?INOEOOO CAIEA?IANOAA

OE?A?INUeEI? AEAAeAI?? AA?A?IEO IAOE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

EA?OEI Aai??o Iaaeiae/

OAeE 633.31:631.583 (477)

IAOEIAA IAA?OIOOAAIIss ? ?IC?IAEA ?IOAINEAIEO AA?IOAOI?*IEO I?EEII?A
I?AeAEUAIIss EI?IIAI? I?IAeOEOEAIINO? ETHOeA?IE A E?NINOAIO OE?A?IE

06.01.12 — ei?iiae?iaieoeoai ? eoe?aieoeoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ei?i?a Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aa?a?ii? iaoe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

AIAIA?I Aiaoie?e Aeaniae/, ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI, caa?aeoaa/
eaai?aoi??th eoe?aieoeoaa;

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

C?I*AIEI Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/, Oiainueea aea?aeaaia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeaaeai?y, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith ?ineeiieoeoaa

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

IAUAE ss?ineaa ?aaiiae/, ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa ? a?ieia?? oaa?ei
cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio OAAI, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
n?euenueeiainii-aea?nueeee oi?aa?neoao.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “19 “ o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae 27.361.01 i?e ?inoeooo? caiea?ianoaa OAAI ca aae?anith:

255205, nio. *aaaie Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeiai ?-io Ee?anueei? iae, ?inoeooo
caiea?ianoaa OAAI, ia ?i’y a/aiiai nae?aoa?y Niaoe?aaee

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo.

A?aeceae ia aaoi?aoa?ao o aeaio i?ei??ieeao, caa??aieo ia/aoeith,
i?ineii iaaeneeaoe ia ?i’y a/aiiai nae?aoa?y Niaoe?aaee.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “16″ ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe
E?aa/aiei E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ethoea?ia, ye aenieia?iaeaeia ? aenieia?eeiaa
ei?iiaa eoeueoo?a caeia? i?ia?aeia i?noea a ei?iiae?iaieoeoa?
?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i ? a oe?eiio na?o?.

A?oioiai-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie ni?eythoue a?ieia?/iei
iiaeeeainoyi iioaioe?aeueiiai ?inoo ei?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino?. I?ioa, ia
ii/aoie iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue o?iaeaei?noue ethoea?ie aoea iecueeith ?
ianoaa?eueiith, aiane?aeie /iai ieiua iin?ao ?? nei?ioeeanue a o?e ?ace.

A ca’yceo c oeei, aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith yaey?oueny oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ioaineaieo i?eeii?a no?eeiai i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino? ?
iie?ioaiiy ei?iiai? yeino? ethoea?ie, yea ni?eyoeia ?icoe?aiith iin?aieo
ieiu ? a naith /a?ao a?ae?a?aaaoeia i?ia?aeio ?ieue o ae??oaii?
ei?iiaiai a?eeo ia Oe?a?i?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aaaaoi??/i?, nenoaiaoe/i? iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue i?ioyaii 1966-1997 ??. a?aeiia?aeii
caaaeueiinithcieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai 02.02./1971-1975 ??./,
0.Oe.041 /1981-1985 ??./, 051.04 /1986-1990 ??./,iinoaiiae AeEIO i?e
?aae? I?i?no??a N?N? ?193 a?ae 14.03.1990 ?. oa ?anioae?eainueeeo
i?ia?ai “Aa?ieiiieaen” ?I.051.05.Oe. /1986-1990 ??./, “Ei?ie ? ei?iiaee
a?eie” caaaeaiiy 03.01 /1991-1995 ??./, “I?iaeiaieuenoai-95”, caaaeaiiy
AeEIO 225/1400 a?ae 07.12.1992 ?. 3.01.08/76.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaaea a iaoeiaiio
iaa?oiooaaii? iioeiaeueieo aa?iaeieia?/ieo oiia ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo
ethoea?ie a ia?oee ??e aeeooy ? ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a aeey
no?eeiai i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino?, anoaiiaeaiiy ia oe?e iniia?
e?euee?nii? aaee/eie acioio?enaoe?? oa ae?? a?ieia?/iiai acioo ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ie?aieo eoeueoo? ? eaiie ei?iiaeo n?aici?i.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/aee aeeiiaiiy oaeeo
caaaeaiue:

— aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ethoea?ie a ia?oee ??e aeeooy a
aaniyieo ? e?oi?o aaciie?eaieo ? i?aeiie?eaieo iin?aao c ?aii?ie ?
i?ci?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie;

— aeine?aeeoe caeaaei?noue i?ae aa?iaeieia?/ieie oiiaaie ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo ethoea?ie a ia?oee ??e aeeooy ? i?iaeoeoeai?noth a iine?aeoth/?
?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith;

— ciaeoe aoaeoeaiee niin?a o?i?/ii? ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie i?e aaniyiiio
aaciie?eaiiio iin?a? ethoea?ie;

— aecia/eoe iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ii?i aen?ao ethoea?ie c ?aii?ie
ca?iiaeie, eaionoyieie ? i?ci?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie, yea caaacia/o?
aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue a iine?aeoth/? ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith;

— aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee ?aaeei neiooaaiiy i?e aaaaoi??/iiio
aeei?enoaii? o?aainoith;

— aea/eoe aieea i?aai?/ieo ? i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?
ye?noue ei?io ?c ethoea?ie;

— aea/eoe i?ieea?noue o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ethoea?ie ca oacaie ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo, caeaaeii a?ae aa?iaeieia?/ieo oiia ae?iuoaaiiy;

— aecia/eoe aaee/eio neia?ioe/ii? acioio?enaoe?? ethoea?ie oa aieea
a?ieia?/iiai acioo ia i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino? ie?aieo eoeueoo? oa eaiie
ei?iiaeo n?aici?i;

— i?iaanoe a?iaia?aaoe/io ioe?ieo iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a
ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia ei?iia? oe?e?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa aecia/aiee a?ieia?/iee iieaciee ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo
ethoea?ie a ??e iin?ao, yeee aa?aioo? oi?ioaaiiy iaeneiaeueio ei?iiao
i?iaeoeoeai?noue a iine?aeoth/? ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith.

Aia?oa aeiaaaeaii ia?aaaao aianaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea a ei?iiaeo
n?aici?iao aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ethoea?io aaciie?eaiiai iin?ao a
ii??aiyii? ?c aianaiiyi ?o i?ae i?inaii? eoeueoo?e.

Aeiaeaeaia iiaa neia?aaoe/ia noi?o aa?a?oeeae?a, yea caaacia/o?
cieuaiiy 90-95% iaeii- ? aeaiaeieueieo ao?’yi?a i?e aaniyieo
aaciie?eaieo iin?aao ? oi?ioaaiiy aeaio oein?a ethoea?ie a ia?oee ??e
aeeooy.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaia iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ii?i aen?ao ethoea?ie c
?aii?ie y?eie ca?iiaeie, eaionoyieie ? i?ci?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie, yea
caaacia/o? y?ee oei ?icaeoeo ethoea?ie.

Oaeineiiaeai? ?aaeeie aaaaoi??/iiai aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith ethoea?ie
aeey iaeneiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ei?iiaiai a?eeo, a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aa?iaeieia?/ieo oiia ae?iuoaaiiy.

Aecia/aia aaee/eia neia?ioe/ii? acioio?enaoe?? ethoea?ie a caeaaeiino?
a?ae oiia ae?iuoaaiiy oa aieea a?ieia?/iiai acioo ia i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ie?aieo eaiie ei?iiaeo n?aici?i.

Oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee i?iaeoeoeaiino? ethoea?ie a ei?iiaeo
n?aici?iao, a caeaaeiino? a?ae aa?iaeieia?/ieo oiia ae?iuoaaiiy a ia?oee
??e aeeooy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeaia iiaa,
?ano?nicaa??aath/a ?ioaineaia oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia
ei?iia? oe?e?, yea caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy
a?iee?iaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo.

?ioaineaia, ?ano?nicaa??aath/a, aeieia?/ii aacia/ia oaoiieia?y
ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy cai?o ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue
ia 33-53%, ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io ia 40-60%, ciaioaiiy aia?aiaeo?ao ia 1
oeaioia? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia 26-35% a ii??aiyii? c iin?aii i?ae
iie?ea y/iaith.

