IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?. I. Iaoiia

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

EI?AEEE

Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 621. 793.7

IAOEIA? ? OAOIIEIA?*I? INIIAE

AACIOA?I?*IIAI IAIEEAIIss AII?O?CIAAIEO IIE?EOO?A

C IAOAEAAEO NIEAA?A

05.03.06 –

caa?thaaiiy oa nii??aeiai? oaoiieia??

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?. I. Iaoiia
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai?enia TH??e Na?a?eiae/

?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?. I. Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eii

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie

Iia/ai Ai?en Ieaen?eiae/,

I?aeia?iaeiee oeaio? aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaeo oaoiieia?e ?inoeoooo
aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?. I. Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oa?eaiia TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

No?aeii-oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oiaoei Ieaa Aiaoie?eiae/,

?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie
“EI?”, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 1 a?oaeiy 1999 ?ieo i 10:00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 26.182.01 i?e ?inoeooo? aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i.
?. I. Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 03150, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aiaeaiea,
11.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
?inoeoooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?. I. Iaoiia ca aae?anith: i. Ee?a,
aoe. Aiaeaiea, 11.

A?aeaoee i?i aeena?oaoe?th i?ineii iaaeneeaoe ca aeacaiith aae?anith.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “___” _______________ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe E. N. E??a?a

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?aeaeuaiiy aeiia, iinoaaeaieo ia no/aniiio aoai?
?icaeoeo iaoee ? oaoi?ee aei aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
??ciiiai?oieo aeaoaeae ? aoce?a onoaoeoaaiiy ? iaoei, ni?e/eith?
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ? oaoiieia?e. O
oeueiio aniaeo? ia?niaeoeaiei ? canoinoaaiiy aii?oieo iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a,
ye? a?ae??ciythoueny oi?eaeueiei ii?aeiaiiyi aenieeo iaoai?/ieo ?
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. ?i aeanoeaa aeniea i?oei?noue,
ciinino?ee?noue, ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue. Oea iaai?oii’ye? nieaae c
iniaeeaeie aeaeo?e/ieie aeanoeainoyie.

O ca’yceo c ?nioth/eie iaiaaeaiiyie ii oiauei? ae?ia?a c aii?oieo
nieaa?a a iniiaiiio aei 50-100 iei noaiiaeoue ?ioa?an canoinoaaiiy ?o ye
ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa??a ia iiaa?oiyo ae?ia?a ?c o?aaeeoe?eieo
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a. Aei iaoiae?a, ui caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy
aii?o?ciaaieo oa??a ia ??ciiiai?oieo ae?iaao, iaeaaeaoue oae?: ?iiia
?iieaioaoe?y, aeaeo?io?i?/ia ? o?i?/ia inaaeaeaiiy, ?iiii-ieaciiaa
(iaaiao?iiia) ?icieeaiiy, oa?i?/ia aeia?thaaiiy o aaeooi?,
aeaeo?i?ne?iaa, eaca?ia, aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaa ia?iaea ? aacioa?i?/ia
iaieeaiiy (AOI). Oi?ioaaiiy iie?eooy a oaoiieia?? AOI a?aeaoaa?oueny a
oiiaao iaaeaenieeo (104…108 E/n) oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeaiiy
iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo, ui noai?th? i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue ooai?aiiy
a eiai ia’?i? aii?oieo oac (AO). Aacioa?i?/ia iaieeaiiy, yea aeeth/a?
ieaciiai-aeoaiaee, aeaoiiaoe?eiee, aaciiieoiaiaaee,
?iioeuenii-ieaciiaee, aeaeo?iaeoaiaee iaoiae oa ?oi? eiia?iaoe??,
aea?aeii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo oaoiieia?e iaianaiiy aii?oieo
iie?eoo?a, ine?eueee aea? ciiao oi?ioaaoe ii??aiyii oiano? aii?o?ciaai?
oa?e aei 1…5 ii ia ae?iaao ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ? ?ici???a, ia? oe?o?
oaoiieia?/i? iiaeeeaino?. Ii?yae ?c aenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth i?ioean?a
AOI, o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?nio? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeey iaianaiiy
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ??cieo oei?a iaoa??ae?a — ii?ioe?a, ae?io?a,
oio??a. Oae? ia?aaaae a?aee?eaathoue ia?niaeoeae oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy
iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a, ye? i?noyoue aii?oi? oace, aeey caoenoo
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a a?ae ciai?oi?o aieea?a (ciino, ei?ic??) ?
iaea?aeaiiy oa??a ?c niaoe?aeueieie aeanoeainoyie (iaai?oieie,
?acenoeaieie oa ?ioeie).

I?ioa, aea/aiiy ieoaiue, uiaei iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo iaoiae?a
AOI iie?eoo?a c aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith, anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo
?aaeei?a ?o iaea?aeaiiy, noai?aiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iaoa??ae?a aeey
iaieeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy aaeocae canoinoaaiiy aeaieo oei?a iie?eoo?a, ui
ia?aaeoaaei aeai?e ?iaio?, ia?aaoaaei ia ii/aoeia?e noaae??. Ia oea
aeaco? iaiaaeaiee ianya ioae?eaoe?e o a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e
e?oa?aoo?? a ia??iae aei 1987 ?ieo.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiioaaeany a 1987-1999 ?. ca ??cieie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie
i?ia?aiaie N?N? ? Oe?a?ie, o oiio /ene? a ?aieao i?ia?aie AeEIO Oe?a?ie
“Ia?niaeoeai? iaoa??aee”, i?iaeaia “Ia?ic’?ii? c’?aeiaiiy ? iie?eooy
iiaeo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a”.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo iniia oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy
iie?eoo?a c aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith aacioa?i?/iei iaieeaiiyi iaoaeaaeo
nieaa?a, noai?aiiy ? i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ?
iaoa??ae?a aeey iaianaiiy iie?eoo?a ?c i?aeaeuaieie, ii??aiyii c
o?aaeeoe?eieie e?enoae?/ieie iaoa??aeaie, ciini- ? ei?ic?eiith
no?ee?noth, o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, niaoe?aeueieie
iaai?oieie e aeaeo?e/ieie aeanoeainoyie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??oaii oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aeeiiaii ?ic?aooieiai-oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oa?i?/ii? aca?iiae??
iaieethaaieo iaeeii/ieo /anoie ? ?oiuei? noeoiiino? c iniiaith,
onoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a oaieiia?aiino i?e oi?ioaaii?
aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a noiniaii iniaeeainoae iaea?aeaiiy iie?eoo?a c
aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith.

2. Noai?aii iniiae oaoiieia?? AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a, aecia/ai?
?aoe?iiaeuei? ae?aiaciie ia?aiao??a ?o iaianaiiy i?e ??cieo iaoiaeao
iaieeaiiy (aaciiieoiaiaaiio, ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio, aeaoiiaoe?eiiio,
?iioeuenii-ieaciiaiio, aeaeo?iaeoaiaiio) caeaaeii a?ae oeio
iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo, noi?ioeueiaaii aeiiae aei ?aaoethaaiiy neeaaeo
na?aaeiaeua, oaiia?aoo?e iniiae, ?aaeeio ? oaeaeeino? aeo?eaiiy
no?oiaiy.

3. Aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino? aieeao eaaoaaiiy iaieethaaieo nieaa?a ia
iniia? cae?ca, i?eaeth ? eiaaeueoo ia nooi?iue aii?o?caoe?? ? oaciaee
neeaae aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a, ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie noai?aiiy
iaoa??ae?a, ui i?noyoue ai?, aeey AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a.

4. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaen aei?iaoaaiue aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a (AOI) ia
i?oei?noue c/aieaiiy c iniiaith, aoiieeao i?oei?noue, ciinino?ee?noue a
oiiaao oa?oy eiacaiiy, aaci-, a?ae?iaa?aceaiiai, aa?aceaiiai ciino,
eaa?oaoe??, o?aooeia-ei??ic??, aecia/aii aeaeo?e/i?, iaai?oi?
aeanoeaino?, aeaeo?io?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue
iie?eoo?a c aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith.

5. Anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? aieeao ia’?iiiai ai?noo aii?oii? oace a
aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eooyo ia ?oi? iniiai? neoaeaia? aeanoeaino?.

6. ?ic?iaeaii niaoe?ae?ciaai? ii?ioee, ii?ioeia? ae?ioe ? aio/e? oio?e
ia iniia? cae?ca, i?eaeth ? eiaaeueoo aeey AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a,
i?aai?ciaaia ?o i?iieneiaa ? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai.

7. ?ic?iaeaii i?aeoe/i? oaoiieia?? aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ??ciiiai?oiiai i?ecia/aiiy, cae?eniaii ?oi?
canoinoaaiiy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? ? a?aeiiaeaiiy aeaoaeae
aoce?a, ui i?aoeththoue a oiiaao ciiooaaiiy ? ei?ic??, a oaeiae i?e
aeaioiaeaii? ae?ia?a ?c niaoe?aeueieie o?ce/ieie aeanoeainoyie iiaa?oi?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a oaieiia?aiino i?e
oi?ioaaii? aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a c aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith, ui
a?aoiaothoue eieaeuei? e ?ioaa?aeuei? aoaeoe aca?iiae?? /anoie c
iniiaith a /aniaeo ?ioa?aaeao ae?? ?iioeueniiai ? iai??iiai oeneo.
Anoaiiaeaii oa?aeoa?i? noaae?? i?ioean?a oaieiia?aiino, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny niaoeeo?eith oaiia?aoo?ieo ?aaeei?a. Iieacaii, ui
iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ye? caaacia/othoue aii?o?caoe?th iie?eoo?a o
i?ioean? AOI, ? caaacia/aiiy i?i?iaeueii? (ia a?eueo ye 5-10 iei)
oiaueie iaieeaieo /anoeiie, caa?aaeaiiy o?i?/iiai neeaaeo iaieeaiiai
iaoa??aeo, iaiaaeaiiy ??aiy iaa??aaiiy iniiae ? oa??a, ui ia?iuothoueny
o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy iie?eooy, aeinyaiaiiy ?cieueiaaiiai oaa?ae?iiy
/anoie ia iniia?.

2. Aia?oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia oa aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy iie?eoo?a c ia’?iiei ai?noii AO 80-100 % ca
?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy iaaecaoeiaeo no?oiai?a, canoinoaaiiy ??cieo cania?a
?aaoethaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iniiae ? neeaaeo na?aaeiaeua, caoenieo
ianaaeie, a oaeiae o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy aeey iaieeaiiy ii?ioeiaeo
ae?io?a (IAe) ? aio/eeo oio??a (AO). Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?eioeei
iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a AOI ca iciaeith “eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeo (EAI) ( max” caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueiee ai?no AO (ZAO) o
iie?eoo?.

3. Aea/aii aieea nenoaie eaaoaaiiy iaieethaaieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia?
cae?ca, i?eaeth ? eiaaeueoo ia ia’?iiee ai?no AO ? neeaae e?enoae?/ieo
oac o aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eooyo (AOI). Iieacaii, ui iaeneiaeueia
aii?o?caoe?y i?e AOI ii?ioe?a (I), ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a ? aio/eeo oio??a
Fe-B ? Ni-B aeinyaa?oueny aeey caaaoaeoe/ieo neeaae?a ?c ai?noii ai?o
20-27 ia.%. Aeyaeaii aoaeo i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo AO o iie?eooyo ia 10-20 %
i?e eaaoaaii? iaieethaaieo iaoa??ae?a ??aeeicaiaeueieie iaoaeaie (?CI)
(0,2-0,8 ia.%) i?e iaeii/aniiio cieaeaii? ?o ieeneaiino? ? ii?enoino? a
1,3-1,9 ?ac. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeie eaaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a, ui ai?uothoue
ai?, aeey AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a, ye? iaoiiaeththoue noia?iee ai?no
o ieo B, Si, P, C, ??aaiue aeiaaaie ?CI, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeino? ai?o
oa eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

4. Aea/aia oiiea no?oeoo?a aii?oii? oace aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a ia
??cieo no?oeoo?ieo ??aiyo (50 ii — 0,1 ii), aeyaeaii aoaeo oaciaiai
?icoa?oaaiiy a aii?oi?e iao?eoe? aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a o ?acoeueoao?
ooai?aiiy iaeanoae, ui a?ae??ciythoueny oeiii aeeaeiueiai ii?yaeeo,
ooai?aiiai i?e o/ano? aoii?a eenith a ia’?iao iaieeaieo oa??a, ?c
nieaa?a noeeueieo aei ?ioaineaiiai ieeneaiiy.

5. I?iaaaeaia ioe?iea caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue a aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eooyo.
Iieacaii, ui a ieo oi?iothoueny ia?aaaaeii iai?oaeaiiy noeneo a?ae (-25)
aei (-120) IIa. Aeyaeaii aoaeo i?aeaeuaiiy aiane?aeie oeueiai ia 10-30 %
iaae? aoiieeai? i?oeiino? iniiae ?c eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a.

6. Aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?th ca?eueoaiiy i?oeiino? c/aieaiiy AOI c iniiaith,
aoiieeai? i?oeiino?, ciini- ? ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? c i?aeaeuaiiyi
ia’?iiiai ai?noo a ieo AO. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? ZAO a?ae 40
aei 100 % i?oei?noue c/aieaiiy iie?eooy c iniiaith ca?eueoo?oueny a
1,7-2,2 ?aca, ciinino?ee?noue i?e aaciaa?aceaiiio ciiooaaii? ?
eaa?oaoe?? c?inoa? a 1,5-3,1 ?aca, ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue — ia iaio ye o 2
?ace, iaai?oia i?iieeeea?noue — o 2,1-3,5 ?aca.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe noaee iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a aaciiieoiaiaaiai, ieaciiai-aeoaiaiai, aeaeo?iaeoaiaiai,
aeaoiiaoe?eiiai, ?iioeuenii-ieaciiaiai iaieeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a
?c ii?ioe?a, ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a ? aio/eeo oio??a ?c ai?noii AO
(60-100%), ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aeaeuaiith i?oei?noth c/aieaiiy c
iniiaith, ciinino?ee?noth, ei?ic?eiith no?ee?noth, niaoe?aeueieie
iaai?oieie oa aeaeo?e/ieie aeanoeainoyie.

A ?acoeueoao? iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a AOI ?c aeei?enoaiiyi e?eoa??th
“EAI(max” aecia/ai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie iaea?aeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo
iie?eoo?a ?c iaeneiaeueiei ZAO aeey iaoiae?a: ieaciiai-aeoaiaiai
iaieeaiiy (ieaciiooai?thth/? aace: a?aii, a?aii+acio, a?aii+aiaeaiue,
iia?o?y+i?iiai-aooai); aaciiieoiaiaaiai ? aeaoiiaoe?eiiai iaieeaiiy
(ai?th/? aace: i?iiai-aooai ? aoeaoeeai).

2. Canoiniaaii iaaecaoeia? ?aaeeie aeo?eaiiy no?oiaith i?e
aaciiieoiaiaaiio, ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio e aeaeo?iaeoaiaiio iaoiaeao AOI, ui
aeicaieeei i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo AO a iie?eooyo a?ae 40 aei 100%, a?ae 75
aei 95% a?ae 0 aei 50%, a?aeiia?aeii.

3. ?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?? caoenieo ianaaeie, ?icieethaaeueiiai aocea
aeaeo?iiaoae?caoi?a, i?eno?i? aeey ioieiaeaeaiiy aeaoae? ? iie?eooy a
i?ioean? iaieeaiiy, ui aeicaieythoue i?aeaeueoe ai?no aii?oii? oace ia
10-50%.

4. Ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo i?eioeei?a eaaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a
aeey AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ?ic?iaeai? niaoe?ae?ciaai? ii?ioee,
ii?ioeia? ae?ioe ? aio/e? oio?e ii OO ?AC 733-89 ? na??? “AIIOAE”,
i?ecia/ai? aeey AOI ciinino?eeeo ? ei?ic?eiino?eeeo aii?o?ciaaieo
iie?eoo?a, a oaeiae iie?eoo?a ?c niaoe?aeueieie aeaeo?io?ce/ieie
aeanoeainoyie, i?aai?ciaaii ?oi?e aeione. Ii/eiath/e c 1989 ?. ia
Oi?acnueeiio caaiae? iaieaai/ieo oaa?aeeo nieaa?a (Aeiiaoeueea iae.)
aeaioiaeaii a?eueoa ye 30 o cacia/aieo ii?ioe?a, a c 1995 ? — ia AO
“Aei?i?iiaoec” (i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee) 10 o ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a “AIIOAE”.

5. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane AOI caoenieo
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ?c ii?ioe?a AIIOAE 7, IA-AE1 (Fe-Cr-Mo-B),
IA-AE4, IA-AE5 (Fe-B), IA-I3 (Fe-Ni-B), AIIOAE 13 (Fe-Ni-Si-B), AIIOAE
14 (Co-Fe-Ni-Si-B) oa ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a AIIOAE 102 (Fe-B-C-Si), AIIOAE
103 (Fe-Cr-B), AIIOAE 105 (Fe-Cr-Al-B) aeey oe?eiai ?yaeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo aeaoaeae oa i?eeaae?a o ??cieo aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa:

— aaoiiia?eueiee ? cae?cie/iee o?ainii?o, aa?noaoe ? a?ae?iaia?aoo?a —
ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?io neoaeae a 1,4 — 2,5 ?aca aenoeaio?eeiaeo ?
eie?i/aoeo aae?a, eeaiai?a iiaeath/eo oeaia aa?noao?a, aaeuei?aieo
aa?aaai?a, cieioiee?a (E?eai??cueea a?aeae?eaiiy I?eaei?i?ianueei?
cae?cieoe?, Ieeoeeiaoeueeee niaoe?ae?ciaaiee caaiae, Ee?anueea
aa?noaoiaoae?aia AI, Ee?anueeee ?aiiioii-iiioaaeiee eiia?iao);

— aia?aaoe/ia onoaoeoaaiiy — i?aeaeuaiiy ?ano?no o 1,9-3,1 ?ace eiiaoie
aaioeeyoi??a, ooie?a, oieiaeae?a, cai??ii? a?iaoo?e, iiaa?oiiue iaa??ao
aia?aaoe/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy, e?oiiiaaaa?eoieo aeaoaeae a?ae?ioo?a?i
(Aeia?ioa??nueea Ae?AN, Ao?ooeinueea OAN, *a?eanueea OAOe, IAI
“Oo?aiaoii”, i. Oa?e?a) ;

— onoaoeoaaiiy o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino? — ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?io neoaeae
?aaeoi??a, oiae?a, aeaoaeae a?na?ieo ieei?a, ianin?a,
noia?aeenaeueaa??a, o?oaieo aeiuie ? aaciaeo oieiaeeeueiee?a o 1,9-3,4
?ace (Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee eaeioa?aiaee caaiae, AAO “Eaeie?anea” (?A),
?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia AO “I?ao?i”);

— aeaeo?ioaoi?ea oa i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy — i?aeaeuaiiy a 8,5 ?ace ?ano?no
aoi?eiieo aeaiaio?a e?i?eieo aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a, ca?eueoaiiy ia 25-45 % ?o
aeiiii?/iino?, i?aeaeuaiiy /ooeeaino? niaoei?eeaae?a (IAe? A?EC, i.
Oaaai?ia, ?O).

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a io?eiaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe??, iieyaa?:

— o iinoaiiaoe? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a oaieiia?aiino i?e
aca?iiae?? iaeeii/ieo iaieethaaieo /anoie ? ?oiuei? noeoiiino? c
iniiaith a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy iie?eooy, a aiae?c? oa ocaaaeueiaii?
?acoeueoao?a ia/enethaaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a, aecia/aii? oaeoi??a
aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a ?c iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a i?e AOI;

— o aecia/aii? i?eioeeio iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a iaea?aeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo
iie?eoo?a ca e?eoa???i “EAI(max”, oi?ioethaaii? iaiao?aeii? oiiae
aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a i?e AOI;

— a ocaaaeueiaii? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?ioean?a AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ?c ii?ioe?a, ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a ?
aio/eeo oio??a;

— a aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoae
aii?o?ciaaieo aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a, aecia/aii? caeiiii??iinoae aieeao
ai?noo AO ia neoaeaia? aeanoeaino? iie?eoo?a;

— o ?ic?iaoe? i?eioeei?a eaaoaaiiy, aeai?? neeaae?a ? a aaoi?nueeiio
iaaeyae? i?e i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa iaoa??ae?a aeey AOI aii?o?ciaaieo
iie?eoo?a;

— o ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ? o/anoue o ai?iaaaeaeaii?
i?iieneiaeo oaoiieia?e aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae, a oaeiae i?e aeaioiaeaii? i?eeaae?a ? ae?ia?a
?c niaoe?aeueieie o?ce/ieie aeanoeainoyie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??: Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia 37 i?aeia?iaeieo ? 13 ananithcieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ? neiiic?oiao. Iniiai? c ieo: I?aeia?iaei? eiioa?aioe?? ii
aacioa?i?/iiio iaieeaiith (Eiiaeii, Aaeeeia?eoai?y — 1989, Aaoai,
I?ia//eia — 1993; Inaea, ssiii?y — 1995, Annai, I?ia//eia — 1997;
?iae?aiaiie?n, NOA — 1997, I?oeoea, O?aioe?y — 1998; Aethnnaeueaei?o,
I?ia//eia — 1999); I?aeia?iaeiee neiiic?oi “Aenieioaiia?aoo?i? caieeai?
no?oiai? a ieaciiaeo oaoiieia?yo” (Iiainea??nuee, ?O — 1990);
I?aeia?iaei? neiiic?oie “Plasma — Technik Symposium” (Ethoea?ia ,
Oaaeoea??y — 1988, 1991); Ananithci? eiioa?aioe?? “Oai??y ? i?aeoeea
aacioa?i?/iiai iaianaiiy iie?eoo?a” (Aeieo?ia, 1989, 1992); Ananithcia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y “A?aeiiaeaiiy ? ci?oeiaiiy aeaoaeae iaoei
? onoaoeoaaiiy aacioa?i?/iei iaieeaiiyi ? ieaciiaei iaieaaeaiiyi” (Ooea,
?O — 1989); I?aeia?iaeiee nai?ia? “Aacioa?i?/ia iaieeaiiy a
i?iieneiaino?” (Eai?ia?aae, ?O-1991), 1-a I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y ii
eiino?oeoe?eiei oa ooieoe?iiaeueiei iaoa??aeai “EOI-93” (Euea?a, 1993),
I?aeia?iaei? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaieeaiiy ? iie?eooy — 95” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a,
?O — 1995) ? “Iie?eooy ? ie?aee” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, ?O — 1998),
“Caa?thaaiiy ? nii??aeiai? oaoiieia?? — o XXI noi??//y” (Ee?a, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??: Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 174 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo,
c ieo 14 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa ? iaoaio?a.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe: Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c 7
?icae?e?a, i?noeoue 280 noi??iie oaenoo, 34 oaaeeoe?, 127 ?enoie?a,
nienie e?oa?aoo?e c 350 iaeiaioaaiue ? aeiaeaoe?a ia 141 noi??ioe?.

INIIAIA *ANOEIA

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe ?
caaaeaiiy, ae??oaiiy yeeo ? ?? neeaaeiaeie /anoeiaie, iieacaii iaoeiao
iiaecio ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

I?e ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo caaeaiue ca aeo?aei? ia?aaeoiiae o ?iaio?
aeei?enoai? iaoeia? iiaeyaee, ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeciaieo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo o aaeocyo caa?thaaiiy, iaieeaiiy ? iie?eoo?a, iaaeoaeaeeiai
ioieiaeaeaiiy c ?icieaaeaiiai noaio, aii?oieo nieaa?a ?, o ia?oo /a?ao:
?eeae?ia I.I., Eoae?iiaa A.A., Ai?eniai? A.E., Nieiiaiei I.I., E?iaoaaa
A.A., Iaoa/ea I.?., Aieoaoey A.I., Iao?iaa N.A., Oie?ueiai? O.I., O?aeei
I.I., Ie?ea?a A.?., I??ioie/aiei ?.N., Eoieoeueeiai TH.A., Eiaia?enoiai
TH.E., Cieiooo?ia ?.A., I?eueiaia TH.A., Eioeei Ae.A. oa ?ioeo.

Ia?oee ?icae?e iineoue iaeyaeiai-aiae?oe/iee oa?aeoa?. I?iaiae?ciaaii
?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i aii?oiee noai o iaoaeaaeo iaoa??aeao, oiiae
aii?o?caoe?? iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a ? e?eoa??? aeai?o ?o neeaae?a, aeeiiaii
eeaneo?eaoe?th oaoiieia?e iaea?aeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo iaoa??ae?a ?
iie?eoo?a. Aeae?eaii o?e iniiaieo a?oie oeeo oaoiieia?e, ui ?aae?cothoue
??ciiiai?oi? i?eioeeie aii?o?caoe??: iaaeoaeaeea caaa?ooaaiiy ?icieaao,
aoiiia inaaeaeaiiy, aieea ia e?enoae?/io no?oeoo?o. Na?aae ieo
iaea?eueoa iioe?aiiy ? i?iieneiaa canoinoaaiiy iaea?aeaee niiniae, ye?
aacothoueny ia i?eioeei? iaaeoaeaeeiai (a?eueoa ye 104-106 E/n)
ioieiaeaeaiiy ?icieaao, ui aoa aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiee o 1959 ?.
I??ioie/aiei ?.N.(Oe?a?ia) — iaoiae “ii?oiy ? eiaaaeea” ? a 1967 ?.
I.Aethaac (NOA) — iaoiae “aeno??ethaaiiy ?icieaao ia oaieii?ia?aeio
iniiao”. A aeaiee /an aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aii?oieo nieaa?a o aeaeyae?
no??/ie oiaueiith aei 60iei aeei?enoiaothoue iaoiae aa?ooaaiiy ?icieaao
ia iaa?oiaee aeene (ni?i?iaoaaiiy ?icieaao). Iaiaaeaiiy ii oiauei?
aii?oieo no??/ie iaoiiaeai? iaiao?aei?noth caaacia/aiiy cia/aiue
oaeaeeinoae ioieiaeaeaiiy aeua a?ae e?eoe/ieo aeey ia?aoiaeo a aii?oiee
noai Ve?ioie (aeey a?eueoino? nieaa?a, noeeueieo aei aii?o?caoe??, aiie
noaiiaeyoue 105-106 E/n) oa ?noioii caoaeothoue aaeoc? canoinoaaiiy
aii?oieo nieaa?a. Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a ?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy ? iaianaiiy
ia eiino?oeoe?ei? iaoa??aee a yeino? iie?eoo?a.

Iieacaii, ui iaoiaee AOI oaeiae ?aae?cothoue i?eioeei iaaeoaeaeeiai
aa?ooaaiiy ?icieaao ? iaeaaeaoue aei eeano oaoiieia?e iaea?aeaiiy
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a iine?aeiaiei ia?iuoaaiiyi ia iniia?
oaeaeeiioieiaeaeaieo oa??a ?icieaao. Aei oaei? a?oie oaoiieia?e oaeiae
a?aeiinyoueny aeaeo?i?ne?iaa eaaoaaiiy, i?e?iiaieaaea eaca?iei,
aeaeo?iiiei i?iiaiai. Oe? iaoiaee aeicaieythoue iaea?aeoaaoe a?eueo
aenie? oiaueie aii?o?ciaaieo oa??a, i?ioa, a?ae??ciythoueny aenieith
aaoa?iaaii?noth no?oeoo?e ? o?oaeiiuaie a aeinyaiaii? 100% aii?o?caoe??.
O aeaiiio ?ac? ia? i?noea iaa??a iniiae eiioeaio?iaaieie aeaea?aeaie
oaiea, ui ?icieaaeythoue i?e?iia’?i nieaao yeee aii?o?co?oueny. Iaa??a,
?icieaaeaiiy ? i?enei?aiiy iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo i?e AOI
cae?enith?oueny o aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio iioioe?, a eiai ioieiaeaeaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oaieii?ia?aei?e iniia?. Ioaea, oaoiieia?y AOI ia?
ni?euei? iniaeeaino? c iaoiaeii “aeno??ethaaiiy ?icieaao”, ui ? iaeiei
?c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaea?aeaiiy iaoa??ae?a c aii?oiith
no?oeoo?ith.

Ia?o? a?aeiiino? c iaea?aeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a i?e
ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio iaieeaii? ii?ioeo nieaao Zr-Cu ia iaa?oiaee
aiaeiioieiaeaeoaaiee i?aeiee aeene o caoeni?e aoiinoa?? iioae?eiaai? a
?iaioao A.A?nnaia a 1977 ?. Eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue c aaciiieoiaiaaiai
iaieeaiiy aii?oieo iie?eoo?a ?c nieaa?a ia iniia? Fe-Co ?c canoinoaaiiyi
aoeaoeeaio ye ai?th/iai aaco aeeiiaiee a?oiith yiiinueeeo aeine?aeiee?a
i?ae ea??aieoeoaii O. I?o?a. ?yae ?ia?o ?c AOI iie?eoo?a c aii?oiith
no?oeoo?ith aeeiiaiee o Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?,
?inoeooo? ?i. Aaeeiaa ?AI, ?II, ?II, OI? IAIO. O i?aoeyo O.I.Oie?ueiai?
iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeeaino? iaea?aeaiiy aii?oieo iie?eoo?a oiaueiith aei 2
ii ? a?eueoa ?c nieaa?a Fe-Nr-P-C, Fe-P-C, Fe-B-C i?e aeaoiiaoe?eiiio
iaieeaii? aoeaoeeai-eeniaaith noi?ooth aac aeiaeaoeiaiai ioieiaeaeaiiy,
iieacaia ?o aeniea ciini- ? ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue. A.I. Eoe?iith
?ic?iaeaii ?yae oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a i?e ?iioeuenii-ieaciiaiio
iaieeaii?, ui aeicaieythoue i?aeaeueoe nooi?iue aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a.
Aeey aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a caei?aeiiieie
o??iaie cai?iiiiiaai? aeaye? neeaaee ii?ioe?a: Iaoei (NOA) —
Fe-Cr-Mo-Ni-Cu-Si-B-C (Ae?aiaeeie 1008), Ni-Cr-Mo-W-B-C (Iaoei 700);
“Eanoie?i-Aooaeo?e” (Oaaeoea??y) — Aeeie 29000. O??ia “Aii?oin
Oaeiieiaeae? ?ioa?iaeoaie” (NOA) i?iiiio? ii?ioee ? ii?ioeia? ae?ioe
ia?ie A?iaei? aeey AOI iie?eoo?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny noeeuei?noth aei
aii?o?caoe?? iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o i?e iaaaioaaeai? a oiiaao oa?oy.

I?ioa iayai? a?aeiiino? i?i iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo
iie?eoo?a i?e AOI iinyoue ianenoaiiee, o ?yae? aeiaaee?a aeaeea?aoeaiee,
oa?aeoa?. Iiia?aaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy a oeueiio iai?yieo i?iaaaeai?
aaoi?ii o 1983-1986 ?., o ?acoeueoao? yeeo oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? e
io?eiai? aii?o?ciaai? ieaciia?, ?iioeuenii-ieaciia? ? aaciiieoiaiaa?
iie?eooy c ii?ioe?a ia iniia? cae?ca ? i?eaeth, aea/aii ?oith no?oeoo?o
a ii??aiyii? c aii?oieie no??/eaie aiaeia?/iiai neeaaeo, aecia/aii
oa?i?/io noaa?euei?noue. Aiaeii/an, a iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo c oeueiai
ieoaiiy ia iaaaaeai? iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ui aecia/athoue
i?eioeeie iaea?aeaiiy AOI c aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith, ?aoe?iiaeuei?
ae?aiaciie oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a, ye? caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy ?
caa??aaiiy aii?oiiai noaio iaieeaieo oa??a o i?ioean? iaieeaiiy oa
aenieoaoaoe??, ii??aiyeuei? aeai? ?c canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a
AOI, ?iai/eo aac?a, oei?a iaieethaaieo iaoa??ae?a aeey iaea?aeaiiy
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a. A?aenooi?noue cacia/aieo eiiieaenieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae aeaieo i?i aea?? neeaaeo aii?o?ciaaieo
iie?eoo?a c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae oaoiieia?? AOI, aieeao ai?noo AO ia
neoaeaia? aeanoeaino? aecia/eea iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iaoa??ae?a, iaoiae?a iaieeaiiy ? oaoiieia?/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy, ?icaeyioo?
iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ? aeanoeainoae iaianaieo iie?eoo?a.

Aeey AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a canoiniaoaaee ii?ioee, ii?ioeia? ae?ioe
? aio/e? oio?e, neeaae yeeo a?aeiia?aea? aaoaeoe/iei nenoaiai oeio (Fe,
Ni, Co) — Me-(B, Si, C, P) (Me — eaaoth/ee iaoae), a oaeiae a?ia?iei
nieaaai oeio Ni-Ti, Ni-Nb, Ni-Zr.

Aeey aaciiieoiaiaaiai iaieeaiiy canoiniaoaaee onoaiiaee
“Cyber-jet”,O?aioe?y, OAIO-I, ?O (i?iiai-aooai+eenaiue), JK 23 (Aano??y)
(i?iiai-aooai+eenaiue+aiaeaiue), a oaeiae OIO?-78, ?A
(aoeaoeeai+eenaiue). Ieaciia? iie?eooy iaiineee ca aeiiiiiaith onoaiiaie
OIO-3Ae, OIO-8I, ?O, III-11 (Ar, Ar+N2, Ar+H2), “Ee?a-7”
(iia?o?y+i?iiai-aooai), “Ee?a-N”, Oe?a?ia (iia?o?y+iaoai).
Aeaeo?iaeoaiaa iaieeaiiy cae?enithaaee c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaea?i?ciaaiiai
iaoae?caoi?a AI-14I, ?O (iia?o?y), iaaecaoeiaiai iaoae?caoi?a ?A IAIO
(iia?o?y+i?iiai-aooai). Aeaoiiaoe?ei? iie?eooy iaiineee ia AAeE
“I?iiaoae” (aoeaoeeai+eenaiue) ? onoaiiaoe? “Ia?oi-N”, Oe?a?ia
(i?iiai-aooai+eenaiue). Aeey ?iioeuenii-ieaciiaiai iaieeaiiy
aeei?enoiaoaaee onoaiiaeo “?iioeuen”, ?ic?iaeaio a ?NI IAIO (Ar, Ar+H2).

?aioaaiino?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia aeeo?aeoiiao?ao
Ae?II-2.0 ? Ae?II-3.0 o Fe(, Co K(, Cu K( — aei?ii?ithaaii?. Ia’?iiee
ai?no AO o ?ac? aii?oii-e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e iie?eoo?a aecia/aee ca
iaoiaeeeith A.E. Aaiooaeia, ui a?oiooaoueny ia ?icae?eaii?
aeeo?aeoe?eieo a?aeia?aaeaiue a?ae aii?oii? ? e?enoae?/ii? oac ?
ni?anoaaeaii? ieiu i?ae e?eaeie ?oiueiai ?aioaai?anueeiai ?icn?thaaiiy.
Iaoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?eoo?a i?iaiaeeee ia iioe/ieo
i?e?ineiiao I?I-8, Iaioio-23, a oaeiae ia aeaeo?iiieo i?e?ineiiao
?AI-200, AIA-100AE, AI-200. Ia?iaeo aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo
cia?aaeaiue i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo iioe/iiai eiaa?aioiiai
Oo?`?-aiae?co.

