?inoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa

Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y aa?a?ieo iaoe

E?ANI?IEIA Na?a?e Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 633.174:631.5

Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia??

ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai a oiiaao iaaeinoaoiueiai

? iano?eeiai caieiaeaiiy i?ai?/iiai

Noaio Oe?a?ie

06.01.09 — ?ineeiieoeoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia A?ano?anuee?e aeine?aei?e noaioe?? ?inoeoooo
ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI a 1978-1998 ??.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e OAAI Aaae/
Aiaoie?e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

?inoeooo ei?i?a OAAI,
aee?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e OAAI Oeeeia
Aaeaioei Na?a?eiae/, ?inoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaiaeue Ieeiea
Aiae??eiae/, E?einueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e ?ineeiieoeoaa oa ian?iieoeoaa

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Ua?aaeia A?eoi?
sseiae/, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?ineeiieoeoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa, o?c?ieia??
?ineei i aioai?ee, i. Aeiii?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “_4_“ _/a?aiy_ 1999 ?. i _13_aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.08.353.01 a ?inoeooo?
ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI ca aae?anith: 320027, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
aoe. Aeca?aeeinueeiai, 14; oaeaoii 45-02-36

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai

ainiiaea?noaa.

A?aeaoee ia aaoi?aoa?ao i?ineii iaaeneeaoe a aeaio i?ei??ieeao,
cana?ae-/aieo i?aeienii ? ia/aoeith.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_2_” __o?aaiy__ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ____________
I.Ae.A?otho

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue. A i?ai?/iiio Noaio Oe?a?ie iniiaiei aeaea?aeii
caaacia/aiiy oaa?eiieoeoaa oo?aaeiei ca?iii, a?oaeie ? nieiaeoeie
ei?iaie ? ca?iia? eieinia?, eoeo?oaeca, iaeii??/i? ? aaaaoi??/i? o?aae.
A iinooeea? ?iee oe? eoeueoo?e iii?oii cieaeothoue ??aaiue a?iaeaeiino?,
oiio aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith iinooino?ee?noth ? ??ciiiai?oi?noth
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy (ca?ii, neein, caeaiee ei?i, oaoi?/i?
oe?e? oa ?i.). ?icoe?aiiy iin?aieo ieiu ? i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ni?ai
iaiaaeo?oueny oei, ui ?ai?oa ?ic-?iaeai? ? ?aeiiaiaeiaai? oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy ia caaacia/othoue iiaii? ?aae?caoe?? ??aiy iioaioe?eii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineei, ine?eueee ia a?aoi-aothoue aca?iica’ycie
a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oe??? eoeueoo?e c i?e?iae-iei aa??thaaiiyi
iiaiaeieo oiia ii ?ieao. Inoaii? ? coiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiue ii aa?ia?ieia?/iiio iaa?oiooaaiith ? ?ic?iaoe?
aa-?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a, ye? a ni?eyee ciaioaiith iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ni?ai.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ii oai?
aee-na?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oaiaoe/iiai ieaio
?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ca 1978-1998 ??. ? aeeiioaaeeny ca
Aea?aeaaiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?ia?aiith “I?iaeiaieuenoai 95” (? ae.?.
0194U01288): i?iaeoe “Ca?ii”, “Ca?iiaee eiiieaen 2000”, “Ei?ie ?
ei?iiaee a?eie”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia iniia? aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ia-?aaeaa/aeiny anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? aieeao iniiaieo iiaiaeieo oiia
ia iniaeeaino? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue ni?ai ?,
aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaen i?eeii?a iioei?caoe??
oaoiieia?? eiai ae?iuoaaiiy ia ca?ii, neein, caeaiee ei?i ? oaoi?/i?
oe?e? a oiiaao iaaeinoaoiueiai ? iano?eeiai caieiaeaiiy. Iaea?aeai?
aeai? noaee i?aenoaaith aeey iiaeeaeaiiai aiae?co ??aiy aio?iiiaaiiiai
aieeao ia i?aeaeuaiiy aai iineaaeaiiy aaeaioeaiino? ?ineei ni?ai aei
ci?ie a?ae?ioa?i?/ieo oae-oi??a ? iie?auaiiy oiia aeei?enoaiiy eiai
iin?aaie ?ano?n?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua oeyoii iioei?caoe?? aeaiaio?a
oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy.

A aeine?aeaeaiiyo ae??ooaaeenue oae? caaea/?: i?iaaaeaiiy
noaoenoe/ii-ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aaaaoi??/iiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iaoa??aeo ? aecia/aiiy ?aaeoe?? ?ineei ia aa??thaaiiy ie?aieo aeaiaio?a
iiaiaee ii ?ieao; anoaiiaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?inoo, ?icaeoeo ? oi?ioaaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineei ni?ai i?e n?aa? i?ney ??cieo iiia?aaeiee?a;
aea/aiiy iiaeeeaino? i?i?iae?caoe?? iniiaiiai ? oaeineiiaeaiiy
ia?aaeiin?aiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?e canoinoaaii? aa?a?oeeae?a; ?ic?iaea
oiia iaea?aeaiiy iiaiioe?iieo noiae?a ni?ai i?e aen?a? ian?iiy ??ciiai
eeano iin?aiiai noaiaea?oo ? a ca’yceo c i?eeiiaie aeiaeyaeo ca
iin?aaie; ?ic?iaea caoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea ye o aeiiin?aiee ia??iae, oae ? i?e i?aeaeeaeaii? i?ioyaii
aaaaoaoe?? ni?ai; aecia/aiiy ni?oiai? ?aaeoe?? ??cieo a?ioei?a ni?ai ia
no?iee n?aae, oi?io ? aaee/eio ieiu? aeeaeaiiy ?ineei; aeyaeaiiy
niinia?a i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ni?ai a ai?iouea? c
ao?’yiaie a aa?ioeaiic?; anoaiiaeaiiy no?ie?a i?iaaaeaiiy aeaneeaoe??
iin?a?a ??cieie i?aia?aoaie, iioeiaeueieo no?ie?a oa niinia?a
cae?aiiy a?iaeath ni?ai i?e ae?iuoaaii? ia ca?ii a nooe?eueieo iin?aao;
aeiiii?/ia ? a?iaia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea canoinoaaiiy ?ioaineaii? ?
aia?aicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaee ciiao iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe iioei?ciaaio oaoiieia?th ae?iuoaaiiy
ni?ai ia ca?ii, neein, caeaiee ei?i ? oaoi?/i? oe?e? aeey oiia
iaaeinoaoiuei-ai ? iano?eeiai caieiaeaiiy .

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co noaio ? oaiaeaioe?e ae?iaieoeoaa ni?ai a
??cieo e?a?iao ? aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?eueiinoue ca?eueoaiiy iin?aieo ieiu ni?ai a
iinooeeaeo oiiaao noaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie caiinoue eoeo?oaece.
Canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a ei?aeyoe?eiiai ? ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?c?a aeey
ii??aiyiiy iaea?aeaieo a aeine?aeao aeaieo c aeeiai?eith iniiaieo
iaoai?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a aeicaieeei aia?oa aecia/eoe aca?iica’ycee i?ae
i?iaeoeoeai?noth ni?ai ? a?ae?ioa?i?/ieie oiiaaie ia i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe??
? ie?aieo i?aeoacieo ia??iae?a. Aecia/aii i?noea ni?ai a n?aici?i? ?
iieacaii, ui ?c ca?iioo?aaeieo eoeueoo? (y?ee y/i?iue, eoeo?oaeca ?
ni?ai) aeey ia?an?ao iceieo eoeueoo? ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?aiiueinoeae?
ni?oe ni?ai. Aeiaaaeaii iaaeioe?euei?noue cai?ie i?aiee aaciieeoeaaei
aai ioeueiaei ia?ia?oeii a?oioo ? aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? niiniae
ia?aaeiin?aiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, ye? caaacia/othoue aenieo
aoaeoeai?noue aa?a?oeeae?a ? iaea?aeaiiy ae?oaeieo noiae?a ni?ai.
?ic?iaeaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii caoiaee ii noaa?e?caoe?? eiao?oe??io?a
aeei?enoaiiy acioo oa oinoi?o ?c aeia?ea o ??ci? ca caieiaeaiiyi ?iee.
?ic?iaeaii caoiaee ii i?aeaeuaiith no?eeino? ?ineei aei iaaaoeaiiai
aieeao iani?eyoeeaeo oiia o ia??iae n?aaa-noiaee, ye? aeicaieythoue
ciaioeoe ??cieoeth i?ae eaai?aoi?iith ? iieueiaith noiae?noth ian?iiy oa
noi?ioaaoe iioeiaeueio aonoioo ?ineei. Aia?oa aecia/aia ni?oiaa
?aaeoe?y ? anoaiiaeaia aeeoa?aioe?eia oi?ia ? aaee/eia ieiu? aeeaeaiiy
?ineei a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ni?o?a ? a?a?eae?a,
iai?yio ?o ainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy oa ??aiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo.
Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? ? aeiionoei? no?iee n?aae ??cieo ca
nei?inoeae?noth ni?o?a ca?iiaiai ? a?ie/iiai ni?ai, ui caaacia/o?
iaeneiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy a?iee?iaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a ciie. Iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaai? caoiaee iie?ioaiiy ei?iiai? oe?iiino? caeaii? iane
ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai a?a?eaea i?e ae?iuoaaii? eiai a noi?oeao ?c
aia?aioii, anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? niiniae ?ici?uaiiy oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
eiiiiiaio?a, ye? caaacia/othoue iaee?aua ii?aeiaiiy ?o a?ieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae a noi?nieo iin?aao. Oaeineiiaeai? niiniae i?aeaeuaiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? iin?a?a ni?ai a ai?iouea? c ao?’yiaie i?e
aacaa?a?oeeaei?e oaoiieia?? eiai ae?iuoaaiiy. ?ic?iaeai? ?aaeaiaioe
canoinoaaiiy ??cieo aeaneeaio?a caeaaeii a?ae no?ie?a aeei?enoaiiy ?
aecia/aii ?o aieea ia ye?noue ian?iiy ni?ai. Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei?
no?iee cae?ai-iy ni?ai ia ca?ii i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?aiiueinoeaeeo ni?o?a o
nooe?eueieo iin?aao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia iniaenoi
aaoi?ii ia aac? eaai?aoi?ieo ? iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a. I?ae iaoeiaei
ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a ? ca eiai o/anoth aecia/aeeny iai?yie
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeai? i?ia?aia ? noaie aeine?ae?a, i?iaaaeai?
aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ?o iaoaiaoe/ia
ia?iaea, ?ic?iaeai? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ae?iaieoeoao,
i?aeaioiaeaia ? ioi?ieaia aeena?oaoe?y.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe oa?eoee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith o “Iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaio nenoaio ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?“
(Aei?i?i-iao?ianuee, 1987); o “I?aeoe/ia ea??aieoeoai ii inai?iith
?ioaineaieo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy iieueiaeo eoeueoo?”
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1987); o “Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio nenoaio
caiea?ianoaa Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?“ (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1988);
?aae?ciaai? o ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo “sse ae?iuoaaoe aenie? a?iaea? ca?iiaeo
eoeueoo? o eieaeoeaieo ? oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noaao noaiiai? ciie
Oe?a?ie” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1993); o “Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo caoiaeao
ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1996).

?ic?iaee aaoi?a ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy a 1995-1998 ??. o
ainiiaea?noaao noaiiaiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie ia ieiu? 14,5 oen. aa, a oiio
/ene? o Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e iaeano? ia ieiu? 2,6 oen. aa.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaea?aeaee
iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia can?aeaiiyo A/aii? ?aaee ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa (1981-1998 ??.), ?inoeoooo ei?i?a (1994-1998 ??.),
eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo ?aaeao (N?ioa?iiieue-Eeai?i?ii, 1994;
Oa?nii-Ieeiea?a, 1995; E??iaia?aae-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997),
?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo (A?iieoey, 1995; Ee?a, 1995),
Ananithcieo ia?aaeao (Iineaa, 1988; Ca?iia?aae, 1990), ia ?in?enuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? (Aieaia?aae, 1992), i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo (A?iieoey,
1994, 1998; Oiaiue, 1998).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?iiaaoaaeenue ii oaeaaa/aiith, ?aae?i, o
ia??iaee/i?e i?an?, a eaeoe?yo ia nai?ia?ao ? eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? ea??aiee?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a ainiiaea?noa noaiiai? ciie
Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ii oai? aeena?oaoe??
iioae?-eiaaii 73 iaoeiaeo i?aoe?, c ieo o aeo?iaeao — 33, iaoeiaeo
ca??ieeao — 11, a ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo ? a?ioo?ao — 16, iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe?e — 13.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 324 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny c 12 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
i?iiiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoao. Aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae i?aaenoaaeaiee 111
oaaeeoey-ie, 11 ?ethno?aoe?yie ? 34 aeiaeaoeaie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 518 iaeiaioaaiue, a o. /. 68
?iicaiieo.

OIIAE, IAOIAeEEA ? IA’?EOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia ?iaioe aeeiioaaeanue a 1978-1998 ??. ia
A?ano?anuee?e aeine?aei?e noaioe?? ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa
OAAI, yea ?icoaoiaaia a I’yoeoaonueeiio ?aeii? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?
iaeano?. Ca ciiaeueiei ?iciiae?eii oeae ?aeii iaeaaeeoue aei i?ai?/ii?
/anoeie noaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie.

A?oioiaee iie?ea i?aaenoaaeaiee /i?iicaiii cae/aeiei aaaeeinoaeeieiaei.
Ai?no aoiono a i?iiio oa?? noaiiaeoue 4,0-4,5%, aaeiaiai acioo —
0,23-0,26, oinoi?o — 0,11-0,12 ? eae?th — 2,0-2,5%. ?aaeoe?y a?oioiaiai
?ic/eio — iaeo?aeueia (?H aiaeii? aeoyaeee aei??aith? 6,5-7,0).
Iiaeeiath/ee a?oioiaee eiiieaen i?aaenoaaeaiee eaeueoe??i (29,9-31,2) ?
iaai??i (4,9-5,6 ia·aea ia 100 a a?oioo). Aieia?noue a’yiaiiy —
11,2-12,1%, a?oioia? aiaee caeyaathoue ia aeeaei? 8-12 i.

Ee?iao — iii??ii eiioeiaioaeueiee ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaeinoaoi?i ?
iano?eeei caieiaeaiiyi. Na?aaeiueiaaaaoi??/ia noia iiaae?a — 455 ii, ca
?iee aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? ni?ai neeaaeaea 264 ii c
eieeaaiiyie a?ae 145 (1986 ?.) aei 368 ii (1980 ?.). Uiaei e?eoe/iiai
ia??iaeo aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy ?ineei ni?ai iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaeie aoee 1979,
1982, 1988, 1991oa 1997 ?iee, eiee a eeii?-na?ii? ?o aeiaaeaei a?ae 127
aei 171 ii. A iinooeea? ?iee ca oeae ia??iae e?euee?noue iiaae?a aoea a
1986 ?. — 56 ii, 1989 ?. — 45, 1990 ?. — 78, 1992 ?. — 19 ? a 1993 ?. —
33 ii.

Iaea?eueo aeniea oaiia?aoo?a (18-19iN) a ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ca
aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae ni?ai a?aei?/aeanue o 1979, 1981, 1986, 1988, 1996
? 1998 ?ieao. Iaaeinoaoiy oaieicaaacia/ai?noue ni?ai aoea a 1978, 1980,
1987, 1990 oa 1997 ?ieao, eiee oeae iieaciee aei??aithaaa a?aeiia?aeii —
16,0-17,3iN.

Iieueia? ? eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ca?aeii c i?eeiy-oeie
iaoiaeeeaie A.O.Eaeeia (1982), A.O.Ieeeoaiea (1982), A.A.Aeiniaoiaa
(1985, 1987), A.ss.Aiy?nueeiai, A.E.A?iieei (1985), a oaeiae
iaoiaee/ieie ?ic?iaeaie ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI (1980) ?
?inoeoooo ei?i?a OAAI (1997).

Oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai a?aeiia?aeaea ciiaeueiei ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yi.
Iieueia? ?iaioe aeeiioaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith na??eieo iaoei ? cia?yaeue
a iioeiaeuei? aa?ioaoi?/i? no?iee. Ieiua iin?aii? ae?eyiee noa-iiaeea
92,4-200 i2, iae?eiai? — 56,0-140 i2 i?e o?ueio-/ioe?ueio iiaoi?aiiyo,
?ici?uaiiy aa??aio?a nenoaiaoe/ia aai ?aiaeii?ciaaia.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee ?aeiiiaai? oa ia?niaeoeai? a i?ai?/iiio
Noaio Oe?a?ie ni?oe oa a?a?eaee ca?iiaiai, oeoe?iaiai, a?ie/iiai ni?ai
oa ni?ai-noaeaieia? a?a?eaee.

O?i?/i? aiae?ce c?ace?a a?oioo, ?ineei ? ca?ia aeeiioaaee o a?aeae?e?
i?aeaeuaiiy ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa oa ia
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e i?iaeoii-iiooeia?e noaioe?? o?i?caoe?? n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Ai?no ai?iieeneio o ca?i? ? caeai?e ian? ni?ai aecia/aany
o i?aeaoc?anueeiio oeaio?? i. Aei?i?iiao?ianueea.

A ia??iae i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a?aoiaoaaany aieea oaeoi??a, ye?
aea/aeeny, ia i?ioiaeaeaiiy oac aaaaoaoe??, eaai?aoi?io ? iieueiao
noiae?noue ian?iiy, eoueno?noue ? e?i?eiee i?e??no, oi?ioaaiiy ieiu?
een-oiai? iiaa?oi?, ai?no oei?io?eo, i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco,
a?ieia?/io aeoeai?noue ? aieia?noue a?oioo, aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy,
caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a, aeine?aeaeoaaee aiaeii?iieei?noue, u?euei?noue
? oaa?ae?noue a?oioo, i?iaiaeeee aeiiii?/io ? a?iaia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo
?aeiiaiaeiaaieo caoiae?a ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai. Iae?e a?iaeath caeaii? iane
oeoe?iaiai ni?ai ? ni?ai-noaeaieiaeo a?a?eae?a i?iaiaeeee oeyoii
neiooaaiiy ?ineei c iae?eiai? ieiu? ae?eyiie ? aecia/aiiy ?o aaae.
Ni?ai ia ca?ii cae?aee eiiaaeiii “Naiii”, aeo?ae a?iee?a aecia/aee
iaoiaeii “noaiaea?oiiai e?eueoey”.