Ca?aeii aea?aeaaii? eiiieaenii? IOI “Aa?ieiiieaen”, ?ioaineaia
oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia ei?i ia iniia? aaniyieo ? e?oi?o
aaciie?eaieo iin?a?a, ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii, ai?iaaaeaeoaaeanue a 1986-1990
??. ia ieiu? 202,2 oen. aaeoa??a, ui ni?eyei ?icoe?aiith ieiu? iin?ao
ethoea?ie ? i?aeaeuaiith ?? i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

?aeiiaiaeaoe??, eieae aaoi?a, ye? aeeth/athoue iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe??, aeei?enoiaothoueny ia eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
ea??aiee?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a ainiiaea?noa oa iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aocao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Caeiaoaa/ ia i?ioyc? 25 ?ie?a aoa iniiaiei
?ic?iaieeii ? ea??aieeii oaiaoeee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ii
oaeineiiaeaiith oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie ia ei?iia? oe?e? a
Oe?a?i?.

Aaoi? aoa aaciina?aaei?i aeeiiaaoeai aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ?aea? oa ?ic?iaee iioae?eiaaieo a iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo ?c ni?aaaoi?aie, a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia aeei?enoiaoaaa.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie o ae?iaieoeoai cae?enithaaeinue ia iniia?
cai?iiiiiaaieo caeiaoaa/ai ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? nenoaiaoe/ii aeiiia?aeaeenue ?
io?eiaee i?aeo?eieo oa noaaeaiiy ia Ananithcieo
eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo ia?aaeao, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue ca ia??iae
1977-1990 ??. a Iinea?, Aieaia?aae?, A?iieoe?, Aeia-Ao?, AEiae?ii,
Oiai?, Eai?ia?aae?, E?aniiaea??; ia ?anioae?eainueeeo
eii?aeeiaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo ia?aaeao, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
? nai?ia?ao c ieoaiue ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iieueiaiai ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa,
ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ei?iiaiai a?eea, ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo
oaoiieia?yo ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie /Ee?a 1972, 1982-1983; A?iieoey 1975,
1981, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1993; Oiaeueieoeueeee 1978; Aneai?y-Iiaa 1973,
1984; *a?eane 1986, 1987; ??aia 1988; *a?i?a?a 1988.

?acoeueoaoe aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
Anaoe?a?inuee?e /i?aeia?iaei?e/ eiioa?aioe?? “Ei?ie ? ei?iiaee a?eie;
/A?iieoey, 1994/, ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oe?a?ia a na?oiaeo caiaeueieo, i?iaeiaieue/eo, ei?iiaeo ?ano?nao ?
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiineiao”, A?iieoey, 1995 ?., ia i’yoiio i?aeia?iaeiiio
eiia?an? ii aeine?aeaeaiith eenoeiaiai i?ioa?io a ?inoia?- ia-Aeiio,
?in?.y, 1996 ?. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeaiiino?oaaeenue ia
AAeIA N?N? oa Oe?a?ie, aea aaoi? iaai?iaeaeaiee aeeieiiii ae?oaiai
nooiaiy a 1988 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 89 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? oa?eoee neeaaeiaeie aei 20
iiiia?ao?e, eiea ? aeia?aeiee?a, aena?oeai? a 35 ?iaioao a iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao, a 15 ca??ieeao iaoa??ae?a, oacao eiioa?aioe?e ?
neiiic?oi?a, a 2 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaao.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ei?i?a OAAI ca ?acoeueoaoaie
25 ??/ieo nenoaiaoe/ieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o eaai?aoi??yo
oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? oa niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ei?iiaeo
n?aici?i i?ioyaii 1974-1997 ??., oa o a?aeae?e? ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa
eieeoiuei? Ee?anueei? aeine?aeii? noaioe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa “Oa?aceia” a
1965-1974 ??. i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ? aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? aaoi?a.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? Aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?oeiieno
aeeeaaeaia ia 260 noi??ieao ?oeiieniiai oaenoo. Aiia neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, aeaayoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, ui aeeth/a? 436 iaca, a o./. 25 ?iicaiieo
aaoi??a ? aeiaeaoeo. Aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae i?aaenoaaeaiee a 116
oaaeeoeyo. A aeiaeaoeo ai?uai? a?aeiiino? i?i aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa,
aeia?aeee i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie oa ?io?.

