OE?A?INUeEEE IAOEIAEE A?A??I?*IEE OeAIO?

EEOAE*AIEI IEUeAA IEEIEA?AIA

OAeE 614.715:547.433-007

IAOEIA? INIIAE IOI?IIE IIA?O?ssIIAI

NA?AAeIAEUA A?Ae CAA?OAeIAIIss EAIOeA?IAAIIEIE

N-I?O?ICAI?IAIE OA IIIA?AAeAEAIIss IIEIAAIIIAI ?ECEEO AeEss IANAEAIIss

14.02.01-a?a??ia

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? caaaeueii? oa
eiioiaeueii? a?a??ie ?i.I.I.Ia?c??aa IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe *a?ie/aiei ?ai? Ieaen?eiae/, Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
?inoeooo caaaeueii? oa eiioiaeueii? a?a??ie ?i.I.I.Ia?c??aa IIC Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???th

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Eiaiaea THe?y ?aai?aia , ?inoeooo
oa?iaeieia?? ? oieneeieia?? IIC Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ;

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaa/aiei Aiae??e Iienaeiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e;

— aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Einue ?aai Iaaeiae/, ?inoeooo
ai?aeai?ieia?? oa i?io?eaeoeee i?iiaiaaeo o?aaeaiue IOe?I AII Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???th

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
?i. I.A.Ooieea,eaoaae?a a?a??ie oa aeieia?? ethaeeie, IIC Oe?a?ie,
i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 19 ” eenoiiaaea 1999?. i 10 00 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.604.01 i?e
Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiaiio a?a??i?/iiio oeaio?? IIC Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
253660,i.Ee?a-94, aoe.Iiioae?aiea,50

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiaiai a?a??i?/iiai oeaio?o, i.Ee?a,aoe.Iiioae?aiea,50

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 15 ” aeiaoiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.TH.Naeaciueia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie A no/anieo oiiaao aoaeoeaia i?io?eaeoeea ?aeo
eaaai?a iaiiaeeeaa aac ciaiiy ao?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, ui iaoiiaeththoue
?icaeoie oeueiai caoai?thaaiiy, anoaiiaeaiiy aeaea?ae ?o ooai?aiiy,
caeiiii??iinoae ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a iia?o?yiiio aanaei? i?no ? ae?yiiy
ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie, a oaeiae ?aaoethaaiiy yeino? na?aaeiaeua ia
iniia? ?o a?a??i?/ieo ?aaeaiaio?a (?.N.Ee?a?aa,1983; I.ss.ssieoaaa,1985;
I.A.Aiaianueeee, 1987;?.I.*a?ie/aiei,1991;A.E.?oaai/ee,1990;
A.I.Na?aethe,1998).

I?o?icai?ie a ?yaeo eaioea?iaai?a caneoaiaothoue ia iniaeeao oaaao
aiane?aeie aaaaoueio ianoaaei. ?ioaineai? aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai eeano
niieoe iieacaee, ui i?o?icai?ie iiaeooue aeciaaiii /e aiaeiaaiii
ooai?thaaoenue c iiia?aaeiee?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?, e?ea?nueeeo
i?aia?aoao, i?e ia?iaoe? i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy, a
ianoeeueii-ioieiaeaeoth/eo ??aeeiao, einiaoe/ieo caniaao ? o. ?i.
(A.I.I?onaeia,1982; A.E.?oaai/ee,1990, E.A.Eoeueaeiya,1990;
I.I.?eueieoeueeee,1993; A.O.AEoeiaa, 1994; Fine D.H,1980,1983;
B.Klein,1990; P.N.Magee,1996, H.Bartsch,1996)

Aaaeeeaa ?ioi?iaoe?y uiaei cia/ouino? i?o?iciniieoe a ?icaeoeo ?aeiaeo
caoai?thaaiue ethaeeie aoea io?eiaia S.Preston-Martin,1987 i D.Winn,
1984, ye? i?aaenoaaeee i?yi? aeieace eaioea?iaaiiiai ae?yiiy aeayeeo
niieoe oeueiai eeano (niaoeeo?/ieo aeey othothio) ia ethaeeio.

?acii c oei, e?eoe/iee ?icaeyae iioae?eiaaieo a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??
?ia?o cana?ae/o?, ui aaaaoi aniaeo?a i?iaeaie i?o?icai?i?a a
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu? aei oeeo i?? caeeoathoueny ia aea/aieie.

Ia?o ca ana oea noino?oueny ieoaiue caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y
oeeie niieoeaie. Oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? i?aeoe/ii ia
i?iaiaeyoueny. Aaaaoi a /iio oea iia’ycaia c a?aenooi?noth aeinooiieo
noaiaea?oeciaaieo iaoiae?a ?o ?aeaioeo?eaoe??. ?nioth/? iaoiaee
aecia/aiiy i?o?icai?i?a aai i?aeoe/ii iaaeinooii? aeey iioi/iiai ?
iiia?aaeaeoaaeueiiai nai?oa?iiai iaaeyaeo ca oeei eeanii niieoe, aai
iaaeinoaoiuei /ooeea? ? niaoeeo?/i? (A.E.?oaai/ee,1983,1990;
I.I.Aieiaee, 1987; ss.E.Einotheianueeee,1988; P.N.Magee,1971);
a?a?o?aaeiee iaoiae i???ioiaaii ia canoinoaaiiy oa?iiaia?aaoe/iiai
aiae?caoi?a OAA ae?iaieoeoaa NOA (TH.I.Eaii,1981; I.I.Aeeeoi,1990; Fine
D.H,1976, 1980, 1983), yeiai iaia? a caeeaaeao nenoaie IIC Oe?a?ie ?
I?iaeiaaciaee.

A oie aea /an a ?aaeueieo oiiaao a?aei?/a?oueny iianthaeia iioe?aiiy
aeaea?ae ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a, oe?iea canoinoaaiiy ?o a i?iieneiaino?
? n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, ui noai?th? oiiae aeey caa?oaeiaiiy ieie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Iaeiae, ia no/aniiio aoai? ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
noai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai aanaeio ianaeaieo i?noeue ? i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie i?o?icai?iaie iaaeoi iaiaaeaia: ia aea/aia
aeeiai?ea eiioeaio?aoe?e niieoe i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo, ia ?ice?eoi
caeiiii??iinoae ?iciiae?eo i?o?icai?i?a a aoiinoa?? i?no c ??ciith
i???ioaoe??th i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, oo?oaeiaia a?a??i?/ia ioe?iea
aeaea?ae ooai?aiiy ? aeeeaeo i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yia na?aaeiaeua, ia
aecia/aii iaaaioaaeaiiy ?o ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie, a oaeiae eiie?aoieo
oeyo?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?o oe?aeeeaiai ae?yiiy.

I?aeoe/ii cian?i ia aea/aieie caeeoathoueny ieoaiiy ?aaeaiaioaoe??
i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?, oi/a iaa?oiooaaiiy a?a??i?/ieo
ii?iaoea?a ? o?aa ui ia aieiaiei e?eoa???i aea/aiiy ? ioe?iee iaaaciaee
?aaeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy eaioea?iaaiaie, i?iaiicoaaiiy ?eceeo ?o ae??
ia ianaeaiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a uiaei eiai cieaeaiiy.

Oae? ?ic?iaee iathoue noaoe aaaeeeaith /anoeiith i?iaeaie ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy oeei eeanii o?i?/ieo
eaioea?iaai?a ? aieeao ?o ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

Iaoa ?iaioe — anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?, ?ic?iaea ? iaa?oiooaaiiy
a?a??i?/ieo e?eoa???a ioe?iee eaioea?iaaiii? iaaaciaee ?o ?aaeueiiai
aa?iaaiiiai ae?yiiy ia ianaeaiiy ? oeyo?a ?? cieaeaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii?
caaea/? :

— ?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaoaaoe iaoiae aecia/aiiy eaoeeo c aiaeyiith ia?ith
i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?;

— aecia/eoe ??aaiue ciiaeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y
ianaeaieo i?noeue i??i?eoaoieie i?o?icai?iaie (i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?i
/IAeIA/ ? i?o?iciae?aoeeai?i /IAeAA/) a caeaaeiino? a?ae niaoeeo?ee ?
??aiy ?o i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo;

— aea/eoe i?inoi?iai-/ania? caeiiii??iino? caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai
na?aaeiaeua i?iieneiaeo i?no i??i?eoaoieie i?o?icai?iaie (IAeIA ?
IAeAA);

— aecia/eoe ? aeaoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo iaaaciaee ai?noo i?o?icai?i?a a
othothiiaiio aeei? ye iaei?e c neeaaeiaeo ?aaeueiiai aa?iaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ethaeeio;

— aecia/eoe ?aaeueia aa?iaaiia iaaaioaaeaiiy IAeIA ? IAeAA ia ianaeaiiy
i?no ? a?oie i?aoethth/eo ia ae?iaieoeoaao c iayai?noth a oaoiieia?/iiio
i?ioean? oeeo niieoe ? ?o iiia?aaeiee?a;

— aecia/eoe ?ecee eaioea?iaaiii? iaaaciaee aa?iaaiii? ae?? i?o?icai?i?a
a oiiaao ianaeaieo i?noeue ? ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae a i?ioean? eo??iiy;

— ?ic?iaeoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe a?aie/ii aeiionoei? eiioeaio?aoe?? IAeIA ?
IAeAA a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? ianaeaieo i?noeue ? iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie;

— iaa?oiooaaoe eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei caoenoo aoiinoa?e a?ae
caa?oaeiaiiy i?o?icai?iaie, iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?o ooai?aiiy ? ae?yiiy ia
ianaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue ioi?iie aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy
eaioea?iaaiieie i?o?icai?iaie.

A ?iaio? aia?oa na?aae e?a?i NIAe:

— aeaia e?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y
eaioea?iaaiieie i?o?icai?iaie;

— io?eiaii aeai? uiaei ?iciiae?eo eiioeaio?aoe?e IAeIA ? IAeAA a
aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? ca eia-ii?iaeueiei caeiiii;

— ia iniia? aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o, ?ioaineaiino?, aeeiai?ee ? iniaeeainoae
i?inoi?iai-/aniaiai ?iciiae?eo eiioeaio?aoe?e IAeIA ? IAeAA a aoiinoa??
i?noa ?ic?aoiaaii ?aaeueia aa?iaaiia iaaaioaaeaiiy oeeo niieoe ia
ianaeaiiy;

— anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aa?iaaiii? aeice ?o ia a?oie
i?aoe?aiee?a ae?iaieoeoa, a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao yeeo
canoiniaothoueny oe? niieoee aai ?o iiia?aaeieee;

— aeaia ioe?iea eaioea?iaaiii? iaaaciaee othothiiaeo ae?ia?a, iaea?eueo
iioe?aieo a Oe?a?i?;

— ?ic?aoiaaii eaioea?iaaiiee ?ecee aa?iaaiiiai aieeao i?o?icai?i?a ia
ianaeaiiy ? i?aoethth/eo.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae
ooai?aiiy ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?,
oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeueiiai aa?iaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ?o ia ianaeaiiy,
aecia/aii? aianeo caa?oaeiaiiy ie?aieo aeaiaio?a iia?o?yiiai
na?aaeiaeua, a oaeiae othothiiaiai aeeio a noia?io aa?iaaiio aeico,
?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei aea/aiiy ? a?a??i?/ii? ioe?iee
caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y oeeie niieoeaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a:

— ?ic?iaeaiiio niinia? oeiaethaaiiy ? o?iiaoi-ian-niaeo?iiao?e/iiai
aecia/aiiy i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? c canoinoaaiiyi
aeinooiii? a?o/eciyii? aia?aoo?e, yea aeicaiey? aecia/aoe ne?aeia?
eiioeaio?aoe?? oeeo niieoe;

— iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? AAeE i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?io ?
i?o?iciae?aoeeai?io a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? ianaeaieo i?noeue ;

— iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? AAeE i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?io ?
i?o?iciae?aoeeai?io a iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie;

— iaa?oiooaaii? caoiae?a uiaei iiia?aaeaeaiiy ooai?aiiy ? aeeeaeo
eaioea?iaaiieo i?o?icai?i?a a aoiinoa?o.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo Io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? eyaee a iniiao ?ic?iaee ? aeaeaiiy ianooiieo
aeieoiaio?a:

1. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey ieo?iciaeeiaoeeaieia e aeeiaoeeaieia a aicaeooa :
Aaoi?neia naeaeaoaeuenoai ? 938149.-I:,1982

2. Iaoiaee/aneea i?eaiu ioai?a i?ia aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa e ii?aaeaeaiea
a ieo ieo?iciaeeiaoeeaieia e aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeia / Eioi?iaoeeiiiia
ienueii.-Eeaa:IC ONN?,1981.

3. E?eoa?ee iianiinoe neioaca eaioea?iaaiiuo ieo?icaieiia:
Eioi?iaoeeiiiia ienueii.- Eeaa:IC ONN?,1984

4. I?eniiniaeaiea aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey oioioeie/aneiai ?aceiaeaiey
ieo?icaieiia a i?iaa (niinia ioai?a) /?aoe.i?iiiceoe?y

5. Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ii?aaeaeaieth N-ieo?iciaeeiaoee- e
N-ieo?iciaeeyoeeaieiia a aicaeooa /IEEIEA,IC ONN?.-Eeaa,1985.-12n.

6. Iaoiaeeea ioai?a i?ia aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa e ii?aaeaeaiea a ieo
ieo?iciaeeiaoeeaieia /Eioi?iaoeeiiiia ienueii.-Eeaa:IC ONN?,1986.

7. Niinia ioai?a i?ia aoiinoa?iiai aicaeooa e ii?aaeaeaiea a ieo eaoo/eo
N-ieo?icaieiia/ ?aoe.i?aaeeiaeaiea.-Oaeinoiaa?aiea N581 io 21.06.87a.

8. A?aie/ii aeiionoeia eiioeaio?aoe?y i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?io a
aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? ianaeaieo i?noeue /I?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua
eiioeaio?aoeee (IAeE) e i?eaioe?iai/ii aaciianiua o?iaie aicaeaenoaey
caa?yciythueo aauanoa (IAOA) a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa ianaeaiiuo
iano.-Aeiiaoee,1998.-N.44.

