae.3,4. sse i?eeeaae ia ?en. 4 iaaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei?
caeaaeiino? ao?ao oeneo ? eiao?oe?aioa oaieiia?aaea/? a?ae ianiai?
aeo?aoe oieiaeiiin?y a a?ae?aae?/iiio o?aeo? aia?aoa caii?iaeoaaiiy
iaii?a; oe? caeaaeiino? i?aaenoaaeaii a e?eoa??aeuei?e oi?i? c
aeei?enoaiiyi oi?ioe:
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, (42)
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,
(43)

aea Goe – ianiaa aeo?aoa oieiaeiiin?y, ea/n;

S2 – ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co iioieo oieiaeiiin?y /a?ac aaiio, i2
(S2= 0,04 i2);
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 – oa?aeoa?iee ?ici?? aeie-oi?ie a iai?yieo
?? iao?eaiiy oieiaeiiin??i, i
(picscalex100010009000003a4000000030015000000000005000000090200000000040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 =0,54 i).

Aeaeii , ui caeaaeiino?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(Goe) ?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(Goe) iinyoue
e?i?eiee oa?aeoa? oieiaeiiin?y a?ae ianiai? aeo?aoe ca?aeii c
eai?ia?iei ?aaeeiii oa/?? oieiaeiiin?y a a?ae?aae?/iiio o?aeo? aia?aoa.
A?aecia/eii , ui oe? caeaaeiino? ia i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac ii/aoie nenoaie
eii?aeeiao; oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui oi?ioee aeey i?noeaaeo ao?ao oeneo
i?e eai?ia?iiio ?aaeei? i?noyoue neeaaeiao, yea ia caeaaeeoue a?ae Ra.
Caeaaei?noue Nu(Ra) iineoue oa?aeoa? Nu  Ra0,5, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? neooi?noue canoinoaaiiy ??aiyiiy (14) i?e oaieiaiio
?ic?aooieo aia?aoa caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a. Aiaeia?/ia ocaiaeaeaiiy oai???
c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie iaei i?noea ? aeey aia?aoa ioieiaeaeaiiy
iaii?a.

?en.4 Caeaaei?noue ao?ao oeneo ia aaii?
(picscalex100010009000003b5000000020015000000000005000000090200000000040
0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050
000000b0200000000050000000c022002c0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100
00000c0ffffffbdffffff80020000dd0100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706
50000500015000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e6
57720526f6d616e00cc69040000002d01000008000000320a8001390101000000f000100
00000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d0
1010004000000f001000008000000320a6b01190201000000a20008000000320a80013b0
00100000044000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090
000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f00
101000300000000000000) ? ia nenoai? ioieiaeaeaiiy a oe?eiio
(picscalex100010009000003bd000000020015000000000005000000090200000000040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), a oaeiae
eiao?oe??ioa oaieia?aeaea/?
(picscalex10001000900000388000000020012000000000005000000090200000000040
0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050
000000b0200000000050000000c02600180011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100
00000c0ffffff3d000000400100009d0100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706
50000300010000000fb0260fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000
2040000002d01000008000000320a000136000100000061000a00000026060f000a00fff
fffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010202225379737
4656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000000000ce0200) a?ae
iaiith aei oieiaeiiin?y a?ae ianiai? aeo?aoe oieiaeiiin?y (Goe):

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, —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,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 —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.

Aei i?ia?aie i?iaaaeaiiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae i?ioeano o?eca?oaaiiy aoiaeeei aei??thaaiiy eiao?oe?aioa
oaieia?aeaea/?
(picscalex100010009000003ad000000020015000000000005000000090200000000040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 ) a?ae
no?iee ioieiaeaeoaaeueii? ?oaaoee ?iai/i? eaia?e aei eeiey/iai
oieiaeiaaaioo ca aeiiiiiaith oa?iiia?, ai?uaieo a ia’?i oieiaeiaaaioo ?
ca/aeaiaieo a no?iee ioieiaeaeoaaeueii? ?oaaoee. Aei??thaaiiy
cae?enithaaeiny c iaoith ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? eiino?oeoeaieo caoiae?a c
?ioaineo?eaoe?? caaaeaiiai i?ioeano oaieiia?aaea/?. ?acoeueoaoe oeueiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iaaaaeai? a oaae.1; aiie aoee aeei?enoai? i?e
?aae?caoe?? aeai?eoio i?iaeoiiai ?ic?aooieo o?eca??a, aeeeaaeaiiai a
?icae.5. Aei oe??? ae i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue aoiaeeei anoaiiaeaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai cia/aiiy /anoioe iaa?oaiiy (n) ?iai/iai aaea o?eca?a.
Aoei ciaeaeaii, ui oaeei cia/aiiyi iiaeia aaaaeaoe n=5 ia/n. Aoei
aecia/aii oaeiae ona?aaeiaia cia/aiiy aaee/eie fi -–ieoiiiai coneeey,
i?eeeaaeaiiai aei iaeeieoe? aeiaaeeie e?ioe?a ?iai/eo eiiaoie
i?aoethth/iai o?eca?a: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 I/i =
1 I/ii. I?iaaaeai? aei?iaoaaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a ?ic?iaeaieo
i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a ca niaoe?aeueieie i?ia?aiaie, iienaieie a ?icae.2,
i?aeoaa?aeeee aeinyaiaiiy iaoe oeeo ?ic?iaie – iie?ioaiiy
aia?aiaeiiii?/iino? ? aeieia?/ii? aacia/iino? aia?ao?a. Oea aeaei ciiao
?icii/aoe ?iaioe c i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
(?icae.7).