1. ?NOI??ss OA NOAI ETHOeA?IIN?ssIIss A OE?A?I? IA II*AOIE
AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Iiaeaii ei?ioeee aiae?oe/iee iaeyae noaio ethoea?iin?yiiy a Oe?a?i? a
aei?aaiethoe?eiee ia??iae oa a ?aaeyinuee? /ane aei ii/aoeo iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Oaeaeeee ??no ieiu iin?ao ethoea?ie a i?neyai?iiee
ia??iae noi?iaiaeaeoaaany a?oaei ii?ooaiiyi aa?ioaoi?/ieo oiia, ye? ia
a?aoiaoaaee a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e,
aiane?aeie /iai o?iaeaei?noue ?? aoea iecueeith ? ianoaa?eueiith.

A 50-60-o ?ieao o?aaii?eueia nenoaia caiea?ianoaa aoea aino?i
canoaeaeaia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei oeeaaeii, ui i?eaaei aei nei?i/aiiy
ieiu iin?ao aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa, a o./. ? ethoea?ie, a o?e ?ace. A naith
/a?ao oeae cao?ae i?ea?a aei ??ceiai niaaeo i?iaeoeoeaiino?
oaa?eiieoeoaa ?c-ca aino?iai aeao?oeeoo ei?iiaiai a?eeo.

I?ae oei, na?oiaa i?aeoeea ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa na?ae/eea, ui ethoea?ia ?
iaea?eueo a?iaeaeiith aiaiaith eoeueoo?ith ? a?ae?a?a? ae??oaeueio ?ieue
o ae?iaieoeoa? aenieia?eeiaeo ei?i?a, ui aeaei i?aenoaao
aeiaaino?ieiaiai aea/aiiy a?ieia?? eoeueoo?e i?e noai?aii? ??cieo
aa?iaeieia?/ieo oiia ? ?ic?iaee iaae?eieo aa?ioaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a
i?aeaeuaiiy ei?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino?.

2.AA?IEE?IAOE*I? OIIAE ? IAOIAeEEA I?IAAAeAIIss AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Iieueia? ? eaai?aoi?ii-iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? ia oeiiaeo
aeey ciie E?ninoaio /i?iicaiieo aeeoaoaaieo iaeiaoionieo a?oioao c
ai?noii aoiono a i?iiio oa?? 3,8-4,4% ? ?I (nie.) 6,0-6,4 oa n??eo
e?niaeo na?aaeiueinoaeeienoeo a?oioao, c ai?noii aoiono 1,9-2,4% ? ?I
(nie.) 4,9-5,3, Ir –3,5-3,8, S – 12,9-13,6 ia.aea/100 a a?oioo, V-
75-80%, a?ae?ie?co?iiai acioo (ca Ei?io?eaeii) – 7-10 ia, ?ooiiiai
oinoi?o ? iai?iiiai eae?th (ca *???eiaei) a?aeiia?aeii 10-12 ? 12-14 ia
ia 100 a a?oioo.

A na?aaeiueiio ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae ca 1966-1975 ??. iiaae?a aeiaei
ia 13 ii a?eueoa ii?ie (314 ii). Iinooeeaeie aoee 1967 ? 1973 ??., eiee
ca aaaaoaoe?th aeiaei 88,5 ? 70% iiaae?a. A?eueo aieiaeie aoee
1969,1970, 1971, 1974 ?iee.

Noia iiceoeaieo oaiia?aoo? a na?aaeiueiio ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae aoea
aeuith ca ii?io (2700° N) ia 59° N. A na?aaeiueiio iiaiaei? oiiae aoee
ni?eyoeeaeie aeey ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ethoea?ie.

A aeine?aeaeaiiyo 1975-1997 ?ie?a ni?eyoeea? iiaiaei? oiiae aeey ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo ?ineei a ia??iae aaaaoaoe?? niinoa??aaeenue i?ioyaii 17 ?ie?a.
Ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae iiaae?a aeiaei a na?aaeiueiio a?eueoa ii?ie
(359 ii) ia 60 ii. Iaioa a?ae ii?ie aeiaei iiaae?a a 22% ?ie?a – 1979 ?.
(75%), 1981 ?. (80%), 1986 ?. (83%), 1992 ?. (85%), 1994 ?. (79%) i?e
AOE 1,03.