IAA?OIOOAAIIss AeIOe?EUeIINO? AE?IUOAAIIss NI?AI

AeEss NOAA?E?CAOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAA OO?AAEIIAI CA?IA OA

CAEAII? IANE A OIIAAO IAAeINOAOIUeIAI CAIEIAEAIIss

Ca inoaii? 34 ?iee caaaeueia ieiua iin?ao ca?iiaiai ni?ai a na?o?
ca?eueoeeany c 38,5 aei 47,1 iei. aa. A na?aaeiueiio ca 1992-1996 ??.
aiia noaiiaeea 44,3 iei. aa (Fao production, 1994, 1996). A Ao?eoe? oeth
eoeueoo?o aen?aaee ia 21,65 iei. aa, a Ac?? — ia 14,83, a e?a?iao
I?ai?/ii? Aia?eee — ia 5,83 , a oiio /ene? o NOA — ia 4,05 iei. aa. A
iao /an a?eueoa 80% iin?a?a ni?ai a oe?e e?a?i? ?ici?uo?oueny a
“ni?aiaiio iiyn?“, eoaee aoiaeyoue ooaoe Iaa?anea, I?nno??, Eaican ?
Oaoan. A ?a?ii? ni?ai aen?aathoue ia 138 oen. aa. Caaaeyee noai?aiith
iiaeo a?a?eae?a, ?ic?iaeai ? ai?iaaaeaeaiith no/anii? oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy, a?iaeaei?noue ni?ai a na?o? a 1975-1996 ??. i?aeaeueeanue c
11,9 aei 14,1 oe/aa. Ca aaeiaei ae?iaieoeoaii ca?ia o na?o? (62,41 iei.
o) oey eoeueoo?a caeia? i’yoa i?noea i?ney ioaieoe?, ?eno, eoeo?oaece oa
y/iaith. Ia?oa i?noea ii oeueiio iieacieeo iaeaaeeoue NOA — 16,88 iei.
o, ??no eiai ianya?a aoa coiiaeaiee, ia?aaaaeii, ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy
a?iaeaeiino?. A 1941-1955 ??. aiia aei??aithaaea 11,8 oe/aa, a 1982 ?. —
37,1 ? a 1996 ?. — 42,4 oe/aa.

A Oe?a?i? ca?iiaa ni?ai ae?iuothoue o i?aaeaiieo ? oeaio?aeueieo
iaeanoyo. Ca ia??iae c 1950 ii 1985 ??. ieiua eiai iin?ao ?icoe?eeanue c
6,6 aei 89,6 oen. aa, iaeneiaeueiith aiia aoea o 1987 ?. — 93,5 oen. aa.
A 1989, 1990 ??. iin?ae nei?ioeeenue aei 26,1 i 26,9, a a 1993-1997 ??.
— aei 5,4-10,4 oen. aa. Na?aaeiuei??/ia ae?iaieoeoai ca?ia ni?ai ca
ia??iae 1950-1987 ??. ca?eueoeeinue a?ae 3,0 aei 132,8 oen. o, ui
caaacia/oaaeinue ?icoe?aiiyi ieiu? iin?ao ? c?inoaiiyi a?iaeaeiino? c
4,5 aei 14,2 oe/aa. Ia ii/aoeo 1988 ?. a i??o iiaeeaeaiiy e?ece a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? aaeiaee ca?? ca?ia ni?ai iinooiiai
ciaiooaaany.

Aiae?c aeeiai?ee iin?aieo ieiu oeoe?iaiai ni?ai ? ni?ai-noaeaiei-aeo
a?a?eae?a oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui aiie ia aeae?eythoueny ie?aii a
aea?aeaai?e noaoenoe/i?e ca?oiino?. Aeina?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai a ainiiaea?noaao noaiiaiai ?aa?iio ? ianyae ian?iiy,
ui ?aae?co?oueny, aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui oeoe?iaa ni?ai ?
ni?ai-noaeaieia? a?a?eaee aen?aathoue ia a?eueoeo ieiuao o ii??aiyii? c
ca?iiaei ni?ai. Ca iaoeie ?ic?aooieaie o 1982-1990 ??. aiie eieeaaeenue
a?ae 130 aei 200 oen. aa.

A oiiaao iaaeinoaoiueiai ? iano?eeiai caieiaeaiiy ni?ai ia?aaa?oo? ca
i?iaeoeoeai?noth eoeo?oaeco ? iiaea eiiiainoaaoe iaaeia?? oo?aaeiiai
ca?ia ? caeaieo ei?i?a o iinooeea? ?iee. A iaoeo aeine?aeao a
na?aaeiueiio ca 21 ??e (1978-1998) o?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaiai ni?ai
aei??aithaaea 51,3 oe/aa, a caeaii? iane oeoe?iaiai ni?ai 394 oe/aa,
oiae? ye o?iaeaei?noue eoeo?oaece noaiiaeea a?aeiia?aeii 45,7 ? 326
oe/aa . Aeey ia’?eoeaii? ? anaa?/ii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ae?iuoaaiiy
oeeo eoeueoo? a oiiaao iano?eeiai caieiaeaiiy iaie aoea ca?oiiaaia ?o
a?iaeaei?noue ii ?ieao a?aeiinii a?ae?ioa?i?/iiai eiao?oe??ioa ca
A.O.Naeyieiiaei (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

A?iaeaei?noue ni?ai ? eoeo?oaece a ??ci? ca oiiaaie

caieiaeaiiy ?iee (1978-1998)

AOE O?iaeaei?noue, oe/aa

?iee ca E?euee?noue ca?ia caeaii? iane

o?aaaiue- ?ie?a ca?iiaa eoeo- oeoe?iaa eoeo-

-aa?anaiue ni?ai ?oaeca ni?ai ?oaeca

Caieiaeai? ? iii??ii iinooeea? iiiaae 0,81 14 53,6 51,9 421 356

Iinooeea? 0,61-0,80 4 47,5 40,1 362 298

Aino?iii- nooeea? 0,30-0,60 3 46,2 35,2 329 236

A ?iee c aeinoaoiueith e?euee?noth iiaae?a ca?iiaa ni?ai ia?aaeuoaaei
eoeo?oaeco ca a?iaeaei?noth ca?ia ia 1,7 oe/aa (3,3%), a iinooeea? — ia
7,4 oe/aa (18,5%) ? o aino?iiinooeea? — ia 11,0 oe/aa (31,3%), a ca
a?iaeaei?noth caeaii? iane oeoe?iaa ni?ai a?aeiia?aeii — ia 18,3; 21,5;
39,4%.

Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeai? a 1983-1998 ??. ia I?eiiieuenuee?e,
Iaaaeaeei?anuee?e, Nio??anuee?e ? E?eie/ainuee?e ni?oiae?eueieoeyo, a
oaeiae a ainiiaea?noaao I’yoeoaonueeiai ?aeiio Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?
iaeano?.

Aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e na?oiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ni?ai oa noaio eiai
ae?i-uoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? aeaco? ia iiaeeea?noue oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy
oe??? eoeueoo?e aeey ci?oeiaiiy ei?iiai? aace oaa?eiieoeoaa a i?aaeaiieo
? oeaio?aeueieo iaeanoyo. Iaaeinoaoi? ? ianoaa?euei? ieiu? iin?ao ni?ai
ii ?ieao coiiaeai? iaaeiioe?ieith eoeueoo?e, iaiaaeaiei ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi
?aiiuei- noeaeeo ni?o?a ? a?a?eae?a, iaaeineiiae?noth oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy. A?iee?iaoe/i? oiia? noaiiai? ciie aeicaieythoue cia/ii
?icoe?eoe ieiu? iin?ao ca?iiaiai, oeoe?iaiai ni?ai ? ni?ai-noaeaieiaeo
a?a?eae?a, ui aacoiiaii aeicaieeoue noaa?e?coaaoe ae?iaieoeoai
oo?aaeiiai ca?ia ? caeaieo ei?i?a.

AIEEA A?Ae?IOA?I?*IEO OIIA IA ??NO, ?ICAEOIE ?

I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe NI?AI

A i?ioean? iioiaaiaco ?ineeie aacia?a?aii i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae aieea
eiiieaeno aeieia?/ieo oaeoi??a: iiaae?a, oaiia?aoo?e, aieiaino? a?oioo ?
iia?o?y, niiy/ii? ?aae?aoe?? oa ?i. I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue aoea
aenoio-oa ?iai/a a?iioaca, a ye?e ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui iaeiie/aiee
aaaaoi??/iee aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae o eiio?ieueieo aa??aioao
aeine?ae?a, ye? yaeythoue niaith ?yae aacia?a?aieo aeaieo, aeicaieeoue
aeyaeoe iia? caeiiii??iino? a ?aaeoe?? ?ineei ia iniiai? aeaiaioe
aa?ioaoi?ee ? a?ae?ioa?-i?/i? oiiae, ui neeaaeaeeny ye ia i?ioyc?
aaaaoaoe??, oae ? a ie?aieo i?ae-oacieo ia??iaeao. Iinoaiiaea ?
ae??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue oe?eeii aei?aaaeai?, ine?eueee aeine?aee a on?
?iee i?iaiaeeeeny i?e iaeiaeiaiaeo oiiaao — oeio a?oioo, ca ?aeeiith
oaoiieia??th ? iaoiaeeeith. A oeaio?? aeine?ae?a aoa ?ici?uaiee
iieueiaee aeiuii?? ? iaeaea a on? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue aeai? i?i
e?euee?noue iiaae?a noiaeeeeny c aeaieie Eii?na??anueei? iaoainoaioe??,
yea ciaoiaeeeany ia a?aenoai? 1,8 ei. Oea aea? i?aenoaao
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?acoeueoaoe ?? niinoa?aaeaiue aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeeiai?ee aeaiaio?a iiaiaee aaciina?aaeiuei a iieueiaeo aeine?aeao.

I?ioyaii 1979-1998 ??. ie aea/aee iniaeeaino? ?inoo, ?icaeoeo e
oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineei ni?ai c iaeii/aniei o?enoaaiiyi ii
iniiaieo ia??iaeao aaaaoaoe?? oaeeo iieaciee?a, ye ai?no i?iaeoeoeaii?
aieiae a a?oio?, noia aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a, oaiia?aoo?a ? a?aeiinia
aieia?noue iia?o?y. Iaea?aeai? aeai? aoee ia?iaeai? ??cieie iaoiaeaie
ei?aeyoe?eiiai ? ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co c aeei?enoaiiyi niaoeiaeueieo
eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai.

I?e c?noaaeaii? a?iaeaeiino? ni?ai c? nooiaiai aieiaica-aacia/aiino?
iin?a?a anoaiiaeaia i?yia caeaaei?noue i?ae oeeie iieacieea-ie
(r=0,614). A oiiaao i?ai?/iiai Noaio Oe?a?ie aaniyi? caiane aieiae a
a?oio? iathoue iaioa cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy a?iaeath ca?ia o
ii??a-iyii? c iiaaeaie a o?aai?-aa?ani?. A na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee
aeine?aeaeaiue ai?no i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae a iao?iaiio oa?? a?oioo
neeaaeaa 130,8 ii c eieeaaiiyie a?ae 76,0 aei 157,1 ii i?e eiao?oe??io?
aa??aoe?? 14,7%. *anoea a?oioiai? aieiae o aiaeiiio aaeain? iin?a?a
eieeaaeanue a?ae 17,1% (1980 ?.) aei 49,4% (1986 ?.).

Ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c ia aeyaea o?niiai ca’yceo i?ae ??aiai a?iaeaeiino?
ni?ai ? caianaie aieiae ia?aae n?aaith (r=0,361), a?eueoa caeaaei?noue
i?ae oeeie iieacieeaie a?aei?/aeanue o oac? aeeeaeaiiy aieioae
(r=0,429). Aeyaeaii, ui i?ae aaee/eiaie ca?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?
e?euee?noth iiaae?a o o?aai?-aa?ani? ?nio? iaeaeua i?yia caeaaei?noue c
iiaaeaie a eeii? (r=0,544) ? na?ii? (r=0,400), eiee a?aei?/a?oueny
iaeneiaeueia niiaeeaaiiy aieiae iin?aaie. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae
noiith iiaae?a ca aaaaoaoe?th ? ??aiai a?iaeaeiino? ni?ai noaiiaeoue
0,605.

?acoeueoaoe iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co na?ae/aoue, ui caaaeuei? aeo?aoe
aieiae iin?aaie ci?ithaaeeny ii ?ieao a?ae 2821 aei 4211 i3/aa
(eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? 14,6%) ? ciaoiaeeeeny a i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae
oiia aieiaica-aacia/aiino? ?ineei. Aca?iica’ycie oeeo iieaciee?a
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei eiao?oe??ioii ei?aeyoe?? (r=0,823). ??no
noia?iiai aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy o a?eueoino? ?ie?a noi?iaiaeaeoaaany
ca?eueoaiiyi a?iaeaeiino?. ?acii c oei, c ?? ?inoii aeo?aoe aieiae ia
oi?ioaaiiy 1 o ca?ia ciaiooaaeenue (r=0,821). I?e na?aaei?o aeo?aoao 743
i3 i?i?ioi neeaaeaa 449, iaeneioi 1371 i3 (eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? 34,6%).
Aeaiee ca’ycie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??aiyiiyi ?aa?an?? y = 83,3-0,45 o, aea
o — a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia, oe/aa; o — eiao?oe??io aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy, i3/o.

?acoeueoaoe aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i cia/ia eieeaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio a?oioo ? iia?o?y o ia??iae n?aaa-noiaee. I?e
na?aaeiueiaeiaia?e oaiia?aoo?? iia?o?y 18,5iN ? a?oioo ia aeeaei? 10 ni
— 20,7iN iiai? noiaee ?a?no?oaaee /a?ac 10 aei?a, a i?e oaiia?aoo??
a?oioo ? iia?o?y 15,7 oa 17,9iN — /a?ac 17 aei?a. Eiao?oe??ioe
ei?aeyoe?? i?ae oeeie iieacieeaie aei??aiththoue a?aeiia?aeii r=0,506 ?
0,563. Aecia/aii, ui ni?ai /ooeeaa iaa?oue aei ei?ioei/aniiai cieaeaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e; ?nio? aeayea caeaaei?noue i?ae ?? i?i?iaeueieie cia/aiiyie
? o?eaae?noth ia??iaeo n?aaa-noiaee (r=0,464). Aiae?c iaoai?ieia?/ieo
aeaieo na?ae/eoue oaeiae ? i?i cia/ia eieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y o
ia??iae oea?o?iiy-iiaia noeae?noue (eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? 18,6%)
(oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio ? e?eueeino? iiaae?a ia o?eaae?noue
ia??iaeo oea?o?iiy — iiaia noeae?noue oa aieia?noue ca?ia ni?ai
(1979-1998 ??.)

Na?aaeiueiaei- aiaa oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y, iN Iiaoi?- i?noue
?ie?a, % Coia aoaeoeaieo oaiia?aoo?, iN Noia iiaae?a, ii Ia??iae
oea?- o?iiy-iiaia noeae?noue, aei? Aieia?noue ca?ia, %

10,1-12,0 10,0 170,7 80,3 70 35,0

12,1-14,0 5,0 210,1 63,4 65 29,0

14,1-16,0 15,0 317,7 113,7 63 26,1

16,1-18,0 35,0 461,1 75,9 61 26,9

18,1-20,0 15,0 459,8 109,2 55 21,5

20,1-22,0 15,0 474,8 80,8 47 17,1

Na?aaei? — 402,4 83,7 58 24,2

Oi?ioaaiiy ca?ia ni?ai a a?eueoino? ?ie?a ii/eiaeinue o ia?o?e aeaeaae?
na?iiy, iiaia aec??aaiiy a?aei?/aia a e?ioe? aa?aniy — ia?o?e aeaeaae?
aeiaoiy. Aeyaeaia oaeiae caeaaei?noue i?ae o?eaae?noth ia??iaeo
oea?o?iiy-iiaia noeae?noue ca?ia ? oaiia?aoo?ith iia?o?y (r=0,611), i?e
aeeeth/aii? c caaaeueii? aea??ee aeaieo ca 1987 oa 1993 ??. (o oeae /an
aoee caii?icee), eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?aeaeuoaaany aei 0,721, a
aeaiee ca’ycie ae?aaeaany ??aiyiiyi ?aa?an?? o=104,4-2,6 o, aea o —
ia??iae oea?o?iiy — iiaia noeae?noue, aei?a, o — na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa
oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y, iN.

O 75% ?ie?a cae?aiiy a?iaeath ? caa??aaiiy ca?ia oneeaaeiththoueny eiai
aenieith aieia?noth, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y o ia??iae
oea?o?iiy — iiaia noeae?noue (r=0,744) ? oeae ca’ycie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
??aiyi-iyi ?aa?an?? y=63,31-2,64o, aea o — aieia?noue ca?ia ni?ai, %, o
— na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y, iN.

Ocaaaeueithth/e aeeeaaeaiee aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae, iiaeia
eiinoaooaaoe, ui i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei ni?ai nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ieie a?oioiai? aieiae ? aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a.
Oiio aeaiaioe oaoiieia?? iiaeii? aooe ni?yiiaai? ia iaeneiaeueia
ia-eiie/aiiy aieiae ca in?iiuei-ceiiaee ia??iae, ciaioaiiy ??
iai?iaeoeoeaieo aeo?ao ia aeia?iaoaaiiy ? niiaeeaaiiy ao?’yiaie. I?e
aec-ia/aii? iioeiaeueieo no?ie?a n?aae, caoiae?a ? niinia?a aeei?enoaiiy
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, oi?ie ? ?ici???a ieiu? aeeaeaiiy ie iaia’yceiai
a?aoiaoaaee ni?oiao ?aaeoe?th ?ineei ia ci?io ??aiy aieiaicaaacia/aiino?
i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? ? iniaeeai a ia??iae iaeneiaeueiiai
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy.

Cia/ia aa??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio ia i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe?? ni?ai
coiiaethaaei iaiaeiaeiao o?eaae?noue ia??iae?a n?aaa — noiaee, a oaeiae
oea?o?iiy — iiaia noeae?noue. Aiane?aeie oeueiai iii?oia i?noea a
?iaio? a?aeai-aeeoueny iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaiith caoiae?a, ye? ni?eythoue
i?aeaeuaiith aaeaioeaiino? ?ineei ni?ai aei aieeao iani?eyoeeaeo
oaeoi??a ciai?-oiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?ae /an ciaoiaeaeaiiy ian?iiy a
a?oio?, i?i?inoaiiy ? iiyae noiae?a. Aeey ciaioaiiy aia?aii?noeino?
ca?ia ?ic?iaeai? caoiaee ii cieaeaiith eiai aieiaino? a iieueiaeo
oiiaao, anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? no?iee ? niiniae cae?aiiy a?iaeath.

INIAEEAINO? ?INOO, ?ICAEOEO OA O?IAEAEI?NOUe

NI?AI A CAEAAEIINO? A?Ae IIIA?AAeIEE?A

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie ia?aaeaa/aeinue aea/eoe ?aaeoe?th ni?ai ia aiaeiee
?a-aeei a?oioo, ai?no aeaiaio?a i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy, caao?’yiai?noue
oa ?io? oaeoi?e i?e aen?a? i?ney ??cieo iiia?aaeiee?a c oei, uia
anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeuei? oa aeiionoei? eaiee n?aici?ie aeey ae?iuoaaiiy
eoeueoo?e.