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? “I?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue”
iienaii aoaeiao ?ic?iaeaieo i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy oa
caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a ? aia?ao?a aeey i?eaiooaaiiy iyeiai ii?iceaa
(o?eca??a), aeeeaaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c ?aoe?iiaeueii?
aenieoaoaoe?? oeeo aia?ao?a ? a?aeiiino? i?i ?o ae?iaie/a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
ia i?aei?e?inoaao oi?a?ae? ? oa?/oaaiiy Oe?a?ie. Noaia eiino?oeoe??
iiaiai aia?aoa ioieiaeaeaiiy iaii?a iieacaia ia ?en.5. I?eioeeiiaith
a?aeciaeith oeueiai aia?aoa ? iayai?noue eiioo?a oee?eoeyoe??
i?ii?aeiiai e?aii?ei?aai?/iiai oieiaeiiin?y ye nenoaie iai?yiiai
ioieiaeaeaiiy iaiith; eiioo? i?noeoue ci?eiaee ioieiaeaeaiiy ?
oee?eoeyoe?eiee ianin, ia?aiao?e yeeo iae?athoueny ia iniia? ?ic?aooieo,
aeeeaaeaiiai a ?icae. 3. Iio??aia oaiia?aoo?a oieiaeiiin?y noai?th?oueny
? i?aeo?eio?oueny a oieiaeeeuei?e iaoei?, ui i?aoeth? ia iciiiaacia/iiio
oeaaeii? R134A. Aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e ci?eiaeea aeicaieythoue ?ici?noeoe
a ieo aoaeoeai? ia?ai?ooaaeuei? i?eno?i?, ye? caaacia/othoue
??aiii??i?noue oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey a ia?i? iaiith, ioaea e
??aiii??i?noue oaiia?aoo?e iine?aeiaieo ii?oe?e ioieiaeaeaiiai iaiith,
ui ?aae?cothoueny niiaeeaa/ai.

Ianin ia?ai?ooaaeueiiai i?eno?ith, e??i caaacia/aiiy ?ooo
i?oaeee-aeoeaaoi?a, ni?yiiao? no?oiai? iaiith e??cue i?i??ce a /anoeio
ia?io iaiith ca iaaeaie ci?eiaeea, ui ni?ey? aeinyaiaiith caaaeaii? aeua
??aiii??iino? oaiia?aoo?e iaiith ? aei oiai ae noai?th? “aoaeo oiioaia”
o aa?oi?e /anoei? aa/ea; anoaoe/ia a?aaeaiiy a?ae oeueiai aoaeoo iiaeia
i?aeneeeoe oeyoii i?aena?/oaaiiy aa?oiuei? /anoeie aa/ea
ethi?ianoeaioiith eaiiith iaei? iiooaeiino? (6…8 Ao) aac noooaaiai
ca?eueoaiiy aia?aiaeo?ao a aia?ao?. Aa/ee aeey iaiith oa ?o e?eoee
aeeiiothoueny c oianoieenoiaiai iie?ia?iiai iaoa??aeo c iecueeei
eiao?oe?aioii oaieii?ia?aeiino? (ia a?eueoa 0,1 Ao/(iE)). Aeey
aeiaeaoeiaiai ciaioaiiy oaieii?eieeao a ia?i iaiith ia ciai?oith
iiaa?oith aa/ea iiaea aooe iaianaii iai?ai?ici?a a?aeaeaath/a iie?eooy.
Oi?aae?iiy ?iaioith oieiaeeeueiiai aa?aaaoo AN500(2) cae?enith?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith ?aea oaiia?aoo?e, aeao/eee yeiai – o?iiaeue-eiiaeaa?
oa?iiia?e – ca/aeaiai? a no?iee /anoei ea?eana ci?eiaeea ioieiaeaeaiiy
(ia iieacai? ia ?en.5). ?aea oaiia?aoo?e aeieea? oieiaeeeueio iaoeio
aia?aoa i?ney aeinyaiaiiy caaeaii? e?ioeaai? oaiia?aoo?e iaiith ? ciia
aieea? ??, eiee oaiia?aoo?a iaiith i?aeaeueoueny ia 20N aiane?aeie
iayaiino? oaieii?eieeao ciai?. Aeey ii?iaeue-iiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aia?aoa ne?ae ia??iaee/ii aeieeaaoe iai?e a aa/ie aei iaianaii? ia
no?ieo iicia/ee.

O?eca?e c i?iaeoeoeai?noth a?ae 5 aei 20 ea/aiae c eiaeiaeie
iaeiaioaaiiyie “I??y-I”, “?iae-I”, “Aio?ii-I”, “Eueiaeeiea-I”,
”Aaeaeueaaen-I” ? “Aeuea?on-I” aoee ni?iaeoiaai? ca?aeii c ?acoeueoaoaie
?ic?aooie?a, aeai?eoie yeeo aoei iienaii a ?icae.5. Noaia aoaeiae aocea
i?eaiooaaiiy ii?iceaa aia?aoa “I??y-I” iieacaia ia ?en.6. Ia ?en.7-11
cia?aaeaii noaie nenoai ioieiaeaeaiiy ia?ae?/aieo aeua o?eca??a, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae noaie, iieacaii? ia ?en.6, eeoa eiino?oeoeaieie
caoiaeaie c ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaieiiai?io a ioieiaeaeoaaeuei?e ?oaaooe?
?iai/i? eaia?e. Oe? caoiaee aeacai? a i?aeienao i?ae ?enoieaie.

?en .5. Noaia iiaiai aia?aoa ioieiaeaeaiiy iaii?a:

1 – e?eoee aa/e?a; 2 – aa/ee aeey iaiith; 3 – ioieiaeaeoaa/
ci?eiaeeiaee; 4 – oeee?iae? ioieiaeaeoaa/a; 5 – o?oaee iiaea/? iaiith
ia aeia?iee; 6 – ianin; 7 – iaai?oi? ioooe; 8 – ceeaiee i?eno??e; 9
aeaeo?ii?ea?ae ianina; 10 – ?aneaa?; 11 – eiiaeainaoi?; 12 –
aaioeeyoi?; 13 – eiii?ani?; 14 – ianin; 15 – ae?inaeue; 16 –
eiaeooici?eiaeeiaee aeia?iee

A oe?eiio aanue oeae ?yae o?eca??a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iie?ioaiith
aia?aiaeiiii?/i?noth – iieaciee ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth
i?iaeoeoe?? ia? cia/aiiy, ui ia 30…50% iaio?, i?ae aeey ?nioth/eo
aia?ao?a iaei? i?iaeoeoeaiino?; e??i oiai, oe? aia?aoe ? aeieia?/ii
aacia/ieie caaaeyee canoinoaaiith iiaeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo oieiaeiaaaio?a
R134A ? R404A.