9. A?aie/ii aeiionoei? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?io ?
i?o?iciae?aoeeai?io a iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue
(??oaiiy Eii?oaoo c ieoaiue a?a?i?/iiai ?aaeaiaiooaaiiy ?81 a?ae
10.11.1998?.)

10. Iiaeeo?eaoe?y iaoiaeo aecia/aiiy eaioea?iaaiieo i?o?icai?i?a –IAeIA
? IAeAA a a?ieia?/iiio iaoa??ae? / ?ioi?iaoe?eiee eenoie.-Ee?a:IIC
Oe?a?ie,1996.

11. Caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y: ?ecee aeey caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy
/?ioi?iaoe?eiee eenoie.-Ee?a:IIC Oe?a?ie,1996.

12. Ia?ae?e ?a/iaei, i?iaeoeo?a, ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a, iiaooiaeo oa
i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a, eaioea?iaaiieo aeey ethaeeie: Aea?aeaaiee
a?a??i?/iee ii?iaoea.- Ee?a: I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie,
Eii?oao c ieoaiue a?a??i?/iiai ?aaeaiaiooaaiiy,1997.-14n.

13. Iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee ii aacio?iiaoia?ao?/iiio aecia/aiith
i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?io ? i?o?iciae?aoeeai?io a iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie
(??oaiiy Eii?oaoo c ieoaiue a?a??i?/iiai ?aaeaiaiooaaiiy ?81 a?ae
10.11.1998?.).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Oa?aeoa? i?inoi?iai-/aniaiai ?iciiae?eo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?o?icai?i?a a
aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? ianaeaieo i?noeue.

2. Caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aa?iaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?o?icai?i?a ia
??ci? eiioeiaaioe ianaeaiiy.

3. Ioe?iea eaioea?iaaiiiai ?eceeo aeey ianaeaiiy a?ae ae?? oeeo aeic
i?o?icai?i?a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a I?aai?caoe?y oa aaciina?aaeiy o/anoue o
aeeiiaii? aeine?aeaeaiue ii an?o ?icae?eao aeena?oaoe??. Oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe, caaea/, aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue, ?o ianya?a oa
iaoiae?a. Iaoeiaee aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/ieo aeieoiaio?a, ?o
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iaoeo oa i?aeoeeo ioi?iie caei?ia’y. Aaoi?ii iiai?noth
aeeiiaia iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?iaaaeaieo ?acii c ni?a?ia?oieeaie eaai?aoi??? eaioea?iaaiieo oaeoi??a
IAe? caaaeueii? oa eiioiaeueii? a?a??ie ?i.I.I.Ia?c??aa, noaiiaeyoue ia
a?eueoa 15% ianyao ?iaioe. I?e ioi?ieaii? cayaee ia aeiao?ae iniaenoee
aianie aaoi?a neeaaeaa 40%.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, i?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??,
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia ne?aeoth/eo iaoeiaeo oi?oiao:

— Ananithcieo neiiic?oiao «Eaioeapiaaiiua N-ieopiciniaaeeiaiey —
ia?aciaaiea e ii?aaeaeaiea a iepoaeathuae npaaea» ( Oaeeeii,
1981;1984;1987;1990);

— O Oepa?inueeiio c’?cae? a?a??i?no?a ( Ee?a, 1981 );

— Ieaioiao Eii?oaoo c eaioea?iaaiieo ?a/iaei ? caoiae?a i?io?eaeoeee
N?N? (Ee?a,1982,1989, Naa?aeeianuee,1990);

— Ieaioi? Eii?oaoo c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua
Ia?inueei? iaeanii? ?aaee IOI (Ia?i,1983);

— ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo “A?a??ia iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua (Noie,1984, E?eaee ??a,1988);

— VII c’?cae? iieieia?a O?N? ( Neioapii?eue, 1985 );

— II Ananithciiio neiiiceoi? c aeieia?/ii? iieieia?? (Ee?a, 1990 );

— I ? II Ananithcieo eiiapanao c caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a aeeoaiiy (Ee?a,
1990,1996; *aeyaeinuee, 1991);

— XII c’?cae? a?a??i?no?a N?N? ( Iaeana, 1991 );

— iaoeiai-ipaeoe/ieo eiioapaioe?yo ( Ee?a,1988;1989;1990;1991; 1993;
1995,1998,1999; Naiapa,1991; Aao/enapae,1994; Naaapiaeiiaoeuee,1994;
Euea?a, 1996; Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, 1998);

— V Eiiapan? na?oiai? oaaea?aoe?? Oe?a?inueeeo e?ea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa
(Aei?ipiiaopianuee, 1994 );

— IX c’?cae? iieieia?a Oepa?ie ( A?iieoey,1995 );

— II c’?cae? iaaee/ieo aaiaoee?a Oe?a?ie ( Euea?a, 1995 );

— III i IV I?aeia?iaeieo neiiic?oiao ii caa?oaeiaiith aeiae?eey e?a?i
Oeaio?aeueii? ? Cao?aeii? ?a?iie (Aa?oaaa,1996,1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii aeecueei 50
iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, c ieo 21 noaooy ( 5 naiino?eieo), 1 aaoi?nueea
na?aeioeoai, 1 iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? Aeena?oaoe?y iaienaia oe?a?inueeith
iiaith, aeeeaaeaia ia 301 noi??ioe? iaoeiiieno ? neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e,?icae?eo iaoa??ae?a oa iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue,6 ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue,iaaiai?aiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue,aeniiae?a,nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. Oaeno
aeena?oaoe?? ?ethno?iaaiee 20 iaethieaie ? 72 oaaeeoeyie. Nienie
e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 378 iaeiaioaaiue, c yeeo 205 ?ia?o a?o/eciyieo
aaoi??a oa e?a?i NIAe ? 173 – ?iicaiieo.

Ca’ycie aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeaiiei ieaiii ?icaeoeo iaaee/ii? iaoee

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ca?aeii c iniiaieie iai?yieaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o IAe? caaaeueii? oa eiioiaeueii? a?a??ie
?i.I.I.Ia?c??aa OIAOe IIC Oe?a?ie ? ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi oeeeeo ?ia?o,
aeeiiaieo a eaai?aoi??? eaioea?iaaiieo oaeoi??a a 1981-1998??, a yeeo
aaoi? a?aa o/anoue ye a?aeiia?aeaeueiee aeeiiaaaoeue:”Eco/eoue
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aciaaiey ieo?icaieiia ec eo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia a
aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa a ?aeiia i?aaei?eyoee oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe”,1980,? a/? 79010958; “Eco/eoue niaea?aeaiea
eaioea?iaaiiuo ieo?icaieiia e eo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia a aoiinoa?iii
aicaeooa ai?iaea e ?ac?aaioaoue iaoiaee/aneea iiaeoiaeu e eo
ii?aaeaeaieth”, 1985, ? a/? 8100498430.yia.; “Ii?aaeaeeoue
eaioea?iaaiiue ?ene ni/aoaiiiai aeaenoaey oeie/aneiai e ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai
oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ianaeaiiuo ianoao ?anioaeeee e
?ac?aaioaoue eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee ii ia?ae/iie i?ioeeaeoeea
ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee ”, 1990, ? a/? 01860012675, Eia.?
029.10036351; “?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? iniiae aea/aiiy aca?iiae??
ae?ieneaeo acioo oa i?o?eo?a, ui aa?ooue o/anoue a ooai?aii? a i?aai?ci?
eaioea?iaaiieo N-i?o?iciniieoe”, 1995, ? ae/? VA 01002664?;”?ic?iaeoe
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy ?eceeo ae?? o?i?/ieo niieoe i?e
a?a??i?/iiio ii?ioaaii? oa ioe?ioe? aieeao ia ianaeaiiy”, 1995, ? ae/?
0193V039176; “Eco/eoue niaea?aeaiea eaioea?iaaiiuo aauanoa a
niaci/ii-ioeaaeaeathueo aeeaeeinoyo e aicaeooiie n?aaea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee”, 1989, ? a/? 0180031127;”Aeaoe a?a??i?/io
ioe?ieo iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua ?iai/i? ciie oeao?a aoeeai?caoe?? oei,
oi?iiai? oa iaoi?iiai? oaoi?ee ? ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii eiai
iie?ioaiith”, 1994;“?ac?aaioaoue iao/iua iniiau eiiieaeniie
yeieiai-aeaeaie/aneie ioeaiee ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e caei?iauey
ianaeaiey aeey iainiiaaiey eiioeaioeee yeieiai-aeaeaie/aneie
aaciianiinoe Oe?aeiu ”, 1996, ? a/? VA 01002662?;“Aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
iaaeeei-aeieia?/ieo iieaciee?a ioe?iee oa eiio?ieth yeino? aoiinoa?iiai
iia?o?y” 1998, ? ae/? 0196U024332.

Ia‘?eoe, iaoiaee oa iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiue ?iaioa i?noeoue
eiiieaen nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i??i?eoaoieo i?o?icai?i?a
— i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?io (IAeIA) ? i?o?iciae?aoeeai?io (IAeAA),
i?iaaaeaieo ia aac? o?ueio i?no c ??ciei ??aiai ? i?io?eai i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? Ee?anueei? iaeano?, a oaeiae
?yae? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie, c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a
nai?oa?iiai ianoaaeaiiy, iaoo?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ? eaai?aoi?iiai
aenia?eiaioo. Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy iiioeyoe?eiiai ?eceeo a?ae
ae?? eaioea?iaaiieo i?o?icai?i?a i?iaiaeeee ia eiii’thoa?? IBM PC AT
c canoinoaaiiyi iiae i?ia?aioaaiiy Turbo Pascal.

Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ianaeai? ioieoe Oe?a?ie c ??ciei ??aiai ?
niaoeeo?eith i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo. I?e aeai?? ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue
aeoiaeeee c ia?aaeoiia, ui ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?e oeeie
niieoeaie ? oa?aeoa? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?o ia oa?eoi??? ianaeaieo
i?noeue iiaea caeaaeaoe a?ae aaaaoueio oaeoi??a — iniaeeainoae
ieaioaaiiy ? caaoaeiae, nooiaiy oaieio?eaoe??, aaoiiia?e?caoe??,
i?io?eth i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? o.?i. Oea iaoiiaeei aea?? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue ianaeaieo ioieo?a c iaeneiaeueii ae?aaeaiei a?aae??ioii
caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua aea/a?iei eeanii ?a/iaei – aaeeea
aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?noi Ee?a, i?noa E?eaee ??a oa Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee —
i?iieneia? oeaio?e c niaoeeo?/ieie aaeocyie i?iieneiaino? (
iaoaeo?a?eia, iaooiia?a?iaia, eienio?i?/ia), ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
cia/ieie aeeeaeaie a aoiinoa?o, a oaeiae n?euenueea i?noeaa?noue.

Aea/aiiy ai?noo i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio aanaei? ianaeaieo i?noeue
i?iaiaeeee oeyoii /eneaiieo aeniaaeeoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
noaoe?iia?ieo oe?ei??/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue.

Aea/aiiy ciiaeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y i?no
cae?enithaaee a ?aeiiao ?ici?uaiiy aaoiiaa?no?aeae ??cieo eaoaai??e,
aeeoeia?e caaoaeia? ??cieo ?aeii?a i?noa, a oiio /ene? iiaeeco
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa ? a?aeaeae?e a?ae ieo, a oaeiae a ia?eiaeo
ciiao. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee oeyoii i?aai?caoe?? oei/aniaeo ioieo?a
niinoa?aaeaiue ( aeecueei 20 aei?a) o a?aeiia?aeieo ciiao a ??ci? naciie
?ieo.

Aeey a?aeai?o i?ia aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y canoiniaoaaee
aeaeo?iani??aoe?eio onoaiiaeo “Oaeooi” c aenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth,
iaae?ei?noth, noaa?eueieie iieacieeaie aeo?ao iia?o?y i?e
aeiaaio?eaaeiio a?aeai?? i?ia.

Aeey aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?iciiae?eo i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio
aanaei? i?noa aoei i?aai?ciaaii oe?eiaeiaia? noaoe?iia?i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioyaii ??/iiai oeeeeo a aeaio ioieoao i.Ee?aa.

A?aea?? ? aiae?c i?ia iia?o?y cae?enithaaee ?ic?iaeaiei a ?aieao aeaii?
?iaioe iaoiaeii; i?iae iia?o?y a?aeae?aee a eiaeiiio i?no? ia
noaoe?iia?ieo ioieoao Oe?a?ae?iiaoo ? noi?iaiaeaeoaaee ?a?no?aoe??th
iniiaieo iaoaioaeoi??a — oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y, aieiaino?, aa?iiao?e/iiai
oeneo, iai?yieo oa oaeaeeino? a?o?o, aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a oa niiy/ii?
?aae?aoe?? ca a?aeiia?aeiee ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue.

A?aea?? i?ia iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa
cae?enithaaee a cii? aeeoaiiy ?iai/iai i?ioyaii ?iai/i? ci?ie

?acoeueoaoe o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio
na?aaeiaeu? ia/enethaaee ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie noaoenoeee c
aecia/aiiyi na?aaeiueiaeiaiaeo, na?aaeiueii?ny/ieo ? na?aaeiuei??/ieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e niieoe (Ina?.), noaiaea?oii? iioeaee m, aeia??/iai
eiao?oe??ioa t (e?eoa??e No‘thaeaioa), eoioeyoeaii? /anoioe (bi) oa
?iciaoo aea??ee (Imin — Imax), (A.N.Oo?onia,TH.Ae.Ia?oaiia,1986), a
oaeiae a?aenioeo i?ia c eiioeaio?aoe?yie, ui ia?aaeuoaaee a?a??i?/i?
?aaeaiaioe. Aca?iica’ycie i?ae ??aiyie ai?noo a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o??
i?o?icai?i?a oa iaoai?ieia?/ieie oaeoi?aie i?iaiaeeee oeyoii aecia/aiiy
eiao?oe??io?a ei?aeyoe?? r oa ?o aeinoia??iino?.