Na?aaeiuei??/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y noaiiaeea 7,2° N, ui ia 0,3° aeua
ii?ie. A e?oi? i?nyoe? /a?aaiue, eeiaiue ? na?iaiue na?aaeiueii?ny/ia
oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y aoea iaioith a?ae ii?ie a?aeiia?aeii ia –0,4; -0,8;
-0,2° N. Noia iiceoeaieo oaiia?aoo? ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae aoea
iaioith a?ae ii?ie aoea ia 50° N ? neeaaeaea 2650° N. A?ae?ioa?i?/iee
eiao?oe??io a na?aaeiueiio ca 1975-1997 ??. neeaaeaa 1,58, oiaoi
a?ae?ioa?i?/i? oiiae aoee iioeiaeueieie.

Aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae c noiith oaiia?aoo? aeua 10° N a na?aaeiueiio
neeaaeaa 170 aei?a, aai ia 12 aei?a aoa aeiaoee a?ae aaaaoi??/ieo
aeaieo.

Ceiiaee ia??iae a na?aaeiueiio oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ca oiiaaie
oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio cia/iith ianoaa?euei?noth. A na?aaeiueiio
oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y a a?oaei? aoea aeuith ia 2, 0° N, a n?/i? ? ethoiio
a?aeiia?aeii ia +0,8 ? +0,1 ° N. Iaea?eueo iecueea oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y
ca inoaii? i?anoie?ooy a?aei?/aii 9 n?/iy 1987 ?. – 33,5° N. Iaeieae/a
oaiia?aoo?a iiaa?oi? a?oioo a?aei?/aia a ethoiio 1967 ?. (- 33° N), a
a?oaei? 1970 ?. (-32° N), a n?/i? 1972 ?. (-38° N), a aa?aci? 1987 ?.
(-32° N), a eenoiiaae? 1980 ?. (-20° N). Aaniethoiee iaeneioi aeeaeie
i?iia?caiiy a?oioo a?aei?/aiee a aa?aci? 1979 ?. (99 ni), a a?oaei? 1978
(109 ni). A?ae/ooia ci?ia iiaiaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia, ca ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue, a oe?eiio ni?eyea a?ieia?? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ethoea?ie,
ye aaaaoi??/ii? ? aaaaoioe?nii? eoeueoo?e.

A iniiao iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iai?aaeaieo ia ?ice?eooy iiaeeeainoae
no?eeiai i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ethoea?ie iieeaaeaiee iieueiaee
aeine?ae.

Ca 30 ?ie?a i?iaaaeaii 48 iieueiaeo, 12 eaai?aoi?ii-iieueiaeo ? 2
noaoe?iia?ieo aeiaaino?ieiaeo aeine?ae?a, ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie
iaoiaeeeaie. ?ici?? iae?eiaeo ae?eyiie a oei/aniaeo iieueiaeo aeine?aeao
neeaaeaa 25 ? 50 i2 i?e /ioe?e?acia?e, a a noaoe?iia?ieo 100 i2 i?e
o?e?acia?e iiaoi?iino?. Eaai?aoi?ii-iieueia? aeine?aee i?iaiaeeeeny ia
ieiu? 1-5 i2 i?e 4-6 ?acia?e iiaoi?iino?. ?ici?uaiiy ae?eyiie
nenoaiaoe/ia a aeaa y?one. Ia n??eo ii?aecieaieo a?oioao ca ??e, aai a
??e iin?ao ainaie aiineee aaiiyeia? aeia?eaa o aeaeyae? aeaoaeaoo 8-10
o/aa, aai aaiiyeiaiai ai?ioia ?c ?ic?aooieo 3,5-4 o/aa.