Oiieo no?oeoo?o AO aea/aee ?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiei iaoiaeii ca aeiiiiiaith
niaeo?iiao?a Ae?N-2I ? niaeo?iae?iniiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ia
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e onoaiiaoe? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea.
No?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy a iie?eooyo i?ae /an iaa??ao aea/aee a
?aioaai?anuee?e eaia?? A?iue? oeio FR-503G, ia eaei?eiao?ao “Naoa?ai”,
AAeOO-8.

Caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy I ?iaeo a aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eooyo aecia/aee ca
ci?iith i?iaeio c?acea i?e iioa?iaiio co?aaeaii? iiaa?oiaaiai i?ioa?eo
aeaeo?io?i?/iei iaoiaeii ia onoaiiaeao I?-1 ? ?II. Ioe?ieo iai?oaeaiue I
I ?iaeo i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith, ui aaco?oueny ia aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a
ia?iaee Oo?’?-niaeo??a aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ieo cia?aaeaiue.

Oaa?ae?noue aei??thaaee ia i?eeaae? IIO-3 i?e iaaaioaaeaiiyo 20-50 a ?
200-300a, o oiio /ene? i?e iaia?a?aiiio iaa??a? a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
300-1200E. I?oei?noue c/aieaiiy iie?eoo?a c iniiaith aecia/aee ca
iaoiaeeeith “eii?/iiai ooeooa”. Aei?iaoaaiiy ia aoiieeao i?oei?noue
i?iaiaeeee i?e aeaei? c iaa?oaiiyi ia onoaiiaoe? o??ie “Oaie” oeio ??I.
O?eaioaoi?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a i?iaiaeeee a oiiaao c
iaiaaeaiei ciauaiiyi ? aac ciauaiiy ca noaiaie “aeene ?c iie?eooyi —
eieiaeea (/aaoi N*-20, noaeue 40O, i?aeii-acaanoiaee nieaa, noaeue 45)”,
“oeee?iae? (/aaoi N*IIAe) — e?eueoea (iie?eooy)”, “ieiueia (No 20 —
i?ney oeaiaioaoe??, a?iica, N*-20) — iie?eooy”.

Aei?iaoaaiiy ia aa?aceaia ciiooaaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia iaaei?noei oa
aei?noei cae??ieai? /anoee aa?aceao ii noaiao “iie?eooy — aoiiaee
?ieee”, “iie?eooy — aa?aceaiee iai?? SiC”. Ciinino?ee?noue a oiiaao
aaciaa?aceaiiai ciino aecia/aee ia a?aeoeaio?iaiio i?enei?thaa/? OeOE-3I
?c iiaea/ath SiO2, aei?iaoaaiiy ia eaa?oaoe?th i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii
iaai?oino?eeoe?eii? a?a?aoe??.

Aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? iie?eoo?a aecia/aee ia iiaea?i?ciaai?e onoaiiaoe?
?IAO-5N-69. Iaai?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee aei??thaaee ia aae?noe/iiio ?
a?a?aoe?eiiio iaai?oiiao?ao, a oaeiae ca aeiiiiiaith iaai?oiiioe/iiai
a?noa??ia?aoa, o yeiio aeei?enoiao?oueny ia?eae?iiaeueiee aoaeo Ea??a.

Ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue iie?eoo?a aecia/aee aaaiaei ? iioaioe?inoaoe/iei
iaoiaeaie ca aeiiiiiaith iioaioe?inoao?a PARC iiaeae? 73 ? I-5827I.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aea/aii caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a aeaoi?iaoe?? ?
oaieiia?aiino i?e oaa?ae?ii? iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo ia iniia? ?c
a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae iaea?aeaiiy aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a c aii?oiith
no?oeoo?ith.

I?iaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, o ?acoeueoao? /iai
aeae?eaii oae? i?aeoiaee aei aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiaeo yaeu i?e
ioieiaeaeaii? iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo ia iniia? a oiiaao AOI: aiae?c
aca?iiae?? iaeeii/ii? ?icieaaeaii? /anoee c oaa?aeith iiaa?oiath;
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiaiai noaio nenoaie “iie?eooy (ui neeaaea?oueny c
noeoiiino? /anoie) — iniiaa”” ? eiia?iiaaiee i?aeo?ae, o yeiio ni?eueii
?icaeyaeathoueny eieaeuei? e ?ioaa?aeuei? aoaeoe aca?iiae?? /anoie c
iniiaith.

?ic?aooiie cia/aiue o?eaaeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaieethaaii? /anoee ia
iniia? ((ae) iieaco?, ui iniiaiei oaeoi?ii, ui aecia/a? aeacaio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo, ? ?? oaeaee?noue (Wp) oa ae?aiao? (dp). Cia/aiiy (ae
aeey aaee/ei Wp=50-500 i/n ? dp=20-150 iei ciaoiaeyoueny a ?ioa?aae?
10-5-10-7n, ui ia iaeei aeaa ii?yaeea ieae/a /ano ?oiueiai caoaa?ae?iiy.

sseui i?eionoeoe, ui iaieeai? /anoeiee i?ney ?ico?eaiiy ia iniia?
iaaoaathoue oi?io aeenea, oi ia iniia? i?aeoiaeo Iaaeaene? iiaeia
cai?iiiioaaoe oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy oiaueie iaieeaii? aeaoi?iiaaii?
/anoee ((?) o caeaaeiino? a?ae ?? oaeaeeino?, ae?aiao?a, aonoeie ((?) ?
a’yceino? ((?):

. (1)

30-40 iei neeaaeathoue o na?aaeiueiio 2-12 ? 0,5-3 iei, a?aeiia?aeii.

Aiae?c i?e?ino?oeoo?e iaieeaieo /anoie nieaa?a, oeio Fe-B, Ni-B, Co-B,
noeeueieo aei aii?o?caoe??, iieaco?, ui iniiaiei ?oi?i aeaiaioii ?
aeene. Aeae?eaii o?e iniiai? oeie aeaoi?ioaaiiy /anoie: aeene; aeene ?c
ioi/oth/ei eiai e?eueoeai, aeene ?c ?aae?aeueieie “aeieaneaie”.

C aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeae? A. Aaeauaiei aeey ioe?iee ?iia??iino? aca?iiae??
/anoie ia iniia? o ??aee?e oac? (?ae) cai?iiiiiaaii oaeee ae?ac:

, (2)

aea: ( — eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo (EAI); Gi —
i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaieeaiiy; (a – o?eaae?noue ia?aaoaaiiy /anoee a
??aee?e oac?; A — ?ici?? ieyie iaieeaiiy; Vae — oaeaee?noue ?ooo
caieeaiiai no?oiaiy a?aeiinii iaieethaaii? iiaa?oi?.

?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui aeey iaia?a?aieo iaoiae?a AOI
(ieaciiai-aeoaiaiai, aaciiieoiaiaaiai, aeaeo?iaeoaiaiai), i?e
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao?ao , ye? ?aaeueii canoiniaothoueny ia i?aeoeoe?,
iiaeeea?noue aca?iiae?? /anoie o ??aee?e oac? cae/aeii ia ia?aaeuo?
10-2-10-3 . I?ioa ca iaeii/aniiai ciaioaiiy ?ici??o A (iaioa ye 10 ii) ?
i?aeaeuaiiy Gi (aeua 50 ea/aiae) cia/aiiy ?ae ia?aaeuothoue 0,1. I?e
?iioeuenieo iaoiaeao iaieeaiiy (aeaoiiaoe?eiiio, ?iioeuenii-ieaciiaiio)
i?ioa?ie, ooai?aiee ca iaeei ?iioeuen, iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iiiioa? aac
?icaeyaeo noeoiiino? ooai?thth/eo eiai /anoeiie.

Ia iniia? ia?oiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiaeo yaeu,
anoaiiaeaiiiai aeua, i?iaiae?ciaaii i?ioeane oaieiia?aiino a iaieeai?e
/anooe? ia noaae?? ae?? ?iioeueniiai oeneo ((<10-9 n). O oeueiio ?ac? a?aoiaoaaee iaiaaeai?noue oaeaeeino? iioe?aiiy oaieioe oa ?io? oaeoi?e, a oiio /ene? iae?i?ei?noue, yea iaoiiaeaia caeaaei?noth /ano ?aeaenaoe?? (? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e. Iae?i?eia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano oaieii?ia?aeiino? a nenoai? “/anoea-iniiaa” ca aeaieo oiia ia? aeaeyae: (0 SYMBOL 60 \f "Symbol" \s 14 < x SYMBOL 60 \f "Symbol" \s 14 < (1) (3) ((1(x((( , ((=(1+(2), (4) (5) (6) aea O - oaiia?aoo?a; ( - oiaueia; nv - ieoiia ia'?iia oaiei?ii?noue; ( -eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino?; q - aonoeia oaieiaiai iioieo; ?iaeaene "1" ? "2" a?aeiinyoue aaee/eie a?aeiia?aeii aei /anoee e iniiae. O ?acoeueoao? ia/enethaaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a anoaiiaeaii, ui ??cieoey oaiia?aoo? (Oe o ii/aoeiaee iiiaio /ano (i?e ((0) ? ii cae?i/aii? ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a iiaea aooe aeineoue ?noioiith, ui ? iiceoeaiei iiiaioii c iiaeyaeo aii?o?caoe?? iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo. Oae, i?ae /an iaieeaiiy cae?ca ia cae?cio iniiao cia/aiiy (Oe aei??aith? a?eueo ye 400E, ia i?aeio - a?eueo ye 800E, aeey nenoaie “iaieeaia /anoea Nb - iniiaa Cu” noaiiaeoue 1040E. Anoaiiaeaii, ui c iiaeyaeo aaee/eie ?aeaenaoe?eiiai aoaeoo oa aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo aeey cae?cii?, aethi?i??ai? ? i?aeii? iniiae iaea?eueo iioeiaeueieie ? iaieethaai? nieaae ia iniia? Fe, Ni, Co, Nb. O ?ac? iaieeaiiy Al, Zn, Cu, Ag aaee/eia (Oe ciaioo?oueny a 3-10 ?ac?a. Aiae?c i?ioean?a oaieiia?aiino i?e ioieiaeaeaii? iaieeaii? /anoeiee a ia??iae ae?? iai??iiai oeneo (10-7-10-4 n) cae?enithaaany ia aac? oaei? iae?i?eii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?: i=1, 2, (0(x((( , 0((((k) (7) (((1/ (x - ((1/(1)(x=0 = - ((c/(1 , (((2/(x + ((2/(2)(x=( = ((c/(2 , (8) , (i((=0 = (ii ; i = 1,2 , (9) aea: o - a?aenoaiue o iai?yieo a?ae a?eueii? iiaa?oi? /anoee aei iniiae; On - oaiia?aoo?a na?aaeiaeua; Oi - ii/aoeiaa oaiia?aoo?a; ( - eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae na?aaeiaeua aei nenoaie “iie?eooy - iniiaa”. C ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a aeieeaa?, ui i?e oaa?ae?ii? iaeeie/iiai o?aaiaioa iie?eooy (iaieeaii? /anoee) ia noaae?? ae?? iai??iiai oeneo iathoue i?noea o?e oa?aeoa?ieo aoaie i?ioeano oaieiia?aiino, ui a?ae??ciythoueny niaoeeo?eith oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio ioieiaeaeaiiy iaieeaii? /anoee. Ia ia?oiio aoai? a iaieeai?e /anooe? niinoa??aa?oueny iacao?aia ciia, o iaaeao yei? oaiia?aoo?a c caaeaiith oi/i?noth ca?aa?oueny c ii/aoeiaith oaiia?aoo?ith. Ia ae?oaiio aoai? ia? i?noea cia/ia ia??aiii??i?noue oaiia?aoo?e ii oiauei? iaeeie/iiai o?aaiaioo iie?eooy. I?ioean oaieiia?aiino ia o?aoueiio aoai? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?aenooi?noth ?noioieo ia?aiaae?a oaiia?aoo?e ii oiauei? iaieeaii? /anoee, oiaoi c iaaiei iaaeeaeaiiyi iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aiia a oeueiio ?ac? ioieiaeaeo?oueny ye oa?i?/ii oiiea o?ei. Oae? ia?aiao?e, ye oiaueia aeaoi?iiaaii? /anoeiee, ii/aoeiaa oaiia?aoo?a, oaieio?ce/i? aeanoeaino? iniiae aieeaathoue ia o?eaae?noue cacia/aieo aoai?a i?ioeano ioieiaeaeaiiy. Oae, o ?ac? ioieiaeaeaiiy iaieeaieo ia i?aeio iniiao /anoie nieaao Fe83B17 a?ae 1900E aei 600E o?eaae?noue o?aoueiai aoaio noaiiaeoue 1,25(10-4; 8,2(10-5; 9,2(10-7 n aeey ((? =40, 10 ? 1 iei, a?aeiia?aeii. Ca oiia, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny a?ae??ciythoueny, oaeiae o?eaaeino? ia?oiai (8,2(10-6; 5,3(10-7; 5,4(10-9 n) ? ae?oaiai (9,0(10-4; 5,5(10-5; 5,6(10-7 n) aoai?a i?ioeano. Aaaeeeai iaaieineoe, ui ia o?aoueiio aoai? oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy /anoeiie oiaueiith 1-40 iei ia noaeaa?e iniia? noaiiaeoue a?eueoa i?ae 106 E/n. Aeey iecee nieaa?a oea ia?aaeuo? e?eoe/i? oaeaeeino? aii?o?caoe??. I?e iaea?aeaii? iie?eoo?a c aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith aaaeeeaei ? caaacia/aiiy ?oiuei? no?oeoo?ii? iaeii??aeiino? a ??cieo iai?yieao ii ieyi? iaieeaiiy, ui aecia/a?oueny ia'?iiei ?iciiae?eii oaiia?aoo?e. C oe??th iaoith ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, ui iieno? o?eaei??iee, iae?i?eiee eaac?noaoe?iia?iee i?ioean oaieiia?aiino a oa?oaaoi-iaiaeii??aei?e nenoai? “aaaaoioa?iaa iie?eooy - i?aeoa?ie - iniiaa”. A ?ooeea?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao, iia'ycai?e c aeaea?aeii aia?a??, aeacaia iiaeaeue ia? aeaeyae: ; (10) (11) (12) i=2 i?e n = 0; i = 3 i?e n = 1, 2, ... , N, , (13) a?aeiinyoueny, a?aeiia?aeii, aei iniiae, i?aeoa?o ? iie?eooy. I?eaaaeaia iiaeaeue iieno? ?ioaa?aeuei? oaieia? aoaeoe i?e oi?ioaaii? iie?eooy ?c noeoiiino? iaieethaaieo /anoeiie. Ia i?eeeaae? ?ic?aooie?a, aeeiiaieo aeey aeiaaeeo ieaciiai-aeoaiaiai iaieeaiiy nieaao Fe83B17 (ieaciiooai?thth/? aace “a?aii+acio” ? “iia?o?y+i?iiai-aooai”) anoaiiaeaia iayai?noue ?noioieo a?aae??io?a oaiia?aoo?e ii oiauei? iie?eooy, a oaeiae o ??cieo iai?yieao ii ?ici??o ieyie iaieeaiiy. A?aei?iiino? a cia/aiiyo oeeo oaiia?aoo? ((Tnk) aeinyaathoue 39 E a aeiaaeeo iie?eooy oiaueiith 200 iei (iaieeaiiy ca 4 i?ioiaee) ? 73 E aeey iie?eooy c ainueie oa??a. I?noea ciaoiaeaeaiiy iaeneioio oaiia?aoo?e ia a?aeiia?aea? iieiaeaiith in? ieaciio?iia - niinoa??aa?oueny aeayeee eiai cnoa (5-6 ii) o iai?yieo i?ioeeaaeiiio ?ooo ieaciio?iia. Oeueiio cnoao a?aeiia?aea? ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo? 5-15 E ocaeiaae o?a?eoi??? ?ooo ieaciio?iia. A?eueo cia/ia ia??aiii??i?noue oaiia?aoo?ii? ooieoe?? ii ieyi? iaieeaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny o aeiaaeeo ieaciiooai?thth/iai aaco “a?aii+acio”, oi/a ??aaiue iaa??ao iie?eooy e iniiae i?e ieaciiooai?thth/eo noi?oao ia iniia? iia?o?y aeuee a 1,1-1,5 ?ace. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiia?aaei?e i?ae?a??a iniiae aeua 423 E iaaeioe?eueiee c iiaeyaeo caa??aaiiy aii?oii? no?oeoo?e. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo oaiia?aoo?a a ciiao iie?eooy, ?icoaoiaaieo o oeaio?? ieyie iaieeaiiy, aeinyaa?, a ?iiae? ? ia?aaeuo? oaiia?aoo?o e?enoae?caoe?? AO aeey nieaaa Fe83B17. (o, (+(() ?c iiaiiaieeaii? /anoeieith: (o,(+((), (15) aea: (( = ((A2(i+1(?()/(4Gi) - ?ioa?aae /ano i?ae aeo/aiiyi iaieeaieo /anoeiie iaeia ia ?ioo, (i+1 - oiaueia iiaiiaieeaii? /anoeiee. ?c aeei?enoaiiyi aiae?oe/iiai ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? Oo?'? cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeey ?iaeaia?iiai ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo? iaieeaieo /anoie c a?aooaaiiyi ?o ia?iuoaaiiy (15), yea aeicaiey? aea/eoe oaieia? oiiae aii?o?caoe?? a eiaei?e oi/oe? iie?eooy o aoaeue-yeee iiiaio /ano caeaaeii a?ae ??ciiiai?oieo oaoiieia?/ieo oiia AOI: oaiia?aoo?e ? iaoa??aeo iniiae, oiaueie ? ii?enoino? iie?eooy, aeo?aeiiai ae?aiao?o, oaiia?aoo?e ? nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? /anoie, a oaeiae i?iaeoeoeaiino? (Gi) ? ae?aiao?a ieyie iaieeaiiy (A). Ia i?eeeaae? AOI nieaao Fe83B17 iieacaii, ui c ia?iuoaaiiyi oiaueie iie?eooy a?ae 0 aei 2,5 ii ia i?aei?e iniia? oaeaee?noue ioieiaeaeaiiy iaieeaieo /anoie (Vio) i?e (? = 10 iei cieaeo?oueny a?ae 1,1(106 aei 6,2(105 E/n. I?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e iaa??ao iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo aeua oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy c 1500 aei 2400 E, cia/aiiy Vio c?inoathoue o 1,6 ?aca, a ??no oaiia?aoo?e iniiae aei 500 E i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy Vio o 1,15 ?aca. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a oa?i?/ieo oeeee?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui i?e ?aaeueieo i?iaeoeoeaiinoyo aeey AOI iaieeai? /anoee oiaueiith 10 iei oaa?ae?thoue ?cieueiaaii ? ioieiaeaeothoueny aei oaiia?aoo?e iniiae ?ai?oa aeo/aiiy ia ieo iiaeo ?icieaaeaieo /anoie (?en. 1). C i?aeaeuaiiyi ii/aoeiai? oaiia?aoo?e iaieethaaieo /anoie Oi ?inoa aenioa i?e?a oeeee?/ieo i?aeeii?a oaiia?aoo? - (O. Oae, iai?eeeaae, i?e Oi = 1500 E cia/aiiy (O aeey /anoee oiaueiith 10 iei ?c nieaao Fe83B17, neeaaea? 190 E, a i?e Oi= 2400 E - 530 E. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oae? ia?aiao?e, ye iaoa??ae iaoaeaai? iniiae, ii?eno?noue iie?eooy iaio ?noioii aieeaathoue ia oa?aeoa? oa?i?/ieo oeeee?a o iaieeaieo /anoeao, i?ae i?iaeoeoeai?noue AOI, oaiia?aoo?a ? oiaueia iiaeo /anoie, iaianaieo ia ?ai?oa iaieeai? oa?e. a a ?en. 1. Oa?i?/i? oeeeee a ia?oiio oa?? iaieeaieo /anoie nieaao Fe83B17 oiaueiith 10 iei ia noaeaa?e iniia? i?e i?iaeoeoeaiino? AOI Gi=3,6 ea/aiae (a) oa Gi =20 ea/aiae (a). Oi = 1500 (1); 2100 (2); 2400 (3); 1900 E (4); On = 300 E. *aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo iniia aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a. _ max). > 420-530 E cia/aiiy ZAO cieaeothoueny uiiaeiaioa a 1,3-1,5 ?ace, a i?e
iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? ??aiy iaa??ao iniiae iie?eooy ?c iecee nieaa?a
(ia iniia? Fe-B, Ni-B oa ?ioeo) iaaoaathoue iiai?noth e?enoae?/io
no?oeoo?o. Ieoiia i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaieeaiiy aecia/a? iiaeeea?noue
aca?iiae?? /anoie ia iniia? o ??aee?e oac? ?ae. I?e gi > 0,3 ea/.aiae
.ii oa g?ii>2 .10—5 ea/?ii cia/aiiy ?ae ia?aaeuo? 0,01. Ioaea, a
oeueiio aeiaaeeo ??cei c?inoa? oiaueia oaa?ae?th/iai oa?o, ui aeeeeea?
iiieaeaiiy ZAO. C ?inoii ia?aa??ao iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo aeua Om ai?no
AO o iaieeaiiio iie?eoo? ciaioo?oueny ? i?e O > 1,7 Om cia/aiiy ZAO
cieaeothoueny ia 10% ? a?eueoa. Ia?aaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaa??ao aeua
oaiia?aoo?e noae?iaoe?? Onoa ni?e/eith? ci?ie a o?i?/iiio neeaae?
iaieethaaiiai nieaao. Iaianaiiy iie?eooy ia iniiao c iaeneiaeueiith
oaieii?ia?aei?noth oaeiae ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith ZAO, iaeiae, a ca’yceo
c oei, ui a i?ioean? ia?iuoaaiiy iie?eooy oaieiia?aaea/a cae?enith?oueny
/a?ac ?ai?o iaieeai? oa?e, ?ieue iniiae ?noioii cieaeo?oueny. ?ic?aooiee
iieacothoue, ui a i??o i?aeaeuaiiy oiaueie iie?eooy a?ae 0 aei 1-1,5 ii
ZAO aeey a?eueoino? nieaa?a ia iniia? Fe-B cieaeo?oueny ia 5-10 %.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aeey ?aae?caoe?? cacia/aieo oaeoi??a
aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a i?e AOI cai?iiiiiaai? oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie, ui
iaaaaeai? ? aeine?aeaeothoueny ieae/a.