?ic?aooiie aa?iaaiii? aeice eaioea?iaaia i?iaiaeeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii
aeey ??cieo eaoaai??e ethaeae c o?aooaaiiyi ??cieo oaeoi??a,
aeeth/ath/e ae?iaie/?, iiaooia?, oe?aeeea? cae/ee (eo??iiy). Aeey a?eueo
iiaii? ioe?iee aa?iaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?o?icai?i?a ia i?aai?ci
ethaeeie aoei i?iaaaeaii na??th aeine?aeaeaiue ii aea/aiith ai?noo oeeo
niieoe a eooiyo aeeoeiaeo i?ei?uaiue, iniauaieo aaciaeie ieeoaie, a
oaeiae a i?iaeoeoao eo??iiy iaea?eueo iioe?aieo a Oe?a?i? neaa?ao.

Ioe?ieo eaioea?iaaiii? iaaaciaee io?eiaieo aa?iaaiieo aeic i?o?icai?i?a
cae?enithaaee oeyoii ii??aiyiiy c aeicaie, ui aeeeeeathoue
aeanoiiiaaiiee aoaeo o aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii? oeeo
eaioea?iaai?a a i?aai?ci /a?ac i?aaie aeeoaiiy. E??i oiai, i?iaiaeeee
?ic?aooiee eaioea?iaaiiiai ?eceeo aa?iaaiiiai aieeao i?o?icai?i?a ia
ianaeaiiy ? i?aoethth/eo c iaeyaeo ia i?eioeeie ? i?aeoiaee, ui
cai?iiiiiaai? I?aeia?iaeiei aaaionoaii iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA
(A?A) ? i?eeiyo? a oniueio na?o?.

Aeey aeno?aiieyoe?? ia ethaeeio io?eiaieo a aenia?eiaioao caeaaeiinoae
“aeica-aoaeo” canoiniaoaaee aaaaoinoaae?eio iiaeaeue Crump ?
ni?aaao.,1977, yea aaco?oueny ia o?eueee ia iiaeaethaaii?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, aea e aeicaiey? aeaoe noaoenoe/io
?ioa?i?aoaoe?th e?ioeaaiai noia?iiai ?acoeueoaoo an?o i?ioean?a ?
oaeoi??a, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca i?iya eaioea?iaaiiiai aoaeoo ia
iiioeyoe?eiiio ??ai?.

Oey iiaeaeue ia? aeae:

P(d) = 1- e -Q(d)

aea

P(d) — ?ecee ?icaeoeo iiaiooai?aiue i?e ae?? aeice d

Q(d) — iie?iii c iaiaaaoeaieie eiao?oe??ioaie ? iaa?aeiiei nooiaiai.

Aoei ?ic?iaeaii eiii’thoa?io i?ia?aio aeey oeueiai ai?ieneioth/iai
??aiyiiy, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? ia iniia? io?eiaieo a aenia?eiaio?
caeaaeiinoae “aeica-/anoioa aeieeiaiiy iooeei” ?ic?aoiaoaaee eiai
ia?aiao?e.

?ic?iaeo oa iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy a?a??i?/ieo ii?iaoea?a aeiionoeiiai
ai?noo IAeIA ? IAeAA a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? ianaeaieo i?noeue ?
ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue cae?enithaaee c iaeyaeo ia ?acoeueoaoe ?o
?iaaeyoe?eiiai aieeao ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei. Ca iniiao aoei acyoi
aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Aaiaiainueeiai,1989, i?iaaaeai? ia aac? ?inoeoooo
a?io?ceee AII N?N?. ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeee c aeio?eiaiiyi aeiia
“A?aiaiiuo iaoiaee/aneeo oeacaiee ii iainiiaaieth IAeE caa?yciythueo
aauanoa”/I.,1989.

Caaaeii,i?e aeeiiaii? ?iaioe aoei i?iaaaeaii aaeeeee eiiieaen iaoo?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. A?ae?a?aii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii aeecueei 2100 i?ia
aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y ? aeecueei 300 i?ia aeeeae?a i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa ia ai?no IAeIA ? IAeAA; a 50 i?iaao
ianoeeueii-ioieiaeaeoth/eo ??aeei i?iaaaeaii aecia/aiiy oeeo niieoe;
i?iaaaeaii aeecueei 150 aecia/aiue IAeIA ? IAeAA a othothiiaiio aeei? ?
iaeo?aieo i?ei?uaiiyo; aeeiiaii a?eueoa 10 oeny/ noaoenoe/ieo
?ic?aooie?a c canoinoaaiiyi i?ia?ai ia IE.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa
oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno.

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “No/aniee noai i?iaeaie caa?oaeiaiiy
aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y i?o?icai?iaie ? e?eoa??? ioe?iee ?o eaioea?iaaiii?
iaaaciaee” i?enay/aii iaeyaeo a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e c
i?iaeaie, ui aea/a?oueny.

?icaeyiooi iniiai? aeaea?aea aio?iiiaaiiiai ooai?aiiy eaioea?iaaiieo
i?o?icai?i?a ? ??ai? ?o ai?noo a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? ianaeaieo
i?noeue ? ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue, oaiaeaioe?? ci?i oeueiai caa?oaeiaiiy.
Ia i?eeeaae? i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino? (o?i?/ii?,
aoiiai?, iaoaeiia?iaii?, oe??yii? oiui) ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy oiia
ooai?aiiy ? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?o a aoiinoa?o ? iia?o?y ?iai/i? ciie.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeaieo uiaei eaioea?iaaiieo aeanoeainoae niieoe
oeueiai eeano , iaaiai?ththoueny oeyoe iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?o oe?aeeeai? ae??
ia ethaeeio, aena?oeaii ieoaiiy a?a??i?/iiai ?aaeaiaiooaaiiy
eaioea?iaai?a.

O e?ioe? ?icae?eo ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo aecia/aii
ia?ae?e ieoaiue, ye? i?aeeyaathoue aea/aiith.

A ?icae?e? 2 “I?ia?aia, ia’?eoe, iaoiaee oa ianya aeine?aeaeaiue” ia
iniia? i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy i?aaenoaaeaia aeaoaeueia
i?ia?aia ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaai? ia’?eoe oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
aeei?enoai? aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue.

A ?icae?e? 3 “Iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee iaoiaeo aecia/aiiy
i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?” i?aaenoaaeaii ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae
aecia/aiiy IAeIA ? IAeAA a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? ia aac? a?o/eciyii?
aia?aoo?e, aeinooiiee aeey oe?ieiai caaaeo aeine?aeiee?a. ?ic?iaeo
iaoiaeo cae?enithaaee ?acii c i.n.E.Niaa?oeiaith.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia aaciaiio o?iiaoia?ao? “O?ii-5” (*ao?y) c
iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaiei aeaoaeoi?ii – iieoiaiaai-?ii?caoe?eiei;
aeey anoaiiaeaiiy aacio?iiaoia?ao?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?icae?eaiiy niieoe
a aenia?eiaioaeueieo oiiaao aeine?aeaeoaaee aeae?eueea o?iiaoia?ao?/ieo
eieiiie c iaiiaithaa/aie, ?ic/eiiee?a, ?aaeei?a ?iaioe i?eeaaeo.

Aei?iaiaoaaiiy ?yaeo ni?aaio?a ? aeani?aaio?a aeaei ciiao aea?aoe c
aeinooiiiai ani?oeiaioo oae?, ui caaacia/othoue iaea?eueo iiaia
oeiaethaaiiy oeeo niieoe c iia?o?y ? a?aeiia?aeii aeani?aoe?th –
aeoeaiaaia aoa?eey ia?ee NEO ? ae?aoeeiaee ao??.

Aeey e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy niieoe iaea?eueo i?e?ieeaei aeyaeany
iaoiae aaniethoii? eae?a?iaee.

Iniiaieie iieiaeaiiyie iaoiaee/ii? noaie aecia/aiiy eaoeeo i?o?icai?i?a
a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? ? ianooii? :

— oeiaethaaiiy oeeo niieoe c caa?oaeiaiiai iia?o?y ia oaa?aeee ni?aaio –
aeoeaiaaia aoa?eey ia?ee NEO;

— aeani?aoe?y niieoe c iiaa?oi? aoa?eey ae?aoeeiaei ao??ii;

— aacio?iiaoia?ao?/iee aiae?c;

— e?euee?nia aecia/aiiy eaioea?iaai?a iaoiaeii aaniethoii? eae?a?iaee;

— aea??eiaa ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ?a/iaei ia ian-niaeo?iiao??.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui a no/anieo eaai?aoi??yo iaea?eueo niaoeeo?/iei aeey
oeueiai eeano niieoe aeaoaeoi?ii i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe oai?ethi?ianoeaioiee
(aiae?caoi? oa?iaeueii? aia?a?? OAA ae?iaieoeoaa NOA),
noi?nii c Oaee?iinueeei iie?oaoi?/iei ?inoeoooii aoei i?iaaaeaii 2
i?aeeaai?aoi?i? na??? aeine?aeaeaiue c ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aecia/aiiy i?o?icai?i?a a iaoo?ieo i?iaao ca aeiiiiiaith OAA ?
?ic?iaeaiiai iaie iaoiaeo.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a iieacaa, ui eiioeaio?aoe?? IAeIA ?
IAeAA a a?ae?a?aieo i?iaao aecia/athoueny iaiia aeaoaeoi?aie i?aeoe/ii
ia iaeiiio ??ai?, ?ica?aeiino? a ?acoeueoaoao eaaeaoue a iaaeao 11-13%.

Oey ianoaaeia aeicaiey? iinoaaeoe ?ic?iaeaiee iaie iaoiae a ?yae
niaoeeo?/ieo ? /ooeeaeo iaoiae?a ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? eaoeeo i?o?icai?i?a a
iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

?icae?e 4 “Noai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai aanaeio ianaeaieo i?noeue
i?o?icai?iaie” i?enay/aii ?acoeueoaoai i?iaaaeaiiai eiiieaeno
noaoe?iia?ieo ? ciiaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca e?euee?niei ai?noii IAeIA
? IAeAA a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? ianaeaieo i?noeue, a oaeiae ?yaeo
anoaiiaeaieo aaaeeeaeo caeiiii??iinoae ?iciiae?eo oeeo niieoe a i?inoi??
? /an?.

Ia?o ca ana, iieacaii noaa?eueia caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?e ianaeaieo
i?noeue Oe?a?ie i?o?icai?iaie, i?e/iio nooi?iue caa?oaeiaiiy
aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y oeeie niieoeaie caeaaeeoue a?ae niaoe?o?ee eiai
i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo.

Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e ?iciiae?eo
eiioeaio?aoe?e IAeIA ? IAeAA a iia?o?yiiio aanaei? ianaeaieo i?noeue ?
a?aaeaoe?y caa?oaeiaiiy ca ooieoe?iiaeueieie ciiaie (i?iieneiaa ciia,
ciia aaoiiaa?no?aeae, aeeoeiaa oa ciia ?ae?aaoe??.

Iieacaii, ui aeey an?o i?no, ui aea/aeenue, ciiaie i?aeaeuaieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e IAeIA ? IAeAA ? i?iieneia?, i?e/iio ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy
iia?o?y eaioea?iaaiaie caeaaeeoue a?ae niaoeeo?ee i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Oae, yeui a Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo ? E?eaiio ?ic? na?aaei?
eiioeaio?aoe?? eaioea?iaai?a a oe?e cii? noaiiaeyoue 1.3 ? 1.5 AAeE
IAeIA oa 1.4 ? 2.1 AAeE IAeAA a?aeiia?aeii, oi a Ee?a? oe? aaee/eie
aeinyaathoue 2.0 ? 3.1 e?aoiinoae; yeui a Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo ?
E?eaiio ?ic? caa?oaeiaiiy i?iieneiai? ciie IAeIA ia?aaeuo? iaeiaio
caa?oaeiai? ?aeiie i?no (ia?eia? ciie) a 1.6 ? 2.4 ?ace, IAeAA – a 1.3 ?
2.6 ?ace, oi a Ee?a? oea ia?aaeuaiiy nyaa? 4.8 ? 9.4 e?aoiinoae.

Aei oiai ae, ? a?aenioie a?ae?a?aieo a oe?e cii? i?ia c
eiioeaio?aoe?yie, ui ia?aaeuothoue AAeE eaioea?iaai?a, a Ee?a? aeuee –
95.3 ? 99.2% o ii??aiyii? c 65.8 ? 73.2% a Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo oa
77.8 ? 89.9% — a E?eaiio ?ic?.

Nooi?iue caa?oaeiaiiy cii aaoiiaa?no?aeae ianaeaieo i?noeue aeaui
ieae/ee, i?ae i?iicii. Na?aaei?e ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy oeeo cii a i?noao
eieeaa?oueny a?ae 1.0 aei 1.3 AAeE IAeIA ? a?ae 1.5 aei 1.8 AAeE IAeAA ?
aeayeei /eiii ei?aeth? c ?ioaineai?noth o?ainii?oiiai iioieo. I?e a?eueo
aenieeo iieacieeao u?eueiino? o?ainii?oo (i.Ee?a) niinoa??aathoueny aeu?
eiioeaio?aoe?? eaioea?iaai?a ? c?inoa? /enei i?ia c eiioeaio?aoe?yie,
aeueie ca AAeE : yeui ia aaoiiaa?no?aeyo i.Ee?aa /enei i?ia c
eiioeaio?aoe?yie, ui ia?aaeuothoue AAeE IAeIA ? IAeAA, noaiiaeoue
a?aeiia?aeii 80 ? 86%, oi a Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo ? E?eaiio ?ic? oe?
aaee/eie ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??ai? 57.7 ? 61.1% oa 65.3 ? 76.6%.

Caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua aeeoeiai? ciie i?no iaaiith i??ith
caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o aeaea?ae, ui eiai oi?iothoue, oa iniaeeainoae
ieaioaaiiy.Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ioieoe
niinoa?aaeaiue a aeeoeiaeo ciiao i?no ?icoaoiaoaaeenue ca iaaeaie
nai?oa?ii-caoenieo cii i?aei?e?inoa, ia aioo??oiueieaa?oaeueieo
oa?eoi??yo. A oeeo ciiao na?aaei? eiioeaio?aoe?? IAeIA aeyaeyeenue ia
??ai? a?a??i?/iiai ?aaeaiaioo, IAeAA – ia?aaeuoaaee eiai a 1.2-1.4 ?ace;
ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE IAeIA a 1.3-1.7 ?ace niinoa??aaeinue a 21.4-34.3 %
i?ia, IAeAA — a 1.8-2.1 ?ace a 28.3-39.7% i?ia.