?en.6. Aocie i?eaiooaaiiy ii?iceaa o?eca?a “I??y-I”:

a – aocie o cai??: 1 – oeee?iae?; 2 – ?iai/a eaia?a; 3 –
ia?oi?aoi?-oo?aoe?caoi?; 4 – iaa/aeea; 5 – i?oaeea-o?ainii?oa?; 6 –
iaeiiaeoeiaee oiae; 7 – eiiaoea; a – aeaiaio ia?oi?aoi?a-oo?aoe?caoi?a;
a – ?icai?oea aeaiaioa ia?oi?aoi?a-oo?aoe?caoi?a

?en.7. Aocie i?eaiooaaiiy ii?iceaa o?eca?a “?iae-I”:

a – aocie o cai??: 1 – oeee?iae?; 2 – u?eeia; 3 – ?aa?a; 4 – ?iai/a
eaia?a; 5 – i?oaeea-o?ainii?oa?; 6 – iaa/aeea; 7 – eiiaoea; a – ?ic??c
aocea (aac i?oaeee-o?ainii?oa?a)

?en.8. Aocie i?eaiooaaiiy ii?iceaa o?eca?a “Aio?ii-I”:

a – aocie o cai??: 1 – oeee?iae?; 2 – ia?oi?aoi?-oo?aoe?caoi?; 3 –
i?oaeea-o?ainii?oa?; 4 – iaa/aeea; 5 – ?iai/a eaia?a; 6 – iaoaeaaa
n?oea; 7 – eiiaoea; a – aocie o ?ic??c?

?en.9. Aocie i?eaiooaaiiy ii?iceaa o?eca?a “Eueiaeeiea-I”:

a – aocie o cai??: 1 – oeee?iae?; 2 – u?eeia; 3 – eai?ey?i? ii?e; 4 –
i?oaeea-o?ainii?oa?; 5 – ?iai/a eaia?a; 6 – iaa/aeea; 7 – eiiaoea; a –
aocie o ?ic??c?

?en.10. Aocie i?eaiooaaiiy ii?iceaa o?eca?a “Aaeaeueaaen-I”:

a – aocie o cai??: 1 – oeee?iae?; 2 – ?iai/a eaia?a; 3 –
ia?oi?aoi?-oo?aoe?caoi?; 4 – eai?ey?i? ii?e; 5 – i?oaeea-o?ainii?oa?; 6
– iaeiiaeoeiaee oiae; 7 – iaa/aeea; 8 – eiiaoea; a – aocie o ?ic??c?

?en.11. Aocie i?eaiooaaiiy ii?iceaa o?eca?a “Aeuea?on-I”:

a – aocie o cai??: 1 – oeee?iae?; 2 – ?iai/a eaia?a; 3 – u?eeia; 4 –
i?oaeea-o?ainii?oa?; 5 – eiiaoea; 6 – eai?ey?i? ii?e; 7 – ?aa?a; 8 –
iaa/aeea; a – aocie o ?ic??c?; a – aeaiaio iiaa?oi? c ii?oaaoei oa?ii

A oeueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii oaeiae a?aeiiino? i?i caoiaee c
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a i?aeoeeo
i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae? e oa?/oaaiiy Oe?a?ie, ui ?aae?cothoue ioieiaeaeai?
oa caii?iaeai? oa?/ia? i?iaeoeoe ianaeaiith e?a?ie.
Aeine?aeii-i?iieneia? c?acee aia?ao?a c eiiieaeoaie aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeieoiaio?a aoee ia?aaeai? ia ?yae i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae? e oa?/oaaiiy
Oe?a?ie ? i?ieoee aeinoaoiuei o?eaaeo i?aeoe/io ai?iaaoe?th; oni?oi?noue
?? i?aenoie?a i?aeoaa?aeaeaii io?oe?eieie aeieoiaioaie. Aeiiii?/iee
aoaeo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy noai?aieo i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy ?
caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a, a oaeiae o?eca??a aecia/a?oueny cia/iith
aeiiii??th aeo?ao aeaeo?iaia?a?? ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe??; eiie?aoiee
ianooaa oeueiai aoaeoo caeaaeaoeia a?ae ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??
oa ??aiy oe?i ia ia?. Nioe?aeueiee aoaeo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny
a?eueo iiaiei caaeiaieaiiyi iino?eii c?inoath/iai iiieoo oe?ieeo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia ioieiaeaeai? oa caii?iaeai? ??aee? oa?/ia?
i?iaeoeoe, cie?aia aaaaoieiiiiiaioi? oa?/ia? noi?o?. Aeieia?/ia /enoioa
iiaeo ii?iceeueieo aia?ao?a caaacia/o?oueny canoinoaaiiyi a ?o
oieiaeeeueieo iaoeiao ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo aeueoa?iaoeaieo oieiaeiaaaio?a.
E??i oiai, ca?aeii c no/anieie aeieiai-aia?aaoe/ieie oyaeaiiyie,
iie?ioaiiy aia?aiaeiiii?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy ia? e aeieia?/ia cia/aiiy,
ine?eueee coiiaeth? ciaioaiiy aieeao ?iaioe iaeaaeiaiiy, yea niiaeeaa?
aia?a?th a?ae oaieiaeo aeaeo?inoaoe?e, ia aoaeo aeiaaeueiiai iioaie?iiy
ee?iaoo. C iaeyaeo ia aaee/aci? ianooaae ?aae?caoe?? ioieiaeaeaieo ?
caii?iaeaieo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a a Oe?a?i? ?icoe?aia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?ia?aneaieo ii?iceeueieo aia?ao?a ia? i?eianoe a oe?eiio cia/iee
aeiiii?/iee aoaeo.