C a?aooaaiiyi aeiiae aeinyaiaiiy iiaiiai ?icieaaeaiiy iaieethaaiiai
iaoa??aeo a iiiaio c?oeiaiiy c iniiaith aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio
iaaeoaeaeeiai ioieiaeaeaiiy c ?icieaao iaiao?aeia oiiaa aii?o?caoe?? i?e
AOI i?eeia? aeaeyae:

, (16)

aea Oi — ii/aoeiaa oaiia?aoo?a iaoa??aeo ia?aae eiai aaaaeaiiyi a
aenieioaiia?aoo?iee no?oi?iue; (OIAA? — i?e??no oaiia?aoo?e /anoee i?ney
i?ioiaeaeaiiy /a?ac ciio iaa??aaiiy; (OIA? — cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
/anoee i?e ?? ia?aiin? a?ae ciie iaa??aaiiy aei iniiae; (OOAe — i?e??no
oaiia?aoo?e /anoee i?e ?? oaea?? ia iniiao.

?en.2. Oaieia? ?aaeeie a iaieeai?e /anooe? oiaueiith 10 iei (1,1?,2) oa
OOO ae?aa?aie (ZAO = 99%) nieaa?a Fe69FeW11C20 (3), Fe85B15 (4), Fe75B25
(5) Fe80B20, Fe80P14C6 (6), a oaeiae ?c nieaao Fe80B20 c aeii?oeith
eenith 1 ian.% (6():

1 — oaa?ae?iiy /anoee ia iie?eoo? oiaueiith 0,5ii; 2 — iaa??a
caoaa?ae?ei? /anoee iiaith ?icieaaeaiith /anoeith; Oini= 300 E.

Aea?? iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a aeeth/a?
aecia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a, ye? caaacia/othoue aeeiiaiiy oiiae
(16), a oaeiae oeo ?aaeei?a ? oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a, ui ?aae?cothoue
aeacai? aeua oaeoi?e aii?o?caoe??. Aeey aeeiiaiiy oiiae (16), ii?yae ?c
iaoaiaoe/iei iiaeaethaaiiyi ?ooo ? iaa??ao iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo o
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio no?oiai? (ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iniiai?
aia?aaoe/i? ia?aiao?e, eii?aeeiaoe aaaaeaiiy iaoa??aeo oiui),
iioei?caoe?th cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaiaeeoe ca iciaeith “eiao?oe??io
aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeo (EAI) = max”. Cacia/aiee eiao?oe??io yaey? niaith
a?aeiioaiiy iane iie?eooy aei iane iaoa??aeo, aeei?enoaiiai aeey
iaieeaiiy. A?aeiii, ui iciaea “EAI = max” ia?aaeaa/a? iaeneiaeueio
e?euee?noue ?icieaaeaieo /anoie a iiiaio eiioaeoo c iniiaith, iaeiaioa
?oi? ieeneaiiy, noae?iaoe?th ? o. i. Ioaea, eiai canoinoaaiiy
aei?aaaeaia aeey aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii anoaiiaeaiith
?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a AOI ?c iiaeyaeo aeeiiaiiy oiiae (16). EAI
aecia/athoue ia iniia? ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co eiai caeaaeiino? a?ae
iniiaieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a AOI.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?eioeei iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a AOI ca iciaeith “EAI =
max” caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueiee ia’?iiee ai?no aii?oii? oace a iie?eoo?
ZAO . Oae, iai?eeeaae, i?e ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio iaieeaii? (Ar+H2) aeey
?aaeei?a, ui caaacia/othoue EAI 44 ? 92 %, cia/aiiy ZAO noaiiaeyoue 50 ?
70 % a?aeiia?aeii. O ?ac? aeei?enoaiiy ieaciiooai?thth/i? noi?o?
(iia?o?y+i?iiai-aooai) i?e EAI = 55, 75, 91 % aaee/eia ZAO neeaaea? 40,
55, 65 % a?aeiia?aeii.

a?ae 4,38 aei 6 ni?e/eith? cieaeaiiy ai?noo AO ?c 95 aei 70 %.
Aeyaeaii aeno?aiaeuei? caeaaeiino? aieeao oeneo noiooiiai iia?o?yiiai
iioieo ?a iaaeiei no?oiaiy ? oaeaeeino? iiaea/? Vi IAe (AO) ia ia?aiao?
ZAO. I?e ?a ( 0,35 IIa cia/aiiy ZAO ciaioothoueny, ui iiynith?oueny
cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e no?oiaiy ? ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee caoaa?ae?eeo
/anoie o iie?eoo?. Iioeiaeuei? Vi aecia/athoueny iaiao?aei?noth iiaiiai
?icieaaeaiiy iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo. I?e aeei?enoaii? ii?ioe?a
aiaeia?/iiai neeaaeo i?e aaciiieoiaiaaiio iaieeaii? ii??aiyii c IAe ? AO
niinoa??aathoueny a?eueo iecuee? cia/aiiy ZAO aeey iaieeaieo iie?eoo?a,
ui iiynith?oueny a?eueoith ?iia??i?noth iaiiaiiai ?icieaaeaiiy /anoie
ii?ioeo.

I?aaii??i?noue i?eioeeio iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ii iciaoe? “EAI (max) >
ZAO (max)” i?aeoaa?aeaeaii oaeiae i?e aeaeo?iaeoaiaiio iaieeaii? IAe ia
iniia? Fe-B. C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy cia/aiiy ZAO a iie?eooyo ?ic?iaeaia
iiaa eiino?oeoe?y aocea ?icieeaiiy aeaeo?iiaoae?caoi?a, ui aeeth/a?
i?io?eueiaai? niiea c ?aaoeueiaaiei caci?ii. Oea aeicaiey? iioei?coaaoe
aeo?aoo noiooiiai iia?o?yiiai iioieo, aeinyaoe iiaeiaaeaiiy
aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? ciie, ciaioeoe eoo ?ice?eooy no?oiaiy ?
i?aei?ooaaiiy iia?o?y c aoiinoa?e, i?aeaeueoe oaeaee?noue iaieethaaiiai
iaoa??aeo a 1,5-2 ?ace ? a?eueoa. O ?acoeueoao? canoinoaaiiy oaei?
niieiai? nenoaie ii??aiyii ?c na??eiei iaoae?caoi?ii oeio AI-14I
aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ZAO o iie?eooyo ?c IAe (Fe-B, Fe-Cr-B, Fe-Cr-B-C)
a?ae 0 aei 35 %.

Iieacaii aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy iaaecaoeiaeo no?oiai?a i?e AOI ?c
iiaeyaeo aii?o?caoe?? iie?eooy. Ia?ao?ae aei iaaecaoeiaiai ?aaeeio i?e
aaciiieoiaiaaiio, ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio ? aeaeo?iaeoaiaiio iaieeaii?
aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe cia/aiiy ZAO ?c 40 aei 100 %, ?c 75 aei 95 % ? c 0
aei 50 %, a?aeiia?aeii (?en. 3). Iaoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieacothoue, ui a oeeo aeiaaeeao ia? i?noea a?eueo i?ae aeai?aciaa
ca?eueoaiiy nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? iaieeaieo /anoie. Oae, iai?eeeaae, o
aeiaaeeo ieaciiai-aeoaiaiai iaieeaiiy ii?ioeo Fe-Cr-Mo-Ni-B i?e
aeicaoeiaiio ?aaeei? (onoaiiaea “Ee?a-7”) cia/aiiy ae? ciaoiaeyoueny a
?ioa?aae? 4-15 iei, a i?e iaaecaoeiaiio (onoaiiaea “Ee?a-N”) noaiiaeyoue
1-7 iei. I?e oeueiio niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea (o 1,4-4,6 ?aca) cieaeaiiy
nooiaiy ieeneaiiy iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo (? , a oaeiae ii?enoino?
iie?eooy (?en. 3).

?en. 3. O?aaiaioe ?aioaaiia?ai iie?eoo?a, iaianaieo i?e aeicaoeiaeo (1)
? iaaecaoeiaeo (2) oaeaeeinoyo aeo?eaiiy no?oiaith: a — aaciiieoiaiaaa
iaieeaiiy ii?ioeo Ni-Fe-Cr-B-Si-C; a — aeaeo?iaeoaiaa iaieeaiiy
ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo Fe-Cr-B; a — iia?o?yii-aaciaa ieaciiai-aeoaiaa
iaieeaiiy ii?ioeo Fe-Cr-Mo-B (Fek ).

Aea/aii aieea i?eioniaiai ioieiaeaeaiiy iniiae ? iie?eoo?a ia cia/aiiy
ZAO. Nenoaia ioieiaeaeaiiy aeeth/a? niiea aeey ?icieeaiiy oieiaeiaaaioo
(iia?o?y, aoaeaeeneioa, acio, a?aii, aiaea) ia iniiao ? ciio iaieeaiiy ?
niiea aeey a?aeoeeaiiy aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai iioieo a?ae iaieethaaii?
iiaa?oi?. ?ic?iaeaii niiei ia aac? “aeo?iai? o?oaee”, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeiai aeinyaa?oueny cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?yiiai no?oiaiy aei
260-268 E. C aeei?enoaiiyi aeaiiai niiea aeinyaiooa 100 % ai?no AO o
iie?eooyo ?c nieaa?a Fe40Ni40B20 i?e ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio iaieeaii?
(OIO-3Ae). Neeaae aaciiiae?aiiai na?aaeiaeua ?noioii ia aieeaa? ia ZAO.
Aiaeii/an a?eueo aoaeoeaiei ? aeei?enoaiiy NI2 ii??aiyii c iia?o?yi.
?icieeaiiy aiaee a ciio iaieeaiiy ?noioii cieaeo? oaiia?aoo?o iniiae,
i?ioa i?e oeueiio niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy cia/aiue ZAO o na?aaeiueiio
ia 15 %. Oea iiynith?oueny o?i?/iith aca?iiae??th ? e?enoae?caoe??th
aeayei? /anoeie iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo i?e eiioaeo? c aiaeith.

A?aeoeeaiiy aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai iioieo aaciaeie no?oiaiyie ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith ZAO o na?aaeiueiio ia 10-15 %. I?e oeueiio ia aeaiee
ia?aiao? aieeaa? eii?aeeiaoa a?aeoeeyth/iai no?oiaiy ? aeo?aoa aaco Gg.
Caeaaei?noue ZAO = f(Gg) ia? aeno?aiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, ui iiynith?oueny
ioieiaeaeaiiyi no?oiaiy ? caoaa?ae?iiyi o iueiio iaaiiai a?aenioeo
iaieethaaieo /anoie i?e aaeeeeo cia/aiiyo Gg.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy caoenii? aoiinoa?e i?ae /an AOI
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a aeioe?eueia i?e aeei?enoaii? nieaa?a, ui
i?noyoue aeaiaioe c i?aeaeuaiith nii??aeiai?noth c eeniai (Ni-Ti, Ni-Nb,
Cu-Zr, Fe-Ti-B-C). Iai?eeeaae, i?e ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio iaieeaii? a
eaia??, caiiaiai?e a?aiiii, ii??aiyii c oaeei o a?aee?eo?e aoiinoa??
cia/aiiy ZAO o iie?eooyo ?c nieaa?a Ni50Ti50 ? Fe71Cr10P12C7
i?aeaeuothoueny a?ae 50 aei 87 % ? a?ae 80 aei 98 %, a?aeiia?aeii. Aoaeo
aieeao caoenii? aoiinoa?e i?e ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio iaieeaii? nieaao
Fe40Ni40B20 (ieaciiooai?thth/ee aac — a?aii) ia aeyaey?oueny.

Iieacaii aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy caoenieo ianaaeie i?e AOI aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo AO o iie?eooyo ?c aeine?aeaeoaaieo nieaa?a. Ianaaeee
i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith i?enoinoaaiiy, ui caaacia/othoue eieaeueiee
caoeno ciie iaieeaiiy a?ae iaaeieeoiueiai iia?o?y, ?aaoethaaiiy neeaaeo
na?aaeiaeua ? aeiaeaoeiaa ioieiaeaeaiiy iniiae. I?e aeai?? ? ?ic?iaoe?
iiaeo oei?a ianaaeie aeey aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a aeeiioaaeany oiiaa
noai?aiiy ciie iaaeeeoeiaiai oeneo i?ae oi?oeai ianaaeee ? iaieethaaiith
iiaa?oiath (?en. 4).