Aaniyi? caiane aieiae a a?oio? aecia/aeenue ?? caeeoeaie i?ney cae?aiiy
iiia?aaeiee?a oa e?euee?noth iiaae?a a in?iiuei-ceiiaee ia??iae. A
na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aae n?aaith ni?ai ai?no aieiae a
oa?? a?oioo 0-100 ni i?ney iceii? ioaieoe? noaiiaea 135,3-137,1 ii,
eoeo?oaece ia neein — 138,3, niiyoieeo — 115,0 ii (oaae. 3). I?ney
eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii a?i aoa iaeaea oaeei, ye ? i?ney y?eo ca?iiaeo.
Iaeiaioa niiaeeaaiiy aieiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy 1 o ca?ia niinoa??aaeinue
i?e ?ici?uaii? ni?ai ii icei?e ioaieoe? (814-912 i3), iaeneiaeueia — ii
niiyoieeo (1204 i3), na?aaeia — i?ney eoeo?oaece (939-997 i3). A?eueoa
e?euee?noue i?o?ao?a o a?oio? iaeiie/oaaeanue i?ney iceii? ioaieoe?,
yeo aen?aaee ii ai?ioo, a oaeiae i?ney eoeo?oaece, ?ici?uaii? i?ney
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a aai ai?ioo. Iii?oii iaioei ?o ai?no aoa ia ae?eyieao,
aea ae?iuoaaany y?ee y/i?iue aai eoeo?oaeca i?ney ca?iiaeo eieiniaeo
eoeueoo?. Caiane ?ooiieo oi?i oinoi?o a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiia?aaeiee?a
ci?ithaaeeny a iaio?e i??? a ii??aiyii? c i?o?aoaie. A?eueoa e?euee?noue
oinoao?a a?aei?/aeanue i?ney iceii? ioaieoe?. I?e ?ici?uaii? ni?ai ii
eoeo?oaec? ia ca?ii ? i?ney ca?iiaeo eieiniaeo ai?no ?ooiiiai oinoi?o
aoa iaeaea iaeiaeiaei.

Iaeiaioee nooi?iue caao?’yiaiino? iin?a?a ni?ai aoa i?e n?aa? i?ney
iceii? ioaieoe? ii /i?iiio ia?o (3,4 oo./i2), a ?? aeaeiaiio neeaae?
ia?aaaaeaea ue?eoey cae/aeia. I?e cai?i? a oe?e eaioe? /i?iiai ia?o
ia ai?io ca?eueooaaeanue e?euee?noue inioo uaoeienoiai. I?e ?ici?uaii?
ni?ai i?ney eoeo?oaece e?euee?noue ao?’yi?a o eiai iin?aao noaiiaeea
5,2-6,2 oo./i2, i?ney y?iai y/iaith aai a?ana, ye? ae?iuoaaee ii
eoeo?oaec?, oeae iieaciee ca?eueooaaany aei 10,2-10,5 oo./i2, a a ?o
neeaae? c?inoaea /anoea ieo?th neciai.

Oaaeeoey 3

Ai?no i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae ia?aae n?aaith, aeaiaio?a aeeaeaiiy ?
a?iaeae-i?noue ca?ia ni?ai a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiia?aaeiee?a (na?aaei? ca
1988-1990 ??.)

Caiane aieiae Ai?no a oa?? a?oioo Eiao?oe??io O?iaeae-

Iiia?aaeieee a oa?? a?oioo 0-30 ni, ia/ea aiaeiniiaee- i?noue ca?-

0-100 ni, ii NO3 P2I5 E2I aaiiy, i3/o ia, oe/aa

Oeoe?ia? ao?yee-eoeo?oaeca ia neein 138,3 24,4 128 255 966 34,7

Iceia ioaieoey-eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii 129,9 22,5 123 247 1017 33,7

Eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii-y?ee y/i?iue 131,8 20,9 122 244 1078 31,0

Eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii-iaan 126,0 20,2 120 249 1052 30,8

Iceia ioaieoey-niiyoiee 115,0 18,2 113 251 1204 26,3

*i?iee ia?-iceia ioaieoey 135,3 23,1 126 248 841 39,2

Ai?io-iceia ioaieoey 137,1 25,5 132 252 912 37,1

Ai?io-eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii 129,4 22,4 125 247 939 35,2

ss?ee y/i?iue-eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii 125,6 20,9 121 250 985 33,6

Iaan-eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii 125,2 19,5 119 246 997 33,6

I??05 1,4-2,4

I?ae aieeaii iiia?aaeiee?a iaea?eueo iii?oii ci?ithaaeanue iana aieio? ?
e?euee?noue ca?ai o i?e, iaioa aa??thaaee oae? iieacieee, ye aeiaaeeia
aieio? ? iana 1000 ca?ai. Iaeaeua a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia ni?ai io?eiaia
i?n-ey iceii? ioaieoe?, yeo aen?aaee ii /i?iiio ia?o aai ai?ioo. A oie
aea /an ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai i?ney y?iai y/iaith ? a?ana, aen?yieo ii
eoeo?oaec?, aeyaeeinue iaio i?eeiyoiei, ine?eueee eiai a?iaeaei?noue,
/a?ac ca?eueoai-iy caao?’yiaiino? iin?a?a aoea ia 2,6-4,4 oe/aa
ieae/ith, i?ae i?ney eoeo?oaece. Iaeiaio aoaeoeaiei aeyaeeinue
?ici?uaiiy ni?ai o eaioe? n?aici?ie iceia ioaieoey-niiyoiee.

Aea/aiiyi aeioe?eueiino? ia?an?ao caaeaeiai iceiiai y/iaith oaeeie
ca?iioo?aaeieie eoeueoo?aie, ye y?ee y/i?iue, eoeo?oaeca ? ni?ai,
anoaiiaeaii, ui eoeueoo?e i?ciueiai no?ieo n?aae — eoeo?oaeca ? ni?ai —
aeicaiey-thoue iaeneiaeueii eiiiainoaaoe oea iaaaoeaia yaeua ?
caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy a?iaeath ia ??ai? 38,6-40,2 oe/aa ca?ia.
Aieia?noue ca?ia ?aiiueinoeaeiai ni?oo ni?ai Noaeca?i 62 i?e
?icae?eueiiio niinia? cae?aiiy aei??aithaaea 14,1%, ? aiii ia iaei
iio?aae a aeinoooaaii?. Ai?no aieiae a ca?i? eoeo?oaece aoa ia 17,3%
aeuei, aeey eiai cieaeaiiy aei aaceniiai ??aiy (ca?aeii c ii?iaoeaaie,
?ic?iaeaieie a ?inoeooo? ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa) iaiao?aeii aeo?aoeoe
13,9 AAeae aia?a??, ui aea?aaeaioii 8,7 oe ca?ia. Oaeei /eiii, ia?an?a
caaeaeiai iceiiai y/iaith aeioe?euei?oa i?iaiaeeoe ?aiiueinoeaeeie
ni?oaie ni?ai.

AEA*AIIss I?EEII?A IA?IA?OEO A?OIOO ? ?OI?E AIEEA

IA A?IAEAEI?NOUe NI?AI

Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ??cieo niinia?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo

A inoaii? ?iee a aaaaoueio e?a?iao na?oo ii?yae c i?aieith i?ae ni?ai
canoiniao?oueny aaciieeoeaaee ? ioeueiaee ia?ia?oie a?oioo. Iaaeinoaoiy
aoaeoeai?noue ? aeniea aa?o?noue aa?a?oeeae?a no?eiothoue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aea- caieo niinia?a ia?ia?oeo a?oioo a i?ai?/iiio Noaio Oe?a?ie,
ine?eueee aeiiii?y iaeueiiai ia caaaeaee ia?ae?eaa? aeo?aoe ia o?i?/i?
caniae ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie. Iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue
c oeueiai ieoaiiy coiiaeaia iaaeinoaoi?i nooiaiai aea/aiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aaciieeoeaaiai ? a?aenooi?noth aeaieo ii ioeueiaiio ia?ia?oeo a?oioo
i?ae ni?ai.

A iaoeo aeine?aeao ?ioaineai?noue aae?aiiy aiaee a?oioii, ye iaeei ?c
aaaeeeaeo iieaciee?a eiiieaenii? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai aiaeiio?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae, iaeaeuith aoea ia i?aioe? ? noaiiaeea a ia?o? 5 oaeeei
aeine?aeaeaiue 3,8 ii/oa. Ia /ecaethaaii? aiaeii?iieei?noue a?oioo
ciaioo-aaeanue ia 0,4 ii/oa., i?eeiio ia?ia?oeo — ia 1,3 ? ioeueiaiio —
ia 3,0 ii/oa. *a?ac 30 oaeeei ia ae?eyieao c i?aieith ? /ecaethaaiiyi
oey ??cieoey iaeaea i?aaethaaeanue, a ia i?eeiio ? ioeueiaiio
caeeoaeanue nooo?aith. Canoinoaaiiy /ecaeueiiai ia?ia?oeo caaacia/eei
iaeiie/aiiy ia?aae n?aaith ni?ai iaeiaeiaeo caian?a aieiae, ye ? i?aiea,
i?e i?eeiio niooaii? aiie aoee iaioeie ia 8,6 ii ? ioeueiaiio
ia?ia?oeo — ia 19,1 ii (oaae. 4). Ai?no ai?a/iiai acioo a oa?? a?oioo
0-30 ni ia ae?eyieao c i?aieith noaiiaea 7,71 ia/ea, c /ecaeueiei
ia?ia?oeii ciaiooaaany ia 13,9% ? c ioeueiaei — ia 31,4%. Ia iaoo
aeoieo, oea iia’ycaii ?c niiaeeaaiiyi ?ooiieo oi?i acioo
i?e?ii?aai?ciaie, ye? ?iceeaaeathoue iiaeieai? ?aooee iiia?aaeieea, ui
caeeoaeenue o aa?oiueiio oa?? a?oioo i?e /ecaethaaii? aai i?yiie n?aai.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?iia?e?caoe?? cia/ii? e?eueeino? i?ia?aeueiiai acioo
? i?aeaeuaia aia?a?y i?o?eo?eaoe??, ui niinoa??aaeanue ia oeeo
ae?eyieao.

Iaeiei c oaeoi??a, yeee iaiao?aeii ie?aii a?aoiaoaaoe a oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai, ? aeniea iioaioe?eia caao?’yiai?noue iie?a o
a?eueoino? ainiiaea?noa, a yeeo, ca?aeii c iaoeie aeaieie, a i?iiio oa??
a?oioo i?n- oeoueny a?ae 481 aei 509 iei./ aa ian?iiy ao?’yi?a.
Canoinoaaiiy aaciieeoeaaiai ia?ia?oeo ca?eueoo? oeae iieaciee a oa??
0-10 ni ia 25% o ii??aiyii? c i?aieith. Nenoaiaoe/ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie
aeyaeaii, ui eoeueoe-aaoe??th cieuoaaeenue noiaee oieiaeino?eeeo aeae?a
ao?’yi?a, ye? c’yaeyeeny aei n?aae ni?ai, oaieiethai? ae, /anoea yeeo a
aa?ioeaiic? i?ney ca?iiaeo eieiniaeo iaea 36,9-39,0% ? i?ney eoeo?oaece
— 67,8-68,5%, i?i?inoaee, a iniiaiiio, i?ney n?aae. Oea e iiynith?
ca?eueoaiiy nooiaiy caao?’yiaiino? iin?a?a i?e cai?i? i?aiee /ecaeueiei
? i?eeei ia?ia?oeii.

Oaaeeoey 4

Aieea niinia?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy

i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae a oa?? a?oioo 0-100 ni ? a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia ni?ai

Ciiniae ia?ia?oeo a?oioo 1996 ?. 1997 ?. 1998 ?. Na?aaei?

Ai?no i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae ia?aae n?aaith, ii

I?aiea 155,1 143,7 126,3 141,7

*ecaethaaiiy 155,1 145,6 125,6 142,1

I?eeee 148,7 130,4 120,1 133,1

Ioeueiaee 136,2 120,6 110,9 122,6

A?iaeaei?noue ca?ia, oe/aa

I?aiea 46,7 62,1 50,9 53,2

*ecaethaaiiy 46,7 58,0 47,3 50,7

I?eeee 44,8 53,6 44,0 47,5

Ioeueiaee 41,5 45,2 39,6 42,1

I??05 1,0 4,1 3,0 —

Ia ae?eyieao ?c i?yiith n?aaith ainaie aiineee aa?a?oeeae ?aoiaeai ?
i?ney n?aae — noi?o i?iiaoei?o c ao?aceiii. Iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy naieo o?eueee o?i?/ieo cania?a ai?ioueae c
ao?’yiaie, c iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, iiynith?oueny iiyaith ?aii iaaani?
noiae?a eiaiaee a?ei?, aia?ic?? iieeiieenoi? oa ?ioeo, ye? aei n?aae
ni?ai i?ieoee ia??iae iae- a?eueoi? /ooeeaino? aei ae?? aa?a?oeeae?a. Ia
ae?eyieao ?ioeo aa??aio?a aeine?aeo aeacai? ao?’yie cieuoaaeenue
ia?aaeiin?aiith eoeueoeaaoe??th. Caao?’yia-i?noue iin?a?a i?e ioeueiaiio
ia?ia?oeo a?oioo c?inoaea a ii??aiyii? c i?eeei ia?ia?oeii a 1,4,
/ecaeueiei — a 2,1 ? i?aieith — a 2,9 ?aca.

Noeoii?noue o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a o a?oio? a ca’yceo ?c niiniaaie
ia?ia?oeo ? ??ciee nooi?iue caao?’yiaiino? i?iyaeyee nooo?aee aieea ia
a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia. A na?aaeiueiio ca 1979-1982 ??. ii i?aioe? aiia
neeaea 41,2-42,6 oe/aa, ii ieinei??ciiio ia?ia?oeo — 37,4-38,3 oe/aa.
I?e ca?eueoai-i? aeeaeie i?aiee a?ae 20-22 aei 28-30 ni ca?? ca?ia
i?aeaeuoaaany ia 1,2 oe/aa. A oie aea /an ia anoaiiaeaii ?noioii?
??cieoe? a ci?i? a?iaeath caeaii? iane oeoe?iaiai ni?ai i?ae aieeaii
niinia?a ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, a?aei?/aia eeoa oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineei ia ae?eyieao c i?aieith.

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo, i?iaaaeaieo a 1996-1998 ??., /ecaeueiee ia?ia?oie
a?oioo ciaiooaaa o?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaiai ni?ai a ii??aiyii? c i?aieith
ia 2,5 oe/aa, i?eeee — ia 5,7 ? ioeueiaee — ia 11,1 oe/aa.

Ioaea, e?auei niiniaii iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae ca?iiaa
ni?ai ? i?aiea. I?ae oeoe?iaa, ii?yae c i?aieith, iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe ?
aaciieeoeaaee ia?ia?oie.

Iia? aeaiaioe oaoiieia?? aeiiin?aiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae ni?ai

No/ani? aeiiae aei ia?aaeiin?aiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae ni?ai
ia?aaeaa/athoue ciaioaiiy aeo?ao aieiae, cieuaiiy ao?’yi?a, ooai?aiiy
u?eueiiai oa?o ia aeeaei? caai?oaiiy ian?iiy ? ye?nio ca?iaeo
aa?a?oeeae?a. Iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui aeeiiaiiy
ia?ae?/aieo oiia caaacia/o?oueny ae??aithaaiiyi cyao, nei?i/aiiyi
ia?aaeiin?aieo eoeueoeaaoe?e c aeaio-o?ueio aei iaei??? ? i?eei/oaaiiyi
i?e aianaii? aa?a?oeeae?a ye aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae n?aaith, oae ? ia
5-7 aei?a ?ai?oa (oaae. 5).

Oaaeeoey 5

A?ae?ioa?i?/iee ?aaeei oa?o a?oioo 0-10 ni a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiiieaeno
caoiae?a aeiiin?aiiai ia?ia?oeo

E?eue- Iinooeeaa aania Aieiaa aania

e?noue No?iee aianaiiy 1986 ?. 1987 ?.

eoeueoe- aa?a?oeeae?a ai?no ai- oaiia?a- ai?no ai- oaiia?a-

aaoe?e eiae, ii oo?a, iN eiae, ii oo?a, iN

Cae/aeiee cya

Ca 5-7 aei?a aei n?aae+ +i?eei/oaaiiy 9,4 20,9 14,2 20,4

1 Ia?aae n?aaith 7,6 19,2 14,5 18,3

Ia?aae n?aaith+ + i?eei/oaaiiy 9,9 19,7 14,8 18,5

Ca 5-7 aei?a aei n?aae+ +i?eei/oaaiiy 7,1 21,1 14,2 20,2

2 Ia?aae n?aaith 6,1 19,4 13,6 18,6

Ia?aae n?aaith + +i?eei/oaaiiy 8,2 20,2 14,2 18,4

Ae??aiyiee cya

Ca 5-7 aei?a aei n?aae+ +i?eei/oaaiiy 11,4 20,5 14,9 19,5

1 Ia?aae n?aaith 9,2 19,0 14,3 18,0

Ia?aae n?aaith+ +i?eei/oaaiiy 11,6 19,4 15,0 18,2

Ca 5-7 aei?a aei n?aae+ + i?eei/oaaiiy 9,0 20,6 14,2 20,4

2 Ia?aae n?aaith 7,8 19,3 14,0 18,1

Ia?aae n?aaith + +i?eei/oaaiiy 9,6 20,1 14,4 18,3

Iaiao?aeii iniaeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui a iinooeea? ?iee ae??aith-aaiiy
cyao ni?eyei ca?eueoaiith ai?noo i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae a oa?? a?oioo 0-10
ni ia 21%, ciaioaiiy a?oioiia?ia?oe?a c aeaio aei iaeiiai — ia 24,0%,
i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aaeiin?aiiai i?eei/oaaiiy — ia 19,5-27,3%. I?e oeueiio ia
oii? eioeoaaiiy oaiia?aoo?a a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? a?oioo i?aeaeuoaaeanue
ia 0,4-0,8iN.

Canoinoaaiiy aeacaiiai eiiieaeno aa?icaoiae?a ui??/ii caaacia-/oaaei
oi?ioaaiiy ae?oaeieo noiae?a ? caieaiiaaii? aonoioe ?ineei. *a?ac 10 ?
15 aei?a ia ae?eyieao oeeo aa??aio?a aeine?aeo c’yaeeinue 74-86 ?
94-100%

noiae?a, oiae? ye ia eiio?ieueiiio (aea? eoeueoeaaoe?? cae/aeiiai cyao)
— o?eueee 41-48 ? 61-63%.