AENIIAEE

1. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?oe/iiai iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo
anoaiiaeai? iniiai? iaaeie?ee ?nioth/eo aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy ?
caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a ? aia?ao?a aeey i?eaiooaaiiy iyeiai ii?iceaa
(o?eca??a) – aenie? cia/aiiy iieacieea ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao ia
ae?iaieoeoai iaeeieoe? i?iaeoeoe?? oa aeei?enoaiiy aeieia?/ii oe?aeeeaeo
oieiaeiaaaio?a o oieiaeeeueieo iaoeiao aia?ao?a, a oaeiae
ia?aoe?iiaeueiee aea?? i?ii?aeieo oieiaeiiin??a a aia?aoao
caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a. Iieacaii iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy nenoaiaoe/ieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith ?ic?iaee
eiino?oe-oeaieo caoiae?a c ?aae?caoe?? iiaeeeainoae aaeineiiaeaiiy
o?eca??a ? aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy oa caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oiei-aeii?iaeoeoeaiino? oieiaeeeueieo aa?aaao?a i?e ?o ia?aaaaeaii? ia
aeei?enoaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo oieiaeiaaaio?a, oaieio?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae
e?aii?ei?aai?/ieo oieiaeiiin??a i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a 00N,
caeiiii??iinoae oa/?? oa oaieiiai?io a aia?aoao ioieiaeaeaiiy ?
caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a e?aii?e-i?aai?/ieie oieiaeiiin?yie; noai?aii
a?aeiia?aei? eaai?aoi?i? noaiaee, iniauai? no/aniith aei??thaaeueiith
oaoi?eith. Aea?aii oa a?aei?aoeueiaaii iaoiaeeee aei?iaoaaiue
aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a i?ia?aneaieo ii?iceeueieo aia?ao?a ?
iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
iniia? canoinoaaiiy no/anii? noaoenoe/ii? oai??? oa eiiithoa?ii?
oaoi?ee.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao iaoeiao eiioeaioe?th ?ic?iaee aia?ao?a
ioieiaeaeaiiy iaii?a c i?aeaeuaiith i?iaeoeoeai?noth ?
aia?aiaeiiii?/i?noth, yea aaco?oueny ia ia?aoiae? a?ae aaciina?aaeiueiai
ioieiaeaeaiiy iaiith aeia?ieeii oieiaeeeueii? iaoeie aei ioieiaeaeaiiy
iaiith i?ii?aeiei iecueeioaiia?aoo?iei oieiaeiiin??i, ui oee?eoeth? a
ci?eiaeeia?e nenoai? ioieiaeaeaiiy. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe??
iiaoaeiaaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, yea iieno? aeeiai?eo i?ioeano
ioieiaeaeaiiy iaiith, ? anoaiiaeaii ?aoe?iiaeuei? cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a
oeueiai i?ioeano. Aecia/aii anoaiiaeaio iiooaei?noue iiaiai aia?aoa ?
?ic?aoiaaii iieaciee ieoiieo aeo?ao; eiai cia/aiiy aeyaeeiny a 1,67 ?ace
iaioei, i?ae aeey ?nioth/iai aia?aoa-aiaeiaa, ui na?ae/eoue i?i oni?oio
?aae?caoe?th iaoeiai? eiioeaioe??, iieeaaeaii? a iniiao oe??? ?ic?iaee.
Ia?aaeaa/aii aeei?enoaiiy a oieiaeeeuei?e iaoei? aia?aoa iciiiaacia/iiai
oieiaeiaaaioo R134A.

4. Noi?ioeueiaaii iaoeiao eiioeaioe?th ?ic?iaee aaeineiiaeaiiai aia?aoa
caii?iaeoaaiiy iaii?a o aeie-oi?iao, ui ia? ciaioaiee iieaciee ieoiieo
aia?aiaeo?ao. Eiioeaioe?y aaco?oueny ia oaeineiiaeaii? aaiiao???
aeie-oi?i c iaoith ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaieiiai?io i?ae aeie-oi?iith ?
oieiaeiiin??i, ui aea? ciiao nooo?ai ciaioeoe oaeaee?noue ?ooo
oieiaeiiin?y ? a?aeiia?aei? ao?aoe oeneo a nenoai? ioieiaeaeaiiy ?
aiane?aeie oeueiai cieceoe anoaiiaeaio iiooaei?noue i?eaiaeo
oee?eoeyoe?eiiai ianina a nenoai?. Ia?aaeaa/aii canoinoaaiiy a
oieiaeeeuei?e iaoei? aia?aoa iciiiaacia/iiai oieiaeiaaaioo R404A.
Ciaeaeaii, ui cia/aiiy aeacaiiai iieacieea ia 24% ieae/a a ii??aiyii? c
?nioth/eie aia?aoaie-aiaeiaaie; oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aoaeoeai?noue
cai?iiiii-

aaieo eiino?oeoeaieo caoiae?a c oaeineiiaeaiiy aia?aoa caii?iaeoaaiiy
iaii?a.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao iaoeiao eiioeaioe?th i?iaeooaaiiy
aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo o?eca??a ia iniia? oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co niaoeeo?/ieo
iniaeeainoae iaoai?cio i?ioeano o?eca?oaaiiy ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiino?oeoeaieo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
cieaeaiiy niiaeeaaii? iiooaeiino? i?eaiaeo ?iai/iai aaea aia?aoa ?
?ioaineo?eaoe?th oaieiiai?io a ioieiaeaeoaaeuei?e ?oaaooe? ?iai/i?
eaia?e o?eca?a. ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo cia/aiue iniiaieo
eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a o?eca?a, ye? aeicaieythoue caaacia/eoe
i?i?iaeueii iiaeeea? cia/aiiy iieacieea ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao a aia?ao?.
Aiane?aeie ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai aeai?eoio ?ic?aoiaaii ia?aiao?e
oeii?ici??iiai ?yaeo aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo o?eca??a c i?iaeoeoeaiinoyie a
?ioa?aae? 5…20 ea/aiae. A eiino?oeoe?? o?eca??a ia?aaeaa/aii
niaoe?aeuei? caoiaee c aeeo/aiiy iaii?iaeaiiai oa?o oa?/iai? noi?o? c
no?iie ?iai/i? eaia?e ? nooo?aiai (a 4…5 ?ac?a) ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
oaieia?aeaea/? a ioieiaeaeoaaeuei?e ?oaaooe? aia?aoa.

6. I?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oieiaeii?iaeoeoeaiino?
aa?aaao?a ii AINO 22502-83 i?e ?iaio? ia aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo
oieiaeiaaaioao R134A ? R404A, oaieio?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae
e?aii?ei?aai?/ieo oieiaeiiin??a ON-2-1, ON-2-1AA ? ON-O-5 a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? 213…293E, ?ioaineaiino? oaieiiai?io ? ao?ao oeneo a nenoaiao
ioieiaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ii?iceeueieo aia?ao?a, aoaeoeaiino? ie?aieo
eiino?oeoeaieo caoiae?a oa ?o niieo/aiue c ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaieiiai?io a
ioieiaeaeoaaeuei?e ?oaaooe? ?iai/i? eaia?e o?eca?a; ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaio?a i?aeoaa?aeeee neooi?noue aenoiooeo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue
? aeaee ii??iee iaoa??ae aeey oaieioaoi?/ieo ? a?ae?aae?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a
ii?iceeueieo aia?ao?a c e?aii?ei?aai?/ieie iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieie
oieiaeiiin?yie.