Canoinoaaiiy ianaaeee, ui aeei?enoiao? i?eioeei a?aeai?o aac?a ?c
aioo??oiuei? ii?iaeieie (?en. 4, a) ni?ey?, aeey cacia/aieo oiia,
i?aeaeuaiith ZAO c 72 aei 98 %, a aiaeia?/ii? ianaaeee, o ye?e
cae?enith?oueny ioieiaeaeaiiy a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aac?a ? ?o iiaea/a ia
oi?aoeue (?en. 4, a), i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy ia?aiao?a ZAO c 72
aei 100 % ii??aiyii c aeiaaeeii ieaciiai-aeoaiaiai iaieeaiiy aac
ianaaeee. I?e oeueiio ai?no eenith a oeeo iie?eooyo ia iaaaaaoi (10-20
%) aeua a ii??aiyii? c aeo?aeiei ii?ioeii.

I?e aei??thaaii? oaiia?aoo?e iaieethaaieo /anoie ? iniiae anoaiiaeaii,
ui canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? i?io?eueiaaii? ianaaeee c aeiaeaoeiaei
ia?eoa??eiei iioieii (?en. 4, a) na?ae/aoue i?i ca?eueoaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
iaa??ao iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo oa iiieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? iaa??ao
iniiae ii??aiyii c aeiaaeeii aac ianaaeee.

?en. 4. I?eioeeiia? noaie caoenieo ianaaeie: 1 — ieaciio?ii; 2 —
iniiaa; 3 — ei?ion ianaaeee; 4 — i?eno?ieiaee aaciaee oa?; 5 —
oieiaeeeueiee; 6 — ooooea? i?aeaaaeaiiy ioieiaeaeaieo aac?a; 7 —
aeiaeaoeiaee (noiooiee) aaciaee iio?e.

Aia?oa iieacaia iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy AOI ?c i?aeaeuaiei (aei 90-95
%) ai?noii AO i?e aeei?enoaii? a yeino? iaieethaaieo iaoa??ae?a IAe ?
AO. Oei iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo ?noioii aieeaa? ia nooi?iue aii?o?caoe??
AOI. Oae, iai?eeeaae, i?e aeei?enoaii? aeey aaciiieoiaiaaiai iaieeaiiy
(ai?th/ee aac — i?iiai-aooai) I, IAe ? AO cia/aiiy ZAO neeaaeathoue 50,
90 ? 95 % a?aeiia?aeii. Aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iiaia
?icieaaeaiiy a aeaieo oiiaao oi?oey IAe ? AO ?c ianooiiei ooai?aiiyi ?
aeenia?aaoe??th e?aie? ?icieaao. O aeiaaeeo ii?ioeo neeaaei?oa
caaacia/eoe iiaia i?iieaaeaiiy iaieethaaieo /anoie i?e aaciiieoiaiaaiio
iaieeaii? ?c canoinoaaiiyi i?iiai-aooaio a yeino? ai?th/iai aaco.

Aeey ??cieo nieaa?a (Fe-B, Ni-B, Co-B, Ni-Ti, Ni-Nb oa ?io?) anoaiiaeaii
oaiaeaioe?th i?aeaeuaiiy ZAO (aeey noao?iiao?e/ieo neeaae?a “ai?th/ee
aac aoeaoeeai ? i?iiai-aooai — ieenethaa/”) ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ianyao
aeaoiioth/i? noi?o? aei iane ii?ioeo. Aeayeiio c?inoaiith ZAO (ia 10-15
%) ni?ey? aaaaeaiiy a aeaoiioth/o noi?o acioo (aei 30 ia. %).
I?aeoaa?aeaeaii a?aie/i? cia/aiiy ieoiii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
aeaoiiaoe?eiiai iaieeaiiy g?ii < 2 .10-5 ea/?ii, ?ic?aoiaai? aeua, c oi/ee ci?o ZAO ( max. Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy iie?eoo?a ?c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii aii?oii? oace (aei 90 %) i?e aeei?enoaii? aeaoiioth/i? noi?o? “i?iiai-aooai+eenaiue”. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?aaeeie aeaoiiaoe?eiiai iaieeaiiy, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeneiaeuei?e aii?o?caoe?? iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo, caaacia/othoue oaeiae oi?ioaaiiy iie?eoo?a c iaeiaioeie ii?eno?noth oa ai?noii eenith ? acioo. A ?acoeueoao? ii?aoethaaiiy aeaieo ?aioaaiioaciaiai aiae?co ?iioeuenii-ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a, iaianaieo ia onoaiiaoe? “?iioeuen”, c aeei?enoaiiyi ii?ioe?a ??cieo nieaa?a ia iniia? Fe, Ni, Co (Fe-B, Fe-B-C-Si, Ni-B, Ni-Cr-Mo-B, Co-Fe-B-Si, Ni-Ti, Ni-Nb) anoaiiaeai? oae? aii??e/i? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a ?iioeuenii-ieaciiaiai iaieeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a c iaeneiaeueiei ZAO (>70%):

, (17)

, — eiao?oe??ioe, ui a?aoiaothoue ia?aiao? aoaeoeaiino? ieaaeaiiy
iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo ? eiai noeeuei?noue aei aii?o?caoe??.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaii no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? aii?o?ciaaieo
iie?eoo?a, iaoiiaeai? nenoaiith eaaoaaiiy ? oaoiieia??th aacioa?i?/iiai
iaieeaiiy, ? noaa?euei?noue ?oiueiai no?oeoo?iiai noaio i?e iaa??aaii?,
oeueo?acaoeia?e ? iaoai?/i?e ia?iaeao.

Aeine?aeaeoaai? nenoaie eaaoaaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo
?aioaaiioaciaiai aiae?co aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a ?c oeeo iaoa??ae?a
iaaaaeai? a oaae. 1.

Ai?no ai?o a nieaaao ia iniia? Fe, Ni, Co, noeeueieo aei aii?o?caoe??, a
oaeiae aeiaaaie ?ioeo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a, ye Ni, Cr, Mo ? iaeiei c
?noioieo /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ia’?iiee ai?no aii?oii? oace.

O ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ?aioaaiia?ai iie?eoo?a Fe-A, iaianaieo ??cieie
iaoiaeaie AOI, anoaiiaeaii oaeo ?oiuei? aii?o?caoe?? aeey neeaae?a c
ai?noii ai?o 3,3-8,8 ian. %. Iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiei o nenoai? Fe-B ?c
iiaeyaeo aii?o?caoe?? a oiiaao AOI ? nieaa ?c 22 ia. % A. I?e ai?no?
ai?o a AOI Fe-B a ?ioa?aaeao 20-26 ia. % niinoa??aa?ouenyny iaeneioi
ia’?iiiai ai?noo aii?oii? oace ia e?ea?e ZAo = f (A, ia. %) (?en. 5).
Aeey iie?eoo?a ia iniia? Ni-B iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue AO aeinyaa?oueny
i?e 23-25 ia. % A. Ioaea, iaeneiaeueiee nooi?iue aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a
i?e AOI nieaa?a (Fe, Ni, Co)-B niinoa??aa?oueny aeey caaaoaeoe/ieo
neeaae?a.

?en. 5. Aieea ai?noo ai?o (ia. %) o nieaaao Fe-B ? Ni-A ia ia’?iiee
ai?no aii?oii? oace (ZAO) o iaianaieo ?c ieo ieaciiaeo iie?eooyo.

Aeyaeaii aoaeo i?aeaeuaiiy ia’?iiiai ai?noo aii?oii? oace o iie?eooyo
aeaiiai oeio i?e aaaaeaii? ??aeeicaiaeueieo iaoae?a (?CI) a iaieethaaiee
iaoa??ae. Oae, eaaoaaiiy aeo?aeiiai ?icieaao i?e iaea?aeaii? ii?ioe?a
Fe-B i?oiaoaeii, ui caaacia/o? ai?no a iueiio ?CI 0,2-0,8 ia. %, ni?ey?
ca?eueoaiith ia 5-15 % ZAO o iaieeaieo iie?eooyo. Ua a a?eueo?e i???
aieea ?CI ia aii?oecaoe?th iie?eoo?a aeyaey?oueny i?e ?oi?o aeiaaaeao o
ii?ioeiaee ae??o (aei 20 %), ui ni?ey? cieaeaiith ai?noo a iie?eooyo
eenith (aei 2 ? a?eueo ?ac?a), ciaioaiith ?ici???a aeeth/aiue ai?eaeieo
oac, ii?enoino? ? e?eueeino? ieneaeieo i?ioa?e?a.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo aeaieo noi?ioeueiaaii oae? i?eioeeie
eaaoaaiiy ai?ii?noeeo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? Fe, Ni, Co aeey AOI
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a: B + C + Si + P = 20-35 ia. %; ?CI = 0,2-0,8
ia. %; A (ia. %) / Ia (ia. %) = 2 – 3, aea Ia — Cr, Mo, V, W, Ti, Nb,
Mn, Al.

Iniaeea?noth no?oeoo?e aii?o?ciaaieo AOI ?c iiaea?eieo nieaa?a oeio
Ni-Ti, Ni-Nb, Ni-Zr, ui i?noyoue aeaiaioe c aaeeeith nii??aeiai?noth c
eeniai, ? iayai?noue a aii?oi?e iao?eoe? e?enoae?/ieo aeeth/aiue
ieneaeieo oac. Iai?eeeaae, o ieaciiaeo iie?eooyo ?c nieaao Ni60Nb40
oaeith oacith ? ieneae i?ia?th NbO2, ?c nieaao Ni50Nb50 — ieneaeia oaca
oeio Ti-Ni-O. Aieea iaoiaeo AOI ia ai?no AO ? neeaae e?enoae?/ieo
aeeth/aiue o iie?eooyo ?c ii?ioe?a aeaieo oei?a nieaa?a o cia/i?e i???
aecia/a?oueny aca?iiae??th oaeeo aeaiaio?a, ye Ni, Ti, Zr ?c eeniai
aoiinoa?e aai eiiiiiaioaie aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai no?oiaiy. Oaciaee neeaae
aeaoiiaoe?eieo iie?eoo?a (aoeaoeeai+eenaiue, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy C2H2/I2 =
1) ?c nieaao Ni60Nb40 iaaeeaea?oueny aei ieaciiaeo, i?ioa, i?e iaieeaii?
c iaaeeeoeii aoeaoeeaio (C2H2/I2 = 0,85) o oeeo iie?eooyo ii?yae c AO
c’yaey?oueny ea?a?ae i?ia?th NbN.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea nenoaie eaaoaaiiy iaieethaaieo iaoa??ae?a ia oaciaee neeaae
iie?eoo?a

Aea/aii oiieo no?oeoo?o aii?oii? oace aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a. O
?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?eoo?a ?c ?yaeo nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca ?
i?eaeth (Ni60Nb40, Ni81?19, Fe40Ni40B20 oa ?i.) anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e
iaieeaii? a i?ioean? aii?o?caoe?? nieaa?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaoaeiaa
aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a aeaeo?ii?a (ANA). Iai?eeeaae, aeyaeaii ??ceo
a?aei?ii?noue eiioo?o NbIV, V nioae Nb a e?enoae?/iiio nieaa? Ni60Nb40 o
ii??aiyii? c aii?o?ciaaiei ieaciiaei iie?eooyi, ui a?aeaeaa? aeaeici?io
caaaeueiiai noia?iiai ANA.

O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a iaoiaeii
i?ina?oethaaeueii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? anoaiiaeaii, ui o aeiaaeeo
iaieeaiiy nieaa?a ?c aeaiaioaie c aaeeeith nii??aeiai?noth c eeniai
(oeio Ni-Nb, Ni-Ti, Ni-Zr) oa?aeoa?iith ?enith AO iie?eoo?a ?
iayai?noue iaeanoae, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny oeiii aeeaeiueiai ii?yaeeo.
Oea aeyaey?oueny ia aeaeo?iiia?ai? o aeaeyae? aeaio aai o?ueio
aeeooc?eieo aaei, oiaoi e??i iniiaiiai ?icieoiai e?eueoey o?enothoueny ?
aeiaeaoeia? aioo??oi? e?eueoey iaioi? ?ioaineaiino?. Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i aaoa?iaaii?noue (oaciaa ?icoa?oaaiiy) AO, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iayai?noth iaeanoae c aaoa?iaaiiith aii?oiith
no?oeoo?ith, ye? niinoa??aathoueny ia?aaaaeii iiaeeco e?enoae?/ieo
aeae?eaiue, caaaa/aieo ieneaeaie, a oaeiae iiaeeco ieneaeieo i?ioa?e?a.
Aeaiee oaeo iiynith?oueny ci?iith o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ie?aieo i?e?iia’?i?a
nieaaa aiane?aeie ?ic/eiaiiy a iueiio i?ae /an iaieeaiiy eenith.

I?e iaa??aaii? aeine?aeaeoaaieo aii?o?ciaaieo AOI caeaaeii a?ae ?oiueiai
neeaaeo a ?ioa?aae? 600-900 E a?aeaoaa?oueny e?enoae?caoe?y aii?oii?
oace. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoiae AOI ? oei iaoa??aeo, canoiniaaiiai aeey
iaieeaiiy, aieeaathoue ia cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e ii/aoeo e?enoae?caoe??
Oe? AO oa ci?iththoue caeiiii??iino? no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue. Oae,
cia/aiiy Oe? aaciiieoiaiaaeo ? aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo iie?eoo?a ?c IAe Fe80B20
ia 20-50 E aeu? ii??aiyii c Oe? aeey aaciiieoiaiaaeo iie?eoo?a ?c I ?
AO. Aeey aeaoiiaoe?eieo iie?eoo?a ?c nieaa?a Fe40Ni40B20 ? Ni40Nb40
oaeiae anoaiiaeaii i?aeaeuaiiy Oe? ia 40-50 E ii??aiyii ?c ieaciiaeie
iie?eooyie ? ci?ia iine?aeiaiino? no?oeoo?ieo ia?aoai?aiue. Oea
iiynith?oueny ??cieoeath a o?i?/iiio neeaae? iie?eoo?a aiane?aeie
?ioaineai?oi? aca?iiae?? iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo c eeniai ? acioii i?ae
/an aeaoiiaoe?eiiai iaieeaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oeueo?acaoeiaa ia?iaea c?ace?a c aii?o?ciaaieie
iie?eooyie a eaia??, caiiaiai?e eoeueeaie c? noae? OO-15 ae?aiao?a 2-5
ii i?e aiie?ooae? eieeaaiue 100 iei, /anoio? 18 eAoe ni?e/eith?
i?aeaeuaiiy ZAO a iie?eooyo ia 10-25 %. Ia i?eeeaae? ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a
?c nieaa?a Ni-Fe-Cr-B-Si-C, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo-B iieacaii, ui iaeneiaeueia
i?aeaeuaiiy aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a aeinyaa?oueny i?e o?eaaeino?
oeueo?acaoeiai? ia?iaee a ?ioa?aae? 50-100 n.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee (ieineiai oe?ooaaiiy e?oaaie c
ea?a?aeo e?aii?th caeaiiai SiN ? neioaoe/ieo ae?aiaio?a oeio AN6 80/63I)
ia no?oeoo?iee noai aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a iie?eooyo
?c nieaa?a Fe-B, Fe-Mo-Cr-B o ?acoeueoao? oe?ooaaiiy a ?yae? aeiaaee?a
niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy ZAO ia 20-30 %. I?e oeueiio ia ?oi?e iiaa?oi?
niinoa??aathoueny ae?eyiee ia?aa??ao ? i?e?io??ueie. Aecia/aii cia/aiiy
i?eionoeii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oe?ooaaiiy (?o) c oi/ee ci?o caa?aaeaiiy
aii?oii? oace a iie?eooyo. O ?acoeueoao? iioei?caoe?? anoaiiaeai? oae?
?aaeeie oe?ooaaiiy, ui ia aiinyoue ci?ie o oaciaee neeaae
aii?o?ci?iaaieo aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a: aeey e?oa?a ?c SiN —
oaeaee?noue Ve? = 35 i/n, iiaeiaaeiy oaeaee?noue Si? =8-5 i/oa, aeeaeia
??caiiy h? = 0,01-0,05 ii; aeey ae?aiaioiaeo e?oa?a — ?o= 0,2-1,0
ni3/oa, Si? = 2-10 i/oa, h? = 0,01-0,05 ii.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oiia AOI
? no?oeoo?iiai noaio, a oiio /ene? ? ia’?iiiai ai?noo AO, ia
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? e iaai?oi? aeanoeaino? aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a oa ?oith
ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue.

Aeeiiaii ioe?ieo caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue ? ?iaeo a nenoai? “iniiaa
(noaeue 45, Ae16 AO1) — aii?o?ciaaia iie?eooy”. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a AOI,
iaianaieo ia noaeaao iniiao c aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith oi?iothoueny
caeeoeia? iai?oae noeneo, ia?aaaaeii (-25) — (-120) IIa, ui
ciaioothoueny a i??o ?inoo oiaueie iie?eooy. Aaaaeaiiy aei neeaaeo
iie?eoo?a ia iniia? Fe-B ? Ni-B eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aeaeuothoue
iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? (Cr, Mo, V, Ti) iaoiiaeth? c?inoaiiy (ino. Aeii?oee
?CI o aeai? nieaae ni?eythoue cieaeaiith (ia 10-15 %) ??aiy caeeoeiaeo
iai?oaeaiue. Cia/aiiy (ino. c?inoathoue ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy iaa??ao
iniiae a i?ioean? ia?iuoaaiiy iie?eooy. Aoaeoeaiei i?eeiiii ciaioaiiy
(ino. ? i?eioniaa ioieiaeaeaiiy iniiae ? iie?eooy a i?ioean? AOI. Oae,
iai?eeeaae, iaaeoaaiiy iniiae ? ciie iaieeaiiy iia?o?yieie ?
aiaeiiia?o?yieie (?icieeaiiy aiaee) no?oiaiyie, ui caiia?aa? ??
iaa??aaiith aeua 390-400 E, ni?e/eith? ciaioaiiy caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue
o ieaciiaeo iie?eooyo ?c nieaao Fe83B17 oiaueiith 200 iei ((AO = 75 %)
a?ae (-110) aei (-15) IIa.