Iniiaiee ? ia?aiin?aiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo caaaeueiii?eeiyoee aeey
E?ninoaio. Aen?aaee ethoea?io iin?aio oa ?aii? ? i?ci? y?? eoeueoo?e
?aeiiiaaieo ni?o?a. Iin?a ethoea?ie i?iaiaeeee n?aaeeith “Naenii?y” a
aa?aaao? c o?aeoi?ii O-25. Ca?iia? eoeueoo?e cae?aee eiiaaeiii
“Naiii-500”. Iae?e o?iaeath aaaaoaoeaii? iane ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?
cae?enithaaee oeyoii neiooaaiiy o?aainoith eina?eith EN-2,1 a aa?aaao? c
o?aeoi?ii O-25 oa iine?aeoth/ei caaaeoaaiiyi c iae?eiai? ieiu?.

sse?noue ? iiaeeai?noue ei?io aecia/aee ca aeaieie aiae?c?a o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo, aaniethoii nooi? ?a/iaeie aaaaoaoeaii? iane ? ca?ia, aecia/aii?
ca noaiith caaaeueiiai ciioaoi?/iiai aiae?co. A noo?e ?a/iaei? ei?io
aecia/aee ai?no acioo, ne?i? ee?oeiaeie, ne?iai aee?o, ne?i? ciee oa
aacacioenoeo aeno?aeoeaieo ?a/iaei. E??i oeeo iieaciee?a aecia/aee ai?no
a ei?i? oinoi?o, eaeueoe?th, eae?th, iaai?th oa ?ioeo i?e?iaeaiaio?a. Ia
i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe?? ethoea?ie aecia/aee ai?no ea?ioeio. Ai?iieeneioiee
neeaae ei?io aecia/aany ia aiae?caoi?? “Ai?iio?ii”. An? o?i?/i? aiae?ce
i?iaiaeeeenue ca i?eeiyoeie iaoiaeeeaie.

Anueiai ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiae?ciaaii a?eueoa 1640 ?ineeiieo
c?ace?a ei?io ca noaiith caaaeueii ciioaoi?/iiai aiae?co c aecia/aiiyi
a?eueoa 17 oen. iieaciee?a o?i?/iiai neeaaeo.

A?iaia?aaoe/io aoaeoeai?noue ie?aieo oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a oa
oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith AANAI?E ia
iniia? oaoiieia?/ieo ea?o i?e ae?iaie/?e ia?aa??oe? oaoiieia?e.
Ae?iaie/a ia?aa??ea ?ioaineaii? ?ano?nicaa??aath/i? oaoiieia??
ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie cae?enithaaeanue a ainiiaea?noaao Ee?anueei?,
A?iieoeueei? iaeanoae. Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
aeeiioaaee iaoiaeaie aeenia?n?eiiai ei?aeyoeaiiai oa ?aa?aneaiiai
aiae?c?a, o ia/enethaaeueiiio oeaio?? OAAI oa c aeei?enoaiiyi
ia?niiaeueiiai eiii’thoa?a ?AE ?N AO.

Canoiniaai? a aeine?aeao iaoiaeeee caaacia/eee aenieo oi/i?noue ?
aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a.

3.AA?IAEIEIA?*I? OIIAE ?INOO ? ?ICAEOEO ETHOeA?IE A AA?IO?OIOeAIICAO
IA?OIAI ?IEO AEEOOss

A?ieia?/iith iniaeea?noth ethoea?ie ? aeoaea iia?eueiee ii/aoeiaee ??no
? ?icaeoie. Ia /enoeo a?ae ao?’yi?a ieiuao, i?e aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio
iin?a? noiaee c’yaeythoueny a na?aaeiueiio /a?ac 15,8+-6,2 aei?a ?
caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio , i?i ui na?ae/eoue o?nia i?yia
ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue (r = +0,87+0,12). Ia 8-10 aeaiue i?ney iiyae
noiae?a c iacooe n?i’yaeieueieo eenoi/e?a c’yaey?oueny ia?aeiiee
i?aii?oeaaee eenoie, a ianooiiee o??e/aoee eenoie c’yaey?oueny /a?ac 7-8
aei?a.

*a?ac 25-28 aei?a aaaaoaoe?? ooai?th?oueny 4-5 o??e/aoeo eenoe?a i?e
aenio? ?ineei 8,6+1,4 ni. I?ney iiyae 6-7 o??e/aoeo eenoe?a ethoea?ia
ia?aoiaeeoue aei oace ooai?aiiy noaaea ? a?eeoaaiiy. Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee
e?i?eiee i?e??no aei oace ooai?aiiy noaaae neeaaea? 0,53 ni.