A eiio?ieueieo ?aeiiao i?no, ?icoaoiaaieo a ia?eiaeo ciiao, oaae
niinoa??aa?oueny ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE eaioea?iaai?a: IAeIA – a 11.2-25.1%,
IAeAA – a 9.8-20.2% i?ia. Oey ianoaaeia aeaco? ia aeeoocia caa?oaeiaiiy
aoiinoa?e aea/a?ieo i?no eaioea?iaaiaie oeueiai eeano.

C iaoith ae??oaiiy aaaaoueio a?a??i?/ieo ieoaiue ioi?iie aoiinoa?iiai
iia?o?y a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy eaioea?iaaiieie i?o?icai?iaie iaie aoei
i?iaaaeaii oe?ei??/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca noaiii iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua
ia aeaio noaoe?iia?ieo ioieoao i. Ee?aa c ia?aaaaeii i?iieneiaei ?
ci?oaiei oeiii caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y. Ioieo ?1 (ia?aaaaeii i?iieneiaee
oei caa?oaeiaiiy) ?ici?uoaaany a ?aeii?, i?eeaaeiio aei
nai?oa?ii-caoenii? ciie eiiieaeno i?aei?e?inoa o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino?
(ae?iaieoeoai o?i?aaeoea?a, neioaoe/iiai oa ooo/iiai aieieia ? ie?aie,
oa?aoaaeuei? oeaoe oiaeiaiai eiia?iaoo).Ioieo ?2 (ci?oaiee oei
caa?oaeiaiiy) ?ici?uoaaany a aeeoeia?e cii?, iaiaaeai?e c iaeiiai aieo
iiooaeiith aaoiiaa?no?aeeth c u?euei?noth o?ainii?oiiai iioieo aei 1000
aao/aiae , c ae?oaiai – i?iieneiaith oa?eoi???th caaiaeo ooo/ii? aoie.
Oeae ?aeii niinoa?aaeaiue oa?aeoa?ecoaaany o?iioaeueiith caaoaeiaith
5-iiaa?oiaeie aoaeeieaie.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieacaa, ui ?iciiae?e i?ioyaii ??/iiai
oeeeeo na?aaeiueii?ny/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?e IAeIA ? IAeAA ia iaio
noaoe?iia?ieo ioieoao ia? noiaeee oa?aeoa? ? ?yae oa?aeoa?ieo
iniaeeainoae : i?i?iaeuei? ??ai? ?o ai?noo aeyaeaii a ceiiaee
ia??iae, a iaeneiaeuei? – a e?oi? oa in?ii? i?nyoe?.

I?e oeueiio aoei iieacaii ?nioaaiiy ei?aeyoe?eiiai ca’yceo i?ae
na?aaeiueii?ny/ieie iieacieeaie IAeIA, IAeAA ? iniiaieie iaoaioaeoi?aie:
?ioaineai?noth niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe??, oaiia?aoo?ith ? aieia?noth iia?o?y,
oaeaee?noth a?o?o ? aoiinoa?iei oeneii.

Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a noaoe?iia?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo
eoioeyoeaieo /anoio, iieacaa, ui ?iciiae?e aeiaiaeo eiioeaio?aoe?e
IAeIA ?

IAeAA a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? i?ioyaii ??/iiai oeeeeo
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny eia-ii?iaeueiiio caeiio (?en.3), ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey
a?eueoino? aoiinoa?ieo caa?oaeithaa/?a.

A?ao?ee eoioeyoeaieo e?eaeo aeiaiaeo eiioeaio?aoe?e IAeIA ? IAeAA ia
iaio noaoe?iia?ieo ioieoao iathoue a?aeiinii aeecuee? eooe iaoeeo aei
in? aanoeenn, o.iac. ianooaa ?iciiae?eo ( =1.98-2.01) Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui ?aaeei caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?e oeeie niieoeaie ia? a?aeiinii
noiaeee oa?aeoa?, oi/a nooi?iue caa?oaeiaiiy aeaui a?ae??ciy?oueny.

A?ao?/ia a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ??/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue aeaei ciiao
aecia/eoe aaaeeeao a a?a??i?/iiio a?aeiioaii? oa?aeoa?enoeeo
caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai aanaeio i?o?icai?iaie -–a?aenioie ??/iiai /ano,
ai?iaeiaae yeiai niinoa??aa?oueny oa /e ?ioa e?aoi?noue ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE
eaioea?iaaia.

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, ia noaoe?iia?iiio ioieo? ?1, iai?eeeaae, o?eueee
~ 55 % ??/iiai /ano ai?no IAeIA a?aeiia?aea? eiai ae?th/?e
na?aaeiueiaeiaia?e AAeE, a 45% — ia?aaeuo? ??; ia noaoe?iia?iiio ioieo?
?2 – 63 ? 37% a?aeiia?aeii. Eiioeaio?aoe?? IAeAA ia ??ai? AAeE /e
ieae/? niinoa??aathoueny ia noaoe?iia?ieo ioieoao ?1 ? ?2 eeoa a 25 ?
30%, a ?aooo ??/iiai /ano – 75 ? 70% — ia?aaeuothoue ??. C oeueiai
aeoiaeeoue, ui aeey a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy yeino? aoiinoa?iiai
iia?o?y iaiao?aei? aeeoa?aioe?eiaai? ca /anii a?a??i?/i? ?aaeaiaioe
i?o?icai?i?a (na?aaeiueiaeiaia?, na?aaeiueii?ny/i? oa na?aaeiuei??/i?),
ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia aoei a eiio?iethaaoe a?aeiia?aei? ??ai?
ai?noo oeeo niieoe.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? “E?euee?nia ioe?iea ai?noo i?o?icai?i?a a
othothiiaiio aeei?” iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe na??? aeine?aeaeaiue ai?noo
eaioea?iaai?a a aeei? iaea?eueo iioe?aieo a Oe?a?i? neaa?ao “I?eia” ?
“Noiee/iua”. Oe? aeai? iaiao?aei? aeey e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy iaei???
c neeaaeiaeo aa?iaaiii? aeice i?o?icai?i?a — eo??iiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui neaa?aoe c o?eueo?ii “Noiee/iua” a?aeiinyoueny aei
eaoaai??? aenieiniieenoeo, ye ? 90% neaa?ao, ui aeioneaeenue a
eieeoiueiio ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc?. Iiioey?i? a Oe?a?i? neaa?aoe “I?eia”
a?aeiinyoueny ca oe??th eeaneo?eaoe??th aei aeoaea aenieiniieenoeo –
ai?no niiee a ieo aeinyaa? 30 ia/nea. I?e oeueiio ai?no niiee a
neaa?aoiiio aeei? ei?aeth? c ai?noii a iueiio i?o?icai?i?a,
eiioeaio?aoe?? oeeo eaioea?iaai?a a neaa?aoao aac o?eueo?a iaeaea a 4
?ace aeu?, i?ae a neaa?aoao c o?eueo?ii.

A?o/eciyi? neaa?aoe aac o?eueo?a, ye iieaco? aiae?c aeaieo oaaeeoe?,
aeae?eythoue a?eueoa i?o?icai?i?a, i?ae ?iicaii?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?o
iecueeo ye?noue. Ui noino?oueny neaa?ao c o?eueo?ii, oi ai?no a ieo
IAeIA ? IAeAA ia ia?aaeuo? a?aeiia?aeieo iieaciee?a a ?iicaiieo
neaa?aoao.

Aeey e?euee?nii? ioe?iee aieeao o?eueo?a ia ai?no niiee a neaa?aoao c
neaa?ao “Noiee/iua” aeaeaeyee o?eueo? ? “i?ieo?thaaee” neaa?aoe ia
“eo?eeuei?e” iaoei?. Oeaetheicii-aoeaoaoiee o?eueo?, yeee
canoiniao?oueny a oeeo neaa?aoao, naeaeoeaii oeiaeth? IAeIA ? IAeAA
(55.4 – 65.8%), e??i oiai, ui a?i ua ? iaoai?/ii cao?eio? oaa?ae?
/anoeiee.

Oeae a?aenioie iiaeia ca?eueoeoe canoinoaaiiyi niaoe?aeueieo ioiaeoooe?a
oeio “AIIAe” ( aeoeaia iaoai?/ia i/euaiiy aeeio). I?iaaaeaia iaie
a?a??i?/ia aenia?oeca anoaiiaeea, ui oeae ioiaeoooe oeiaeth? aei 64%
niiee, i?iioneath/e eaae? o?aeoe?? aeeio, a oiio /ene? ieeioei, oiio
caaeiaieaiiy a?ae eo??iiy ia ciaioo?oueny.

Aaaeeeaei ? neeaaeiei aniaeoii oe??? i?iaeaie ? ieoaiiy ioe?iee aieeao
othothiiaiai aeeio ia ethaeae, ui nai? ia eo?youe, a aeiooaii
ciaoiaeyoueny a ioi/aii? eo?oe?a ? oei naiei ianaiio?oue i?aeeyaathoue
eiai ae?? — oae caaia “ianeaia” eo??iiy. *a?ac a?aenooi?noue
e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a oeueiai i?ioeano eiai iaeiicia/ii ioe?ieoe
aaaeei, aea iia?/i? ?ic?aooiee aeicaieeee ii??aiyoe nooi?iue ae?yiiy
i?o?icai?i?a aeeio ia oeo, ui eo?youe ? ia eo?youe : aieiaiee iio?e
aeeio 2-3 iioe?aieo a Oe?a?i? neaa?ao aac o?eueo?a /e 8-11 neaa?ao c
o?eueo?ii aieeaa? ia ?ani??aoi?iee o?aeo eo?oey oaeith ae e?euee?noth
IAeIA ? IAeAA, yeo io?eio? iaeo?aoeue, ia?aaoaath/e i?ioyaii aiaeeie a
neeueii iaeo?ai?e e?iiao?.

Noia?i? aeice eaioea?iaaiieo i?o?icai?i?a, ui io?eio? /ieia?/a ? ae?ii/a
ianaeaiiy aea/a?ieo i?no i?ioyaii aeeooy, ?ic?aoiaoaaee c iaeyaeo ia
i?eiouaiiy, ui aeey eo?oe?a na?aaei?e eaoaioiee ia??iae ?icaeoeo ?aeo
eaaai?a noaiiaeoue 30-50 ?ie?a. Ioe?iea aeanoiiiaaiii? aeoeaiino? oeeo
aeic, i?iaaaeaia ca?aeii c iaoiaee/ieie i?aeoiaeaie, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieie
IAA?, iieacaea, ui oe? aeice iiaeooue aooe iaaacia/ieie a
eaioea?iaaiiiio a?aeiioaii?.

A oinoiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy ?aaeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?o?icai?i?a ia ianaeaiiy” noi?ioeueiaaii i?eioeeie ?
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy ?aaeueiiai aa?iaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
eaioea?iaai?a ia ianaeaiiy ? i?eaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee aa?iaaiieo aeic
IAeIA ? IAeAA, ui io?eiothoue ??ci? eiioeiaaioe ianaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?no ? n?euenueei? i?noeaaino? aac o?aooaaiiy
“niaoeeo?/ieo” aeaea?ae caa?oaeiaiiy.

Ia iniia? aiae?co iniaeeainoae a?ieia?/ii? ae?? eaioea?iaai?a, a oiio
/ene? i?o?icai?i?a, ye aenieieoioeyoeaieo niieoe (I.ss.ssieoaaa ?
ni?aaao.,1977) ? anoaiiaeaieo a ?aieao ?iaioe caeiiii??iinoae ?iciiae?eo
oeeo ?a/iaei a aoiinoa?? (i?aaenoaaeaieo a ?icae?e? 4) aecia/aii
i?eioeeie, ia yeeo iiaeiai aacoaaoenue ?ic?aooiie aa?iaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy eaioea?iaai?a ia ianaeaiiy. Aecia/aiiy aa?iaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii, c o?aooaaiiyi ??ai?a ai?noo
eaioea?iaai?a a ??cieo aeaiaioao iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua ? aeaieo
noiniaii aaeaino aeo?ao ??/iiai /ano ia ??ci? aeaee ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie, aeeth/ath/e iiaooiao ae?yeuei?noue ana?aaeei? aeeoea, a
aeeoeiaeo ?aeiiao, ia aaoiiaa?no?aeyo ? naeiiao i?nueeiai o?ainii?oo,
ciiao ?ae?aaoe??, a oaeiae ae?iaie/o ae?yeuei?noue.

Aeey ?ic?aooieo ??/iiai aa?iaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy eaioea?iaai?a
(Ae?ai) aeey ianaeaiiy canoiniaoaaee oi?ioeo:

Ae?AI = (N AAE *O AAE + N ?C * O ?C + N AEC * O AEC + N O? * O O? + N C?
* O C? )* V + C E * N E * K

aea

N AAE, N ?C ,N AEC ,N O? ,N C? — na?aaei? cia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e
eaioea?iaaia aeey aioo??oiueiaeeoeiaiai iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua, iia?o?y
?iai/i? ciie ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue, aeeoeiai? ciie ianaeaiiai ioieoo,
o?ainii?oieo iaa?no?aeae ? ciie ?ae?aaoe?? a?aeiia?aeii, iea/i3 ;

O AAE ,O ?C ,O AEC ,O O?,O C? — /anoee /ano i?ioyaii ?ieo, eiee
ethaeeia ciaoiaeeoueny o a?aeiia?aeieo ciiao i?noa ? i?aeaea?oueny
aieeao eaioea?iaaia, ui i?noeoueny a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? oeeo cii ,
% ;

V — ia’?i iia?o?y, ui aaeeoa? ethaeeia ca ??e ca oiia
na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai niiaeeaaiiy ia ??ai? 15i3 , i3 ;

C E * — eiioeaio?aoe?y eaioea?iaaia a i?iaeoeoao eo??iiy othothiiaeo
ae?ia?a, iea/oo;

N E — e?euee?noue othothiiaeo ae?ia?a, ui aeeo?th? eo?aoeue i?ioyaii
?ieo, oo;

K — eiao?oe??io, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy eo??iiy na?aae
ianaeaiiy i?noa, %.

Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?e ?ic?aooieao aa?iaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?o?icai?i?a ia ianaeaiiy na?aaeiuei??/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?e
eiai a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?y ianaeaieo i?noeue ye oaei?, ui iaea?eueo
ia’?eoeaii a?aeia?aaea? ??/ia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eaioea?iaaia a i?aai?ci
ethaeeie.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui /anoeio ??/iiai /ano ethaeeia (ia?aaaaeii
ae?ii/a ianaeaiiy) aeo?a/a? ia eiioiaeueii-iiaooiao ae?yeuei?noue ia
eooi?, aea aiane?aeie niaethaaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco iiaeeeaa
caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua eaioea?iaaiaie. I?iaaaeai?
niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee aecia/eoe ?ioaineai?noue oeueiai
caa?oaeiaiiy a ia??iae aenieoaoaoe?? ieeoe.

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, a i?ioean? niaethaaiiy aaco a iiaooia?e ieeo? a
iia?o?yia na?aaeiaeua eooi? iaaeoiaeeoue cia/ia e?euee?noue i?o?icai?i?a
– eiioeaio?aoe?? niieoe ca na?aaei?ie aeaieie cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue ?o
aaee/eie ia aaoiiaa?no?aeyo /e a ?aeiiao ?ici?uaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo aaee/ei aa?iaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue (aac o?aooaaiiy
“niaoeeo?/iiai” caa?oaeiaiiy) iieacaa, ui ??ai? ? no?oeoo?a noia?ieo
aa?iaaiieo aeic IAeIA ? IAeAA, ui ?iaaeth? /ieia?/a ? ae?ii/a
ianaeaiiy, cia/iith i??ith a?ae??ciythoueny (Oaae.5). Iaea?eueoee aianie
i?o?icai?i?a a aa?iaaiia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia /ieia?/a ianaeaiiy aea?
eo??iiy – aei 29.5 % i?e eo??ii? neaa?ao c o?eueo?ii ? aei 63.4 – aac
o?eueo?a, oa /an ia?aaoaaiiy a aeeoeiaeo i?ei?uaiiyo – aei 28%.
*ieia?ee, ye? eo?youe, io?eiothoue caaaeueio aeico i?o?icai?i?a o 1.25
?ac?a a?eueoo, i?ae o?, ui ia eo?youe.

Aeey ae?ii/iai ianaeaiiy ia?aaaaeiith neeaaeiaith aa?iaaiii? aeice ?
oa, ui io?eio? ae?iea ia eooi?, aiooth/e ?aeo – 32.5-38.0 a i?noao
? 45.7 – a nae?.

Ioaea, aaaii? aianee a aa?iaaiia iaaaioaaeaiiy eaioea?iaaiieo
i?o?icai?i?a ia ethaeeio iaoiiaeai? ??aiai caa?oaeiaiiy ianaeaiiai
ioieoo a oe?eiio, i?iaeoeo?a eo??iiy oa niaethaaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco.
Ca?aene, aeey ciaioaiiy oe?aeeeaiai aieeao oeueiai eeano niieoe ia
i?aaie aeeoaiiy ianaeaiiy a oiiaao ianaeaieo i?noeue iaiao?aeii
i?iaiaeeoe oe?eani?yiiaai? i?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaee naia a oeeo iai?yieao –
i?eieiaiiy eo??iiy /e cieaeaiiy ai?noo eaioea?iaai?a a othothi?, a
oaeiae ae?eiaee iii?oi?eia oeeo niieoe a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? aeey
aeyaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e aeeiai?ee ?o a /an? ? i?inoi??.

A ?icae?e? 7 “Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy a?a??i?/ieo e?eoa???a ai?noo
i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?io ? i?o?iciae?aoeeai?io a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?”
i?aaenoaaeaii ?ic?aooiee AAeE IAeIA ? IAeAA a iia?o?yiiio
na?aaeiaeu? ianaeaieo i?noeue ? ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue, ye? aacothoueny
ia ?acoeueoaoao aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?iaaeyoe?eiiai aieeao
iaeiiai c ieo – IAeIA (A.Aaiaiainueeee,1989), iaoaiaoe/iiio
iiaeaethaaii? caeaaeiinoae “aeica-aoaeo” ? “ aeica-/an i?iyao
aoaeoo”, a oaeiae aeaieo a?aeiinii ii??aiyeueii? aeoeaiino? oeaee aeic
oeeo niieoe.

I?e ioe?ioe? noaio i?aai?cio aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei a oiiaao
oe?eiaeiaiai? ?iaaeyoe?eii? ae?? i?ioyaii ?ieo anoaiiaeaii, ui IAeIA
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo iooeei, ui eieae?cothoueny ia?aaaaeii a
ie?eao oa ia/?ioe? — oa?aeoa?ieo i?aaiao-i?oaiyo aeey oe??? niieoee.
Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iieacaee /?oeo caeaaei?noue aoaeoo a?ae aaee/eie
aeice eaioea?iaaia. I?e oeueiio cieaeaiiy aeice noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue
ciaioaiiyi /anoioe, iiiaeeiiino?, nooiaiy ceiye?niino?, ca?eueoaiiyi
eaoaioiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo ?iaeoeiaaieo iooeei.

Noaoenoe/ii cia/oua ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueiiai /enea iooeei aeyaeaii i?e
ae?? IAeIA a aeicao 44.2 ia (naioe?), 19.2-19.7 ia (naioe? ? naiee). I?e
ciaioaii? aeice aei 5.3 — 4.5 ia noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??iiai
c?inoaiiy /enea iooeei ia a?aei?/aee, a ca’yceo c /ei oe? aeice IAeIA
aaaaeaee i?i?iaeueii ae?th/eie ca eaoaioiei ia??iaeii iooeeiiooai?aiiy.

Ipe ae?? aeice HAeIA 0.2 ia iooeeie aeieeee o 7.1% naioe?a oa 10.7%
naiie, iapo? iooeeie capa?nopiaaii o naioe?a /apac 14.6 i?n., o naiie —
14.7 i?n., a napaaei?e eaoaioiee iap?iae noaiiaea a?aeiia?aeii 20.5 i
20.7 i?n. Oe? iieacieee ia a?aep?ciyeenue a?ae a?aeiia?aeieo iieaciee?a
o oaapei eiiopieueieo apoi, ui aeicaieeei picaeyaeaoe aeico 0.2 ia ye
iaae?th/o.

Ioaea, aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaaeyoe?eiiai aieeao IAeIA
aeyaeee aeici-/ania? caeiiii??iino? i?iyao eaioea?iaaiiiai aoaeoo oe???
niieoee. Oe? caeiiii??iino? noaee a?aei?aaiith aacith aeey ?ic?aooieo
a?aie/ii aeiionoeii? eiioeaio?aoe?? IAeIA a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o??
ianaeaieo i?noeue, yeee cae?enithaaee oeyoii iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
io?eiaieo caeaaeiinoae.

Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy io?eiaieo a aenia?eiaio? caeaaeiinoae
«aeica-aoaeo» oa «aeica-/an» c canoinoaaiiyi ooieoe?iiaeueieo ??aiyiue
(aeniiiaioe?aeueiiai ? a?ia?aie?/iiai) aeicaieeei: 1/ anoaiiaeoe, ui
aeey aeic IAeIA, iaaoaeoeaieo a aenia?eiaio?, ?nio? a?aei?iiee a?ae ioey
?ecee eaioea?iaaiaco, oiaoi oe? aeice ca iaaieo oiia iiaeooue,
i/aaeaeii, ?iaeoeoaaoe iiaiooai?aiiy; 2/ aecia/eoe “aeiionoeio” aeico
eaioea?iaaia — oaeo, aoaeo ae?? yei? aeoiaeea ae ca iaae?
napaaeiueinoaoenoe/ii? opeaaeino? aeeooy.

?icpaooiie AAeE IAeIA ? IAeAA a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? ianaeaieo i?noeue
ipiaiaeeee ca oipioeith:

X * P e

N =

?o * k * V

aea

N — apaie/ii aeiionoeia eiioeaiopaoe?y pa/iaeie (AAeE), iea/i3 ;

O — iaeneiaeueia aeica pa/iaeie, yea ia aeeeeea? o oaapei picaeoeo
iooeei, iea;

?o- napaaeiy aaaa aeniapeiaioaeueii? oaapeie (aeey uop?a-0.3 ea);

?e- napaaeiy aaaa ethaeeie ( 70 ea );

k — eiao?oe??io caiano ( ipe aeeipenoaii? iaeneiaeueii iaae?th/i? aeice
a oipioe? picpaooieo AAeE Eii?oaoii c eaioeapiaaiieo pa/iaei
paeiiaiaeiaaii canoiniaoaaoe aaee/eio 10);

V – ia’?i iia?opy, yeee aaeeoa? ethaeeia ipioyaii aeeooy (383250i3)

A ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth oe?eani?yiiaaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeici-/aniaeo
caeaaeiinoae ?iaaeyoe?eiiai aieeao HAeAA ia oaapei a iniiao picpaooieo
eiai AAeE aoei acyoi iaoap?aee aeniapeiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy caeaaeiinoae
“aeica-aoaeo” ? “aeica-/an i?iyao aoaeoo” aeey IAeIA ? iip?aiyeueii?
aeoeaiino? oeaee aeic HAeIA oa HAeAA a oiiaao opii?/ii? iapipaeueii?
caopaaee (Peto,1991).

Aeeipenoiaoth/e ye epeoap?e /an picaeoeo 50% iooeei, aaoipe anoaiiaeee,
ui ?ciaoaeoeaieie aaee/eiaie ? 0.12 oa 0.080 ia/ea ia aeaiue aeey HAeIA
? HAeAA a?aeiia?aeii, oiaoi ia p?ai? aoaeoeaieo aeic HAeAA aeoeai?oa ca
HAeIA ~ a 1.5 pace. Iaeiae, a iaeano? aaeeeeo aeic pica?aeiino? a
aeoeaiino? cpinoathoue, ? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo HAeAA aeoeai?oa HAeIA
ipeaeecii a 3 pace.

Apaoiaoth/e oea, iaapoiooaaiiy AAeE HAeAA a aoiinoapiiio iia?op?
ipiaiaeeee a aeaa aoaie:

a/ aiae?c eaioeapiaaiii? aeoeaiino? ??cieo aeic HAeIA ipe ?iaaeyoe?eiiio
iaaeoiaeaeaii? a ipaai?ci oaapei;

a/ iaapoiooaaiiy oa picpaooiie AAeE i?o?iciae?aoeeai?io a aoiinoapiiio
iia?op?.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo eiioeaio?aoe?e IAeIA ? IAeAA a
iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie i?iaiaeeee c iaeyaeo ia iaoiaee/io noaio, ui
canoiniaoaaeanue i?e iaa?oiooaaii? AAeE oeeo niieoe aeey aoiinoa?iiai
iia?o?y ianaeaieo i?noeue., a ?ic?aooiie — ca oi?ioeith:

O * ?e

N =

Po * k * V

aea

N — apaie/ii aeiionoeia eiioeaiopaoe?y pa/iaeie (AAeE), iea/i3;

O — iaeneiaeueia aeica pa/iaeie, yea ia aeeeeea? o oaapei picaeoeo
iooeei, iea;

?o- napaaeiy aaaa aeniapeiaioaeueii? oaapeie (aeey uop?a-0.3 ea);

?e- napaaeiy aaaa ethaeeie ( 70 ea );

k — eiao?oe??io caiano (a oipioe? picpaooieo AAeE Eii?oaoii c
eaioeapiaaiieo pa/iaei paeiiaiaeiaaii canoiniaoaaoe aaee/eio 10 );

V – ia’?i iia?opy, yeee aaeeoa? ethaeeia ia piai/iio i?noe? ca 30
pie?a aepiaie/i? ae?yeueiino? — 35250 i3 ( 235 * 5 * 30 =
35250 i3 ; 235 — piai/eo aeiia ipioyaii pieo; 5 i3 iiaiopy aaeeoa?
pia?oiee ca 8-aiaeeiio ci?io ; 30 — 30 pie?a aepiaie/i?
ae?yeueiino? ).

?ic?aoiaai? c o?aooaaiiyi aeyaeaieo a aenia?eiaio? caeaaeiinoae «aeica
-aoaeo » oa»aeica-/an ipiyao aoaeoo»? ?acoeueoao?a ?o iiaeaethaaiiy
a?aie/ii aeiionoei? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?io ?
i?o?iciae?aoeeai?io a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? ianaeaieo i?noeue ?
ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue i?aaenoaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 6.

?aeiiaiaeiaai? aaee/eie AAeE aoee aeei?enoai? aeey ioe?iee noaio
caa?oaeiaiiy oeeie niieoeaie iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua ?yaeo ianaeaieo
i?noeue oa aeayeeo i?iieneiaeo ae?iaieoeoa Oe?a?ie.

?icae?e 8 “A?a??i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a ii caoenoo aoiinoa?iiai
iia?o?y a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy eaioea?iaaiieie i?o?icai?iaie ? i?aai?caoe??
eiio?ieth

ca eiai noaiii” i?enay/aii aea/aiith caa?oaeiaiiy i?o?icai?iaie
iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua aeayeeo i?aei?e?inoa aoiiai? ? iaoaeiia?iaii?
i?iieneiaino?.

I?iaaaeaiee aaeeeee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue i?aei?e?inoa aoiiai?
i?iieneiaino? – oeiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? aoii-oaoi?/ieo ae?ia?a ia ??cieo
noaae?yo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano iieacaa, ui a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?
oeao?a iino?eii i?enooi? i?o?icai?ie. A oeiiiio ae?iaieoeoa? iaea?eueo?
eiioeaio?aoe?? niieoe aeyaeaii a i?aeaioia/iio oeaoo ia i?ioeanao
ci?ooaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a aoie, a oaeiae a oeaoo aoeeai?caoe??. Ooo
eiioeaio?aoe?? IAeIA ia?aaeuothoue a?a??i?/iee ii?iaoea a 5-29 ?ac?a ca
na?aaei?ie aeaieie ? a 6-55 ?ac?a – ca iaeneiaeueieie; aeey IAeAA
ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE noaiiaeoue 6 – 38 ? 7-60 e?aoiinoae a?aeiia?aeii.