Oa?i?/ia ia?iaea aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a i?e oaiia?aoo?ao O=
(0,7-0,9)Oe? ni?ey? ciaioaiith (ino o 2-3 ?ace, a ?oi?e a?aeiae aeua
oaiia?aoo?e e?enoae?caoe?? AO Oe? iaoiiaeth? ci?io ?oiueiai ciaea ?
c?inoaiiy aaniethoieo cia/aiue a 1,2-2,0 ?ace.

I?e ia?aoiae? a?ae noaeaai? iniiae aei aethi?i??ai? (Ae16) a
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eooyo niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei c?inoaiiy
caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue noeneo, a aei oeoaiiai? (AO-1,0) – a aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao, ia?aoiaeo ?o aei iai?oaeaiue ?icoyao.

Ia i?eeeaae? nieaao Ni60Nb40 iieacaii, ui ??aaiue iai?oaeaiue II ?iaeo a
aii?o?ciaaieo ieaciiaeo iie?eooyo ieae/a a na?aaeiueiio a 1,3-2,0 ?ace
ii??aiyii c aii?oiith no??/eith, io?eiaiith iaoiaeii “ni?i?iaoaaiiy”
?icieaao. Oea iiynith?oueny oeeee?/iei iaa??aaiiyi iaieeaieo
aii?o?ciaaieo oa??a o i?ioean? ia?iuoaaiiy iie?eooy.

Aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?th ca?eueoaiiy i?oeiino? c/aieaiiy iie?eoo?a c
iniiaith (noe ii i??? c?inoaiiy a ieo ia’?iiiai ai?noo AO. I?e
i?aeaeuaii? (AO a?ae 40 aei 100 % i?oei?noue c/aieaiiy c iniiaith
ca?eueoo?oueny a na?aaeiueiio a 2 ?ace (?en. 6). Canoinoaaiiy caoenieo
ianaaeie i?e ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio iaieeaii? aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe (AO aei
100 %, a (noe — aei 80-90 IIa.

?en. 6. Aieea ia’?iiiai ai?noo aii?oii? oace (AO ia i?oei?noue c/aieaiiy
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a c iniiaith (No 45):

1 — aeaoiiaoe?ei? iie?eooy c ii?ioeo Fe40Ni40B20;

2 — aaciiieoiaiaa? iie?eooy c ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo Fe-B (Fe80B20).

Canoinoaaiiy AO ? IAe ii??aiyii ?c ii?ioeaie caaacia/o? aeu? ia 20-50 %
cia/aiiy (noe i?e aeecueeeo cia/aiiy (AO. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe a?eueo
ni?eyoeeaeie oiiaaie ?icieaaeaiiy iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo o aeiaaeeo
aeei?enoaiiy AO ? IAe. I?e aeecueeeo cia/aiiyo (AO ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a o AOI ye i?aaeei ia ni?e/eith? c?inoaiiy
(noe. Oae, iai?eeeaae, oey oa?aeoa?enoeea neeaaea? 45 ? 35 IIa,
a?aeiia?aeii aeey aii?o?ciaaieo ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a ?c nieaa?a Fe83B17 ?
Fe55Mo13Cr8Ni7B17. Aeii?oea ?CI o oeooo IAe Fe-B i?aeaeuo? (noe a
1,2-1,3 ?aca. I?eioniaa ioieiaeaeaiiy iniiae, ui iaoiiaeth? cieaeaiiy
caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue, ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith (noe. Cie?aia, ioieiaeaeaiiy
iia?o?yieie no?oiaiyie ii??aiyii c iaieeaiiyi aac aeaiiai oaoiieia?/iiai
i?eeiio ni?ey? c?inoaiith (noe ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a ?c nieaao Fe40Ni40B20
a?ae 31 aei 49 IIa.

Oi?ioaaiiy caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue noeneo a aii?o?ciaaieo AOI ni?ey?
ca?eueoaiith aoiieeai? i?oeiino? (-1 eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iaianaii? aeaoiiaoe?eieo, ieaciiaeo oa
aaciiieoiaiaaeo iie?eoo?a ?c nieaa?a nenoai Fe-B, Fe-Ni-B, Fe-Cr-Mo-B,
Ni-B, Ni-Cr-Mo-B, Ni-Fe-Cr-B-Si-C cia/aiiy (-1 iniiae c? noae? 45
i?aeaeuothoueny a na?aaeiueiio ia 10-40 %. ??aaiue (-1 iiieaeo?oueny ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi oiaueie iie?eoo?a. E?enoae?caoe?y AO oaeiae i?eaiaeeoue aei
cieaeaiiy oe??? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Oae, a?aeiae ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a ?c
nieaao Fe40Ni40B20 i?e 1170 E ni?e/eith? cieaeaiiy (-1 ?c 500 aei 350
IIa.

A?aei?iiith ?enith aii?o?ciaaieo aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a ? a?aeiinii
aeniea “aa?y/a” oaa?ae?noue, oiaoi caa??aaiiy ??aiy oaa?aeino? aeey O =
300 E i?e iaa??aaii? i?aeoe/ii aei 1000 E. Oea iiynith?oueny aoaeoii ?o
ci?oeiaiiyi aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy i?e?ie?enoae?/ieo iaoanoaa?eueieo oac
i?e e?enoae?caoe?? aii?oii? no?oeoo?e iie?eoo?a a ?ioa?aae? 600-900 E. O
oe?eiio ca ??aiai oaa?aeino? a oeueiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
aeine?aeaeoaai? iie?eooy ?c cae?cieo nieaa?a, ui i?noyoue ai?,
ia?aaa?oothoue e?enoae?/i? iie?eooy ?c na??eieo nieaa?a ia iniia?
eiaaeueoa oeio Noae?o 31, O-800.

O ?acoeueoao? o??aioaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e i?aeaeuaieo ieoiieo
iaaaioaaeaiiyo 4-25 IIa ? oaeaeeinoyo aei 1-2 i/n anoaiiaeaii, ui
aii?o?ciaai? AOI ia iniia? Fe-B, Fe-Si-C, Ni-B ii ciinino?eeino? a
1,9-4,7 ?ace ia?aaa?oothoue oeaiaioiaaio noaeue 20O, iieaaeai?
e?enoae?/i? iie?eooy ?c naiioethnoth/iai nieaao II73O16N3?3 ?c
aeeth/aiiyie ea?a?aeo oeoaio ? ea?a?aeo o?iio oa aaeueaai?/iee o?ii.
Aii?o?ciaai? aeaoiiaoe?ei? iie?eooy ?c nieaa?a Fe80B20, Fe50Cr10Mo15B25,
Ni45Mo20Cr25B10 ca ??aiai ciinino?eeino? a aeaieo oiiaao iaaeeaeathoueny
aei oeeo iie?eoo?a ?c oaa?aeiai nieaao AE-25. Aeniea ciinino?ee?noue
aeaieo iie?eoo?a o aeacaieo oiiaao iiynith?oueny aoaeoii ?o aeniei?
“aa?y/i?” i?e?ioaa?aeino?. Eaaoaaiiy ii?ioe?a ? ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a ia
iniia? Fe-B, Fe-B-C-Si Fe-Mo-Ti-V-Cr-B oa ?ioeo ??aeeicaiaeueieie
iaoaeaie ni?ey? cieaeaiith ?ioaineaiino? ciino i?e oa?o? eiacaiiy a
na?aaeiueiio ia 10-20 %.

?aaeeie AOI, ui caaacia/othoue iaeneiaeueiee ia’?iiee ai?no AO o AOI
iaoiiaeththoue iie?ioaiiy ?oi?o o??aioaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Iieacaii,
ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi (AO niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ciaioaiiy no?eaea
eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy i?ney aeaaaeaiiy ia?e oa?oy ?c ??aiiaaaeieo oiia
a?aie/iiai oa?oy (?en. 7).

Oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaiaeiicia/ii aieeaa? ia o??aioaoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aii?o?ciaaieo AOI. Aeey iie?eoo?a ?c nieaa?a Ni-B, Ni-Fe-Cr-B,
Ni-Cr-Fe-A-Si, Fe-B-Si-C a?aeiae, ui iaoiiaeth? e?enoae?caoe?th aii?oii?
no?oeoo?e, cieaeo? a 1,2 — 2,9 ?aca ?oith ciinino?ee?noue. O aeiaaeeo
iie?eoo?a ?c nieaa?a Fe-Ni-B, Fe-Mo-Cr-B, Ni-Mo-Cr-B oaea ia?iaea ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith ?oiuei? ciinino?eeino?. Aeaia iniaeea?noue iiynith?oueny
eiieo?oth/eie i?ioeanaie ie?eo/aiiy iie?eooy oa i?aeaeuaiiy eiai
oaa?aeino? i?e aeae?eaii? i?e?ie?enoae?/ieo oac c aii?oii? iao?eoe?. A
on?o aeiaaeeao o?eaae? (a?eueo 3-o aiaeei) a?aeiaee i?e O ( 1200 — 1300
E ni?eythoue ?ae?enoae?caoe?? iie?eoo?a oa cieaeaiith ciinino?eeino?.

O oiiaao aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy iaea?eueoith ciinino?ee?noth
a?ae??ciythoueny aii?o?ciaai? iie?eooy ?c neeaaeiieaaiaaieo nenoai oeio
Fe-Mo-Cr-B, Ni-Mo-Cr-B, Fe-Mo-Cr-V-Cu-B, Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti-V-B. Ca oe??th
oa?aeoa?enoeeith aiie ia?aaa?oothoue iieaaeai? iie?eooy ?c i?eaeaaeo
naiioethnoth/eo nieaa?a a oiio /ene? c aeii?oeaie ea?a?ae?a o?iio oa
e?aii?th ? iinooiathoueny o?eueee oeei iie?eooyi ?c 35 % ianiaei ai?noii
WC. C? ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo niinoa??aa?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy aa?aceaii? ciinino?eeino? aii?o?ciaaieo
iie?eoo?a. I?e aaciiieoiaiaaiio iaieeaii? a?eueo aenieo ciinino?ee?noue
caaacia/othoue IAe oa AO ii??aiyii c ii?ioeaie.

a a

?en. 7. Aieea ia’?iiiai ai?noo aii?oii? oace ZAO o aeaoiiaoe?eieo
iie?eooyo ?c nieaao Fe40Ni40B20 ia o??aioaoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee (a) ?
ci?ia eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy i?e aeaaaeaii? ia?e oa?oy c ??aiiaaaeieo oiia
(a).

Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue ??aiy no?eeino? aei aaci-, a?ae?iaa?aceaiiai
ciino oa eaa?oaoe?? a?ae ia’?iiiai ci?noo AO. Iioei?caoe?y ?aaeei?a AOI
ca e?eoa???i “EAI(max = Z Ao(max” caaacia/o? iaeaeuee ??aaiue aeaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea EAI oa Z Ao ia ciinino?ee?noue i?e aaciaa?aceaiiio ciiooaaii? Ia
ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a ?c ii?ioeo Fe83B17 (“Ee?a-7 ”, iia?o?y+i?iiai-aooai)

), a?aae

15 30 60 90

91 65 18 21 25 29

75 55 20 25 30 35

55 40 22 30 41 70

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ia a?aei?io a?ae
e?enoae?/ieo ? iacia/iee aieea eooa aoaee aa?aceao ia ?ioaineai?noue
ciiooaaiiy (oaae. 2). Iienaia iniaeea?noue iiynith?oueny ieanoe/i?noth
aii?oii? oace iie?eoo?a oa a?aenooi?noth aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai iaeeaio, ui
ni?ey? caiia?aaiith ie?eo/aiiy iiaa?oi? i?e i?yiue aeeiai?/iue aeuu
aa?aceaieo /anoie. Eaaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? Fe-B, Ni-B oaeeie
aeaiaioaie, ye Cr, Mo, V, Ti, ia i?aeaeuoth? no?eeino? aii?o?ciaaieo AOI
aei a?ic?eiiai ciino. Aeii?oee ?CI aei 0,2-0,8 ia. % ca?eueoothoue oeth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ia 10-25 %.

=15-90i iaioa a 1,2-1,4 ?ace ii??aiyii c iaieeaiiyi aeicaoeiaei
no?oiaiai (onoaiiaea “Ee?a-7”).

aii?o?ciaaieo AOI ?c oa?iiaai?oieo nieaa?a ia iniia? Fe ?
Coaeinyaathoue 70-95 % a?ae oeeo cia/aiue aeey aii?oieo no??/ie.
Iaea?eueo /ooeea? aei oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a AOI cia/aiiy eia?oeeoeaii?
neee iie?eoo?a, ui ia?aaeuothoue aiaeia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey no??/ie
a 1,5 ?aca ? a?eueoa. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeeaunoth ? a?eueo aenie? cia/aiiy
oi/ee Eth?? On ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a o ii??aiyii? c aii?oieie no??/eaie,
ui iiaeia iiynieoe iayai?noth aeeth/aiue e?enoae?/ieo oac. Aaee/eia On
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aaeei?a iaieeaiiy ? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ? iiaea
ia?aaeuoaaoe oeth oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeey no??/ie ia 50-140 E. Oae, cia/aiiy
On aeey aii?oii? no??/ee ? ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a ?c nieaao
Co58Fe5Ni10Si11B6 noaiiaeyoue a?aeiia?aeii 550 ? 690 E.

Aeey aii?o?ciaaieo AOI aeyaeaia aaeeea noaa?euei?noue iaai?oieo
aeanoeainoae o oe?ieiio oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae?. Ia i?eeeaae? ieaciiaeo
iie?eoo?a ?c nieaao Co58Fe5Ni10Si11B6 iieacaii, ui aeine?aeaeoaai?
aii?o?ciaai? iie?eooy oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iacia/iith ci?iith cia/aiue
eia?oeeoeaii? neee (In) i?e a?aeiaeao aei 1000 E, o oie /an ye i?e
a?aeiaeao aii?oieo nieaa?a, io?eiaieo iaoiaeii “ni?i?iaoaaiiy ?icieaao”,
ia? i?noea ??cea (ia ii?yaeee) ca?eueoaiiy In.

?icaeyiooi aieea oeio iaieethaaiiai iaoa??aeo oa iaoiaeo AOI ia iaai?oi?
aeanoeaino? aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ieaciia? iie?eooy c
ii?ioeo Fe80B20 ii iaai?oii’yeei aeanoeainoyi aeaui ia?aaa?uothoue
aaciiieoiaiaa? iie?eooy c IAe aiaeia?/iiai neeaaeo. Oae, ?oi? cia/aiiy
?iaeoeoe?? iane/aiiy a ii??aiyii? c iie?eooyie c IAe aeu? a 1,3 ?aca,
eiao?oe??io i?yiieooiino? iaoe? a?noa?aceno ? ii/aoeiai? iaai?oii?
i?iieeiino? — a 1,2 ?aca. Aeey aaciiieoiaiaaeo iie?eoo?a ?c oeueiai
ii?ioeo niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea cieaeaiiy iaai?oieo oa?aeoa?enoee.
Ii??aiyii c aaciiieoiaiaaeie iie?eooyie c IAe ?iaeoeoe?y iane/aiiy aeey
ieo ieae/a a 4,3 ?ace. Iienai? iniaeeaino? iiyniththoueny a?eueo aenieei
nooiaiai o?i?/ii? oa no?oeoo?ii? aaoa?iaaiiino? ? ieae/eie cia/aiiyie
ZAO aaciiieoiaiaaeo iie?eoo?a, ui ni?ey? aeayeiio cae??ieaiith a?aieoeue
aeiiai?a oa oneeaaeith? i?ioeane ia?aiaai?/oaaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii aenieo ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue aii?o?ciaaieo AOI. A?eueo
iecuee? cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? ei?ic?? o aiaeyieo ?ic/eiao eeneio ? nieae
aeyaeaii aeey oeeo iie?eoo?a ?c nieaa?a nenoai oeio Ni-Cr-Mo-B,
Fe-Cr-Mo-B, Fe-Cr-P-C. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ieaciia? iie?eooy c? nieaa?a
Ni40Mo20Cr25B15, Fe60Cr10Mo15B15, Ni33Fe20Cr20Mo7B20 o aiaeyiiio ?ic/ei?
H2SO4 (120 a/e) a?ae??ciythoueny ieae/ith aonoeiith no?oio ei?ic??
ii??aiyii c iieaaeaieie e?enoae?/ieie iie?eooyie ?c i?eaeaaiai
naiioethnoth/iai nieaao IA-AI9 a 3,0-11,0 ?ac?a, ?c aenieieaaiaaiith
ia?aeaa?th/ith noaeeth 06OI28IAeO — a 7,0-7,6 ?aca, a ieceieaaiaaiith
eiino?oeoe?eiith noaeeth No-3 — a 140-540 ?ac?a. Aii?o?ciaai? ieaciia?
iie?eooy c? nieaa?a nenoaie Ni-Cr-Mo-B ca ei?ic?eiith no?ee?noth ia
iinooiathoueny i?iieneiaiio ei?ic?eiino?eeiio i?eaeaaiio nieaao Oanoaeie
N, a iie?eooy ?c nieaa?a Fe-Cr-Mo-B — ii oe?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe?
iaaeeaeathoueny aei oeoaiiaiai nieaao AO1-0, iinooiath/enue eiio a
1,4-1,8 ?ace.

Ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e
ca?eueoaii? ia’?iiiai ai?noo aii?oii? oace ZAO. Oae, cia/aiiy i
ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a ?c nieaao Fe55Mo15Cr8Ni5B20 i?e ci?i? a ieo ZAO a?ae
60 aei 75 ? 90 % noaiiaeoue 2,1 .10-7, 2,0 .10-7 ? 10-7 a?aeiia?aeii.