A iinooeea? 1986 oa 1988 ??. ae??aithaaiiy cyao ni?eyei
i?aeaeuai-ith a?iaeaeiino? ca?ia ni?ai aei 4,2 oe/aa, oiae? ye
nei?i/aiiy eoeueoeaaoe?e c aeaio aei iaei??? — aei 3,9 ? ia?aaeiin?aia
i?eei/oaaiiy aei 6,0 oe/aa. I?e iine?aeiaiiio aeeiiaii? on?o aeacaieo
aeaiaio?a oaoiieia?? o?iaeaei?noue ca?eueooaaeanue a na?aaeiueiio ca
1986-1988 ??. ia 5,8-5,9 oe/aa. A ?? aa??th-aaii? aieea oaeoi?o
i?eei/oaaiiy a?oioo noaiiaea 51,9%, oaeoi?o ciai-oaiiy e?eueeino?
eoeueoeaaoe?e — 15,6 ? oaeoi?o ae??aithaaiiy cyao — 9,1%.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iniaeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy aeey
ia?aaeiin?a-iiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo i?ae ni?ai eoeueoeaaoi?a EIN-4,
eoueeueieea EAeA-5, ai?iie AAeO-3 ? eiia?iiaaiiai aa?aaaoo EAII-8,8
iieacaee, ui aeeneia? cia?yaeaey iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe eeoa i?e
aeinyaiaii? o?ce/ii? noeaeino? a?oioo, i?e i?aeaeuaiiio caieiaeaii? ia
caaacia/o?oueny ye?nia ca?iaea aa?a?oeeaeia. A na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee
iaea?eueoee a?iaeae ca?ia (65,0 oe/aa) aoa noi?iiaaiee ia ae?eyieao, aea
aa?a?oeeaee ca?iaeyee eoeueoeaaoi?ii EIN-4 ? eiia?iiaaiei aa?aaaoii
EAII-8,8.

?IC?IAEA ?AOe?IIAEUeIEO I?EEII?A AIANAIIss

I?IA?AEUeIEO AeIA?EA I?Ae NI?AI

I?e?iaeiee ??aaiue ?iaeth/ino? /i?iicai?a cae/aeieo caaacia/o?
oi?-ioaaiiy 40-45 oe/aa ca?ia ? 300-320 oe/aa caeaii? iane ni?ai. Iaeiei
?c aaaeeeaeo oaeoi??a i?aeaeuaiiy eiai i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? canoinoaaiiy
i?ia-?aeueieo aeia?ea. Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?o aeei?enoaiiy
i?iaiaeeeiny iaie a 1978-1984 ??. ca noaiith Aaaia?a, yea aeicaiey?
anoaiiaeoe aieea NPK a ia?ieo niieo/aiiyo ? a eiiieaen?. A 1985-1989 ?
1990-1992 ??. aea-/aeanue ?aaeoe?y ni?ai ia canoinoaaiiy aeia?ea o
ca’yceo c ieiuath aeeaeaiiy ?ineei, a oaeiae aeyaeyeeny no?iee ?o
i?aeaeeaeaiiy i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe??.

Ci?ia iiaeeaiiai ?aaeeio a i?iiio oa?? a?oioo i?iyaeyeanue o
aa??-thaaii? ai?noo ?ooiieo oi?i acioo ? oinoi?o. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
i?o?ao?a a?aei?/aeanue o oac? 6-7 eenoe?a, ui coiiaethaaeinue
aeoea?caoe??th i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ? i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo. Aei
oace aeeeaeaiiy aieio? ai?no acioo i?o?ao?a ciaiooaaany. Aeeiai?ea
?ooiieo oi?i oinoi?o ?, iniaeeai, iai?iiiai eae?th i?iyaeyeanue iii?oii
neaaoa. Canoinoaaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny
ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo a ?ineeiao acioo ? oinoi?o ia i?ioyc? an???
aaaaoaoe??. Aeianaiiy a?iaea?i acioo c?inoaei c 70,3 ea/aa (ia ae?eyieao
aac aeia?ea) aei 91,7 ea/aa i?e ?o aianaii? aeicith N60P60K30, oinoi?o
— ?c 28,3 aei 35,9 ea/aa. I?e ca?eueoaii? aeice aeia?ea aei N90P90K30
eiao?oe??ioe aeei?enoaiiy aeacaieo aeaiaio?a aeeaeaiiy ?ineeiaie
cieaeoaaeenue a?aeiia?aeii ia 6 ? 4%.

?ineeie ni?ai e?aua ?aaaoaaee ia acioii-oinoi?i? aeia?eaa, iaioee aieea
eae?eieo coiiaeaiee i?aeaeuaiei ai?noii E2I a a?oio?. ?acii c oei
aianaiiy E30 ia oii? N60P60 caaacia/eei i?e??no a?iaeath ca?ia 1,5
oe/aa. I?e ciaioaii? aeice aeia?ea c N60P60K30 aei N30P30K30
a?iaeaei?noue a na?aaeiueiio ca 1978-1984 ??. cieaeoaaeanue ia 3,4
oe/aa, a i?e c?inoaii? aeice aei N90P90K30 i?aeaeuoaaeany
aia?aii?noe?noue ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo?e, ui ? iaaeioe?eueiei. Ia ai?no
i?ioa?io aieeaaee, a iniiaiiio, oae? oaeoi?e, ye iiaiaei? oiiae ? acioi?
aeia?eaa. I?e aianaii? N60K30 ? N60P60K30 a?i aoa aeuee a ca?i? ia
0,71-0,94%, a caeai?e ian? — ia 0,28-0,67%. I?e oeueiio a ca?i? a?eueoa
iaeiie/oaaeiny oaeeo ai?iieeneio, ye ania?aa?i, aeai?i oa ?cieaeoe?i, a
caeai?e ian? — i?ie?i, oe?icii ? oai?eaeai?i.

Aianaiiy aeia?ea ainaie i?ae i?aieo i?aeaeuoaaei eiao?oe??ioe
aeei?enoaiiy c ieo acioo ? oinoi?o ?ineeiaie ca?iiaiai ni?ai ia 7 ? 2%,
oeoe?iaiai — ia 15 ? 8% o ii??aiyii? c canoinoaaiiyi ?o aaniith i?ae
eoeueoeaaoe?th. Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui iaea?eueo aenieeie ? noaa?eueieie
ii ?ieao aiie aoee i?e eieaeuei?e ca?iaoe? aeia?ea ia?aae n?aaith ni?ai.
A na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea
i?ae ia?aaeiin?aio eoeueoeaaoe?th i?aeaeuoaaei a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia ia
5,4 oe/aa, ainaie i?ae i?aieo — ia 8,0 oe/aa ? aaniith eieaeueiei
niiniaii — ia 11,4 oe/aa; ca?? nooi? ?a/iaeie oeoe?iaiai ni?ai
c?inoaa a?aeiia?aeii ia 19,4, 30,4 ? 36,4 oe/aa.

A 1990-1992 ??. aoee caeeaaeai? iieueia? aeaioaeoi?i? aeine?aee, a yeeo
anaa?/ii aea/aee no?iee i?aeaeeaeaiiy oa aoaeoeai?noue oaa?aeeo (ai?a/ia
nae?o?a, noia?oinoao) ? ??aeeeo aeia?ea (?EAe, EAN-28) i?e aianaii? ?o
aeicith N30P30 (oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoey 6

Aieea no?ie?a i?aeaeeaeaiiy ni?ai ??cieie oi?iaie i?ia?aeueieo

aeia?ea ia a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia, oe/aa (na?aaei? ca 1990-1992 ??.)

No?iee i?aeaeeaeaiiy

Aeia?eaa aac iiae- 4-5 6-7 aeo?ae a

aeeaeaiiy eenoe?a eenoe?a o?oaeo

Oii — aac aeia?ea

Ai?a/ia nae?o?a+ +noia?oinoao 33,5 36,6 36,2 35,0

EAN-28+?EAe 38,3 36,8 35,2

Oii — N60P60K30

Ai?a/ia nae?o?a+ +noia?oinoao 39,3 40,3 39,7 39,7

EAN-28+?EAe 40,9 40,9 39,4

I?? 05: aeey oii?a — 0,6-0,8, aeey no?ie?a i?aeaeeaeaiiy — 1,0-1,4 oe/aa

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui aieea i?aeaeeaeaiiy ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ni?ai caeaaeaa a?ae ?iaeth/ino? a?oioo oa iiaiaeieo
oiia. Ia oii? aac aeia?ea, canoinoaaiiy EAN-28 oa ?EAe o oac? 4-5
eenoe?a i?aeaeuoaaei a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia ia 4,8 oe/aa, o oac? 6-7
eenoe?a — ia 3,3 ? aeoiaeo a o?oaeo — ia 1,7 oe/aa.

I?e i?aeaeeaeaii? o oac? 4-5 eenoe?a o?iaeaei?noue ca?eueooaaeanue a
iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie e?eueeino? ca?ai, a o oac? aeoiaeo a o?oaeo — iane
1000 ca?ai. Ia oaeia?aiiio oii? i?e??no a?iaeath ca?ia ciaiooaaany.

IIOEI?CAOe?ss NO?IE?A N?AAE ? CAOIAe?A OI?IOAAIIss

IIAIIOe?IIEO NOIAe?A NI?AI

Aa??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ? aieiaino? iin?aiiai oa?o a?oioo, ??cia
aeoeai?noue a?oioiaeo oe?aeiee?a ? oai?ia cia/ii oneeaaeiththoue oiiae
ii-/aoeiaiai ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei. A ca’yceo c oeei aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
ia? i?aeaeuaiiy aaeaioeaiino? ni?ai aei iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua o ia??iae n?aaa-noiaee ? oi?ioaaiiy
iiaiioe?iieo noiae?a. Oea ieoaiiy iiaeia ae??ooaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith
?ie?onoaoe?? ian?iiy, ii-oei?caoe?? no?ie?a n?aae, aeeaeie caai?oaiiy ?
ii?ie aen?ao ian?iiy.

Aoaeoeai?noue ?ie?onoaoe?? ian?iiy ca?iiaiai ni?ai a ca’yceo

?c no?ieaie n?aae

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie aoaeoeaiino? aieeao ??cieo i?io?othaa/?a ?
ie?aei-ooai?thth/eo ?a/iaei ia eaai?aoi?io ? iieueiao noiae?noue ian?iiy
anoaiiaeaii, ui iai?anooa i?io?othaaiiy oaio?o?aiii, yea aoei
?aeiiaiaeiaaii ?ai?oa, oneeaaeith?oueny eiai ianeiaiiyi (61,5%).
Aiane?aeie oeueiai iioe?th?oueny iaaaciaea caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae?eey.
Aeei?enoaiiy ie?aeiooai?thth-/eo iie?ia??a cieaeo? ao?aoe i?io?othaa/a
aei 5,9-9,9% i?e iaaaioaaeaii? ian?iiy o n?aaeee ? aen?ao eiai a a?oio.
?ie?onoaoe?y ian?iiy i?aia?aoaie oieo, o?aai ? ia?oae, a oaeiae aiaeieie
?ic/eiaie iie?a?i?eiaiai nie?oo (IAN) ? iao??eea?aieneeiaoeeoeaetheice
(NaEIOe) c oaio?o?aiii ia aieeaaea ia eiai eaai?aoi?io noiae?noue, aea
canoinoaaiiy ?EAe, ye ie?aeiooai?thaa/a, cieaeoaaei ?? ia 13,2-21,8%.

Iieueiaa noiae?noue ian?iiy ia ae?eyieao c iai?anooei i?io?othaaiiyi
oaio?o?aiii i?aeaeuoaaeanue o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai ia 7,4-11,2%, a i?e
canoinoaaii? ie?aeiooai?thaa/?a NaEIOe ? IAN c?inoaea ia 11,6-15,5%
(oaae. 7). A 1990 ?., eiee niinoa??aaeanue iaaeinoaoiy aieia?noue
iin?aiiai oa?o a?oioo, aoei a?aei?/aii, ui IAN ? NaEIOe nooo?ai
cieaeoaaee iieueiao noiae?noue ian?iiy. A?aoiaoth/e o?i?/io ?ia?oi?noue
caaaeaieo iie?ia??a, oea yaeua iiaeia iiynieoe iaaeinoaoi?noth a a?oio?
aieiae aeey iaaooaiiy ie?aee, ui ae?eaaea ian?iiy. Ia iaoo aeoieo,
iaaaoeaiee aieea ?EAe ia eaai?aoi?io ? iieueiao noiae?noue coiiaethaaany
i?aeaeuaiith /ooeea?noth ian?iei ni?ai aei eiioeaio?aoe??
iacaaeainiaaieo ca e?euee?noth iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o oeueiio aeia?ea?.

Oaaeeoey 7

Iieueiaa noiae?noue ian?iiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae no?ie?a n?aae,

i?io?othaa/?a oa ie?aeiooai?thaa/?a, %

No?iee n?aae ii ?ieao

Aa??aioe ?aii?e iioeiaeueiee

1989 1990 1991 na?aaei? 1989 1990 1991 na?aaei?

Aac ia?iaee 39,3 53,0 37,5 43,3 45,3 60,4 46,5 50,7

Aiaea+oaio?o?ai 56,8 54,8 52,0 54,5 50,7 58,7 65,0 58,1

IAN+oaio?o?ai 67,0 45,1 60,0 57,4 62,0 54,3 70,5 62,3

NaEIOe+oaio?o?ai 70,7 40,3 65,3 58,8 67,0 49,8 72,8 63,2

AEEO+oaio?o?ai 52,7 36,4 41,5 43,5 48,0 45,5 56,8 50,1

Oieo 66,7 50,5 62,8 60,0 70,3 53,7 68,5 64,2

O?aai 68,7 53,7 69,5 64,0 69,7 60,0 74,3 68,0

Ia?oae 30,7 53,9 61,0 48,5 49,0 62,4 67,3 59,6

Aeyaeaii, ui na?aae i?io?othaa/?a, ye? aea/aee a aeine?aeao, iaea?eueo
noaa?eueiee aoaeo i?iyaeyany a ?ac? canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo o?aai, yeee
ni?eya i?aeaeuaiith iieueiai? noiaeino? ian?iiy i?e ?aiiueiio no?ieo
n?aae ia 20,7%, iioeiaeueiiio — ia 17,3% ? caaacia/oaaa i?e??no
a?iaeath ca?ia a?aeiia?aeii ia 5,5 ? 3,5 oe/aa. A oie aea /an ia?iaea
ian?iiy IAN aai NaEIOe ?acii c oaio?o?aiii a ?iee c iaaeinoaoi?i
caieiaeaiiyi oa?o a?oioo 0-5 ni cieaeoaaea a?iaeae ca?ia ia 4,6-6,0
oe/aa.

A ca’yceo c ??ciiye?ni?noth ian?iiy, coiiaeaiith e?eueeiia i?e/e-iaie:
ia??aiii??iei aeinoeaaiiyi ca?ia a iaaeao iaei??? aieio?, a aieiaiiio ?
aieiaiio iaaiiao, i?aeaeuaiith aieia?noth, a oaeiae iae?i- ?
i?e?io?aaioaaiiyi eiai i?e cae?aii? a?iaeath, iaie aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei?
iaaeaaaee aei ii?i aen?ao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo aeioe?eueia aai
ae?cueea aei ia? aonoioa ?ineei ia iaeeieoe? ieiu? oi?io?oueny i?e
ca?eue-oaii? ii?ie aen?ao ian?iiy ia?oiai eeano ia 40%, ae?oaiai — ia 60
? o?aoueiai — ia 80%. A?eueo aenie? no?aoia? iaaeaaaee i?ecaiaeyoue aei
caaouaiiy iin?a?a ? cieaeaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ca?ia.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy no?ie?a n?aae ? aeeaeie caai?oaiiy ian?iiy

?aiiueinoeaeiai a?ioeio ca?iiaiai ni?ai — noaeca?ia

O i?ai?/iiio Noaio Oe?a?ie aea/aiiyi no?ie?a n?aae ca?iiaiai ni?ai o
na?e /an caeiaeenue A.A.Aeaieaeaiei (1961), A.ss.THoii (1961),
A.?.Oa?aiaiei (1969), A.I.Ae?aiei (1971), TH.O.Ieaenaiei (1983) oa ?io?
a/ai?. ?oi? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue, a iniiaiiio, c i?ciueinoeaeeie
ni?oaie ? a?a?eaeaie, ye? iaea?eueo iiaii aeei?enoiaoaaee aaniyi? caiane
aieiae ? oaieia? ?ano?ne ciie i?e n?aa? o ia?o?e aeaeaae? o?aaiy. A
1985-1990 ??. a ?inoeooo? ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI aoee aeaaaeai?
?aiiueinoeae? ni?oe (noaeca?ia), ye? a?eueo i?enoiniaai? aeey
ae?iuoaaiiy o nooe?eueieo iin?aao ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaioei nooiaiai
oieiaeino?eeino?. A 1985-1987 ??. a iiaeaeueieo aeine?aeao iaie aoee
aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei? no?iee ?o n?aae ? aeeaeia caai?oaiiy ian?iiy.

A?ieia?/ia ?aaeoe?y ?ineei noaeca?ia ia no?iee n?aae i?iyaeyeanue
ia?aae on?i a ci?i? o?eaaeino? ia??iaeo n?aaa-noiaee, iieueiai?
noiaeino? ian?iiy, aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy, ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
?ineei ? o?iaeaeiino? ca?ia. Iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? caaacia/oaaeenue i?e n?aa? noaeca?ia c 5-10 ii 20-25
o?aaiy. A ia?o?e aeaeaae? iioeiaeueiith aeeaeiith caai?oaiiy ian?iiy
aoea 4-5 ni, a o?ao?e, eiee oaiia?aoo?a a?oioo a oa?? 0-10 ni
i?aeaeuoaaeanue aei 16,1-21,2 iN, a ia??iae n?aaa-noiaee nei?i/oaaany
aei 8-10 aei?a, caai?oaiiy ian?iiy ia aeeaeio 6-7 ni ni?eyei
i?aeaeuaiith a?iaeath ca?ia a na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee aeineiaeaeaiue ia 1,1
oe/aa.

Iioei?caoe?y no?ie?a n?aae a?ie/iiai ni?ai

A oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy a?ie/iiai ni?ai aaaeeeaa i?noea a?ae-aiaeeoueny
no?ieai eiai n?aae. Oea ieoaiiy aia?oa a cii? aea/aeiny iaie aeey
i?ciueinoeaeiai ni?oo A?ie/ia 623 ? ?aiiueinoeaeiai ni?oo Aeiinueea 35.