Iieacaii, ui noia?i? aeice eaioea?iaai?a, ye? iiaea io?eiaoe i?aoe?aiee
oeueiai ae?iaieoeoaa ca 30 ?ie?a ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, ia?aaeuothoue
ii?iaiao aaee/eio a 6-26 ?ac?a.

Aiae?c ai?noo i?enooiino? ?ioeo i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie
iieacaa i??i?eoaoi?noue IAeIA a e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii?. Oey ianoaaeia,
a oaeiae ?ic?iaea a ?aieao ?iaioe aeni?aniiai iaoiaeo noia?iiai
aecia/aiiy i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? (oioiiao?e/iee iaoiae)
noaee iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee na?aaeiueici?iii? a?aie/ii aeiionoeii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? noia?iiai ai?noo i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie
oeiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia ??ai? 1 iea/i3.

Aea/aiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua ?ioiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoiiai?
i?iieneiaino? – aoii-oaoi?/iiai oaeiae iieacaei iayai?noue eaioea?iaai?a
eeano i?o?icai?i?a, i?e/iio IAeIA ? IAeAA aeyaeyeenue a eiioeaio?aoe?yo,
ui a 4-10 ?ac?a ia?aaeuothoue a?aeiia?aei? AAeE. Noia?ia aa?iaaiia
iaaaioaaeaiiy eaioea?iaai?a ia i?aoethth/eo ia oeueiio ae?iaieoeoa?
ia?aaeuo? ii?iaiao aeico a 4.4-10.8 ?ac?a.

Eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue ?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa iaoaeiia?iaii? i?iieneiaino?
Oe?a?ie, aea canoiniaothoue neioaoe/i? ianoeeueii-ioieiaeaeoth/?
??aeeie, aeyaea i?enooi?noue IAeIA ? IAeAA a oeaoao ia ??cieo i?ioeanao
ia?iaee iaoae?a. A?aei?/aii ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE oeeo niieoe: IAeIA – a
1.0-1.45 ?ace, IAeAA – a 1.74-2.50 ?ace. Nooi?iue ia?aaeuaiiy AAeE
eaioea?iaai?a ia oeeo ae?iaieoeoaao, ye aeaeii, ia aeoaea aaeeea, cia/ii
iaioa, i?ae ia ae?iaieoeoaao aoiiai? i?iieneiaino?. Iaeiae, ? a oeueiio
aeiaaeeo noia?ia aa?iaaiia iaaaioaaeaiiy i?o?icai?i?a i?aoethth/eo ia
ae?iaieoeoaao iaoaeiia?iaee ia?aaeuo? ii?iaiao aeico a 1.5-2.4 ?ace.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua ae?iaie/eo
i?ei?uaiue ?yaeo ae?iaieoeoa iieacaee ?o eaioea?iaaiio iaaaciaeo.
E?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaea?ae ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a ia ??cieo
aoaiao oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aeaee ciiao aecia/eoe oeyoe ?ic?iaee
caoiae?a uiaei ciaioaiiy ?o ai?noo a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?
ae?iaieoeoa, a oaeiae aeeeae?a a aoiinoa?o ianaeaieo i?noeue.

I?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen iaoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeo
aecia/aiiy eaoeeo i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? aeicaieeee
aecia/eoe iniiai? iieiaeaiiy eiio?ieth ca caa?oaeiaiiyi iia?o?yiiai
na?aaeiaeua ianaeaieo i?noeue ? ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue eaioea?iaaiieie
i?o?icai?iaie. Oe? iieiaeaiiy a?aeaeo? a Iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo,
?ioi?iaoe?eieo eenoao, iaoa??aeao ii iaa?oiooaaiith a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e i??i?eoaoieo eaioea?iaai?a oeueiai eeano.

A ?icae?e? 9 “Iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a” i?iaaaeaii aiae?c io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a c canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue
a?a??ie aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y ? iieieia??.

I?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo eaioea?iaaiii? iaaaciaee ?aaeueiiai aa?iaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?o?icai?i?a ia ??ci? eiioeiaaioe ianaeaiiy (Oaae.7).

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, i?aeoe/ii ana ianaeaiiy, iacaeaaeii a?ae
oa?aeoa?o ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? ? oiia i?iaeeaaiiy, i?aeaea?oueny ae??
oeeo niieoe. Iaeiae, eaioea?iaaiiee ?ecee aeey ieo ??ciee ? eieeaa?oueny
a?ae iacia/iiai — 1-2 aeiaaeee ?aeo ia ??e ia i?eueeii ianaeaiiy, ui ia
i?aeaea?oueny ae?? niaoeeo?/ieo oaeoi??a, aei aenieiai — 158 aeiaaee?a
aeey ianaeaiiy, i?aoethth/iai ia ae?iaieoeoaao, aea ia? i?noea
aeciaaiia ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo c ieoaiue aea/aiiy i?o?icai?i?a ? aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a ?aieao aeaii? ?iaioe aeicaieea iai?oeoe iai?yiee
iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oeueiai eeano eaioea?iaaiieo
niieoe:

AENIIAEE

1.?ic?iaeaii iaoeia? iniiae a?a??i?/iiai aea/aiiy eaioea?iaaiieo
i?o?icai?i?a a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? ianaeaieo i?noeue ? ?yaeo
ae?iaieoeoa, ui aacothoueny ia aeine?aeaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae
?iciianthaeaeaiiy niieoe oeueiai eeano ? oi?ioaaii? ?o aa?iaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ianaeaiiy, ?ic?iaoe? aiae?oe/ieo iaoiae?a ?o
aecia/aiiy, iaa?oiooaaii? e?eoa???a ioe?iee iaaaciaee oa caoiae?a
i?io?eaeoeee iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

2. ?ic?iaeaii /ooeeaee ? niaoeeo?/iee iaoiae aecia/aiiy a iia?o?yiiio
na?aaeiaeu? iaeieo c iaea?eueo aeoeaieo ? iioe?aieo a iaaeieeoiueiio
na?aaeiaeu? eaioea?iaaiieo niieoe eeano i?o?icai?i?a- IAeIA ? IAeAA, a
oaeiae aeni?an-iaoiae aecia/aiiy noia?iiai ai?noo i?o?icai?i?a, ye?
a?oioothoueny ia canoinoaaii? a?o/eciyiiai iaeaaeiaiiy ? ?aaeoea?a ?
aeinooii? aeey i?aai?caoe?e, ia yeeo iieeaaeaii cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieth
o?i?/iiai caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?e ? ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue.

Iniiaieie iieiaeaiiyie iaoiae?a ?: oeiaethaaiiy i?o?icai?i?a c
caa?oaeiaiiai na?aaeiaeua ia oaa?aeee ni?aaio — aeoeaiaaia aoa?eey ia?ee
NEO, aeani?aoe?y niieoe c iiaa?oi? aoa?eey ae?aoeeiaei ao??ii,
aacio?iiaoia?ao?/iee aiae?c aeey aecia/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo niieoe ?
oioiiao?e/iee — aeey noia?iiai ai?noo i?o?icai?i?a.

3. Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? i?iaaaeaii nenoaiaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio
caa?oaeiaiiy i??i?eoaoieie eaioea?iaaiieie i?o?icai?iaie aoiinoa?iiai
iia?o?y a i?noao c ??ciith e?euee?noth ianaeaiiy ? i?io?eai
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae a n?euenueeeo iinaeaiiyo.

Aecia/aii i?inoi?ia? caeiiii??iino? caa?oaeiaiiy i?o?icai?iaie
iia?o?yiiai aanaeio, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?iciiae?e ?o eiioeaio?aoe?e a
??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ciiao ianaeaieo ioieo?a: i?aeaeuaiee ??aaiue
caa?oaeiaiiy a i?iieneiaeo ciiao ( a na?aaeiueiio 1.3-2.0 AAeE IAeIA ?
1.5-3.1 AAeE IAeAA) oa ia iaa?no?aeueieo aoeeoeyo i?no (a?aeiia?aeii
1.0-1.3 ? 1.5-1.8 AAeE IAeIA ? IAeAA), aea iathoue i?noea aeeeaee a
aoiinoa?o iiia?aaeiee?a i?o?icai?i?a, ? aeeoociee ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy
(a iaaeao AAeE) – a aeeoeia?e ? ia?eia?e ciiao i?no oa ia oa?eoi???
n?euenueeeo iinaeaiue.

4. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo oe?ei??/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue a aeaio
noaoe?iia?ieo ioieoao iaee?oii?oiai i?noa aeyaeaii aeeiai?eo ci?i
aeiaiaeo ? na?aaeiueii?ny/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?o?icai?i?a i?ioyaii
??/iiai oeeeeo: iaeneiaeuei? ??ai? caa?oaeiaiiy niinoa??aathoueny a
e?oi?-in?ii?e ia??iae : aeiaia? eiioeaio?aoe?? ia ??ai? 3-5 AAeE aeey
IAeIA ? 5-8 AAeE aeey IAeAA, na?aaeiueii?ny/i? – a?aeiia?aeii ia ??ai?
1.5-2.0 ? 2.0-3.3 AAeE.

Aecia/aii, ui ia ??aaiue na?aaeiueii?ny/ieo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?o?icai?i?a
aieeaathoue iaoaioaeoi?e, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iayai?noth i?yiiai
ei?aeyoe?eiiai ca’yceo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?o?icai?i?a c iieacieeaie
?ioaineaiino? niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? (r=0.39-0.41), oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y
(r=0.42-0.51), aieiaino? iia?o?y (r=0.48-0.57) ? iaa?iaiiai — c
iieacieeaie oaeaeeino? a?o?o (r = — 0.36-0.50).

5. ?iciiae?e eiioeaio?aoe?e IAeIA ? IAeAA a aoiinoa?? iienaii
eiaa?eoi?/ii-ii?iaeueiei caeiiii. Oa?aeoa? e?eaeo eoioeyoeaieo /anoio
eiioeaio?aoe?e oeeo niieoe na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ?aaeei oi?ioaaiiy
caa?oaeiaiiy i?o?icai?iaie iia?o?yiiai aanaeio ? iiae?aiei a ?aeiiao c
ia?aaaaeii i?iieneiaei ? i?iieneiai-o?ainii?oiei oeiii caa?oaeiaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? i?noa (a ioieoao
noaoe?iia?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue) o?eueee 37- 55 % ??/iiai /ano ai?no
IAeIA a?aeiia?aea? eiai ae?th/?e na?aaeiueiaeiaia?e AAeE, a 63-45% —
ia?aaeuo? ??; eiioeaio?aoe?? IAeAA ia ??ai? AAeE ? ieae/?
niinoa??aathoueny eeoa a 25 — 30%, a ?aooo ??/iiai /ano – 75 — 70% —
ia?aaeuothoue ??.

Eiioeaio?aoe?? eaioea?iaai?a oeueiai eeano a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?
ciaoiaeyoueny i?aeoe/ii ia ??ai? a?aeiia?aeieo a?a??i?/ieo ?aaeaiaio?a.

6. Ia iniia? iii?oi?eiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai
na?aaeiaeua a i?noao, ui aea/aeenue ( Ee?a?, Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeo,
E?eaiio ?ic?), ? n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, a?aooaaiiy no?oeoo?e
caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy ??cieie aeaeaie ae?yeueiino? ? /ano ciaoiaeaeaiiy a
??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ciiao, a oaeiae cae/ee aei eo??iiy aecia/aii
iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aa?iaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia ??ci?
eiioeiaaioe ianaeaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a no?oeoo?? aa?iaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?o?icai?i?a ia
/ieia?/? eiioeiaaioe ianaeaiiy iaea?eueoo ieoiio aaao ia? aeica, yeo
aiie io?eiothoue ca ?aooiie eo??iiy (aei 29.5% i?e eo??ii? neaa?ao c
o?eueo?ii ? aei 63.4% — aac o?eueo?a) oa ca /an ia?aaoaaiiy a aeeoeiaeo
i?ei?uaiiyo (24.4-28.0% a i?noao ? aei 20.0% — a nae?), a aeey ae?ii/eo
eiioeiaaio?a – aeica, yeo aiie io?eiothoue i?ae /an i?eaiooaaiiy ?ae? a
aaceo?eiaaieo eooiyo (32.5-38.0% a i?noao ? 45.7% — a nae?) oa i?ae /an
ia?aaoaaiiy a aeeoeiaiio i?ei?uaii? (26.9-37.2% a i?noao ? nae?).

I?e oeueiio /ieia?ee, ye? eo?youe, io?eiothoue caaaeueio aeico
i?o?icai?i?a o 1.25 ?ac?a a?eueoo, i?ae o?, ui ia eo?youe. Caaaeueia
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?o?icai?i?a ia /ieia?e?a ? ae?iie, ui i?iaeeaathoue o
i?noao, o 1.4-1.7 ?ac?a a?eueoa a ii??aiyii? c n?euenueeith
i?noeaa?noth.

7. Aeine?aeaeaiiy caa?oaeiaiiy i?o?icai?iaie iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua
ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue i?aei?e?inoa aoiiai? ? iaoaeiia?iaii?
i?iieneiaino? iieacaee cia/ia ia?aaeuaiiy a?a??i?/ieo ii?iaoea?a IAeIA
? IAeAA.

Ia oeiiiio ae?iaieoeoa? na?aaei? eiioeaio?aoe?? IAeIA ia?aaeuothoue
AAeE a 5-29 ?ac?a, IAeAA — 6-38 ?ac?a; a oeaoao aoii-oaoi?/iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa — a 2-9 ? 2-10 ?ac?a a?aeiia?aeii. Nooi?iue ia?aaeuaiiy
AAeE eaioea?iaai?a ia ae?iaieoeoaao iaoaeiia?iaee noaiiaeoue 1.0-1.5
?ace aeey IAeIA ? 1.7-2.5 ?ace – aeey IAeAA.

8. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiy iaoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ca ai?noii IAeIA ?
IAeAA a iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie ae?iaieoeoa, ui ? niaoeeo?/ieie uiaei
ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a, aecia/aii aenieee ??aaiue aa?iaaiiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy oeeo niieoe ia i?aoethth/eo, ui ia?aaeuo?
aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai? ii?iaia? aeice o 6-25.7 ?ac?a ia oeiiiio
ae?iaieoeoa?, o 4.4-10.8 ?ac?a — ia aoii-oaoi?/iiio ae?iaieoeoa? ? o
1.1-2.38 ?ace – a oeaoao iaoaeiia?iaee i?e canoinoaaii? IION. Caaaeueia
aa?iaaiia aeica aeey oe??? eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy o 2-72.7 ?ace a?eueoa o
ii??aiyii? c o??th, aeey yei? ae?iaie/a ae?yeuei?noue ia iia’ycaia c
cacia/aieie ae?iaieoeoaaie.

9. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo i?o?icai?i?a a othothiiaiio aeei? ye aaaeeea?e
neeaaeia?e aa?iaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ianaeaiiy iieacaei, ui ??aaiue
eiioeaio?aoe?e IAeIA ? IAeAA a iaea?eueo iioe?aieo a Oe?a?i? neaa?aoao
“I?eia” (aac o?eueo?a) neeaaea? 0.058+0.002 iea/nea ? 0.039+0.001
iea/nea a?aeiia?aeii, a neaa?aoao “Noiee/iua”(c o?eueo?ii) -0.014+0.001
oa 0.009+0.001 iea/nea a?aeiia?aeii.

Aeyaeaii, ui oe? neaa?aoe ca ai?noii niiee a?aeiinyoueny aei eaoaai???
aenieiniieenoeo; canoinoaaiiy oeaetheicii-aoeaoaoieo o?eueo??a a
a?o/eciyieo neaa?aoao cieaeo? ai?no niiee ~ ia 24%, a aeica
eaioea?iaai?a, ui iaaeoiaeeoue a i?aai?ci eo?oey, iaaea? a 2-3 ?ace.

Iieacaia eaioea?iaaiia iaaaciaea oae caaiiai “ianeaiiai” eo??iiy.

10. Ia i?eeeaae? oeiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa anoaiiaeaii iayai?noue a
iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? 4 i?o?icai?i?a: IAeIA,IAeAA,IAeAA ? III?, na?aae
yeeo iaea?eueoo ieoiio aaao neeaaeathoue IAeIA (~50%) oa IAeAA (~28%).
I?ae eiioeaio?aoe?yie IAeIA,IAeAA oa noiith i?o?icai?i?a aeyaeaii i?yiee
ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iiaeeea?noue eiio?ieth ca
caa?oaeiaiiyi iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua ae?iaieoeoaa ye ca ie?aieie
i??i?eoaoieie niieoeaie, oae ? ca noiith i?o?icai?i?a.

11. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?iaaeyoe?eiiai
aieeao eaioea?iaai?a, iiaeaethaaiiy caeaaeiinoae “aeica-aoaeo” oa
“aeica-/an ?icaeoeo iiaiooai?aiue” i?iaaaeaii iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy
a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo eiioeaio?aoe?e aeaio i??i?eoaoieo i?aaenoaaiee?a
eeano i?o?icai?i?a — IAeIA ? IAeAA a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? ianaeaieo
i?noeue ? iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie.

AAeE IAeIA aeey aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y ianaeaieo i?noeue ?aeiiaiaeiaaia
ia ??ai? 0.05 iea/i3, AAeE IAeAA — 0.03 iea/i3; aeey iia?o?y ?iai/i?
ciie — 0.50 ? 0.15 iea/i3 a?aeiia?aeii.

?ic?aoiaai? aaee/eie AAeE IAeIA ? IAeAA aeicaieeee aeaoe a?a??i?/io
ioe?ieo noaio caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua i?no Oe?a?ie, ui
aea/aeenue, ? aeayeeo i?iieneiaeo ae?iaieoeoa.

12. ?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??aeueio oeaeo aecia/aiiy ?eceeo iiaiooai?aiue o
ianaeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy aa?iaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy IAeIA ?
IAeAA.

Iieacaii, ui ?ecee iiyae iiaiooai?aiue i?e ?aaeueii ?nioth/iio ??ai?
caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y i?o?icai?iaie aeey eiioeiaaio?a
ianaeaiiy, ui eo?youe, neeaaea? 2-4 aeiaaeee ia i?eueeii ianaeaiiy ia
??e, a aeey oeo, ui ia eo?youe 1-3.

Aeey i?aoethth/eo a oeaoao i?aei?e?inoa iaoaeiia?iaee ?ecee ?icaeoeo
ceiye?nieo iiaiooai?aiue na?aae eo?oe?a neeaaea? 4-11 aeiaaee?a ia
i?eueeii ianaeaiiy ia ??e, a na?aae iaeo?oe?a — 6-10.

Aeey i?aoethth/eo ia oeiiiio ae?iaieoeoa? oe? iieacieee noaiiaeyoue
17-159 ? 15-158 aeiaaee?a a?aeiia?aeii, aeey i?aoe?aiee?a
aoii-oaoi?/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa – 23-83 ? 22-81 aeiaaeie.

Iaea?eueoee ?ecee i?iaiico?oueny aeey i?aoe?aiee?a i?aeaioia/iai oeaoo
oa neeaaenueeeo i?ei?uaiue, aea niinoa??aathoueny iaea?eueo? ??ai?
caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y IAeIA oa IAeAA.

13. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?oi/a?aiaeie caoiaeaie uiaei iiia?aaeaeaiiy
ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a c iiia?aaeiee?a oa ciaioaiiy caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y
ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiue ?:

a/ aeey i?aei?e?inoa aoiiai? i?iieneiaino?:

— aeio?eiaiiy a?eueo aei?noeeo aeiia aei /enoioe o?i?eao?a —
?ia?aae??io?a aoiiaeo noi?oae, oiia ?o o?ainii?ooaaiiy ? caa??aaiiy;

— iioei?caoe?y ?aoeaioo?e aoiiaeo noi?oae c o?aooaaiiyi iaaeiiouaiiy
ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a c iiia?aaeiee?a a i?ioean? aeaioiaeaiiy aoie;

— i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oeiaethaaiiy i?o?icai?i?a aaioeeyoe?eieie
nenoaiaie oeao?a;

a/ aeey i?aei?e?inoa iaoaeiia?iaii? i?iieneiaino?:

— iino?eia i?iaaaeaiiy a?a??i?/ieo aenia?oec ?nioth/eo ? ia?niaeoeaieo
ianoeeueii-ioieiaeaeoth/eo oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu ia i?enooi?noue a
ieo eaioea?iaaiieo i?o?icai?i?a;

— canoinoaaiiy i?enaaeie aei ianoeeueii-ioieiaeaeoth/eo ??aeei , ui
caiia?aaee a ooai?aiith a ieo i?o?icai?i?a a i?ioean? ia?iaee iaoae?a
??caiiyi;

— oeiaethaaiiy ? i/enoea a?ae i?o?icai?i?a aac?a, ui a?aeoiaeyoue /a?ac
aaioeeyoe?ei? nenoaie a aoiinoa?ia iia?o?y.

14. Iai?/aii iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo i?iaeaie i?o?icai?i?a a
aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? ianaeaieo i?noeue:

— i?aai?caoe?y iii?oi?eiao ca noaiii caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai aanaeio
i?no i?o?icai?iaie c iaoith aeyaeaiiy ??ai?a oeueiai caa?oaeiaiiy ?
ioe?iee nooiaiy eiai iaaaciaee;

— iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy ae?iaie/eo aeaea?ae caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?iiai
iia?o?y i?o?icai?iaie ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iia?o?yioi?iiieo caoiae?a;

— aeineiiaea aecia/aiiy e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a i?ioean?a aoiinoa?ii?
o?i?? i?o?icai?i?a;

— ?ic?iaea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ca /anii AAeE i?o?icai?i?a, iaiao?aeieo
aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeoeaii? ioe?iee noaio caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y oeeie
?a/iaeiaie, oa aa?iii?caoe?y ?o c I?aeia?iaeieie noaiaea?oaie;

— ai?aeai?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith iiooeo e?euee?nieo ca’yce?a
i?ae ?aaeueiei aa?iaaiiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi i?o?icai?i?a ia ??ci?
eiioeiaaioe ianaeaiiy ? iieacieeaie caoai?thaaiino? ia ?ae eaaai?a ?
?io? oi?ie iieiiaoieia??.

?icaeoie aeine?aeaeaiue a oeueiio iai?yieo ia? ni?eyoe ioi?ii?
aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y ianaeaieo i?noeue a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy oeei eeanii
niieoe ye aoaeoeaiiio i?io?eaeoe/iiio caoiaeo iiia?aaeaeaiiy
iieieia?/ieo caoai?thaaiue ianaeaiiy.

IA?AE?E IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Eaioea?iaaiiua ieo?icaieiu a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa ai?iaea/ I?iaeaiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia (Iaoa?. Iaaeaaae.ION ii
eiiieaeni.i?iaeaiai.io?.ie?.n?aaeu e ?aoeeii.eniieuecia.i?e?.?ano?nia
i?e Ain.eii.NNN? ii IeO.-I:1986.-N.15-23 (ni?aaao. ssiuoaaa I.ss.,
*a?ie/aiei E.A., Niaa?oeiaa E.N.)

2. Tajekozodo meresek nehamy magyar es ukran varos levegojenek
nitrosaman szennyezett segere vonatkozoan. Part 1 / Meghio:Magyar
higienikusok tarsasaga v.nemzetkozi
kongresszusa/-Kecskemet,1990.-P.25-44. (ni?aaao. Kertesz M., Borzsonyi
M.,Bacskai G.,Yanysheva N., Chernichenko I., Kann Yu.)

3. Tajekozodo meresek nehamy magyar es ukran varos levegojenek
nitrosaman szennyezett segere vonatkozoan. Part 11//
Egeszsegtudomany.-1990.-?3-4. –P.222-232 (ni?aaao. Kertesz M.,Borzsonyi
M.,Bacskai G.,Yanysheva N., Chernichenko I., Kann Yu.)

4. E aii?ino i niaea?aeaiee ieo?icaieiia a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa
iaeioi?uo e?oiiuo ai?iaeia// Aeaeaia e naieoa?ey.- 1991.- ?2.-N.9-12
(ni?aaao. ssiuoaaa I.ss, *a?ie/aiei E.A.,Ea?oan I.)

5. Niaea?aeaiea ieo?icaieiia e eo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia a aoiinoa?iii
aicaeooa ai?iaeia// Yenia?eiaioaeueiay iieieiaey.-1992.- O.14,?3.
-N.32-36 (ni?aaao. Na?aethe A.I., ssiuoaaa I.ss., *a?ie/aiei E.A.,Ea?oan
I.)

6. Ieo?icaieiu a aicaeooiii aannaeia ai?iaeia/Aeaeaia ian.iano: ?ani.
Iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue nai?iee.-Eeaa: Caei?ia’y,1993.Aei.3.-N.36-39
(ni?aaao. ssiuoaaa I.ss., *a?ie/aiei E.A.,Niaa?oeiaa E.N.)

7. Niaea?aeaiea eaioea?iaaiiuo aauanoa a niaci/ii-ioeaaeaeathueo
oaoiieiae/aneeo n?aaeao // Iaaeeoeeia o?oaea e i?iiuoeaiiay yeieiaey.-
1993.-?5-6.-N.28-30 (ni?aaao. ssiuoaaa I.ss., ?iaeeianeay A.I.)

8. Iaeioi?ua eoiae eco/aiey niaea?aeaiey eaioea?iaaiiuo aauanoa a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu /Aeooaeueiua aii?inu aeaeaiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu:Na.iao/i.o?oaeia IEEIEA.Aui.1.-Eeaa:IC Oe?aeiu,
1995.-N.29-35 (ni?aaao.*a?ie/aiei E.A.,ssiuoaaa I.ss.,Aaaee
A.O.,Niaa?oeiaa E.N.).

9. Peculiarities of N-nitrosamines formation in atmospheric air and
evaluation of carcinogenic hazards / Proceedings on Environmental
Contamination in Central and Easten Europe- Warsaw,1996.-P.551-553
(ni?aaao. Chernichenko I.A.,Sovertkova L.S. ,Babiy V.F.)

10. Iniaaiiinoe ia?aciaaiey eaioea?iaaiiuo ieo?icaieiia a aoiinoa?iii
aicaeooa e i?aaiecia ec ieneaeia acioa e aieiia // Aeieia?y ?
iiinoa?ieia?y.- 1996.-N.124-130 (ni?aaao. Na?aethe A.I.,ssiuoaaa I.ss.)

11. I?i iiaeeea?noue ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a a i?aai?ci? i?e noi?niiio
iaaeoiaeaeaii? acioai?uoth/eo niieoe c aoiinoa?iei iia?o?yi ?
e?ea?nueeeie i?aia?aoaie// Oa?iaeieia?/iee a?niee.-1997.-?3.-N.48-49

12. ?ieue aeeieneaea acioa a yiaeiaaiiii neioaca eaioea?iaaiiuo
ieo?icaieiia // Yenia?eiaioaeueiay iieieiaey.-1997.-?1.-N.20-25
(ni?aaao. Aaeaiei I.A., *a?ie/aiei E.A., ssiuoaaa I.ss., Niaa?oeiaa
E.N.,Aaaee A.O.)

13. Aeaeaie/aneea aniaeou eco/aiey neioaca ieo?icaieiia ec eo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia // Aeaeaia e naieoa?ey.-1997.-?4.-N.8-12 (ni?aaao.
ssiuoaaa I.ss., *a?ie/aiei E.A., Aaeaiei I.A., Niaa?oeiaa E.N.,Aaaee
A.O.)

14. A?a??i?/ia cia/aiiy ooai?aiiy i?o?icai?i?a c ?o iiia?aaeiee?a a
aoiinoa?iiio iia?o?? // Aeiae?eey oa caei?ia’y.-1997.-?2.-N.36-39

15. Eaioea?iaaiu a oaaa/iii aeuia // Aeiae?eey oa
caei?ia’y.-1997.-?3.-N.43-46

16. I iiieoi?eiaa ia?aciaaiey eaioea?iaaiiuo ieo?icaieiia a ie?oaeathuae
n?aaea e i?aaiecia aeeaioiuo // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aeia?a??ie ?
oieneeieia??.-Ee?a,1998.-N.325-336 (ni?aaao. ssiuoaaa I.ss., *a?ie/aiei
E.A., Aaeaiei I.A., Niaa?oeiaa E.N. )

17. On evaluation of hazard related to environmental chemical pollution
/Proceedings on Environmental Contamination in Central and Easten
Europe- Warsaw,1998.-N.235-241 (ni?aaao. Chernichenko I., Balenko N.,
Sovertkova L.).