7. Cae?eniaii eiiieaen caoiae?a c oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue a i?aeoeeo i?aei?e?inoa oi?a?ae? ? oa?/oaaiiy Oe?a?ie.
?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?? aia?aiaeiiii?/ieo ? aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo
aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy oa caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a,
neeaaeaii ?iai/o aeieoiaioaoe?th ia oe? aia?aoe ? i?aai?ciaaii aeione
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo aia?ao?a, ye? oni?oii i?ieoee i?aeoe/io
ai?iaaoe?th a ?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??. Ioe?iaii aeiiii?/iee,
nioe?aeueiee oa aeieia?/iee aoaeo i?aeoe/iiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo
aia?ao?a, i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee io?oe?aeueieie a?aeceaaie c i?noeue ?o
ae?iaie/i? ai?iaaoe??.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Naoiiia A.A., ?ooeeee I.Ae., Aa?iue A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea iiaiai
oeaaeiia aeey iaeuo oieiaeeeueiuo iaoei// Yeiiiieea e oaoiieiaey
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia: Na.iao/.o?. – Oa?ueeia: OEII, 1991. –
N.244-246.

2. Naoiiia A.A., Eooeaiei A.A. ?ac?aaioea aiia?aoa aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
iyaeiai ii?iaeaiiai// Yeiiiieea e oaoiieiaey i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo
oiaa?ia: Na.iao/.o?. – Oa?ueeia: OEII, 1991. – N. 246.

3. Iaoiiia I.E., Naoiiia A.A., O?aioeia E.E. Ieceioaiia?aoo?iua
e?aiieei?aaie/aneea oeaaeiiineoaee aeey aiia?aoia ioeaaeaeaiey e
caii?aaeeaaiey iaieoeia// Aeooaeuei? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie a
i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?ae?no?a aeui? eaae?o?eaoe?? aeey oi?a?ae? ?
oa?/oaaiiy: Ca.iaoe.i?. *anoeia 1. – Oa?e?a: OAeAOIO, 1997. – N.322-324.

4. Naoiiia A.A., Aaeyaaa E.I. Iooe e iaoiaeu caiaiu oeaaeiia R12
iciiiaaciianiuie ?iai/eie aauanoaaie// Aeooaeuei? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
i?iaeaie a i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?ae?no?a aeui? eaae?o?eaoe?? aeey oi?a?ae?
? oa?/oaaiiy: Ca.iaoe.i?. *anoeia 1. – Oa?e?a: OAeAOIO, 1997. –
N.325-327.

5. Iaoiiia I.E., Naoiiia A.A., O?aioeia E.E. Enneaaeiaaiey ?aaeeia
oa/aiey e iioa?e aeaaeaiey a eiioo?a aiia?aoa n i?eioaeeoaeueiie
oee?eoeyoeeae ieceioaiia?aoo?iiai oeaaeiiineoaey// Aeooaeuei?
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie a i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?ae?no?a aeui?
eaae?o?eaoe?? aeey oi?a?ae? ? oa?/oaaiiy: Ca.iaoe.i?. *anoeia 1. –
Oa?e?a: OAeAOIO, 1997. – N.387-389.

6. Naiaithe Ae.I., Naoiiia A.A. Oaeineiiaeaiiy aia?ao?a aeey
caii?iaeoaaiiy a aeeiai?oe? oa?/iaeo noi?oae c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii
iiei/iiai a?eea// I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee.
Na?.”Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy”. – 1997. — ? 53(64). – N.14.

7. Eooeaiei A.A., Naoiiia A.A. Ia?aaeoiiae ? oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy
aia?ao?a aeey caii?iaeoaaiiy aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo oa?/iaeo noi?oae//
I?eaei?i?ia-nueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Na?.”Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy”. – 1997. — ?
53(64). – N.20-21.

8. Iaoiiia I.E., Naoiiia A.A., O?aioeia E.E. Oaieioece/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeaeeeo e?aiieei?aaie/aneeo ieceioaiia?aoo?iuo
oeaaeiiineoaeae ON-2-1, ON-2-1AA, ON-O-5// Aanoiee iaoee e oaoieee
Oa?.aeiia iaoee e oaoieee. – 1998. – Aui.2. – N.51-52.

9. Naoiiia A.A., Eeioaeay E.A., O?aioeia E.E. Aac a?aaeiiai o?aiia R12
(aiia?ao aeey ioeaaeaeaiey iaieoeia) // Ieoaiea e iauanoai. – 1998. — ?7
– N. 32-33.

10. Naoiiia A.A. Iiaay eiioeaioeey ?ac?aaioee i?ia?anneaiiai aiia?aoa
ioeaaeaeaiey iaieoeia// I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Na?.
“Oaoi?/i? iaoee”. – 1998. — ? 95(162). – N.6-8.

11. Naoiiia A.A. ?an/ao ia?aiao?ia ?aaeeia ?aaiou oieiaeeeueiiai
aa?aaaoa a iiaii aiia?aoa ioeaaeaeaiey iaieoeia// I?eaei?i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a?niee. Na?. “Oaoi?/i? iaoee”. – 1998. — ?96(163). – N.107-110.

12. Naoiiia A.A. Aeai?eoi ?an/aoa oeii?acia?iiai ?yaea o?eca?ia n
iiauoaiiie yia?aiyeiiiie/iinoueth e yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoueth//
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. Na?. “Oaoi?/i? iaoee”. – 1998. — ?
96(163). – N.72-74.

13. Naiaithe Ae.I., Iaoiiia I.E., Naoiiia A.A. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea
ono?ienoaa aeey auaea/e ii?iaeaiiai a nia?aiaiiuo o?eca?ao// I?ia?aneai?
?ano?nicaa??aath/? oaoiieia?? oa ?o aeiiii?/ia iaa?oioiaaii?noue o
i?aei?e?inoaao oa?/oaaiiy. Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie oi?a?ae?. Ca.iaoe.i?.
*anoeia 1. – Oa?e?a: OAeAOIO, – 1998. – N. 70-73.