Ae??oaeueieie oaeoi?aie aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo no?ie?a n?aae
oeueiai a?ioeio ni?ai ? oaiia?aoo?a ? aieia?noue a?oioo,
ii?oia?iei-a?/i? iniaeeaino? ni?o?a oa ?o aaeaioeai?noue aei ci?ie ??aiy
caaacia/aiino? a?ae?ioa?i?/ieie ?ano?naie. Iaie aecia/aii, ui no?iee
n?aae i?iyaeee ?noioiee aieea ia an? aeeoo?ai aaaeeea? ooieoe?? ?ineei
?, ia?o ca ana, ia o?eaae?noue ia??iaeo n?aaa-noiaee, yeee ciaoiaeeany a
iaa?iai?e caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e a?oioo ia aeeaei? 10 ni (r= —
0,782-0,805) (oaae. 8).

Iaaaoeaiee aieea i?i?iaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y (i?eii?ice?a)
iaea?eueo iii?oii i?iyaeyany ia ?ineeiao a oie /an, eiee i?i?inoee
ciaoiaeeeenue ia a?aenoaii? 0,5-1,0 ni a?ae iiaa?oi? a?oioo, ui
nii-noa??aaeinue o aeayeiio ?o aee?eaeaii? oa aeaoi?iaoe??. Inoaii?
yaeua ia 2-3 aei? cao?eioaaei i?ioean c’yaeaiiy noiae?a (r=0,699-0,805)
? ia 8,8-10,7% cieaeoaaei ?o aonoioo. A iiaeaeueoiio a?aeaoaaeiny
i?aaethaaiiy aonoioe i?iaeoeoeaieo noaaae ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiai
eou?iiy ?ineei ia oaeeo ae?eyieao.

Ia ii/aoeo aaaaoaoe??, ?ioaineai?oei e?i?eiei i?e?inoii a?ae-cia/aeeny
ea?oiaa? iin?ae o ii??aiyii? c o?aaiaaeie. Aei oace aeeeaeaiiy aieioae
aeacaia ??cieoey caeaaeaeoaaeanue ? ia?aae cae?aiiyi a?iaeath aenioa
?ineei ia ae?eyieao on?o aa??aio?a aeine?aeo aoea i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaith.

?aaeoe?y ?ineei a?ie/iiai ni?ai ia no?ie n?aae 25 o?aaiy o ii??a-iyii? c
n?aaith 25 ea?oiy i?iyaeyeanue a nei?i/aii? i?aeoaciiai ia??iaeo
noiaee-oea?o?iiy ia 8-9 aei?a ? o ciaioaii? caaaeueiiai aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy
iin?aaie ni?oo A?ie/ia 623 ia 658 i3, ni?oo Aeiinueea 35 — ia 399 i3 .

A?ie/ia ni?ai a?aecia/a?oueny aenieith o?oaeii?noe?noth cae?aiiy
a?iaeath ? oiio eiai iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe o iiaeeeai ?aii? no?iee i?e
ni?eyoeeaeo iiaiaeieo oiiaao. I?e n?aa? ni?oo Aiie/ia 623 25 ea?oiy
oa-ca aineiai? noeaeino? ca?ia (iioeiaeueiee no?ie aeey iaea?aeaiiy
aenieiye?nii? oaoi?/ii? ne?iaeie) ianooiaea 11 aa?aniy, n?aa? 5 o?aaiy —
15 aa?aniy, 15 o?aaiy — 20 aa?aniy oa n?aa? 25 o?aaiy — 26 aa?aniy, a
ni?oo Aeiinueea 35 i?e niaai o oiae naii no?iee a?aeiia?aeii — 26, 30
na?iiy, 6 ? 9 aa?aniy. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie ia aeyaeaii cia/ii? ci?ie
aeoiaeo a?iee?a o ca’yceo c ??cieie no?ieaie n?aae, a oie aea /an
o?iaeaei?noue ca?ia caeaaeaea a?ae oiia caieiaeaiiy a eeii?-na?ii?: a
1994, 1996 ? 1998 ??. aiia i?aeaeuoaaeanue i?e i?ci?o no?ieao n?aae, a
1995 ? 1997 ??. — i?e ?aii?o. A na?aaeiueiio ca 5 ?ie?a ni?o A?ie/ia 623
caaacia/oaaa iaea?eueoo a?iaeaei?noue i?e n?aa? 25 ea?oiy, ni?o
Aeiinueea 35 — 15-25 o?aaiy. Aeey eiia?- iiaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy (ia ca?ii
? oaoi?/i? oe?e?) ni?o A?ie/ia 623 ne?ae aen?aaoe 25 ea?oiy — 5 o?aaiy,
ni?o Aeiinueea 35 — c 5 ii 25 o?aaiy.

Oaaeeoey 8

I?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei a?ie/iiai ni?ai i?e ??cieo no?ieao n?aae

(na?aaei? ca 1994-1998 ??.)

A?ie/ia 623 Aeiinueea 35

Iieacieee 25 ea?oiy 5 o?aaiy 15 o?aaiy 25 o?aaiy 25 ea?oiy 5
o?aaiy 15 o?aaiy 25 o?aaiy

Ia??iae, aei?: n?aaa — noiaee noiaee — iiaia noeae?noue ca?ia 20
135 16 130 14 130 12 129 17 118 14 115 13 112 11
109

Aiaeinii-aeeaaiiy, i3/aa 3618 3361 3138 2960 3216 3082 2905 2820

Aeo?ae a?iee?a, oo./aa 6684 6669 6894 6573 6888 6949 6945 6952

O?iaeae ca?ia, oe/aa 49,2 48,4 47,8 40,6 34,2 35,0 36,6 36,3

Aieia?noue ca?ia, % 16,8 19,1 25,1 28,7 14,4 14,3 14,2 14,8

Ai?no a ca?i?,% o)

a?eea 11,5 11,5 11,2 11,1 13,5 13,5 13,4 13,5

aee?o 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,2 4,1

ee?oeiaeie 2,9 2,9 2,7 3,0 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,7

e?ioiaeth 52,6 50,2 52,2 45,0 61,3 61,2 60,9 60,0

o) na?aaei? ca 1996-1998 ??.

OI?IOAAIIss A?IAEATH IIN?AAIE NI?AI ??CIIAI IAI?ssIO AE-

EI?ENOAIIss O CA’ssCEO C? NIINIAAIE N?AAE ? AONOIOITH ?INEEI

Aieea niinia?a n?aae ? aonoioe ?ineei ia ??no, ?icaeoie ?

i?iaeoeoeai?noue ni?o?a oa a?a?eae?a ca?iiaiai ni?ai

?ic?iaoe? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai — niiniao
n?aae, ieiu? aeeaeaiiy ? aonoioe ?ineei o i?ai?/iiio Noaio Oe?a?ie
i?enay/ai? ?iaioe A.ss.THoia (1961), I.N.Eaeaoieea ? ?i. (1978),
N.?.AEo/aiea (1984), TH.O.Ieaenaiea (1984, 1986). Iaeiae ?ai?oa aoee
i?i-aaaeai? iaeiioaeoi?i? aeine?aee, ? oe? aeaiaioe oaoiieia?? aea/aee
ia?aaaaeii ia neaaioaeia?aieo oiiao, a iniiaiiio, c i?ciueinoeaeeie
ni?oaie oa a?a?eaeaie. Ca inoaii? ?iee noai?ai? iia? iecueei?ine?
?aiiuei- ? na?aaeiuei-noeae? a?ioeie ni?ai, i?enoiniaai? aeey
ae?iuoaaiiy ia ca?ii ia o?eueee a oe?iei?yaeieo, aea ? a nooe?eueieo
iin?aao. Aiie nooo?ai ??ciyoueny ca nai?ie ii?oia?ieia?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie. Ieoaiiy iioei?caoe?? oi?ie ? aaee/eie ieiu? ?o
aeeaeaiiy a oiiaao ciie iaie aeine?aeaeoaaeeny oia?oa.

A aeine?aeao 1987-1989 ??. aoea aecia/aia iioeiaeueia eiio?ao?aoe?y ?
?ici?? ieiu? aeeaeaiiy i?e ae?iuoaaii? ni?oo ni?ai Aai?/anueea 11 ?
a?a?eaea Noaiiaee 13. Aea/aiiy aieeao oe?eie i?ae?yaeue ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ni?oo Aai?/anueea 11 iieacaei, ui ciaioaiiy ?? c 70
aei 45 ni ni?eyei ??aiii??i?oiio ?icoaooaaiith ?ineei ia ieiu?,
ca?eueooaaei e?euee?noue aieioae ia iaeeieoe? ieiu? ia 9,7%, cieaeoaaei
iaeneiaeueio aeiaiao oaiia?aoo?o iia?o?y a iin?a? ia aenio? 2 ni a?ae
iiaa?oi? a?oioo a eeii? c 37,3 aei 35,2iN ? i?aeaeuoaaei a?iaeaei?noue
ca?ia ia 1,9-2,8 oe/aa (oaae. 9).

Oaaeeoey 9

Aieea oe?eie i?ae?yaeue, aonoioe ?ineei ? aeia?ea ia a?iaeaei?noue

ca?ia ni?oo Aai?/anueea 11, oe/aa (na?aaei? ca 1987-1989 ??.)

Oii Oe?eia i?ae- Aonoioa ?ineei, oen./aa

?yaeue, ni 100 120 140 160 180

Aac 70 43,8 45,3 44,6 44,8 43,1

aeia?ea 45 46,5 47,5 46,6 46,2 44,1

N60P60K30 70 49,0 50,0 51,5 52,6 49,8

45 51,2 52,7 54,2 54,5 53,7

I??05: aeey aeia?ea 0,6-1,3; oe?eie i?ae?yaeue — 0,6-1,3;
aonoioe ?ineei — 0,9-2,0 oe/aa

Ia oii? aac aeia?ea i?aeaeuaiiy aonoioe ?ineei iiiaae 120 oen./aa aaea
ia eiiiainoaaei cieaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?ineei ?
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue ciaioaiiyi a?iaeaeiino?, oiae? ye i?e aianaii?
N60P60E30 a?iaeae aoa iaeneiaeueiee i?e aonoio? 140-160 oen./aa ? ieiu?
aeeaeaiiy 625-714 ni2 oa ?? oi?i? 45o13,9-15,9 ni. O aa??thaaii?
a?iaeaeiino? aeieueiaa o/anoue i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea o na?aaeiueiio ca
?iee aeine?ae-aeaiue noaiiaeea 46,9%, aonoioe ?ineei — 14,3, oe?eie
i?ae?yaeue — 9,5, aca?iiae?y oaeoi??a aeia?ea ? aonoioe ?ineei — 8,3%. O
aieiaiio 1987 ?. aieea aonoioe noaiiaea 4,5%, a iinooeea? 1988 ? 1989
??. — 18,8-19,5%.

O a?a?eaea Noaiiaee 13 iaeaeua a?iaeaei?noue aoea i?e aonoio? ?ineei
140 oen./aa, ieiu? aeeaeaiiy 714 ni2 ? ?? oi?i? 45o15,9 ni (oaae. 10).

Iaie aeyaeaia iayai?noue ei?aeyoe?eii? caeaaeiino? i?ae aieia?noth ca?ia
(o) ? eiao?oe??ioii i?iaeoeoeaii? eouenoino? (o). Oeae ca’ycie iiaeia
iiaeaoe oaeeie ??aiyiiyie ?aa?an??: a 1995 ?. o=0,76o + 13,60
(r=0,786);

a 1996 ?. o=1,62o + 14,88 (r=0,891) ? a 1997 ?. o=2,69o + 13,18
(r=0,866).

Oaaeeoey 10

Aieea oe?eie i?ae?yaeue ? aonoioe ?ineei ia a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia

a?a?eaea ni?ai Noaiiaee 13, oe/aa (na?aaei? ca 1995-1997 ??.)

Oe?eia Aonoioa Oi?ia Ieiua Na-

i?ae?yaeue, ?ineei, ieiu? aeeaeai- 1995 ?. 1996 ?. 1997 ?. ?aaei?

ni oen./aa aeeaeaiiy iy, ni2

80 70o17,9 ni 1250 54,4 44,3 56,8 51,8

100 70o14,3 ni 1000 57,5 45,8 59,7 54,3

70 120 70o11,9 ni 833 60,2 46,1 60,4 55,6

140 70o10,2 ni 714 62,5 44,0 62,4 56,3

160 70o8,9 ni 625 63,3 43,5 63,0 56,6

80 45o27,8 ni 1250 56,8 47,1 60,9 54,9

100 45o22,2 ni 1000 59,3 48,9 63,4 57,2

45 120 45o18,5 ni 833 61,4 50,0 65,0 58,8

140 45o15,9 ni 714 65,0 49,2 67,3 60,5

160 45o13,9 ni 625 64,3 46,5 68,9 59,9

I??05 oe?eie i?ae?yaeue 1,5 1,3 1,3

I??05 aonoioe ?ineei 2,4 1,9 2,1

I??05 aca?iiae?? oe?eie i?ae- ?yaeue ? aonoioe ?ineei
3,4 2,7 3,0

Nooe?eueiee niin?a n?aae o ii??aiyii? c oe?iei?yaeiei aeicaiey?
??aiii??i?oa ?ici?uaoe ?ineeie ia ieiu?, aeeeth/eoe i?ae?yaei? ia?ia?oee
? i?iaiaeeoe cae?aiiy a?iaeath ?icae?eueiei niiniaii. I?ioa i?e aen?a? c
i?ae?yaeaeyie 15 ni ? caaouaii? cae/aei? ni?oe ? a?a?eaee ca?iiaiai
ni?ai cia/ii cieaeothoue i?iaeoeoeai?noue, a a iinooeea? ?iee acaaae? ia
oi?iothoue a?iaeath ca?ia. Aeey ae?iuoaaiiy a nooe?eueieo iin?aao
naeaeoe?iia?ii A.A.O?ioeaieii aeaaaeai? iecueei?ine?, oiieinoaaeia?
ni?oe c aaaaoaoe?eiei ia??iaeii 95-100 aei?a (Noaeca?i 7, Noaeca?i 62,
Noaeca?i 65).

O?iaeaei?noue ca?ia i?e ae?iuoaaii? oeeo ni?o?a o nooe?eueieo ?
oe?iei?yaeieo iin?aao aoea i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaith, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
aenieo ieanoe/i?noue aei oi?ie ieiu? aeeaeaiiy. A oie aea /an ciaioaiiy
?? ?ici??o cieaeoaaei e?i?ei? i?e?inoe, eoueno?noue, iano aieio? c
ca?iii ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueio i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei, yea eiiiainoaaeanue
ca?eueoaiiyi ?o aonoioe eeoa aei iaaii? iaae?. A na?aaeiueiio ca ?iee
aeine?aeaeaiue iaeae-ua a?iaeaei?noue ni?oo Noaeca?i 7 (46,1-46,8 oe/aa)
caaacia/oaaeanue i?e aonoio? ?ineei 1,25-1,50 iei./aa, ni?oo Noaeca?i 62
(41,0 oe/aa) — 0,75 iei./aa. A iinooeea? ?iee aieea oaeoi?o ?ici??o
ieiu? aeeaeaiiy ia aa??thaaiiy a?iaeaeiino? nooe?eueieo iin?a?a ni?ai
i?aeaeuoaaany aei 88,1%, caieiaeai? — ciaiooaaany aei 41,2%.

Iniaeeaino? ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai-noaeaieiaeo a?a?eae?a ia ei?i

o /enoeo ? ci?oaieo c aia?aioii iin?aao

O iinooeeaeo oiiaao aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai-noaeaieiaeo
a?a?eae?a ? ?o noi?oie c aia?aioii. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye? aoee
i?iaaaeai? a 1995-1998 ??., anoaiiaeaia caeiiii??i?noue e?i?eieo
i?e?ino?a, eouenoino?, oaii?a iaeiie/aiiy iaaecaiii? iane,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a i?e eenoe?a ? noaaae, aecia/ai? iniaeeaino?
i?neyoe?niiai a?ae?inoaiiy ?ineei ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai a?a?eaea AeNNA 90
a caeaaeiino? a?ae ii?ie aen?ao ian?iiy oa niinia?a n?aae. Iaeaeua
a?iaeaei?noue caeaii? iane (595 oe/aa) ? ca?? nooi? ?a/iaeie (117,5
oe/aa) a noi? ca aeaa oeine aoee io?eiai? ia ae?eyieao, aea aen?aaee
0,75 iei./aa noiaeiai ian?iiy oe?iei?yaeiei niiniaii c i?ae?yaeaeyie 45
ni. A ia?oee oe?n aieea ii?ie aen?ao ian?iiy ia aa??thaaiiy a?iaeaeiino?
caeaii? iane noaiiaea 54,4%, a ae?oaee — 74,0%, a niiniao n?aae
a?aeiia?aeii — 15,0 oa 16,2%.

Aca?iiee aieea ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai a?a?eaea oa aia?aioa a noi?oeao
caeaaeaa a?ae niinia?a ?ici?uaiiy ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eoeueoo? a iin?a?.
Iaee?aua ii?aeiaiiy a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iaio eiiiiiaio?a
niinoa??aaeinue i?e /a?aoaaii? aeaio ?yae?a ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai a?a?eaea
c iaeiei ?yaeii aia?aioa ? aen?a? ?o o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 79,0+33,5% aei
ii?ie aen?ao o /enoiio iin?a?. Ca a?iaeaei?noth caeaii? iane (547
oe/aa), cai?ii nooi? ?a/iaeie (102,8 oe/aa) ? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue oe?
ae?eyiee ia iinooiaeeny /enoei iin?aai ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai a?a?eaea,
a ca cai?ii i?ioa?io ia?aaeuoaaee ia 13,4%. I?e oeueiio caaacia/ai?noue
iaei??? ei?iiai? iaeeieoe? i?ioa?iii i?aeaeuoaaeanue c 85,3 aei 97,7 a.

Ni?oiaa ?aaeoe?y a?ie/iiai ni?ai ia ci?io oi?ie ? ieiu? aeeaeaiiy ?ineei

Aa?ioaoi?ea a?ie/iiai ni?ai ?ic?iaeaia iaaeinoaoiuei ? aaco?oueny
ia?aaaaeii ia ?acoeueoaoao iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a c ca?iiaei aai oeoe?iaei
ni?ai. A ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo iaia? /?oei? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oaeeo eeth/iaeo
iieiaeaiue, ye niiniae n?aae ? aonoioa ?ineei a ca’yceo c
ii?oia?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie ni?o?a, ye? ca?ac ae?iuothoue o
ae?iaieoeoa?. Oe? ieoaiiy aea/ai? iaie noiniaii ni?o?a A?ie/ia 623 ?
Aeiinueea 35.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai aieeao oi?ie ? aaee/eie ieiu? aeea-eaiiy
?ineei ia o?eaae?noue i?aeoacieo ia??iae?a, ??no o aenioo, oi?ioaai-iy
i?iaeoeoeaiiai noaaeinoith, iniaeeaino? aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy, aeo?ae oa
ye?noue oaoi?/ii? ne?iaeie aeey aeaioiaeaiiy a?iee?a iieacaee, ui
iaeni?eyoeea?o? oiiae aeey ?aae?caoe?? iioaioe?eii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
ni?oo A?ie/ia 623 neeaaeaeeny i?e ieiu? aeeaeaiiy 1000 ni2 oa oi?i?
70o14,3 ni, aeey ni?oo Aeiinueea 35 oe? ia?aiao?e aei??aiththoue
a?aeiia?aeii — 556 ni2 oa 45o12,3 ni (oaae. 11).