18. Eaioea?iaaiiua aauanoaa a aoiinoa?a e ?ae eaaeiai/
Aea.ian.iano.Aui.33.-Eeaa:IC Oe?aeiu,1998.-N.35-41 (ni?aaao. *a?ie/aiei
E.A., ssiuoaaa I.ss., Aaaee A.O., Niaa?oeiaa E.N., Aioiiiiia
I.TH.,Aaeaiei I.A.)

19. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy AAeE i?o?iciaeeiaoeeai?io
a iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie //Aeiae?eey oa caei?ia’y.-1998.-?4.-N.45-48

20. Ioe?iea eaioea?iaaiii? iaaaciaee iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua oeiiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa// Aeiae?eey oa caei?ia’y.-1999.-?1.-N.14-16

21. Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy aea/aiiy eaioea?iaaiieo ?a/iaei a iaaeieeoiueiio
na?aaeiaeu? oa i?io?eaeoeea ?aeo /I?iaeaie aeieia?/ii? oa iaaee/ii?
aaiaoeee ? ee?i?/ii? ?ioiieia??:Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue.Aei.4(24).-Ee?a-Eoaainuee-Oa?e?a :IIC
Oe?a?ie,OIAOe,1999.-N.142-149 (ni?aaao. ?.I.*a?ie/aiei, A.O.Aaa?e).

22. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey ieo?iciaeeiaoeeaieia e aeeiaoeeaieia a aicaeooa
: A. n. ? 938149.-I:,1982 (ni?aaao. *a?ie/aiei E.A., Niaa?oeiaa E.N.)

23. Ia?ae?e ?a/iaei, i?iaeoeo?a, ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a, iiaooiaeo oa
i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a, eaioea?iaaiieo aeey ethaeeie/ Aea?aeaaiee
a?a??i?/iee ii?iaoea.- Ee?a: I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie,
Eii?oao c ieoaiue a?a??i?/iiai ?aaeaiaiooaaiiy, 1997.-14n (ni?aaao.
*a?ie/aiei ?.I.,ssieoaaa I.ss.,Aa?eeye ?.?. Aaaee A.O.,N.Niaa?oeiaa E.N.
? ?i.)

24. Iainiiaaiea IAeE ieo?iciaeeiaoeeaieia a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa
ianaeaiiuo iano / Eaioea?iaaiiua ieo?iciniaaeeiaiey e eo
i?aaeoanoaaiieee — ia?aciaaiea e ii?aaeaeaiea a ie?oaeathuae
n?aaea:Oac.aeiee.-Oaeeeii,1990.-N.27-28 (ni?aaao. ssiuoaaa
I.ss.,*a?ie/aiei E.A.,.Aaiaiaineee A.I.,Oaneia A.ss. )

Eeoae/aiei I.I. Iaoeia? iniiae ioi?iie iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua a?ae
caa?oaeiaiiy eaioea?iaaiieie N-i?o?icai?iaie oa iiia?aaeaeaiiy
iieiaaiiiai ?eceeo aeey ianaeaiiy.-?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.02.01-a?a??ia (a?ieia?/i? iaoee).-Oe?a?inueeee
iaoeiaee a?a??i?/iee oeaio? IIC Oe?a?ie , Ee?a,1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o i?inoi?iai-/aniaiai
?iciiae?eo eiioeaio?aoe?e N-i?o?icai?i?a (IA) a aoiinoa?iiio iia?o??
ianaeaieo i?noeue, caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy aa?iaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
?o ia ianaeaiiy, ioe?iee eaioea?iaaiiiai ?eceeo a?ae ae?? oeeo aeic.
Anoaiiaeaii noaa?eueia caa?oaeiaiiy IA aoiinoa?e ianaeaieo i?noeue
Oe?a?ie, ?iciiae?e eiioeaio?aoe?e ?o iiaea aooe iienaiee
eiaa?eoi?/ii-ii?iaeueiei caeiiii. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae aecia/aiiy IA a
iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?, a oaeiae aeni?an-iaoiae aecia/aiiy noie IA.
Aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aa?iaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue IA ia
ianaeaiiy. I?iaaaeaii iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy AAeE aeaio IA a aoiinoa?iiio
iia?o?? ianaeaieo i?noeue ? iia?o?? ?iai/i? ciie. Aecia/aii
eaioea?iaaiiee ?ecee caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua ae?iaie/eo
i?ei?uaiue aoiiai? ? iaoaeiia?iaii? i?iieneiaino? IA, iai?/aii caoiaee
uiaei caoenoo iia?o?yiiai aanaeio a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy eaioea?iaaiieie IA.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: N-i?o?icai?ie, iia?o?yia na?aaeiaeua, aa?iaaiia
iaaaioaaeaiiy, eaioea?iaaiiee ?ecee

Lytvychenko O.N. Scientific basis of atmospheric environment defense
from carcinogenic N-nitrosamines pollution and prevention of oncogenic
population’s risk. — Manuscript.

Dissertation is presented for Biology Doctor’s degree by the speciality
14.02.01 — hygiene (biological sciences ).- Ukrainian Scientific Center
of Hygene of the Ukrainian Ministry of Health , Kyiv , 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to study of space-time distribution character
of N-nitrosamines (NA) concentrations in atmospheric environment of
populated areas, NA’ aerogenic load formation peculiarities on
population, carcinogenic risk assessment from this doses action.Stable
NA air pollution in atmospheric environment is established, its
concentration distribution can be described by logarithmic-normal law.
Method for fixing NA in atmospheric environment and also express —
method for fixing NA’ sum are developed. Regularity of forming of NA
aerogenic doses on population is revealed. Scientific ground of two NA’
MPC in atmospheric environment and in working area air is carried out.
Carcinogenic risk of atmospheric environment pollution of rubber and
metalcutting industries’ working premises is determined and measures for
defense air from NA carcinogenic pollution are outlined.

Key words: N-nitrosamines, atmospheric environment,aerogenic
load,carcinogenic risk.

Eeoae/aiei I.I. Iao/iua iniiau io?aiu aicaeooiie n?aaeu io caa?yciaiey
eaioea?iaaiiuie N-ieo?icaieiaie e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea iieiaaiiiai ?enea
aeey ianaeaiey. -?oeiienue

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.02.01-aeaeaia (aeieiae/aneea iaoee).-Oe?aeineee
iao/iue aeaeaie/aneee oeaio? IC Oe?aeiu , Eeaa,1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai eco/aiey oa?aeoa?a
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiioeaio?aoeee N-ieo?icaieiia
(IA) a aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa ianaeaiiuo iano, caeiiiia?iinoae
oi?ie?iaaiey ay?iaaiiuo iaa?ocie eo ia ianaeaiea, ioeaiee
eaioea?iaaiiiai ?enea io aeaenoaey yoeo aeic.

Aia?aua a Oe?aeia i?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniia enneaaeiaaiea niaea?aeaiey
eaioea?iaaiia eeanna ieo?icaieiia a aicaeooiie n?aaea ianaeaiiuo iano e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee aaaeoueo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia iniiaa
eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee caa?yciaiey iao/ii iainiiaaia nenoaia ia?ii?eyoee
ii io?aia aicaeooiiai aannaeia io caa?yciaiey yoeie niaaeeiaieyie.

Onoaiiaeaii noaaeeueiia caa?yciaiea ieo?icaieiaie aoiinoa?u aieueoeo
ai?iaeia Oe?aeiu (aa. Eeaa, Aeiai?iaeca?aeeine,E?eaie ?ia) n ?acee/iui
i?ioeeai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e eioaineaiinoueth o?ainii?oiiai
iioiea. Auyaeaia cia/eoaeueiay ia?aaiiia?iinoue i?ino?ainoaaiiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey eiioeaio?aoeee ieo?icaieiia a aicaeooiii aannaeia
ai?iaeia, eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoaony a?aaeaoeeae o?iaiae caa?yciaiey ii
ooieoeeiiaeueiui ciiai (aaoiiaaeno?aeae, i?iiuoeaiiie, aeeeie,
?ae?aaoeee).

Iaeaieaa caa?yciaiiuie ciiaie ai?iaeia Oe?aeiu ieo?icaieiaie yaeythony
i?iiuoeaiiua, i?e/ai o?iaaiue caa?yciaiey caaeneo io niaoeeoeee
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ianaeaiiiai ioieoa, aai ?acia?ia e
iniaaiiinoae cano?ieee. A oneiaeyo e?oaeiaiaee/iuo noaoeeiia?iuo
iaaethaeaiee auyaeaia aeeiaieea eciaiaiee nooi/iuo eiioeaio?aoeee
eaioea?iaaiia: iaeneiaeueiua o?iaie caa?yciaiey ioia/athony a
eaoia-inaiiee ia?eiae n au?aaeaiiuie iaeneioiaie eiioeaio?aoeee a
ethea-aaaonoa e ieoya?a-iiya?a, ieieiaeueiua — a ceiia-aanaiiee.

?ani?aaeaeaiea eiioeaio?aoeee IA a aoiinoa?a iiaeao auoue iienaii
eiaa?eoie/anee-ii?iaeueiui caeiiii. Onoaiiaeaiu ei??aeyoeeiiiua nayce
iaaeaeo eiioeaio?aoeeyie IA a aoiinoa?a ai?iaea e iniiaiuie
iaoaioaeoi?aie.

?ac?aaioai /oanoaeoaeueiue e niaoeeoe/iue iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey a
aicaeooiie n?aaea eaoo/eo n aiaeyiui ia?ii IA, a oaeaea yeni?ann-iaoiae
ii?aaeaeaiey noiia?iiai niaea?aeaiey IA, eioi?ua aace?othony ia
eniieueciaaiee ioa/anoaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e ?aaeoeaia.

Iniiaiuie iieiaeaieyie iaoiaeia yaeythony: oeaaeeaaiea IA n
caa?yciaiiie n?aaeu ia oaa?aeue ni?aaio — aeoeae?iaaiiue oaieue ia?ee
NEO, aeani?aoeey niaaeeiaiee n iiaa?oiinoe oaey aeeyoeeiaui yoe?ii,
aacio?iiaoia?aoe/aneee aiaeec aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
niaaeeiaiee e oioiiao?e/aneee — aeey noiiu IA.

Aeaia aeaeaie/aneay ioeaiea eaioea?iaaiiie iianiinoe oaaa/iiai aeuia
iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a Oe?aeia neaa?ao, iieacaia eaioea?iaaiiay
iianiinoue oae iacuaaaiiai “ianneaiiai” eo?aiey.

Auyaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey ay?iaaiiuo iaa?ocie IA ia ?acee/iua
eiioeiaaiou ianaeaiey. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeaieueoee aeeaae a ay?iaaiioth
iaa?oceo eaioea?iaaiia yoiai eeanna ia ioaeneia ianaeaiea aeaao eo?aiea
– aei 29.5% i?e eo?aiee neaa?ao n oeeueo?ii e aei 63.4% — aac oeeueo?a,
a oaeaea a?aiy i?aauaaiey a aeeeuo iiiauaieyo (20-28%), a ia aeaineia
-i?aauaaiea ia eooia ai a?aiy i?eaioiaeaiey ieue (32.5-42.7%) e
i?aauaaiea a aeeeuo iiiauaieyo (26.9-37.2%). I?e yoii ioae/eiu, eioi?ua
eo?yo, iieo/atho aeico IA a 1.25 ?ac aieueooth ii n?aaiaieth n
iaeo?yueie.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee eiaaeyoeeiiiiai
aeaenoaey eaioea?iaaiia i?iaaaeaii iao/iia iainiiaaiea IAeE aeaoo IA a
aoiinoa?iii aicaeooa ianaeaiiuo iano e aicaeooa ?aai/ae ciiu.

Onoaiiaeaii,/oi nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea caa?yciaiey aicaeooiiai aannaeia
ai?iaeia Oe?aeiu eaioea?iaaiiuie IA i?aauoaao aeaeaie/aneea ?aaeaiaiou
yoeo niaaeeiaiee. E?oaeiaiaee/iua iaaethaeaiey iieacaee, /oi a
aicaeooiie n?aaea a.Eeaaa a ?aeiia noaoeeiia?iuo ioieoia oieueei 25- 55
% aiaeiaiai a?aiaie niaea?aeaiea IA ioaa/aao aeaenoaothuei
n?aaeianooi/iui IAeE, a 75-45% — ?aaii eee i?aauoaao aa; eiioeaio?aoeee
eaioea?iaaiia yoiai eeanna a naeueneie ianoiinoe iaoiaeyony i?aeoe/anee
ia o?iaia niioaaonoaothueo ?aaeaiaioia.

Aiaeec caa?yciaiey aicaeooiie n?aaeu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee
?aceiiaie e iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe IA iieacae
cia/ieoaeueiia i?aauoaiea onoaiiaeaiiuo aeaeaie/aneeo ii?iaoeaia yoeo
niaaeeiaiee. Ia oeiiii i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaeiea eiioeaio?aoeee IA
i?aauoatho IAeE a 5-38 ?ac, a oeaoao i?iecaiaenoaa ?aceii-oaoie/aneeo
ecaeaeee — a 2-10 ?ac.

Noaiaiue i?aauoaiey IAeE eaioea?iaaiia a aicaeooiie n?aaea i?aaei?eyoee
iaoaeeiia?aaioee ianeieueei ieaea — 1.5-2.5 ?aca. Iieacaii, /oi
noiia?iua aeicu IA, eioi?ua iiaoo iieo/eoue ?aaioathuea ia yoeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo ( n o/aoii anao ae?oaeo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe), i?aauoatho
ii?iaiaoth aeico.

Ii?aaeaeai eaioea?iaaiiue ?ene caa?yciaiey aicaeooiie n?aaeu
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee ?aceiiaie e iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe IA, iaia/aii ia?ii?eyoey ii caueoa aicaeooiiai aannaeia
io caa?yciaiey eaioea?iaaiiuie IA e iooe aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
i?iaeaiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: N-ieo?icaieiu, aicaeooiay n?aaea, ay?iaaiiay iaa?ocea,
eaioea?iaaiiue ?ene

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