14. Naoiiia A.A. Iaoiaeeea oaieiaiai ?an/aoa oniaa?oainoaiaaiiiai
o?eca?a// Aanoiee OAIO. – 1999. – Aui. 34. – N. 31-35.

15. Naoiiia A.A. I?aaeiinueee i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?ia?anneaiiai aiia?aoa
caii?aaeeaaiey iaieoeia// Aanoiee OAIO. – 1999. – Aui. 34. – N. 40-43.

16. Naoiiia A.A. Oaieiaie ?an/ao oniaa?oainoaiaaiiiai aiia?aoa
caii?aaeeaaiey iaieoeia// Aanoiee OAIO. – 1999. – Aui. 34. – N. 44-49

17. Eooeaiei A.A., Naoiiia A.A. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue o?eca? n oaeaeaieai
iaii?iaeaiiiai neiy n iiaa?oiinoe ?aai/ae eaia?u// Aanoiee OAIO. – 1999.
– Aui. 39. – N. 95-101.

18. Naoiiia A.A., Eooeaiei A.A. E ?an/aoo eiyooeoeeaioa oaieiioaea/e io
caii?aaeeaaaiie ieuaaie niane e noaiea ?aai/ae eaia?u o?eca?a// Aanoiee
OAIO. – 1999. – Aui. 39. – N.102-104.

19. Naoiiia A.A. Auai? ?aoeeiiaeueiuo cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia ?aaeeia ?aaiou
i?ia?anneaiiai aiia?aoa caii?aaeeaaiey iaieoeia// Aanoiee OAIO. – 1999.
– Aui. 39. – N.109-112.

20. Naoiiia A.A. Oai?aoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee ?an/aoa aiia?aoia aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa iyaeiai ii?iaeaiiai// Aanoiee OAIO. – 1999. – Aui. 47. –
N.37-38.

21. Naoiiia A.A. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiiua eiino?oeoeee o?eca?ia n iiauoaiiui
eiyooeoeeaioii oaieiia?aaea/e io caii?aaeeaaaiie niane e eeiyuaio
oeaaeaaaioo//Oieiaeeeueiay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey. – Iaeanna. – 1999. –
Aui.60. – N. 16-18.

22. Aaeyaa I.E., Naoiiia A.A. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiiay noaia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oaieioeaaeiniaaaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo eeiee
oa?iinoaoe?iaaiey aioiaie ieue//Oac.aeiee.iao/.eiio. «I?iaeaiu aeeyiey
oaieiaie ia?aaioee ia ieuaaoth oeaiiinoue i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey». –
Oa?ueeia: OEII, – 1981. – N. 326-327.

23. Naoiiia A.A., Aiaeei I.E. I iiaii iiaeoiaea e i?iecaiaenoao iyaeiai
ii?iaeaiiai a i?aaei?eyoeyo iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey//Oac.aeiee.2-e
Anan.eiio.”I?iaeaiu eiaeono?eaeecaoeee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey no?aiu”. –
Oa?ueeia: OEII, – 1989. – N.404-405.

24. E?ioaea E.A., Naoiiia A.A., O?aioeia E.?. I?i ?aoe?iiaeueiee aea??
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo oieiaeiiin??a aei aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy iaii?a ia
i?aei?e?inoaao iaeiai a?ciano//Oace aeii.iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio. “Noai ?
i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo oi?a?ae? e oa?/oaaiiy a Oe?a?i?”. – Oa?e?a: OAeAOIO –
1997. – N.35-36.

25. Naoiiia A.A., Iaoiiia I.E., Eooeaiei A.A., Caieyiei I.I.
Oaeineiiaeaiiy aia?ao?a aeey caii?iaeoaaiiy aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo
noi?oae//Oac.aeii.iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio. “Noai ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo oi?a?ae? e
oa?/oaaiiy a Oe?a?i?”. – Oa?e?a: OAeAOIO – 1997. – N.50-52.

26. Naoiiia A.A., Iaoiiia I.E., Naiaithe Ae.I., Caieyiei TH.A. ?ic?iaea
aia?aoa aeey caii?iaeoaaiiy noi?oae c i?aeaeuaiith e?euee?noth iiei/ieo
a?ee?a// Oace aeii. iaoe.- i?aeo. eiio. “Noai ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
oi?a?ae? e oa?/oaaiiy a Oe?a?i?”. – Oa?e?a: OAeAOIO, – 1997. – N.54-55.

27. Iaoiiia I.E., Naoiiia A.A., O?aioeia E.E. Aenia?eiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieio?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae e?aii?ei?aai?/ieo ??aeei ca
oaiia?aoo? ieae/a 0 0N//Oace aeii.iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio.»Noai ? i?iaeaie
?icaeoeo oi?a?ae? ? oa?/oaaiiy a Oe?a?i?». – Oa?e?a: OAeAOIO, – 1997. –
N. 101-102.

28. Naoiiia A.A. Iao/iua eiioeaioeee niaa?oainoaiaaiey aiia?aoia aeey
ioeaaeaeaiey e caii?aaeeaaiey ieuaauo
nianae//Oac.aeiee.Ana?in.iao/.-oaoi.eiio. «I?ia?anneaiua oaoiieiaee e
iai?oaeiaaiea ieuaauo i?iecaiaenoa». – Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey oieiaea e ieuaauo
oaoiieiaee, – 1999. – N. 276-277.