Aieea oaeoi?o aonoioe ?ineei ia aa??thaaiiy aeoiaeo a?iee?a ni?oo
A?ie/ia 623 aei??aithaaa 80,6%, oe?eie i?ae?yaeue — 10,9%, ni?oo
Aeiinueea 35 a?aeiia?aeii 50,6 oa 33,8%.

Oaaeeoey 11

Aieea oe?eie i?ae?yaeue ? aonoioe ?ineei ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ni?o?a

a?ie/iiai ni?ai (na?aaei? ca 1991-1993 ??.)

Oe?eia Aonoioa Oi?ia Ieiua Aeo?ae a?iee?a, oo./aa

i?ae?yaeue, ?ineei, ieiu? aeeaeaiiy, A?ie/ia 623 Aeiinueea 35

ni oen./aa aeeaeaiiy ni2

60 70o23,8 ni 1667 4415 5397

100 70o14,3 ni 1000 4627 5639

70 140 70o10,2 ni 714 4344 5975

180 70o7,9 ni 556 3748 6029

220 70o6,5 ni 455 3004 5837

60 45o37,0 ni 1667 4027 5838

100 45o22,2 ni 1000 4194 5992

45 140 45o15,9 ni 714 3842 6303

180 45o12,3 ni 556 3296 6614

220 45o10,1 ni 455 2864 6417

I?? 05: aeey oe?eie i?ae?yaeue — 60-136; aonoioe ?ineei — 90-215
oo./aa

Iaeneiaeueia a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia ni?oo A?ie/ia 623 aoea noi?iiaaia i?e
oeo aea ia?aiao?ao ieiu? aeeaeaiiy, ui caaacia/eei iaeaeuee aeo?ae
a?iee?a, o ni?oo Aeiinueea 35 i?e i?ae?yaeaeyo 45 ni ? aonoio? ?ineei
140 oen./aa. Ioaea, ?ineeie ?aiiueinoeaeiai ni?oo e?aua aeei?enoiaothoue
a?aeaaaeaio ?i ieiuo aeeaeaiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy aieioae ? a?iaeath ca?ia
i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?o c i?ae?yaeaeyie 45 ni ? caaouaii? aei 140-180
oen./aa.

AAeINEIIAEAIIss CAOIAe?A IAOAI?CIAAIIAI AeIAEssAeO

CA IIN?AAIE NI?AI

Iniaeea?noth ni?ai ? iia?eueiee ??no eiai ?ineei o i?aeoaciee ia??iae
noiaee-ii/aoie aeoiaeo a o?oaeo. A oeae /an c’yaeyeeny noiaee ao?’yi?a —
ue?eoe? cae/aeii?, ieo?th neciai, aia?ic?? iieeiieenoi?, eiaiaee a?ei?
oa ?ioeo, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?eueo ?ioaineaieie oaiiaie e?i?eiiai
i?e?inoo ? iaeiie/aiiyi iaaecaiii? iane. ?o iaaaoeaiee aieea ia ??no ?
?icaeoie eoeueoo?ieo ?ineei i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? aecia/aany nooiaiai
caao?’yiaiino? iin?a?a. Eiao?oe??ioe (r) iaa?iaii? caeaaeiino? i?ae
aenioith ?ineei ni?ai, ieiuath eenoiai? iiaa?oi?, i?iaeoeoeai?noth
oioineioaco, o?iaeaei?noth ca?ia ? nooith ianith ao?’yi?a aei??aithaaee
a?aeiia?aeii — 0,699; — 0,832; — 0,787; — 0,959.

A ai?iouea? c ao?’yiaie a iin?aao ni?ai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?ciaaiiai aeiaeyaeo a ii?aeiaii? c o?i?/ieie
caoiaeaie. ?ai?oa ?aeiiaiaeiaaia ai?iioaaiiy eaaeeie coaiaeie ai?iiaie c
iaaaioaaeoaaiiyi ia iaeei coa 0,6 ea (I.A.Eioey?, 1974) ia oii?
ia?aaeiin?aii? i?aeaioiaee a?oioo, yea aeeth/aea eioeoaaiiy eiai aei ?
i?ney n?aae, /anoi caaacia/oaaei eeoa /anoeiaa iie?auaiiy aa?io?ce/iiai
noaio aa?oiueiai oa?o ? iaaeinoaoi?e aoaeo o cieuaii? ao?’yi?a. Iaoeie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaia aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ai??i c a?eueoei ieoiiei oeneii (0,9 ea/aa) ? aecia/ai?
no?aoia? iaaeaaaee aeey ii?i aen?ao ian?iiy, ye? aeicaieythoue
iaea?aeoaaoe iaiao?aeio aonoioo ?ineei i?e ??ci?e e?eueeino? ai?iioaaiiy
iin?a?a.

Iaeiiai?oa cieuaiiy ao?’yi?a caaacia/oaaei o?e?aciaa ai?iioaaiiy
iin?a?a: ia?oa — aei iiyae noiae?a, ae?oaa — o oac? 4-5 ? o?ao? — o oac?
6-7 eenoe?a ni?ai. Ia ae?eyieao oeeo aa??aio?a e?euee?noue ao?’yi?a o
oaci aeoiaeo a o?oaeo aoea iaioith a?aeiia?aeii ia 40,6 ? 16,3%, i?ae ia
ae?eyieao c iaeiei aai aeaiia ai?iioaaiiyie. I?e ?o/iiio i?iiiethaaii?
?ac?aooieiaa aai aeecueea aei ia? aonoioa ?ineei ia iaeiiio aaeoa??
aeinyaaeanue ca?eueoaiiyi ii?ie aen?ao ian?iiy ia 45%, i?iaaaeaii?
iaeiiai (aeinoiaei-aiai) ai?iioaaiiy — ia 65% ? aeaio-o?ueio — ia 85%.
Oae? no?aoia? iaaeaaaee aeicaieythoue eiiiainoaaoe ciaioaiiy iieueiai?
noiaeino? ian?iiy ? ae?eaaiiy ?ineei coaaie ai??i oa i?eneiaiiy a?oioii.

A ai?iouea? c ao?’yiaie a caoenieo ciiao ?yaee?a ni?ai aenieee aoaeo
caaacia/oaaei iaeaaeiaiiy i?inaiieo eoeueoeaaoi??a i?iiiethaaeueieie
ai?iieaie, ye? cieuoaaee a?ae 29,5 aei 50,9% ao?’yi?a, ui caeeoaeeny
i?ney ia?ia?oeo a?oioo no??eue/anoeie eaiaie oa eaiaie-a?eoaaie;
iioeiaeaeaiiy ?ineei ni?ai i?e oeueiio i?aeaeuoaaeinue a?ae 4,7 aei
6,3%. Canoinoaaiiy eoeueoeaaoi??a c i?aeai?oa/aie i?e ae?oaiio
i?ae?yaeiiio ia?ia?oeo ciaooaaei e?euee?noue ao?’yi?a ia 21,4-50,1%.

Iaeaeua o?iaeaei?noue ca?ia aoea iaea?aeaia, eiee i?iaiaeeeinue aeaa
ia?ia?oee i?ae?yaeue: ia?oee — o oac? 6-7 e?noe?a c i?iiiethaaeueieie
ai?iieaie, ae?oaee — ia?aae cieeaiiyi i?ae?yaeue — ?c i?aeai?oa/aie. I?e
aeiaeyae? ca iin?aaie aeeeth/aiiy i?iiiethaaeueieo ai?iiie cieaeoaaei
o?iaeaei?noue ca?ia ia oii? aianaiiy aa?a?oeeae?a ia 1,3 oe/aa, aac
canoinoaaiiy aa?a?oeeae?a — ia 1,8 oe/aa, i?aeai?oa/?a a?aeiia?aeii — ia
1,2 ? 2,2 oe/aa.

IAA?OIOOAAIIss CAOIAe?A CIEAEAIIss AIEIAINO?

CA?IA, NO?IE?A OA NIINIA?A CAE?AIIss NI?AI

Neeaaei?noue cae?aiiy a?iaeath ni?ai coiiaeaia ye a?ieia?/ieie
iniaeeainoyie eoeueoo?e (aenieith aieia?noth eenoe?a, noaaae ? ca?ia,
i?ciueith noeae?noth), oae ? iiaiaeieie oaeoi?aie — cieaeaiiyi
oaiia?aoo- ?e ? i?aeaeuaiiyi aieiaino? iia?o?y i?ae /an cae?aiiy. Aeey
i?enei?aiiy aeic??aaiiy oa ciaioaiiy aieiaino? ca?ia A.N.Aaeaoeueeee
(1979), A.ss.Ua?aaeia (1986) ? A.O.Naiieeaiei (1991) i?iiiioaaee o?i?/ia
i?aenoooaaiiy eiai ia ei?ith oeyoii aeaneeaoe??. O i?ai?/iiio Noaio
Oe?a?ie iniaeeaino? canoinoaaiiy oeueiai caoiaeo aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei.

Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aoaeoeai?noue aeaneeaoe?? caeaaeeoue
a?ae no?ie?a ?? i?iaaaeaiiy ? aeae?a aeaneeaio?a. I?e ia?iaoe? ?ineei o
oac? ain-eiai? noeaeino? oei?aoii iaai?th aieia?noue ca?ia /a?ac 15
aei?a ciaioeeanue o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai ia 8,4%, ?aaeiiii — ia 10,8%,
na/iaeiith — ia 2,3% ? ai?a/iith nae?o?ith — ia 3,8%. I?e ia?iaoe?
?ineei ia ii/aoeo iiaii? noeaeino? ca?ia niinoa??aaeanue iiae?aia
caeiiii??i?noue, i?ioa oe? a?aei?iiino? aeaui ciaiooaaeenue. Aieia?noue
ca?ia a aeaye?e i??? coiiaeaia ai?noii aieiae a eenoeao (r=0,856) ?
noaaeao ?ineei (r=0,658), ine?eueee i?e cae?aii? a?iaeath /anoeia ?o
iio?aiey? a iieioeeueiee aia?ao, aea aiie caieiaeothoue ca?ii.
Canoinoaaiiy aeaneeaio?a — oei?aoo iaai?th ? ?aaeiio cia/ii iaiaaeoaaei
iaaaoeaiee aieea oeueiai oaeoi?o.

Aeaneeaoe?y iin?a?a ia ii/aoeo iiaii? noeaeino? ca?ia ia aieeaaea ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ni?ai, canoinoaaiiy ae oei?aoo iaai?th aai ?aaeiio o
oac? aineiai? noeaeino? ciaiooaaei iano 1000 ca?ai ia 0,8-1,3 a, a
a?iaeaei?noue ca?ia ia 1,4-2,2 oe/aa (3,2-5,5%). A?iaia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea
aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo niinia?a cieaeaiiy aieiaino? 1 o ca?ia c 27,2 aei
14,0% iieacaea, ui aeo?aoe aia?a?? i?e oa?i?/iiio noo?ii? ca?ia
aei??aiththoue 10,3 AAeae/aa, ia?iaoe? ?ineei oei?aoii iaai?th — 4,7 ?
?aaeiiii — 2,4 AAeae/aa.

Ae?iuoaaiiy ?aiiueinoeaeeo ni?o?a ca?iiaiai ni?ai a nooe?eueieo iin?aao
noai?th? ?aaeueio ia?niaeoeao ?iaeoa ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaio cae?aiiy
a?iaeath, ine?eueee aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iecueei?ine?noth,
oiieinoaaeia?noth ? ca?ii a ieo ia ianeia?oueny. A iaoeo aeine?aeao ia
i?ioyc? ia-??iaeo aineiaa-iiaia noeae?noue iana 1000 ca?ai o ?ineei
ni?oo Noaeca?i 7 ca?eueooaaeanue ia 0,7-2,9 a, aiane?aeie /iai
iaeneiaeueia i?iaeoeoeai?noue caaacia/oaaeanue i?e cae?aii? a?iaeath o
oac? iiaii? noeaeino?, yea ianooiaea a e?ioe? na?iiy — ia ii/aoeo
aa?aniy. Neiooaaiiy o aaeee c iaiieioii a i??o i?aeneoaiiy aeicaieeei
io?eiaoe 43,7 oe/aa ca?ia ?c aieia?noth 12,9% ( oaae. 12).

Oaaeeoey 12

Aieea niinia?a i no?ie?a cae?aiiy a?iaeath ia iano 1000 ca?ai,

o?iaeaei?noue ? aieia?noue ca?ia ni?ai (na?aaei? ca 1985-1987 ??.)

Niiniae ? no?iee cae?aiiy a?iaeath Iana 1000 ca?ai, a O?iaeaei?noue
ca?ia, oe/aa Aieia?noue ca?ia, %

?icae?eueia o oac? aineiai? noeaeino? ca?ia 19,7 41,1 14,1

?icae?eueia o oac? iiaii? noeaeino? ca?ia 21,6 43,7 12,9

I?yia eiiaaeioaaiiy o oac? iiaii? noeaeino? ca?ia 21,1 44,2 18,3

I??05:
0,8-1,8 1,6-3,3 1,1-2,4

I?ney neiooaaiiy ?ineeie ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eyeeny o aaeeao ia aono?e
noa?i?, aeia?a iaaeoaaeeny a?o?ii ? aeneoaee ca 5-7 aei?a. Ca i?yiei
eiiaaeioaaiiyi, ia caaaeath/e ia iaeneiaeueii aenieee c??c ?ineei, iiae-

??aiaia eenoinoaaeiaa iana coiiaethaaea i?aeaeuaiiy aieiaino? ca?ia ia
5,4% o ii??aiyii? c ?icae?eueiei niiniaii cae?aiiy. I?e no?ee?e oaie?e
iiaiae? ainaie cae?aiiy a?iaeath a oaeeo iin?aao aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe
?icae?eueiei niiniaii.

AEIIII?*IA ? A?IAIA?AAOE*IA AOAEOEAI?NOUe ??CIEO

OAOIIEIA?E AE?IUOAAIIss NI?AI

Ia iniia? aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? caoiaee iioei?caoe??
oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai a i?ai?/iiio Noaio Oe?a?ie. Aeyaeai?
?aca?ae aeiiiiiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a,
i?iaaaeaia aeiiii?/ia ? a?iaia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea ??cieo aa??aio?a
?ic?iaeaieo ? i?eeiyoeo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai. Ae?iaie/? aeo?aoe,
aa?o?noue iniiaieo ? iai?ioieo cania?a ?ic?aoiaai? ca oe?iaie ia
1.01.1999 ?.

Aeiiii?/iee aiae?c iieacaa, ui i?e aacia?e oaoiieia?? /anoea
iaeeaii-ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a o caaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? aeo?ao
ae?iaieoeoaa neeaaeaea 21,3%, i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea — 13,3, ianoeoeeae?a
— 34,7, aeaeo?i-aia?a?? — 0,8, i?aoe? — 3,8 ? ian?iiy 1,2%. I?aeaeuaiiy
ae?iaie/eo aeo?ao ? niiaeeaaiiy noeoiii? aia?a?? i?e ae?iuoaaii? ni?ai
ii ?ioaineai?e oaoiieia?? iia’ycai? c? ca?eueoaiiyi ii?ie aen?ao
ian?iiy, aeic aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, cae?aiiyi ?
o?ainii?ooaaiiyi a?eueo aenieiai a?iaeath. Caaaeyee aeia?aaeaeath/iio
?inoo o?iaeaeiino?, nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe ca?ia ni?ai ciaiooaaeanue ia 1,70
a?i., eiai aia?aii?noe?noue — ia 12 IAeae, ?aioaaaeuei?noue ae?iaieoeoaa
c?inoaea ia 12,4%, a eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? i?aeaeuoaaany
c 3,85 aei 3,95.

Aia?aicaa??aath/a oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai, yea aaco?oueny ia
nooe?eueiiio niinia? n?aae, ai?iouea? c ao?’yiaie ye o?i?/ieie, oae ?
aa?ioaoi?/ieie caoiaeaie ? ?icae?eueiiio cae?aii? a?iaeath, aeicaiey?
cieceoe ae?iaie/? aeo?aoe ia 104 a?i./aa ? i?aeaeueoe eiao?oe??io ?o
ieoiiino? ia 0,57 a?i. o ii??aiyii? c aaciaith oaoiieia??th. I?e oeueiio
eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? c?inoa? ia 1,78. Iaeiae i?e??no
aaeiai? aia?a??, oi/a ? aeuee, i?ae i?e aacia?e oaoiieia??, ia 10,7
AAeae/aa, aea ana ae iaioee ia 2,4 AAeae/aa, i?ae i?e ?ioaineai?e.

AENIIAEE

1. O i?ai?/iiio Noaio Oe?a?ie aaaiia cia/aiiy aeey ca?eueoaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa oo?aaeiiai ca?ia ? caeaieo ei?i?a ia? ?icoe?aiiy ieiu?
iin?ao ni?ai, yea a iinooeea? ?iee ia?aaeuo? eoeo?oaeco ca a?iaeaei?noth
ca?ia ia 18,5-31,3%, caeaii? iane — ia 21,5-39,4%.

2. Aea/aiiy ?aaeoe?? eoeueoo?e ia aa??thaaiiy a?ae?ioa?i?/ieo oiia ?
aieiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith aeey iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?? ?? ae?iuoaaiiy.
O?iaeaei?noue ca?ia ni?ai iaaiith i??ith aecia/a?oueny
aieiaicaaacia/ai?noth iin?a?a (r=0,614). *anoea aaniyieo caian?a
i?iaeoeoeaii? aieiae a a?oio? a i?eoiaei?e /anoei? aiaeiiai aaeaino
iin?a?a ni?ai neeaaea? 34,7% c eieeaaiiyie ii ?ieao a?ae 17,1 aei 49,4%.
Ia anoaiiaeaii o?nii? caeaaeiino? i?ae caianaie a?oioiai? aieiae iaaani?
? o?iaeaei?noth ca?ia (r=0,361), a?eueo iii?oii a?iaeae iia’ycaiee c
ai?noii aieiae a a?oio? o oaci aeeeaeaiiy aieioae (r=0,429), iiaaeaie a
eeii? (r=0,544) ? a na?ii? (r=0,400). Noia?ia aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy iin?a?a
aecia/aeiny ??aiai ?o aieiaicaaacia/aiino?

(r=0,823). Ca’ycie i?ae o?iaeaei?noth (o) ? aeo?aoaie aieiae ia
oi?ioaaiiy 1 o ca?ia (o), ae?aaeaiee ??aiyiiyi ?aa?an?? o=83,3 — 0,45o,
ia? iaa?iaiee oa?aeoa?.