Iieacaii aoaeoeai?noue cae?eniaiiy iia?aoe?? i?ini/aiiy aeaieo iie?eoo?a
aiaa?iaiei aa?iaoeeii “AIAOA?I IV” aeey caiia?aaiiy i?iieeiaiiy
aa?aneaiiai na?aaeiaeua aei iniiae c o?aaeeoe?eieo eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a (a o. /. ?c iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae). Ia i?eeeaae?
aii?o?ciaaieo ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a ?c nieaa?a Fe-Cr-Mo-B ? Ni-Cr-Mo-B,
iaianaieo ia c?acee ?c No 3 ? i?aeaeaieo i?ini/aiith cacia/aiei
aa?iaoeeii, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia noaa?euei?noue ?oi?o aeaeo?io?i?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ui ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oaeeo aeey aiaeia?/ieo
iie?eoo?a, a?aeae?eaieo a?ae iniiae.

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoa??ae?a ? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a iaianaiiy aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a c
aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith.

C o?aooaaiiyi aea/aieo neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a
aea?ai? oae? iai?yie ?oiueiai canoinoaaiiy: caoeno eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a a?ae ciino ? ei?ic??; a?aeiiaeaiiy ?ici???a ciioaieo aeaoaeae
iaoei; iaaeaiiy ae?iaai niaoe?aeueieo aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae.

Iiaeeeaino? e aoaeoeai?noue i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy iie?eoo?a aeacaiiai
eeano coiiaeai? iayai?noth aeo?aeieo iaoa??ae?a, neeaae yeeo caaacia/o?
oi?ioaaiiy aii?oieo no?oeoo? i?e AOI. O ca’yceo c oeei ?ic?iaeaia a?oia
ii?ioe?a cae?cieo ? i?eaeaaeo nieaa?a ii OO ?AC 733-89 aeey AOI
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a: Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-B (IA-I1), Fe-Ni-B (IA-I3),
Ni-Fe-Cr-B (IA-I5), Fe-Mo-Cr-B (IA-AE1), Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Ti-V-B (IA-I6),
Ni-B (IA-I7), Ni-Cr-Al-B (IA-I8), Fe-Cr-Al-B (IA-AE2).

Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?o i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaai? iaoa??aee na??? AIIOAE, ui aeeth/athoue
aeacai? ii?ioee, iia? neeaaee, a oaeiae ii?ioeia? ae?ioe ? aio/e? oio?e
(oaae. 3). Ii/eiath/e c 1989 ?. ia Oi?acnueeiio caaiae? iaieaai/ieo
oaa?aeeo nieaa?a (Aeiiaoeueea iae.) inai?ii aeione ii?ioe?a, a c 1995 ?.
?acii ?c NI “OI AAEAeOAE” ia AO “Aei?i?iiaoec” (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee) —
ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a aeey AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a. Caaaeueiee ianya
aeaioiaeaieo iaoa??ae?a ia aeaiee iiiaio noaiiaeoue a?ey 45 o.

?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane AOI caoenieo
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ?c ii?ioe?a AIIOAE 7, IA-AE1 (Fe-Cr-Mo-B),
IA-AE4, IA-AE5 (Fe-B), IA-I3 (Fe-Ni-B), AIIOAE 13 (Fe-Ni-Si-B), AIIOAE
14 (Co-Fe-Ni-Si-B) oa ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a AIIOAE 102 (Fe-B-C-Si), AIIOAE
103 (Fe-Cr-B), AIIOAE 105 (Fe-Cr-Al-B) aeey oe?eiai ?yaeo
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo aeaoaeae oa i?eeaae?a o ??cieo aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa:

Oaaeeoey 3

Oa?aeoa?enoeea niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iaoa??ae?a “AIIOAE” aeey aacioa?i?/iiai
iaieeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a

Ia?ea Nenoaia eaaoaaiiy, I?ecia/aiiy I?eeeaaee canoinoaaiiy

Ii?ioie Ii?ioeiaee ae??o Aio/eee oio? iiia?e io?eiaieo iaoaio?a,
aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa ia aeiaoiaee iie?eoo?a iie?eoo?a

AIIOAE 1

AIIOAE 2

AIIOAE 15 AIIOAE 101

AIIOAE 102

AIIOAE 115 AIIOAE 201

AIIOAE 202

AIIOAE 209

AIIOAE 215 Fe-B, Fe-B-?CI (iaoaioe Oe?a?ie ?10595, 10596);

Fe-B-N, Fe-B-N-Si- ?CI (A.n..?1570337);

Fe-Si-N (A.n.. ?1577382)

Ni-B (A.n.?1577382); Aeey caoenoo a?ae ciino i?e oa?o? eiacaiiy aac
?ioaineaiiai ei?ic?eiiai aieeao Eie?i/ano? aaee, aocee oa?oy,
aaeuei?ai? aa?aaaie, ii?oiaa? e?eueoey

AIIOAE 3

AIIOAE 4

AIIOAE 103

AIIOAE 104 AIIOAE 203

AIIOAE 204 Fe-Cr-B, Fe-Cr-B-C-?CI

Fe-Ni-Cr-B-Si Aeey caoenoo a?ae ciino i?e oa?o? eiacaiiy a oiiaao
ei?ic?eiiai aieeao Aeaoae? ianin?a, aa?noao?a, a?ae?iaia?aoo?e, aocee
oa?oy

AIIOAE 5

AIIOAE 10

AIIOAE 105

— AIIOAE 205

AIIOAE 210 Fe-Cr-Al-B

Ni-Cr-Al-B

Aeey caoenoo a?ae aaciaa?aceaiiai ciino (a?ic??) O?oae iiaa?oiiue
iaa??ao eioaeueieo aa?aaao?a, eiiaoee aeeiinin?a

AIIOAE 6 AIIOAE 106 AIIOAE 206 Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn-B-Si-?CI Aeey
caoenoo a?ae aa?aceaiiai ciino Ieoiaea?e, ooiee, ii?oi? ianin?a, aocee
cai??ieo iaoai?ci?a

AIIOAE 7

AIIOAE 8

AIIOAE 11

AIIOAE 12 AIIOAE 107

AIIOAE 108

— AIIOAE 207

AIIOAE 208

AIIOAE 211

AIIOAE 212 Fe-Cr-Mo-B

Fe-Cr-Mo-V-Cu-B- ?CI (A.n.?1767010)

Ni-Cr-Mo-B

Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti-V-B- ?CI Aeey caoenoo a?ae aa?aceaiiai ciino a ei?ic?eieo
na?aaeiaeuao Aeaoae? onoaoeoaaiiy o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino?

AIIOAE 13

AIIOAE 14

AIIOAE 213

AIIOAE 214 Fe-Ni-Si-B

Co-Fe-Ni-Si-B Aeey caaacia/aiiy niaoe?aeueieo iaai?oieo ? aeaeo?e/ieo
aeanoeainoae aoce?a aeaeo?ioaoi?/ieo i?eno?i?a oa i?eeaae?a Aeaiaioe
aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a, iaai?oi? ae?aie, aeao/eee, iaai?oiae?aeaeo?eee

— aaoiiia?eueiee ? cae?cie/iee o?ainii?o, aa?noaoe ? a?ae?iaia?aoo?a —
ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?io neoaeae a 1,4 — 2,5 ?aca aenoeaio?eeiaeo ?
eie?i/aoeo aae?a, eeaiai?a iiaeath/eo oeaia aa?noao?a, aaeuei?aieo
aa?aaai?a, cieioiee?a (E?eai??cueea a?aeae?eaiiy I?eaei?i?ianueei?
cae?cieoe?, Ieeoeeiaoeueeee niaoe?ae?ciaaiee caaiae, Ee?anueea
aa?noaoiaoae?aia AI, Ee?anueeee ?aiiioii-iiioaaeiee eiia?iao);

— aia?aaoe/ia onoaoeoaaiiy — i?aeaeuaiiy ?ano?no o 1,9-3,1 ?ace eiiaoie
aaioeeyoi??a, ooie?a, oieiaeae?a, cai??ii? a?iaoo?e, iiaa?oiiue iaa??ao
aia?aaoe/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy, e?oiiiaaaa?eoieo aeaoaeae a?ae?ioo?a?i
(Aeia?ioa??nueea Ae?AN, Ao?ooeinueea OAN, *a?eanueea OAOe, IAI
“Oo?aiaoii”, i. Oa?e?a) ;

— onoaoeoaaiiy o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino? — ca?eueoaiiy oa?i?io neoaeae
?aaeoi??a, oiae?a, aeaoaeae a?na?ieo ieei?a, ianin?a,
noia?aeenaeueaa??a, o?oaieo aeiuie ? aaciaeo oieiaeeeueiee?a o 1,9-3,4
?ace (Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee eaeioa?aiaee caaiae, AAO “Eaeie?anea” (?A),
?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia AO “I?ao?i”);

— aeaeo?ioaoi?ea oa i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy — i?aeaeuaiiy a 8,5 ?ace ?ano?no
aoi?eiieo aeaiaio?a e?i?eieo aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a, ca?eueoaiiy ia 25-45 % ?o
aeiiii?/iino?, i?aeaeuaiiy /ooeeaino? niaoei?eeaae?a (IAe? A?EC, i.
Oaaai?ia, ?O).

AENIIAEE

1. ?ic?iaeaii iaoeia? iniiae noai?aiiy aii?o?ciaaieo aacioa?i?/ieo
iie?eoo?a o aeaeyae?: a) eiiieaeno o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae
i?ioean?a oaieiia?aiino ? no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?e oi?ioaaii? iaieeaieo
oa??a aeey aeiaaee?a oaa?ae?iiy iaeeie/ieo iaieeaieo /anoie ? ?oiuei?
noeoiiino? a oe?ieeo /aniaeo ?ioa?aaeao; a) caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae
oi?ioaaiiy aii?oii? no?oeoo?e i?e AOI; a) aecia/aeueieo oaeoi??a
aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a.

2. Noi?ioeueiaaii iaiao?aeio oiiao aii?o?caoe?? iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a i?e
aacioa?i?/iiio iaieeaii?, ui iaiaaeo? ?ioa?aaee ci?ie oaiia?aoo?
iaieeaiii? /anoeiee ia noaae?yo iaa??aaiiy, ?ooo ? c?oeiaiiy c iniiaith.
Iieacaii, ui i?eioeei iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy ca
iciaeith “EAI=max” ocaiaeaeo?oueny c iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aii?o?caoe?? ?
caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueiee ia’?iiee ai?no AO o iaieeaiiio iie?eoo?.
Aecia/aii ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie AOI, ui caaacia/othoue cia/aiiy ZAO =
75-100 % i?e ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio, aaciiieoiaiaaiio, aeaeo?iaeoaiaiio,
aeaoiiaoe?eiiio e ?iioeuenii-ieaciiaiio iaieeaii? ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
??cieo oei?a ?iai/eo aac?a.

3. Aia?oa io?eiai? iie?eooy c i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii AO (aei 50-95 %) ?c
ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a ? aio/eeo oio??a. Iieacaii, ui ia?ao?ae a?ae
aeicaoeiaeo aei iaaecaoeiaeo ?aaeei?a aeo?eaiiy no?oiaiy i?e
aaciiieoiaiaaiio, ieaciiai-aeoaiaiio e aeaeo?iaeoaiaiio iaieeaii?
caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a ZAO ia 25-60 %.
?ic?iaeaii iia? eiino?oeoe?? caoenieo ianaaeie, aecia/ai? oiiae
i?eioniaiai ioieiaeaeaiiy iniiae ? iie?eooy a i?ioean? AOI, ui
caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy aeie? AO o iie?eoo? aei 90-100 %.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeneiaeueiee ai?no AO i?e AOI ii?ioe?a, ii?ioeiaeo
ae?io?a ? aio/eeo oio??a ia iniia? Fe-B ? Ni-B aeinyaa?oueny o ?ac?
aeei?enoaiiy caaaoaeoe/ieo neeaae?a ?c ai?noii ai?o 20-27 ia. %.
Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeie eaaoaaiiy ai?iai?noeeo iaoa??ae?a aeey

AOI aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ia iniia? cae?ca, i?eaeth, eiaaeueoa, ui
?aaeaiaioothoue noia?iee ai?no a ieo ai?o, e?aii?th, aoaeaoeth, oinoi?o,
??aaiue aeii?oie ??aeeicaiaeueieo iaoae?a, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeino?
ai?o ? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

5. Aea/aii oiieo no?oeoo?o aii?oii? oace a aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eooyo.
Iieacaii, ui aii?o?caoe?y nieaa?a o i?ioean? AOI coiiaeth? ci?ie ye o
aeeaeiueiio ii?yaeeo, oae ? a ?oi?e aeaeo?iii?e no?oeoo??. Aeyaeaii
aoaeo oaciaiai ?icoa?oaaiiy aii?oii? no?oeoo?e a ia’?iao iaieeaieo oa??a
o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy neeaae?a noeeueieo aei ?ioaineaiiai ieeneaiiy.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoiaeo AOI ? oeio iaieethaaiiai
iaoa??aeo cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo? e?enoae?caoe?? aii?oii? no?oeoo?e
a?aeiinii aii?oieo no??/ie aiaeia?/iiai neeaaeo iiaeooue ci?uoaaoeny ia
20-50 E. Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo AO ia 15-30 % i?e
oeueo?acaoeia?e ia?iaoe? iaieeaieo iie?eoo?a. Aecia/aii ?aaeeie
iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee (oe?ooaaiiy) aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a, ui ia aiinyoue
ci?ie a ?o no?oeoo?iee noai.

7. Aecia/aii, ui a aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eooyo oi?iothoueny ia?aaaaeii
caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy noeneo aaee/eiith (-25)-(-120) IIa, ui ni?eythoue
i?aeaeuaiith ia 10-30 % i?oeiino? iaoa??aeo iniiae.

8. Iieacaii aenieo ciinino?ee?noue ?ic?iaeaieo iie?eoo?a a oiiaao oa?oy
eiacaiiy, aa?aceaiiai, aaci-, a?ae?iaa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy ? eaa?oaoe??.
Aeyaeaii, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? aeie? AO a?ae 40 aei 100 % cia/aiiy
i?oeiino? c/aieaiiy iie?eooy c iniiaith ca?eueoothoueny o 1,7-2,2 ?aca,
ciinino?ee?noue i?e aaciaa?aceaiiio ciiooaaii? ? eaa?oaoe?? c?inoa? o
1,5-3,1 ?aca.

9. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aii?o?ciaai? ieaciia? iie?eooy c eiaaeueoiaeo ?
cae?cieo nieaa?a oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ii?aeiaiiyi aenieeo cia/aiue
iaai?oii? ?iaeoeoe?? ? iaai?oii? i?iieeiino?. Cia/aiiy oeeo ia?aiao??a
noaiiaeyoue 70-95 % a?ae ?oiueiai ??aiy aeey aii?oieo no??/ie
?aeaioe/iiai neeaaeo ? i?aeaeuothoueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy
aii?o?caoe??. Ii??aiyii c? no??/eaie oaiia?aoo?a Eth?? aeey iie?eoo?a
aeua ia 50-140 E, ui ? iane?aeeii i?enooiino? a iie?eooyo aeeth/aiue
e?enoae?/ieo oac.

10. Iieacaii aenieo ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue AOI c aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith, ca
??aiai yei? iecea iie?eoo?a neeaae?a Fe-Cr-P-C, Fe-Cr-Mo-B, Ni-Cr-Mo-B
ia iinooiathoueny, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a ? ia?aaa?oothoue i?iieneia?
nieaae oeio Oanoaeeie N, AO-1, iieaaeai? naiioethnoth/? nieaae.
Iieacaii, ui ?aaeeie ? iaoiaee AOI, ye? caaacia/othoue aeuee ia’?iiee
ai?no AO o iie?eoo?, coiiaeththoue ?oith iaeneiaeueio ei?ic?eio
no?ee?noue.

11. ?ic?iaeaii niaoe?ae?ciaai? ii?ioee, ii?ioeia? ae?ioe ? aio/e? oio?e
ia iniia? cae?ca, i?eaeth ? eiaaeueoo na??? AIIOAE aeey AOI
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ? i?aai?ciaaii ?oi?e i?iieneiaee aeione.
Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo iaoa??ae?a ? oaoiieia?e aeey ci?oeiaiiy ?
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeaoaeae aaoiiia?eueiiai, cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo,
a?ae?iaia?aoo?e, ao?iai? oaoi?ee, aoce?a ? eiino?oeoe?e, ui i?aoeththoue
a aia?aaoeoe? ? o?i?/i?e i?iieneiaino? aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe ?ano?n
?oiuei? ?iaioe, iie?ioeoe oaoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a ?
i?eeaaeiai? oaoi?ee.

Nienie iniiaieo i?aoeue aaoi?a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Eoieoeeee TH.A., Ei?aeee A.I., Ai?enia TH.N. Iae?enoaeee/aneea
iaoaeee/aneea iaoa?eaeu e iie?uoey a oaoieea. — E.: Oaoi?ea, 1988.-198
n.

Anoaoia A.A., Ei?aeee A.I., *a?iuoia A.A. Aeaoiiaoeeiiiia iaiueaiea
aii?oiuo e iee?ie?enoaeee/aneeo iie?uoee. – Eeaa: I-ai “Ciaiea” ONN?,
1990. – 20 n.

Ei?aeee A.I. Oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec oneiaee aii?oecaoeee iaoaeee/aneeo
nieaaia i?e aacioa?ie/aneii iaiueaiee. I. Ii?aaeaeaiea nei?inoae
ioeaaeaeaiey aeenia?niiai iaiueaiiiai iaoa?eaea // Ii?ioeiaay
iaoaeeo?aey.-1992, ?9. — N.56-62.