AIIOAOe?ss

Naoiiia A.A. Iaoeia? iniiae ?ic?iaee i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy
oa caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.18.12 – i?ioeane oa aia?aoe oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa. –
Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oaoiieia?? oa i?aai?caoe?? oa?/oaaiiy
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi i?iaeooaaiiy aia?ao?a ioieiaeaeaiiy ?
caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
i?aeaeuaiith aia?aiaeiiii?/i?noth oa aeieia?/iith aacia/i?noth. A
aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei ae??oaiiy oe??? aaaeeeai?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?iaeaie, yeee iieyaa? o aecia/aii? iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo aaee/ei eiino?oeoeaieo ? ?iai/eo ia?aiao??a oaeineiiaeaieo
aia?ao?a ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
oeeo aia?aoao. ?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?? i?ia?aneaieo aia?ao?a
ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy ??aeeeo oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a c iie?ioaiei
iieacieeii ieoiieo aia?aiaeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth aeo?aeii? i?iaeoeoe??.
Iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue ia?aaiaeo oieiaeeeueieo iaoei oeeo aia?ao?a ia
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo (iciiiaacia/ieo) oieiaeiaaaio?a c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy aeieia?/ii? /enoioe aia?ao?a. ?ic?iaeaii ii?iaoeaio
oa aenieoaoaoe?eio aeieoiaioaoe?th ia iia? aia?aoe ? i?iaaaeaii ?o
aei?iaoaaiiy a ?aaeueieo ae?iaie/eo oiiaao c iiceoeaieie ?acoeueoaoaie.
?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao
oi?a?ae? ? oa?/oaaiiy, ye? ?aae?cothoue ioieiaeaeai? oa caii?iaeai?
iaii? ? iyea ii?iceai na?aae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aia?aoe ioieiaeaeaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy, ??aee? oa?/ia?
i?iaeoeoe, i?aeaeuaia aia?aiaeiiii?/i?noue, aeieia?/ia aacia/i?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Naoiiia A.A. Iao/iua iniiau ?ac?aaioee i?ia?anneaiuo aiia?aoia
ioeaaeaeaiey e caii?aaeeaaiey aeeaeeeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.18.12 – i?ioeannu e aiia?aou ieuaauo i?iecaiaenoa. –
Oa?ueeianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee
ieoaiey Ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai i?iaeoe?iaaiey aiia?aoia ioeaaeaeaiey e
caii?aaeeaaiey aeeaeeeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia, oa?aeoa?ecothueony
iiauoaiiie yia?aiyeiiiie/iinoueth e yeieiae/aneie aaciianiinoueth.
I?iaaaeaiiue e?eoe/aneee aiaeec iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, iaoaioia,
oe?iaiiuo eaoaeiaia e ae?oaeo aeinooiiuo enoi/ieeia iicaieee auyaeoue
iaeioi?ua iauea nouanoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee, i?enouea iiiai/eneaiiui
aiia?aoai ioeaaeaeaiey e caii?aaeeaaiey iaieoeia, a oaeaea aiia?aoai
aeey i?eaioiaeaiey iyaeiai ii?iaeaiiai-o?eca?ai. Yoeie iaaeinoaoeaie
yaeythony: aunieea cia/aiey iieacaoaey oaeaeueiuo yia?aicao?ao ia
i?iecaiaenoai aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee; iaaeinoaoi/ii aunieay iaaeaaeiinoue
e aeieaiaa/iinoue ec-ca i?eiaiaiey oeie/anee aa?anneaiuo
oeaaeiiineoaeae; yeieiae/aneay a?aaeiinoue aneaaenoaea ?aaiou
oieiaeeeueiuo iaoei oeacaiiuo aiia?aoia ia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo (iciiiiianiuo)
oeaaeaaaioao. I?e?iaea yoeo iaaeinoaoeia caeeth/aaony i?aaeaea anaai a
ionoonoaee iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo iaoiaeia onoaiiaeaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiuo
cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia eiino?oeoeee e ?aaeeia ?aaiou aiia?aoia, a oaeaea
auai?a iioeiaeueiuo oeaaeiiineoaeae e oeaaeaaaioia. Iiyoiio a ianoiyuae
?aaioa i?aaeeiaeai iiaue iiaeoiae e ?ac?aaioea i?ia?anneaiuo aiia?aoia
oeacaiiiai iacia/aiey, caeeth/athueeny a iino?iaiee iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iiaeaeae i?ioaeathueo a aiia?aoao aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo e oaieiauo
i?ioeannia e onoaiiaeaiee ia eo iniiaa iao/iiiainiiaaiiuo
iioeiece?iaaiiuo cia/aiee eiino?oeoeaiuo ia?aiao?ia aiia?aoia. N
oeaeueth ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea auee i?iaaaeaiu nenoaiaoe/aneea
oai?aoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey. Iino?iaia
iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue aeey iienaiey aeeiaieee i?ioeanna ioeaaeaeaiey
iaieoeia a aa/ea aiia?aoa niioaaonoaothuaai iacia/aiey, ia iniiaa
eioi?ie iieacaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue ia?aoiaea io i?eioeeia i?yiiai
ioeaaeaeaiey iaieoea a aa/ea enia?eoaeai oieiaeeeueiie iaoeiu e iiaiio
i?eioeeio ioeaaeaeaiey iaieoea i?iiaaeooi/iui ieceioaiia?aoo?iui
oeaaeiiineoaeai. Oaeie ia?aoiae iicaieyao ?aoeeiiaeueiuii ia?acii
io?aaoee?iaaoue oaiia?aoo?o oeaaeiiineoaey aac nieaeaiey
oieiaeii?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe oieiaeeeueiiai aa?aaaoa, ianeoaeeaathuaai
aiia?ao. Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiiai oaieiaiai e aeae?aaee/aneiai ?an/aoa
nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey iiaiai aiia?aoa auee ii?aaeaeaiu iieacaoaee aai
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe e yia?aiyeiiiie/iinoe. Iieacaii, /oi aeaaiaea?y
i?eiaiaieth iiaiai i?eioeeia aeaenoaey aiia?aoa, oeacaiiiai auoa, noaei
aiciiaeiui nieceoue cia/aiea oiiiyiooiai iieacaoaey oaeaeueiuo
yia?aicao?ao a aiia?aoa a 1,67 ?aca ii n?aaiaieth n nouanoaothueie
aiia?aoaie-aiaeiaaie. Iieacaia oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaiaea
oieiaeeeueiie iaoeiu aiia?aoa-n?aaeiaoaiia?aoo?iiai oieiaeeeueiiai
aa?aaaoa na?ee AN ii AINO 22502-83 ia eniieueciaaiea iciiiaaciianiiai
oeaaeaaaioa R134A aianoi o?aaeeoeeiiiiai R12. I?aaeeiaeaiu ia?ii?eyoey
ii nouanoaaiiiio oeo/oaieth iieacaoaeae yia?aiyeiiiie/iinoe e
yeieiae/aneie /enoiou aiia?aoa caii?aaeeaaiey iaieoeia a aeie-oi?iao. A
/anoiinoe, oeo/oaiiay aaiiao?ey aeie-oi?iu iicaieyao eioaineoeoee?iaaoue
oaieiia?aaea/o io caii?aaeeaaaiiai iaieoea e oeaaeiineoaeth. E?iia oiai,
caiaia n?aaieoaeueii iaeiayceiai, ii oiene/iiai e oeie/anee aa?anneaiiai
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai oeaaeiiineoaey (aiaeiiai ?anoai?a aeeeiey) ia aieaa
ayceee oeaaeiiineoaeue, iicaieeo nieceoue iiuiinoue oee?eoeyoeeiiiiai
ianina. A eoiaa aeinoeaiooi nieaeaiea iieacaoaey oaeaeueiuo yia?aicao?ao
a aiia?aoa ia 24% ii n?aaiaieth n oiiiyiooui i?ioioeiii. Ia iniiaa
iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee i?ioeanna oaieiia?aaea/e a aiia?aoao aeey
i?eaioiaeaiey iyaeiai ii?iaeaiiai – o?eca?ao – ?ac?aaioai aeai?eoi
?an/aoa ?aoeeiiaeueiuo cia/aiee eiino?oeoeaiuo e ?aai/eo ia?aiao?ia
o?eca?a, i?aaeaea anaai aaiiao?e/aneeo ?acia?ia ?aai/ae eaia?u,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aiia?aoa ii auoiaeo aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e iiuiinoe
i?eaiaeiiai aeaeaaoaey iaoaeee-o?ainii?oa?a. Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia
?an/aoia ni?iaeoe?iaaia iiaay na?ey o?eca?ia n i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoyie io
5 aei 20 ea//, iaeaaeathueo nieaeaiiuie a 1,5…2 ?aca cia/aieyie
iieacaoaey oaeaeueiuo yia?aicao?ao ii n?aaiaieth n nouanoaothueie
o?eca?aie iaeie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. I?iaaaeaiiua yenia?eiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey iiaeoaa?aeeee ni?aaaaeeeainoue naeaeaiiuo oai?aoe/aneeo
auaiaeia, a oaeaea yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiiuo eiin?oeoeaiuo
ia?ii?eyoee. Ii ?acoeueoaoai i?iaaaeaiiuo eniuoaiee yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
ia?acoeia iiauo aiia?aoia ioeaaeaeaiey e caii?aaeeaaiey auee aei?aaioaiu
eo eiino?oeoeee, ninoaaeaia ?aai/ay eiino?oeoi?neay aeieoiaioaoeey e
i?aaieciaai auione iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?oee iiauo aiia?aoia,
i?ioaaeoeo i?aeoe/aneoth ai?iaaoeeth a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee
n iieiaeeoaeueiuie ?acoeueoaoaie. Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo aiaae?aiey
?ac?aaioaiiuo aiia?aoia iaoneiaeai eo nouanoaaiii iiauoaiiie
yia?aiyeiiiie/iinoueth; aai eiie?aoiay aaee/eia caaeneo io ianooaaia
aiaae?aiey e aeaenoaothueo oeai ia ioeaaeaeaiiua e caii?iaeaiiua
aeeaeeea ieuaaua i?iaeoeou. Nioeeaeueiue yooaeo yoiai aiaae?aiey
iaoneiaeai aiciiaeiinoueth aieaa iieiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?anoouaai
ni?ina ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu ia aunieiea/anoaaiiua e aieaa aeaoaaua
ioeaaeaeaiiua e caii?iaeaiiua iaieoee e iyaeia ii?iaeaiia. Yeieiae/aneee
yooaeo eniieueciaaiey iiauo aiia?aoia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ieoaiey e
oi?aiaee iaoneiaeai i?aaeaea anaai ia?aaiaeii oieiaeeeueiuo iaoei
aiia?aoia ia eniieueciaaiea iciiiaaciianiuo oeaaeaaaioia; e?iia oiai,
iiieaeaiiia iio?aaeaiea yeaeo?iyia?aee iiauie aiia?aoaie, niaeanii
nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi, oaeaea yaeyaony aeaaii?eyoiui yeieiae/aneei
oaeoi?ii.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiia?aou ioeaaeaeaiey e caii?aaeeaaiey, aeeaeeea
ieuaaua i?iaeoeou, iiauoaiiay yia?aiyeiiiie/iinoue, yeieiae/aneay
aaciianiinoue.