3. Iaaeinoaoiy ? ianoaa?eueia oaieicaaacia/ai?noue o ia??iaee
n?aaa-noiaee ? oea?o?iiy-iiaia noeae?noue ca?ia iaiaaeo? ??aaiue
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ni?ai ? coiiaeth? aa??thaaiiy eiai ii ?ieao; o 75%
?ie?a aieia?noue ca?ia ia?aaeuo? aacenio, ? aiii iio?aao? noo?iiy. Aeey
?? i?iaiicoaaiiy ca-i?iiiiiaaii ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? o = 63,31 — 2,64o, aea
o — aieia?noue ca?ia, o — na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y o
i?aeoaciee ia??iae oea?o?iiy-iiaia noeae?noue.

4. E?aueie iiia?aaeieeaie aeey ca?iiaiai ni?ai ? iceia ioaieoey i?ney
/i?iiai ia?o aai ai?ioo, caaeia?eueieie — eoeo?oaeca, yeo aen?aa-
thoue i?ney iceieo ? y?eo ca?iiaeo, ai?ioo ? oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a,
iaea??oei — niiyoiee. ?c ca?iioo?aaeieo eoeueoo? (y?ee y/i?iue,
eoeo?oaeca ? ni?ai) aeey ia?an?ao caaeaeeo aai c??aeaeaieo o ia??iae
cei?ae? iin?a?a iceieo eoeueoo? iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
?aiiueinoeae? ni?oe ni?ai.

5. Iaeni?eyoeea?o? oiiae aeey ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ni?ai neeaaeathoueny ii
i?aioe?, yea ni?ey? a?eueoiio iaeiie/aiith aieiae ? ai?a/iiai acioo,
noai?th? aa?io?ce/i? iieacieee i?iiai oa?o a?oioo a iioeiaeueieo
ia?aiao?ao. ?? iniiaia ia?aaaaa ia?aae aaciieeoeaaei, /ecaeueiei, i?eeei
? ioeueiaei ia?ia?oeii a?oioo iieyaa? a cia/iiio ciaioaii? nooiaiy
caao?’yiaiino? iin?a?a.

6. Aeiiin?aiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo i?ae ni?ai aeeth/a? ae??aithaaiiy cyao,
aaniyia ai?iioaaiiy ? eoeueoeaaoe?th ?c eioeoaaiiyi i?e aianaii?
aa?a?oeeae?a aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae n?aaith aai ca 5-7 aei?a ?ai?oa.
Iaee?auo ca?iaeo aa?a?oeeae?a ? i?aeaioiaeo iin?aiiai oa?o aeey aen?ao
ian?iiy caaacia/o? eoeueoeaaoe?y EIN-4 ? niooaiiy a?oioo eiia?iiaaiei
cia?yaeaeyi EAII-8,8.

7. Canoinoaaiiy iioeiaeueii? aeice i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea N60P60K30
ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith a?iaeaeiino? ca?ia ni?ai ia 8,3 oe/aa, caeaii? iane
— ia 52 oe/aa. Aianaiiy aeia?ea ainaie i?ae i?aieo aai aaniith
eieaeueiei niiniaii o ii??aiyii? ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?o i?ae ia?aaeiin?aio
eoeueoeaaoe?th i?aeaeuo? eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy acioo ?ineeiaie
ca?iiaiai ni?ai ia 7-18%, oinoi?o — ia 2-5%, a ?ineeiaie oeoe?iaiai
ni?ai a?aeiia?aeii — ia 12-25 ? 8-12%. Ia oii? aac aeia?ea i?aeaeeaeaiiy
iin?a?a ??aeeeie oi?iaie aeia?ea (EAN-28+?EAe) aeicith N30P30 o oac? 4-5
eenoe?a i?aeaeuo? o?iaeaei?noue ca?ia ia 4,8 oe/aa, o oac? 6-7 eenoe?a
— ia 3,3 oe/aa , o oac? aeoiaeo a o?oaeo — ia 1,7 oe/aa.

8. I?aeaeuaiiy aaeaioeaiino? ?ineei aei aieeao iani?eyoeeaeo iiaiaeieo
oiia o ia??iae n?aaa-noiaee ? oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueii? aonoioe ?ineei
caaacia/othoueny i?iaaaeaiiyi ia?aaeiin?aii? ?ie?onoaoe?? ian?iiy ?
anoaiiaeaiiyi no?aoiaeo iaaeaaaie aei ii?i aen?ao: aeey ian?iiy ia?oiai
eeano — 40%, ae?oaiai — 60 ? o?aoueiai — 80%. A oiiaao aa??thaaiiy
caian?a aieiae a iin?aiiio oa?? a?oioo iaea?eueo noaa?eueiee iiceoeaiee
aoaeo niinoa??aa?oueny i?e ?ie?onoaoe?? ian?iiy o?aaiii.

9. Iioeiaeueiee no?ie n?aae ni?ai ianoa?, eiee na?aaeiueiaeiaiaa
oaiia?aoo?a a?oioo ia aeeaei? 10 ni i?aeaeuo?oueny aei 14-15 iN. I?e
aianaii? a?oioiaeo aa?a?oeeae?a ? ?ie?onoaoe?? ian?iiy na?aaeiuei- ?
i?ciueinoeae? ni?oe ? a?a?eaee iiaeia aen?aaoe ia 5-7 aei?a ?ai?oa
iioeiaeueiiai no?ieo. ?aiiueinoeae? ni?oe e?aua aeei?enoiaothoue
a?oioia? caiane aieiae ? oaieia? ?ano?ne ciie aeey oi?ioaaiiy aeniei?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?e aen?a? ?o c 5-10 ii 20-25 o?aaiy. O oeae no?ie
iiaeia aen?aaoe ? ni?o a?ie/iiai ni?ai Aeiinueea 35, a ni?o A?ie/ia 623
— aeioe?euei?oa 25 ea?oiy — 5 o?aaiy. Iioeiaeueiith aeeaeiith caai?oaiiy
ian?iiy i?e n?aa? o o?ao?e aeaeaae? ea?oiy-ia?o?e aeaeaae? o?aaiy ? 4-5
ni, a i?e n?aa? 20-25 o?aaiy ? a?aenooiino? aieiae a iin?aiiio oa??
a?oioo ?? iiaeia iiaeeaethaaoe aei 6-7 ni.

10. Niin?a n?aae ? aonoioa ?ineei ni?ai o?nii caeaaeaoue a?ae ni?oiaeo
iniaeeainoae ? iai?yio ainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy eoeueoo?e. Ni?o
ca?iiaiai ni?ai Aai?/anueea 11 ? a?a?eae Noaiiaee 13 oi?iothoue
iaeneiaeueiee a?iaeae i?e oe?ei? i?ae?yaeue 45 ni ? aonoio? ?ineei: ia
oii? aac aeia?ea — 120 oen./aa, i?e aianaii? N60 P60 K30 — 140 oen./aa.
I?e nooe?eueiiio niinia? n?aae iioeiaeueia aonoioa ?ineei ni?o?a
Noaeca?i 7 ? Noaeca?i 65 noaiiaeoue 1,25-1,50 iei./aa, ni?oo Noaeca?i 62
— 0,75 iei./aa, ieiua aeeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii — 6,7-8,0 ? 13,3 ni2.. A
iinooeea? ?iee ?ineeie a nooe?eue-ieo iin?aao ia a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae
iioeiaeueii? ieiu? aeeaeaiiy ?aaaothoue nooo?aei cieaeaiiyi o?iaeaeiino?
ca?ia a ii??aiyii? c oe?iei?yaeieie.

11. I?e eiia?iiaaiiio aeei?enoaii? (ia ca?ii ? oaoi?/i? oe?e?)
iioaioe?eia i?iaeoeoeai?noue a?ie/iiai ni?ai ni?oo Aeiinueea 35
iaeiiai?oa ?aae?co?oueny a iin?aao c i?ae?yaeaeyie 45 ni ? aonoioith
?ineei 140 oen./aa; aeey ni?oo A?ie/ia 623 oe? ia?aiao?e noaiiaeyoue 70
ni ? 100 oen./aa. A?eueoith aaeaioeai?noth aei ci?ie ieiu? aeeaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ni?o Aeiinueea 35.

12. Iaeaeuo i?iaeoeoeai?noue ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai a?a?eaeo AeNNA 90
caaacia/o? aen?a 0,75 iei./aa noiaeiai ian?iiy oe?iei?yaeiei niiniaii c
i?ae?yaeaeyie 45 ni. A noi?oeao c aia?aioii ne?ae /a?aoaaoe aeaa ?yaee
ni?-ai-noaeaieiaiai a?a?eaea c iaeiei ?yaeii aia?aioa ? aen?aaoe ?o o
ni?aa?aeiioaii? 79,0+33,5% aei ii?ie aen?ao o /enoeo iin?aao. Noi?ni?
iin?ae oeeo eoeueoo? ca o?iaeaei?noth caeaii? iane ? nooi? ?a/iaeie ia
iinooiathoueny /enoei iin?aai ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai a?a?eaeo, i?e oeueiio
ca?? i?ioa?io ca?eueoo?oueny ia 13,4% ? caaacia/ai?noue ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue i?ioa?iii c?inoa? c 85,3 aei 97,7 a. A noi?oeao oeoe?iaiai
ni?ai ?c aia?aioii ia neein iaee?auei ? /a?aoaaiiy iaeiiai aai aeaio
?yae?a ni?ai c iaeiei ?yaeii aia?aioo.

13. Oaoiieia?y aeiaeyaeo ca iin?aaie ni?ai aeeth/a?: ai?iioaaiiy aei
iiyae noiae?a, o oace 4-5 ? 6-7 eenoe?a c iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia iaeei coa
ai?iie 0,9 ea. Ia?oee ia?ia?oie i?ae?yaeue i?iaiaeyoue c
i?iiiethaaeueieie ai??ieaie, ae?oaee — c i?aeai?oa/aie. I?e canoinoaaii?
aa?a?oeeae?a ? aeaio ia?ia?oe?a i?ae?yaeue iaiao?aeio aonoioo ?ineei
caaacia/o? no?aoiaa iaaeaaaea aei ii?ie aen?ao 45%, i?e iaeiiio
ai?iioaaii? (aei iiyae noiae?a) — 65% ? aeaio-o?ueio — 85%. Oaea
ca?eueoaiiy ii?ie aen?ao aeinoaoi? aeey eiiiainaoe?? cieaeaiiy iieueiai?
noiaeino? ian?iiy ? iioeiaeaeaiiy ?ineei i?e aeeiiaii? aa?ioaoi?/ieo
caoiae?a.

14. Aeaneeaoe?y iin?a?a ni?ai o oac? aineiai? noeaeino? oei?aoii
iaa-i?th aai ?aaeiiii cieaeo? ai?no aieiae a ca?i? ia 8,4-10,8%, ia
ii/aoeo iiaii? noeaeino? — ia 5,5-7,1%. Na/iaeia ? ai?a/ia nae?o?a
iinooiathoueny ca aoaeoeai?noth oeei aeaneeaioai, iniaeeai a ?iee, eiee
ainaie iiaiaea oieiaeia ? aeiuiaa. I?e iai?eneoaaii? iin?a?a ia ii/aoeo
iiaii? noeaeino? ca?ia oei?ao iaai?th ? ?aaeii ia aieeaathoue ia
o?iaeaei?noue ni?ai, i?e ia?iaoe? ae o oac? aineiai? noeaeino? aiie
cieaeothoue ?? eeoa ia 3,2-5,5%.

15. Iioeiaeueiei no?ieii cae?aiiy a?iaeath ?aiiueinoeaeeo ni?o?a ni?ai
i?e ?o ae?iuoaaii? o nooe?eueieo iin?aao ? oaca iiaii? noeaeino? ca?ia.
Canoinoaaiiy ?icae?eueiiai niiniao, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? neiooaaiiy ?ineei o
aaeee c iaiieioii /a?ac 5-7 aei?a, aeicaiey? aeiaanoe aieia?noue ca?ia
aei 12,9%. I?e i?yiiio eiiaaeioaaii? aiia i?aeaeuoaaeanue a na?aaeiueiio
aei 18,3%, a a ie?ai? ?iee — aei 19,7-21,8%.

16. ?ic?iaeaia iaie oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy
?aioaaaeueiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia ia 12,4% ? ciaioo? eiai
aia?aii?noe?noue ia 12 IAeae/oe. Aia?aicaa??aath/a oaoiieia?y
ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai ia ca?ii a nooe?eueieo iin?aao ni?ey? c?inoaiith
eiao?oe??ioa ieoiiino? aeo?ao ia 0,57 a?i. ? ca?eueoo? aia?aaoe/iee
eiao?oe??io o ii??aiyii? c aaciaith oaoiieia??th ia 1,78.

?AEIIAIAeAOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

E?aueie eaieaie n?aici?ie aeey ?ici?uaiiy ni?ai ? /i?iee ia? -iceia
ioaieoey; ai?io — iceia ioaieoey; aeiionoeieie — iceia ioaieoey
-eoeo?oaeca; y?i ca?iiai — eoeo?oaeca. Aeey ia?an?ao iceieo
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?aiiueinoeae? ni?oe ca?iiaiai ni?ai.

I?aieo c ae??aithaaiiyi cyao canoiniaoaaoe i?ae ca?iiaa ni?ai, i?ae
oeoe?iaa ni?ai iiaeeeaee ? aaciieeoeaaee ia?ia?oie a?oioo. I?e aianaii?
aa?a?oeeae?a i?iaiaeeoe aaniyia ai?iioaaiiy cyao ? iaeio ia?aaeiiniaio
eoeueoeaaoe?th c i?eei/oaaiiyi.

I?ia?aeuei? aeia?eaa aiineoe ainaie a?iceeae i?ae i?aieo aai iaaani?
eieaeueii aeicith N60P60K30. Ia iieyo aac aeia?ea o oace 4-5 aai 6-7
eenoe?a i?aeaeeaethaaoe ?ineeie ??aeeeie oi?iaie aeia?ea (EAN-28+?EAe)
aeicith N30P30.

Ia?aae n?aaith i?iaiaeeoe ?ie?onoaoe?th ian?iiy i?aia?aoaie oeio o?aai.
Na?aaeiuei- ? i?ciueinoeae? ni?oe ? a?a?eaee ni?ai i?e canoinoaaii?
aa?a?oeeae?a iiaeia aen?aaoe ia 5-7 aei?a ?ai?oa iioeiaeueiiai no?ieo.
N?aao ?aiiueinoeaeeo ni?o?a ca?iiaiai ni?ai cae?enithaaoe c 5-10 aei
20-25 o?aaiy. Iioeiaeueia aeeaeia caai?oaiiy ian?iiy — 4-5 ni, i?e
iaaeinoaoiueiio ai?no? aieiae o iin?aiiio oa?? a?oioo ? n?aa? o o?ao?e
aeaeaae? o?aaiy ?? iiaeia ca?eueooaaoe aei 6-7 ni. Ni?o a?ie/iiai ni?ai
A?ie/ia 623 aeioe?eueii aen?aaoe 25 ea?oiy — 5 o?aaiy, Aeiinueea 35 —
c 5 aei 25 o?aaiy.

Ni?o ca?iiaiai ni?ai Aai?/anueea 11 ? a?a?eae Noaiiaee 13 iaee?aua
ae?iuoaaoe c i?ae?yaeaeyie 45 ni, a aonoioa ?ineei ia?aae cae?aiiyi
a?iaeath iiaeiia noaiiaeoe ia oii? aac aeia?ea -120 oen./aa, i?e
aianaii? N60P60K30 — 140 oen./aa. I?e nooe?eueiiio niinia? n?aae
iioeiaeueia aonoioa ni?o?a Noaeca?i 7 ? Noaeca?i 65 aei??aith? 1,25-1,50
iei./aa, Noaeca?i 62 — 0,75 iei./aa.

Ni?ai-noaeaieia? a?a?eaee aen?aaoe ia ei?i oe?iei?yaeiei niiniaii c
i?ae?yaeaeyie 45 ni ? ii?iith aen?ao noiaeiai ian?iiy 0,75 iei./aa. A
ci?oaieo iin?aao c aia?aioii /a?aoaaoe aeaa ?yaee ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai
a?a-?eaea c iaeiei ?yaeii aia?aioa i?e aen?a? o ni?aa?aeiioaii?
79,0+33,5% aei ii?ie aen?ao a /enoeo iin?aao. I?e ae?iuoaaiii ia neein
oeoe?iaiai ni?-ai a noiioeao c aia?aioii /a?aoaaoe iaeei aai aeaa ?yaee
ni?ai c iaeiei ?yaeii aia?aioa.

Ni?o a?ie/iiai ni?ai A?ie/ia 623 ae?iuoaaoe c i?ae?yaeaeyie 70 ni i?e
aonoio? ?ineei 100 oen./aa, aeey ni?oo Aeiinueea 35 aeacai? ia?aiao?e
noaiiaeyoue a?aeiia?aeii 45 ni ? 140 oen./aa.

Iaoai?ciaaiee aeiaeyae ca iin?aaie aeeth/a? ai?iioaaiiy aei iiyae
noiae?a, o oace 4-5 ? 6-7 eenoe?a c iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia iaeei coa ai?iie
0,9 ea ? aeaa ia?ia?oee i?ae?yaeue: ia?oee — c i?iiiethaaeueieie
ai??ieaie, ae?o-aee — c i?aeai?oa/aie. Aeey eiiiainaoe?? cieaeaiiy
iieueiai? noiaeino? ? oaoiieia?/iiai iioeiaeaeaiiy ?ineei no?aoiaa
iaaeaaaea aei ii?ie aen?ao ian?iiy i?e ae?iuoaaii? ni?ai ia oii?
aa?a?oeeae?a c ia?ia?oeaie i?ae?yaeue iiaeiia noaiiaeoe 45%, i?e
iaoai?ciaaiiio aeiaeyae? — 65-85%.

Aeey ciaioaiiy ci?noo aieiae a ca?i? canoiniaoaaoe aeaneeaoe?th iin?-
a?a oei?aoii iaai?th aai ?aaeiiii ia ii/aoeo iiaii? noeaeinoi ca?ia. Ia
ian?ii?aeo iin?aao i?e caa?ic? caii?ice?a ainaie aeaneeaoe?th iiaeia
i?iaiaeeoe o oac? aineiai? noeaeino? ca?ia.

I?e no?ee?e oaie?e iiaiae? cae?aiiy a?iaeath o nooe?eueieo iin?aao
?aiiueinoeaeeo ni?o?a ni?ai i?iaiaeeoe o oac? iiaii? noeaeino? ca?ia
?icae?eueiei niiniaii.

NIENIE INIIAIEO ?IA?O II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. Ia?aaioea ii/au e o?iaeae ca?iiaiai
ni?ai //Caieaaeaeea. — 1983. — ? 11. — N. 19-20.