Ei?aeee A.I. Oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec oneiaee aii?oecaoeee iaoaeee/aneeo
nieaaia i?e aacioa?ie/aneii iaiueaiee. II. Oaciia?aciaaiea i?e
caoaa?aeaaaiee iaiueaiiiai iaoa?eaea // Ii?ioeiaay iaoaeeo?aey.-1992,
?10. — N.11-15.

Ei?aeee A.I. Oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec oneiaee aii?oecaoeee iaoaeee/aneeo
nieaaia i?e aacioa?ie/aneii iaiueaiee. III. I?aa?auaiey a
aii?oece?iaaiiii neia a i?ioeanna ia?aueaaiey iie?uoey // Ii?ioeiaay
iaoaeeo?aey. 1992.- N11. — N. 47-52.

Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I., A?eoeeea ss.I., Eoieoeeee TH.A. No?oeoo?iua
i?aa?auaiey a aacioa?ie/aneeo iie?uoeyo ec nieaaa Ni60Nb40 i?e iaa?aaa a
i?enoonoaee eenei?iaea // Ii?ioeiaay iaoaeeo?aey. 1987.- N2. — N. 21-26.

Eoieoeeee TH.A., Iaie?ianeee A.A., Ei?aeee A.I. Eciaiaiea eieaeueiuo
iaaieoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee a eeoii aii?oiii e iaiueaiiii nieaaao
Fe40Ni40B20 iinea iaoaie/aneie e oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee // Oeceea
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I?ieiiia A.A., Oaaoe TH.I., Oeaeei I.I., Ia?aiiaa I.I., Ei?aeee A.I.,
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Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I., Io?aoia A.I., Ai?eniaa A.E., Eiei?eia I.I.,
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I?ieiiia A.A., Oaaoe TH.E., Oeaeei I.I., Ia?aiiaa I.I., Ei?aeee A.I.,
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Ei?aeee A.I., Eoieoeeee TH.A., Ai?enia TH.N. e ae?. No?oeoo?iua
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Eoieoeeee TH.A., Ei?aeee A.I., Iaie?ianeee A.A. I?aa?auaiey a
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Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I., Eeueaiei A.A. Aeeyiea oeueo?acaoeiaie
ia?aaioee ia no?oeoo?o e naienoaa aii?oii-e?enoaeee/aneeo iie?uoee ec
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Oeaeei I.I., I?ieiiia A.A., Ia?aiiaa I.I., Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I.,
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Ai?enia TH.N., Anoaoia A.A., Ei?aeee A.I., *a?iuoia A.A., Ai?eniaa A.E.,
Aoaaiei A.A. Aeeyiea ninoaaa aeaoiie?othuae n?aaeu ia oi?ie?iaaiea
aii?oii-e?enoaeee/aneeo iie?uoee // Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea. – 1993. — ?6.
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Oeaeei I.I., I?ieiiia A.A., Ia?aiiaa I.I., Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I.,
Oa?aieianeay A.I. Oa?ie/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea iaeeii/iie /anoeoeu n
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Oeaeei I.I., I?ieiiia A.A., Ia?aiiaa I.I., Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I.,
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Ai?eniaa A.E., Aia?ee A.A., Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I., Ai?aeaiue A.I.,
Ai?enia A.A., Iao?ia N.A. Aeeyiea oneiaee ieaciaiiiai iaiueaiey ia
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Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I., Eicueyeia E.A. Aaciieaiaiiua iie?uoey ec
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Ai?enia TH.N., Ai?eniaa A.E., Eicueyeia E.A., Ei?aeee A.I., Aia?ee A.A.
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Ai?enia TH.N., Eicueyeia E.A., Ei?aeee A.I., Ieoe E.A., Aia?ee A.A.
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Eicueyeia E.A., Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I., Ieoe E.A. Iieo/aiea
iie?uoee n aunieei niaea?aeaieai aii?oiie oacu i?e aaciieaiaiiii
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1996. — ?7. — N.23-26.

Eicueyeia E.A., Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I. Noieeinoue aii?oece?iaaieo
aaciieaiaiiuo iie?uoee ec ii?ioeiauo i?iaieie nenoaiu Fe-B a oneiaeyo
aaciaa?aceaiiai eciaoeaaiey. // Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea. — 1996. — ?9. —
N.27-29.

Eicueyeia E.A., Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I. Noieeinoue aii?oece?iaaieo
aaciieaiaiiuo iie?uoee ec ii?ioeiauo i?iaieie nenoaiu Fe-B a oneiaeyo
aa?aceaiiai eciaoeaaiey. // Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea. — 1996. — ?11. —
N.21-23.

Eicueyeia E.A., Ai?enia TH.N., Ei?aeee A.I., Eoieoeeee TH.A. Iaaieoiua
naienoaa aaciieaiaiiuo iie?uoee ec ii?ioeiauo i?iaieie AIIOAE 102. //
Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea. — 1996. — ?12. — N.21-25.

Borisov Yu., Borisova A., Korzhyk V., Panko M. Structure and properties
of thermal sprayed coatings of powders Fe-C-Si // Proc. Thermal Spraying
Conference TS’96 (Essen). – 1996. – P.106-109.

Borisov Yu., Korzhye V. Internal stresses in plasma coatings with an
amorphous structure // ITSC’98 (Nice).-1998. -P. 693-697.

Iiia?e iniiaieo aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa oa iaoaio?a ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe??: a.n. N?N?: 1312852, 1317766, 1734296, 1570337, 1577382,
1767010, iaoaioe Oe?a?ie: 4541, 4542, 10595, 10596, 15670, 15671.

Aiioaoe?y

Ei?aeee A.I. Iaoeia? oa oaoiieia?/i? iniiae aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy
aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a ?c iaoaeaaeo nieaa?a.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.03.06 “Caa?thaaiiy oa nii??aeiai? oaoiieia??” –
?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?. I. Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaee oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? oa iaoaeaaeo iaoa??ae?a aeey iaianaiiy
aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a c aii?oiith no?oeoo?ith ?c i?aeaeuaieie
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa aeaeo?io?ce/ieie aeanoeainoyie.

A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iai?yi a oaoiieia?? aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy,
ui a?oioo?oueny ia i?iaiicoaaii? i?ioean?a oaieiia?aiino oa no?oeoo?iiai
noaio iie?eoo?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae iniiaieo oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ?
aeai?o ia iniia? oeueiai iioeiaeueieo neeaae?a oa ?aaeei?a iaieeaiiy,
ye? caaacia/othoue iaeneiaeueio aii?o?caoe?th iaieeaieo oa??a.
Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? c/aieaiiy aacioa?i?/ieo
iie?eoo?a c iniiaith, aoiieeai? i?oeiino?, ciini- oa ei?ic?eii?
no?eeino?, iie?auaiiy iaai?oii’yaeeo oa?aeoa?enoee ?c c?inoaiiyi a ieo
ai?noo aii?oii? oace. Cai?iiiiiaaii niaoe?ae?ciaai? iaoa??aee na???
“AIIOAE” oa oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy aii?o?ciaaieo
iie?eoo?a, aeniea aoaeoeai?noue yeeo iaa?oioiaaia oai?aoe/ii ?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoe/ii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aacioa?i?/ia iaieeaiiy, iie?eooy, aii?oia no?oeoo?a,
iaoaeaa? nieaae, i?ioeane oaieiia?aiino, aeanoeaino?, no?oeoo?a.

Abstract

Korzhyk V.M. Scientific and technological principles of thermal spraying
of amorphized coatings from metal alloys.

Thesis for a degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences in speciality
05.03.06 «Welding and Related Technologies» — E. O. Paton Electric
Welding Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv,
Ukraine, 1999.

The work involved is dedicated to investigation, development and
application of the technology and metal materials for thermal spraying
of coatings with an amorphous structure, improved physical-mechanical
and special magnetic properties.

The work relates to the development of a new area in the technology of
thermal spraying, which is based on prediction of the heat transfer
processes and structural state of the coatings depending upon the basic
technological factors and the appropriate selection of optimal spraying
compositions and process parameters to ensure maximum amorphization of
the layers. Relationships of an increase in strength of adhesion of
thermal spray coatings to the substrate, their fatigue strength, wear
and corrosion resistance and improvement of magnetically soft
characteristics with an increase in the amorphous phase content of the
coatings have been established. Specialized consumables of the «AMOTEK»
series and techniques are proposed for thermal spraying of the
amorphized coatings, whose high efficiency has been scientifically
grounded and proved in practice.

Key words: thermal spraying, coatings, amorphous structure, metal
alloys, heat transfer processes, properties, structure.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ei?aeee A.I. Iao/iua e oaoiieiae/aneea iniiau aacioa?ie/aneiai iaiueaiey
aii?oece?iaaiuo iie?uoee ec iaoaeee/aneeo nieaaia.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.03.06 “Naa?ea e ?iaenoaaiiua oaoiieiaee” — Einoeooo
yeaeo?inaa?ee ei. A. I. Iaoiia IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai enneaaeiaaiey, ?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiea
oaoiieiaee, a oaeaea iaoaeee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia aeey iaianaiey
aacioa?ie/aneeo iie?uoee (AOI) n aii?oiie no?oeoo?ie iiauoaiiuie
oeceei-iaoaie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, niaoeeaeueiuie iaaieoiuie
naienoaaie.

A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea a oaoiieiaee aacioa?ie/aneiai
iaiueaiey, eioi?ia iniiaaii ia i?iaiice?iaaiee i?ioeannia oaieiia?aiina
e no?oeoo?iiai ninoiyiey caueoiuo iie?uoee a caaeneiinoe io iniiaiuo
oneiaee oaoiieiaee e auai?a ia iniiaa yoiai iioeiaeueiuo ninoaaia e
?aaeeiia iaiueaiey, iaania/eaathueo iaeneiaeueioth aii?oecaoeeth
iaiueaiiuo neiaa ec ii?ioeia, ii?ioeiauo i?iaieie e aeaeeo oio?ia.

?ac?aaioai eiiieaen oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae i?ioeannia
oaieiia?aiina e no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey i?e oi?ie?iaaiee iaiueaiiuo neiaa
i?eiaieoaeueii e neo/ayi caoaa?aeaaaiey aaeeie/iuo iaiueaiiuo /anoeoe e
eo niaieoiiinoe a oe?ieeo a?aiaiiuo eioa?aaeao, onoaiiaeaiu iauea
caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey aii?oiie no?oeoo?u i?e AOI e ii?aaeaeythuea
oaeoi?u aii?oecaoeee iie?uoee. Noi?ioee?iaaii iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea
aii?oecaoeee iaoaeee/aneeo nieaaia i?e aacioa?ie/aneii iaiueaiee,
ia?aie/eaathuaa eioa?aaeu eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u iaiueyaiie /anoeoeu ia
noaaeeyo iaa?aaa, aeaeaeaiey e nioaea?aiey n iniiaie. Iieacaii, /oi
i?eioeei iioeiecaoeee ?aaeeiia aacioa?ie/aneiai iaiueaiey ii i?eciaeo
“eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaea (EEI)=max” niaeanoaony n
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aii?oecaoeee e iaania/eaaao iaeneiaeueiia iauaiiia
niaea?aeaiea aii?oiie oacu ZAO a iaiueaiiii iie?uoee. Ii?aaeaeaiu
?aoeeiiaeueiua ?aaeeiu ieaciaiii-aeoaiaiai, aaciieaiaiiiai,
yeaeo?iaeoaiaiai, aeaoiiaoeeiiiiai e eiioeuenii-ieaciaiiiai iaiueaiey ia
i?eia?a nieaaia nenoaiu Fe-B n eniieueciaaieai ?acee/iuo oeiia ?aai/eo
aacia, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho cia/aiey ZAO = 75-100 %. Oai?aoe/anee
iainiiaaia e yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaia aiciiaeiinoue iiauoaiey
niaea?aeaiey AO a aacioa?ie/aneeo iie?uoeyo ca n/ao naa?ocaoeiauo no?oe,
eniieueciaaiey ?acee/iuo niiniaia ?aaoee?iaaiey oaiia?aoo?u iniiau e
ninoaaa n?aaeu, caueoiuo ianaaeie, a oaeaea a neo/aa i?eiaiaiey aeey
iaiueaiey ii?ioeiauo i?iaieie e aeaeeo oio?ia.

Eco/aii aeeyiea nenoaiu eaae?iaaiey iaiueyaiuo iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa Fe,
Ni, Co ia iauaiiia niaea?aeaiea AO e ninoaa e?enoaeee/aneeo oac a
aacioa?ie/aneeo iie?uoeyo. Iieacaii, /oi iaeneiaeueiay aii?oecaoeey i?e
AOI ii?ioeia, ii?ioeiauo i?iaieie e aeaeeo oio?ia Fe-B e Ni-B
aeinoeaaaony aeey cayaoaeoe/aneeo ninoaaia n niaea?aeaieai ai?a 20-27
ia.%. Iaia?oaeai yooaeo iiauoaiey niaea?aeaiey AO a iie?uoeyo ia 10-20 %
i?e eaae?iaaiee iaiueyaiuo iaoa?eaeia ?aaeeicaiaeueiuie iaoaeeaie (?CI)
(0,2-0,8 ia.%) i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii nieaeaiee eo ieeneaiiinoe e ii?enoinoe
a 1,3-1,9 ?ac. I?aaeeiaeaiu i?eioeeiu eaae?iaaiey ai?niaea?aeaueo
iaoa?eaeia aeey AOI aii?oece?iaaiiuo iie?uoee, ?aaeaiaioe?othuea
noiia?iia niaea?aeaiea a ieo B, Si, P, C, o?iaaiue aeiaaaie ?CI,
niioiioaiea eiee/anoaa ai?a e eaae?othueo yeaiaioia. Eco/aia oiieay
no?oeoo?a aii?oiie oacu a aacioa?ie/aneeo iie?uoeyo. Iieacaii, /oi i?e
aii?oecaoeee nieaaia a i?ioeanna AOI i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey eae a
aeeaeiai ii?yaeea, oae e a eo yeaeo?iiiie no?oeoo?a. Iaia?oaeai yooaeo
oaciaiai ?anneiaiey aii?oiie no?oeoo?u a iauaiao iaiueaiiuo neiaa, a
neo/aa eniieueciaaiey ninoaaia, iiaeaa?aeaiiuo eioaineaiiio ieeneaieth.

Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi a aii?oece?iaaiiuo iie?uoeyo oi?ie?othony
i?aeiouanoaaiii inoaoi/iua iai?yaeaiey naeaoey aaee/eiie (-25)-(-120)
IIa, niinianoaothuea iiauoaieth ia 10-30 % onoaeinoiie i?i/iinoe
iaoa?eaea iniiau. Onoaiiaeaia aunieay eciininoieeinoue ?ac?aaioaiiuo
iie?uoee a oneiaeyo o?aiey neieueaeaiey, aa?aceaiiai, aaci-,
aeae?iaa?aceaiiai eciaoeaaiey e eaaeoaoeee e eo ei??iceiiiay noieeinoue.
Iieacaii, /oi aii?oece?iaaiiua ieaciaiiua iie?uoey ec eiaaeueoiauo e
aeaeaciuo nieaaia oa?aeoa?ecothony ni/aoaieai aunieeo cia/aiee iaaieoiie
eiaeoeoeee e iaaieoiie i?iieoeaaiinoe. Cia/aiey yoeo ia?aiao?ia
ninoaaeytho 70-95 % io eo o?iaiy aeey aii?oiuo eaio eaeaioe/iiai ninoaaa
e iiauoathony n oaaee/aieai noaiaie aii?oecaoeee. Ii n?aaiaieth n
eaioaie oaiia?aoo?a Eth?e aeey iie?uoee auoa ia 50-140 E, /oi yaeyaony
neaaenoaeai i?enoonoaey a iie?uoeyo aeeth/aiee e?enoaeee/aneeo oac.

Iaia?oaeaia oaiaeaioeey oaaee/aiey i?i/iinoe noeaieaiey AOI n iniiaie,
eo onoaeinoiie i?i/iinoe, eciini- e ei??iceiiiie noieeinoe ii ia?a
iiauoaiey iauaiiiai niaea?aeaiey a ieo AO. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e
oaaee/aiee ZAO io 40 aei 100 % aaee/eia i?i/iinoe noeaieaiey iie?uoey n
iniiaie oaaee/eaaaony a 1,7-2,2 ?aca, eciininoieeinoue i?e
aaciaa?aceaiii eciaoeaaiee e eaaeoaoeee aic?anoaao a 1,5-3,1 ?aca,
ei??iceiiiay noieeinoue – ia iaiaa /ai a 2 ?aca, iaaieoiay
i?iieoeaaiinoue – a 2,1-3,5 ?aca.

?ac?aaioaiu niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ii?ioee, ii?ioeiaua i?iaieiee e aeaeea
oio?u ia iniiaa aeaeaca, ieeaey e eiaaeueoa aeey AOI aii?oece?iaaiiuo
iie?uoee e i?aaieciaai eo i?iiuoeaiiue auione. I?eiaiaiea ?ac?aaioaiiuo
iaoa?eaeia e oaoiieiaee aeey oi?i/iaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaoaeae
aaoiiiaeeueiiai, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa, aeae?iaiia?aoo?u,
ao?iaie oaoieee, oceia e iai?oaeiaaiey, yenieoaoe?oaiiai a yia?aaoeea e
oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iicaieeei iiauneoue ?ano?n eo ?aaiou
oeo/oeoue oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeae e i?eai?iie
oaoieee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aacioa?ie/aneia iaiueaiea, iie?uoea, aii?oiay
no?oeoo?a, iaoaeee/aneea nieaau, i?ioeannu oaieiia?aiina, naienoaa,
no?oeoo?a.

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