ANNOTATION

Safonov V.V. Scientific bases of designing the advanced apparatus for
cooling and freezing the fluid food products. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 05.18.12 – processes and
apparatus of food production. – Kharkov State Academy of Food
Technology and Management, Ministry of Education of Ukraine, Kharkov,
1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the topics of designing the apparatus for
cooling and freezing the fluid food products which are characterized by
improved energoeconomy and ecological safety. The new approach to
solving this important scientific and technical problem is proposed in
the dissertation which cohsists in the definition of scientifically
well-grounded values for constructive and working parameters of improved
apparatus on the base of mathematical models for the processes that
proceed in these apparatus. The designs of advanced apparatus for
cooling and freezing the fluid food products are elaborated with the
improved index of specific energy expenses on the unit of output
production. The possibility is grounded of transferring the
refrigerating machines of those apparatus to the use of new alternative
(non-ozonodestructive) refrigerants with the purpose of ensuring the
oecological purity of the apparatus. The normative and technical as well
as operational documentation on the new apparatus is elaborated and the
testing of those was performed in the real production conditions with
positive results. The results of the work have found a practical utility
at the enterprises of trade and catering which sell cooled and freezed
drinks as well as soft ice-cream to the inhabitants of Ukraine.

Key words: apparatus for cooling and freezing, fluid food products,
improved energoeconomy, oecological safety.

I?aei.aei ae?oeo………..1999. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16. Iai?? aacao. Ae?oe ionao.
Iae.-aeae.a?e.2,0. Oi.ae?oe.a?e.2,1. Oi.oa?a.a?aea.2,1.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiae. ? …..

AeIAe OAeAOIO, Oa?e?a-51, aoe.Eei/e?anueea, 333.

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