2. Ieaenaiei TH.O., AEo/aiei N.E., E?aniaieia N.A. I?eaiu iniiaiie
ia?aaioee ii/au iiae naoa?iia ni?ai //Atheeaoaiue AIEE eoeo?ocu. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane. — 1986. — ? 64. — N. 71-75.

3. Ieaenaiei TH.O., AEo/aiei N.E., Aiiaea?aiei A.I., E?aniaieia N.A.
Iiaeaioiaea ii/au iiae ni?ai //Eoeo?oca e ni?ai. — 1987. — ? 2. — N.
17-18.

4. Ieaenaiei TH.O., AEo/aiei N.E., E?aniaieia N.A. Ni?ai //Iao/ii
iainiiaaiiay nenoaia ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa Aeiai?iiao?ianeie iaeanoe. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: I?ii?iue, 1987. — N. 52-54.

5. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. Ni?ai ia ca?ii, neein e caeaiue ei?i
//Iao/ii iainiiaaiiay nenoaia caieaaeaeey Aeiai?i-iao?ianeie iaeanoe.
— Aeiai?iiao?iane: Iaeiieea?aoecaeao, 1988. — N. 251-252.

6. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. Ni?ai //I?aeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai ii
inaiaieth eioaineaiuo oaoiieiaee iieaauo eoeueoo?. — Aeiai?iiao?iane. —
1987. — N. 15-17.

7. Ieaenaiei TH.O., AEo/aiei N.E., E?aniaieia N.A. Eaeoth ii?io aunaaa
aua?aoue //Eoeo?oca e ni?ai. — 1988. — ? 3. — N. 18-20.

8. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A., Onaiei TH.E. Ei?iiaay oeaiiinoue
ni?ai e ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey //Oeiecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. —
1988. — ? 9. — N. 35-37.

9. Naiaiia A.I., Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. Iaaeaaeiue
enoi/iee ei?iia // Eoeo?oca e ni?ai. — 1988. — ? 6. — N. 31-32.

10. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A., Onaiei TH.E. Aeeyiea ieia?aeueiuo
oaeia?aiee ia o?iaeaeiinoue ca?iiaiai ni?ai a caaeneiinoe io n?ieia e
niiniaia eo aianaiey a ii/ao //Aa?ioeiey. — 1988. — ?1.-C.36-39.

11. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue ca?iiaiai ni?ai
//Oeiecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. — 1989. — ? 3. — N. 31-32.

12. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue
aicaeaeuaaiey ni?ai a caaeneiinoe io i?aaeoanoaaiieeia e ieia?aeueiuo
oaeia?aiee //Ei?ia e ei?iii?iecaiaenoai.-E.: O?iaeae, 1989. — Aui. 27. —
N. 19-21.

13. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A., Onaiei TH.E. Aeeyiea ieia?aeueiuo
oaeia?aiee ia o?iaeaeiinoue naoa?iiai ni?ai a caaeneiinoe io eo ninoaaa,
aeic e niioiioaiee //Noaiiia caieaaeaeea.- E.: O?iaeae, 1989. — Aui.
23. — N. 40-45.

14. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. Ieia?aeueiua oaeia?aiey e ea/anoai
caeaiie iannu ni?ai // Eoeo?oca e ni?ai. — 1990. -? 3. — N. 30-34.

15. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. Oaoiieiaey aicaeaeuaaiey ni?ai ia
ca?ii e neein aeey Noaie Oe?aeiu //Iaoa?eaeu Ananithciiai niaauaiey
“I?iaeaiu e caaea/e ii naeaeoeee, naiaiiaiaenoao e oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?a?aaioee ni?ai a NNN?”.-Ca?iia?aae.-1990.-N. 111-114.

16. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. Aa?ioaoie/aneea iniiau iiauoaiey
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ni?ai a Noaie ONN? //Atheeaoaiue AIEE eoeo?ocu. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1990. — ? 72-73. — N. 64-65.

17. Ieaenaiei TH.O., E?aniaieia N.A. Aiaeiiio?aaeaiea ca?iiaiai ni?ai a
Noaie Oe?aeiu //A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. — 1991. — ? 10. — N. 23-25.

18. E?aniaieia N.A. Ianoi ca?iiaiai ni?ai a naaiiai?ioao naaa?iie Noaie
Oe?aeiu //Iaoa?eaeu ?inneeneie eiioa?aioeee “I?iaeaiu aeieiaee,
naeaeoeee e oaoiieiaee aicaeaeuaaiey e ia?a?aaioee ni?ai”. — Aieaia?aae,
1992. — N. 89-91.

19. O?ioeaiei A.A., E?aniaieia N.A., Nieiaae A.A. Noaeaiea ca?iiaay
//Eoeo?oca e ni?ai. — 1993. — ? 1. — N. 11-12.

20. E?ani?ieia N.A. Ni?ai ? noaeaiea ca?iiaa//sse ae?iuoaaoe aenie?
a?iaea? ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? o eieaeoeaieo ? oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noaao
noaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie(Ii?aaee OAAI). — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1993.-N.24-26.

21. E?aniaieia N.A. Iaaeaeo?yaeiua ia?aaioee ni?ai // Eoeo?oca e ni?ai.
— 1993. — ? 4. — N. 2-4.

22. E?aniaieia N.A. Aeeooa?aioee?iaaoue aicaeaeuaaiea ni?ai
//Caieaaeaeea. — 1993. — ? 6. — N. 14-15.

23. E?aniaieia N.A. Ea/anoai naiyi e o?iaeae ni?ai //Eoeo?oca e ni?ai. —
1994. — ? 2. — N. 9.

24. E?ani?ieia N.A. Aieiaicaa??aath/a oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ca?iiaiai
ni?ai a oiiaao iaaeinoaoiueiai caieiaeaiiy //Ia?oa Anaoe?a?inueea
(I?aeia?iaeia) eiioa?aioe?y ii i?iaeai? “Ei?ie ? ei?iiaee a?eie”. —
A?iieoey, 1994. — N. 152-153.

25. E?aniaieia N.A. Aeeyiea aonoiou ?anoaiee, niiniaa iinaaa e
ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee ia aiaeiiio?aaeaiea e o?iaeaeiinoue ca?iiaiai
ni?ai //Iaoa??aee eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? ?aaee c i?iaeaie
aoaeoea-iiai aeei?enoaiiy c?iooaaieo caiaeue aeey ia?iuoaaiiy ?
noaa?e?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a ? ei?iiaiai a?eea. — Oa?nii-Ieeiea?a,
1995. — N. 29-31.

26. E?ani?ieia N.A. No?iee ? niiniae cae?aiiy a?iaeath ca?iiai? noaeaiee
//Noaiiaa caiea?ianoai. — E.: O?iaeae, 1995. — ? 29. — N. 75-77.

27. E?aniaieia N.A. Iniaaiiinoe iinaaa noaeaiee ca?iiaie //Eoeo?oca e
ni?ai. — 1995. — ? 5. — N. 5-9.

28. E?aniaieia N.A. Noaeaiea ca?iiaay //Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai. — 1996. —
?2. — N. 22-25.

29. E?aniaieia N. A. Eioaineaiua oaoiieiaee aicaeaeuaaiey ca?iiaiai e
naoa?iiai ni?ai //Iao/ii iainiiaaiiua i?eaiu oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa
ei?iia, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1996. — N. 12-14.

30. Kramarev S.M., Cherenkov A.V., Krasnenkov S.V., Shevchenko M.S.,
L.N.Skripnik, Matrosov A.S., Gatsenco S.V., Schevchenko V.N. Ecological
monitoring complex usage of mineral fertilizers, herbicides and
combination of Zn with N-, O-, and S-derivatives of propione acid in
agrocenoses of maize, sorge and luzerne //International ecological
congress. — Voronezh (Russia) — Kansas (USA). — 1996. — P. 13-16.

31. E?aniaieia N.A. ?aaeoeey ni?ai ia eciaiaiea oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia
//Iaoa??aee eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? ?aaee c i?iaeai ei?iiaeo
?ano?n?a ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa ii oai? “Ca?iioo?aaei?, ca?iiaiaia? ?
ei?iia? eoeueoo?e. — A?iieoey, 1997. — N. 24-25.

32. E?aniaieia N.A. Aeaaiiaania/aiiinoue e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue iina-aia
ca?iiaiai ni?ai //Iaoa??aee eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ii? ?aaee c i?iaeai
ei?iiaeo ?ano?n?a ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa ii oai? “Ca?iioo?aaei?,
ca?iiaiaia? ? ei?iia? eoeueoo?e. — A?iieoey, 1997. — N. 26-27.

33. E?aniaieia N.A. Yooaeoeaiinoue aeaneeaoeee ca?iiaiai ni?ai a
naaa?iie Noaie Oe?aeiu //Ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oiainueei? n.-a. aeaaeai??
“No/ani? i?iaeaie ?ineeiieoeoaa ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa“. — Oiaiue, 1998. —
N. 80-84.

34. E?aniaieia N.A., E?aia?aa N.I. Yooaeoeaiinoue iiaeei?iee ca?iiaiai
ni?ai ?aciuie oi?iaie ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee //Ca?iiaua eoeueoo?u. —
1998. — ? 3. — N. 21-22.

35. E?aniaieia N.A. Yooaeoeaiinoue eie?onoaoeee naiyi e o?iaeaeiinoue
ni?ai a oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/iiai oaeaaeiaiey //Eoeo?oca e ni?ai. — 1998.
— ? 3. — N. 21-22.

36. E?ani?ieia N.A. Ni?ai — aaaeeeaee ?aca?a noaa?e?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa
ei?i?a //Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ? 8-9. — N. 23-24.

37. E?aniaieia N.A. Iioeiecaoeey ieiuaaee ieoaiey ?acee/iuo aeioeiia
aaie/iiai ni?ai a naaa?iie Noaie Oe?aeiu //Eoeo?oca e ni?ai. — 1998. — ?
6. — N. 19-22.

38. E?aniaieia N.A. Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai aea?eaea a caaeneiinoe io niiniaa iinaaa e ii?iu
aunaaa naiyi //Ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Iinoeoooo ei?i?a OAAI. — Aiiieoey,
1999. — N. 32-33.

39. E?ani?ieia N.A. Aieea no?ie?a n?aae ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue a?ie/iiai
ni?ai a oiiaao i?ai?/iiai Noaio Oe?a?ie //Atheaoaiue ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI. — 1999. — ? 8. — N. 44-47.

40. E?ani?ieia N.A. Aieea niinia?a iniiaiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo ia
o?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaiai ni?ai //Atheaoaiue ?inoeoooo ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa OAAI. — 1999. — ? 9. — N. 38-40.

41. E?aniaieia N.A., E?aia?aa N.I. Niaianoiua iinaau naoa?iiai ni?ai n
aia?aioii //Eoeo?oca e ni?ai. — 1999. — ? 1. — N. 14-17.

AIIOAOe??

E?aniaieia N.A. Iao/iia iainiiaaiea iioeiecaoeee oaoiieiaee
aic-aeaeuaaiey ni?ai a oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/iiai e iaonoie/eaiai
oaeaaeiaiey naaa?iie Noaie Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.09 — ?anoaieaaiaenoai. — Einoeooo
ca?iiaiai oicyenoaa OAAI, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999 a.

Caueuaaony aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa, niaea?aeauay ?acoeueoaou
iiiaieaoieo enneaaeiaaiee, ia iniiaa eioi?uo ii?aaeaeaia ?aaeoeey ni?ai
ia eciaiaiea aeae?ioa?ie/aneeo oneiaee a oa/aiea aaaaoaoeee e
?ac?aaioaii iao/iia iainiiaaiea iioeiecaoeee yeaiaioia oaoiieiaee aai
aicaeaeuaaiey ia ca?ii, neein, caeaiue ei?i e oaoie/aneea oeaee a
naaa?iie /anoe noaiiie ciiu Oe?aeiu. Iaiauaiu nia?aiaiiua oaiaeaioeee
i?iecaiaenoaa ni?ai a ie?a e iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?anoe?aiey
ieiuaaee aai iinaaa ca n/ao eoeo?ocu aeey noaaeeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
oo?aaeiiai ca?ia e caeaiie iannu a oeaio?aeueiuo e thaeiuo iaeanoyo
Oe?aeiu.

I?eiaiaiea iaoiaeia ei??aeyoeeiiiiai e ?aa?anneiiiiai aiaeeca aeey
n?aaiaiey iieo/aiiuo a iiuoao aeaiiuo n aeeiaieeie caiania aeaae a
ii/aa, inaaeeaie, oaiia?aoo?ie e aeaaeiinoueth aicaeooa iicaieeei
aia?-aua ?ane?uoue acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth ?anoaiee
ni?ai e iiaiaeiuie oneiaeyie eae a oeaeii ca aaaaoaoeeth, oae e ia
i?ioyaeaiee iniiaiuo iaaeoaciuo ia?eiaeia.

Onoaiiaeaiu eo/oea e aeiionoeiua caaiuey naaiiai?ioa aeey ?aciauaiey
ni?ai e iieacaii, /oi aeey ia?anaaa iiaeaoeo eee ec?aaeaiiuo a ia?eiae
ceiiaee iceiuo ec ca?iioo?aaeiuo eoeueoo? (y?iaie y/iaiue, eoeo?oca e
ca?iiaia ni?ai) neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue ?aiianiaeua ni?oa ni?ai.
Aeieacaia iaoeaeaniia?aciinoue caiaiu aniaoee aacioaaeueiie eee ioeaaie
ia?aaioeie ii/au, ?ac?aaioaiu iioeiaeueiua niiniau i?aaeiinaaiie
ia?aaioee ii/au, iaania/eaathuea ea/anoaaiioth caaeaeeo aa?aeoeeaeia e
iieo/aiea ae?oaeiuo anoiaeia. Iainiiaaiu i?eaiu oaaee/aiey
eiyooeoeeaioia eniieueciaaiey ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa ec oaeia?aiee a
canooeeauo oneiaeyo e niiniau iiauoaiey onoie/eainoe ni?ai e aeeyieth
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu a ia?eiae iinaa-anoiaeu,
iicaieythuea oiaiueoeoue ?acee/ey iaaeaeo eaai?aoi?iie e iieaaie
anoiaeanoueth naiyi.

Ii?aaeaeaia iioeiaeueiay oi?ia e ?acia? ieiuaaee ieoaiey ?anoaiee a
caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy ieiaei?iaeey ii/au, aeieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae
ni?oia e aea?eaeia e iai?aaeaiey eo oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey.
Iainiiaaiu i?eaiu oeo/oaiey ei?iiaie oeaiiinoe caeaiie iannu naoa?iiai
ni?ai e ni?ai-noaeaieiaiai aea?eaea i?e au?aueaaiee eo ia caeaiue ei?i e
neein a niaoaiiuo iinaaao n aia?aioii. Oniaa?oainoaiaaia oaoiieiaey
ooiaea ca iinaaaie i?e au?aueaaiee ni?ai aac i?eiaiaiey aa?aeoeeaeia.
Eco/aiu e ?aeiiaiaeiaaiu i?iecaiaenoao i?eaiu nieaeaiey aeaaeiinoe ca?ia
ni?ai, iioeiaeueiua n?iee e niiniau oai?ee nieioiuo iinaaia ?aiianiaeuo
ni?oia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ni?ai, oaoiieiaey, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ?anoaiee (ca?ii,
caeaiay ianna e oaoie/aneea oeaee), aeae?ioa?ie/aneea oaeoi?u.

E?ani?ieia N.A. Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy ni?ai a oiiaao iaaeinoaoiueiai ? iano?eeiai caieiaeaiiy
i?ai?/iiai Noaio Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
n?euenueeiainii-aea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.09 —
?ineeiieoeoai. ?inoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1999 ?.

Caoeua?oueny aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa, yea ? ?acoeueoaoii aaaaoi??/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeicaieeee aecia/eoe ?aaeoe?th ni?ai ia ci?io
a?ae?ioa?i?/-ieo oiia i?ioyaii aaaaoaoe?? ? iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe
iioei?ciaaio oao-iieia?th eiai ae?iuoaaiiy a i?ai?/i?e /anoei? noaiiai?
ciie Oe?a?ie. Ocaaaeueiai? no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ae?iaieoeoaa oe???
eoeueoo?e a na?o? ? iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue ?icoe?aiiy ieiu ??
iin?ao ca ?aooiie eoeo?oaece. Aecia/ai? e?au? eaiee n?aici?ie aeey
?ici?uaiiy ni?ai, ?ic?iaeai? ii-oeiaeuei? niiniae iniiaiiai ?
ia?aaeiin?aiiai ia?ia?oeo a?oioo, no?iee n?aae, oi?ia ? ?ici?? ieiu?
aeeaeaiiy ?ineei ??cieo ca nei?inoeae?noth ni?o?a ? a?a?eae?a.
?ic?iaeai? caoiaee ii i?aeaeuaiith aaeaioeaiino? ni?ai aei aieeao
iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua a ia??iae n?aaa-noiaee,
ye? aeicaieythoue ciaioeoe ??cieoeth i?ae eaai?aoi?iith ? iieueiaith
noiae?noth ian?iiy. Aecia/aii niiniae ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??io?a
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ?c aeia?ea. Aea/aii ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii
ae?iaieoeoao caoiaee ii cieaeaiith aieiaino? ca?ia ni?ai, iioeiaeuei?
no?iee ? niiniae cae?aiiy a?iaeath.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ni?ai, oaoiieia?y, i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei (ca?ii,
caeaia iana ? oaoi?/i? oe?e?), a?ae?ioa?i?/i? oaeoi?e.

Krasnenkov S.V. The scientific substantiation of optimization of sorghum
cultivation technology in unsufficient and unstable humidifying
conditions of northern Steppe of Ukraine.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of
agriculturural sciences in speciality 06.01.09- Plant Growing Institute
UAAS, Dniepropetrovsk, 1999.

The thesis for a doctor’s degree containing the long-term research
results is presented in which the sorghum reaction on a modification of
hydrothermal conditions during vegetation is revealed and the scientific
substantiation of its cultivation technology optimization in the
northern part of a steppe zone of Ukraine is given. The modern trends of
sorghum production in the world are investigatedand the necessity of the
sown area extension at the expense of corn is justified. The crop
rotation links for plecement of sorghum, optimum methods of main and
presowing soil cultivation, sowing terms, the form and size of feeding
area of sorts and hybrids, differentiated on earliness, are determined.
The methods of incraese of adaptive stability of sorghum under influense
of the unfavorable environmental factors in period sowing-sprouts,
permitting to reduce the differences between laboratory and field
germination rate of seeds are developed. The methods of increase of
utilization coefficients of nutrient substances from fertilizers are
revealed. The methods of decrease of sorghum humidity, terms and methods
of harvesting time are investigated and recommended to production.

Key word: sorghum, technology, plant productivity (grain and green mass,
technical aims), hydrothermal factors.

Iiaeienaii aei ae?oeo: 28.04.1999 ?.

Oi?iao 60 o 84/16

Oiia. ae?. a?. 2.0 Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Caeac ?

Iinoeooo ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa OAAI

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