?ioaineaiee ??no ethoea?ie niinoa??aa?oueny a?ae oace noaaeoaaiiy ?
a?eeoaaiiy aei oea?o?iiy, eiee na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee e?i?eiee i?e??no
neeaaea? 1,2+0,1 ni.

Oace oea?o?iiy ethoea?ia aaniyiiai aaciie?eaiiai iin?ao aeinyaa? /a?ac
71+7 aei?a c noiith oaiia?aoo? 1106+77° N ? noiith na?oeiaeo aiaeei
1150+116.

I?ney ia?oiai oeino ia ii/aoeo oea?o?iiy, ethoea?ia aaniyiiai
aaciie?eaiiai iin?ao ae?oaee ?ac aeinyaa? oace aooii?caoe?? – ii/aoeo
oea?o?iiy /a?ac 54+4 aei?a, aeey /iai iaiao?aeia noia oaiia?aoo? 979+42°
N i?e na?aaei?e o?eaaeino? aeiy 15,1 aiaeei. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e
nei?i/aii? aeaiiiai ina?oeaiiy aei 12-13 aiaeei ??no ? ?icaeoie
ethoea?ie neeueii oiia?eueith?oueny ? aiia ia aeinyaa? oace oea?o?iiy.

Oiio a oiiaao E?ninoaio iioeiaeuei? aa?iaeieia?/i? oiiae aeey ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo ethoea?ie noai?ththoueny i?e e?oi?o no?ieao iin?ao a o?ao?e
aeaeaae? eeiiy. Aei i?eieiaiiy aaaaoaoe?? ca oeeo oiia noia oaiia?aoo?
neeaaeaoeia 900-950° N, ethoea?ia aeinyaa? oace aooii?caoe??. Ei?aiaaa
nenoaia i?iieea? ia aeeaeio 1,4+0,2 i, e?euee?noue iaa?ioe?a ia iaeio
?ineeio neeaaea? 5,0+1,0 oo., ae?aiao? “ei?iiee” aeinyaa? 4-7 ii, ui
caaaeaee aa?aioo? aeia?o ia?acei?aeth ?ineei.

I?e aaniyieo aaciie?eaieo iin?aao ethoea?ia c ia?oeo aei?a ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo ciaoiaeeoueny a neeaaeieo aca?iia?aeiineiao c ao?’yiaie, ye
iniaeeai? a?oie ?ineeiiino?, ui ?noi?e/ii noi?ioaaeenue a ?acoeueoao?
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie.

Ethoea?ia ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy /enoeo iin?a?a ia ia? niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
ao?’yi?a. A iin?aao ia?aaaaea? ci?oaiee oei caao?’yiaiino?. E?euee?noue
ao?’yi?a (310-670 oo/i2) ia?aaeuo? aonoioo ?ineei ethoea?ie.

sse iaeiiaeieuei?, oae ? aeaiaeieuei? ao?’yie cia/ii ia?aaa?oothoue
ethoea?io ca oaiiaie ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo. *a?ac 60 aei?a i?ney noiae?a
ethoea?ie aenioa ?ineei aeaiaeieueieo ao?’yi?a neeaaea? 80-90 ni,
iaeiiaeieueieo – 60-80 ni. Ao?’yie ciaoiaeyoueny a oac? aeic??aaiiy
ian?iiy. Ethoea?ia ciaoiaeeoueny a oac? 6-7 o??e/aoeo eenoe?a, ?iiae? a
oac? noaaeoaaiiy. ?c ao?’yi?a ? ethoea?ie oi?io?oueny aaaaoaoeaia iana
260-270 oe/aa, a ye?e /anoea ethoea?ie neeaaea? 23-35%.

A?iianith ao?’yi?a c 1 aa aeiineoueny a na?aaeiueiio oaea e?euee?noue
iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, ea/aa: acioo 74-88; oinoi?o 7,5-9,0; eae?th 45-55;
eaeueoe?th 38-45; iaai?th 20-25 ea/aa.

Aeniea caao?’yiai?noue a aeine?aeao 1975-1978 ??. cieaeoaaea o?iaeae
caeaii? iane ethoea?ie ia 89-126 oe/aa ii??aiyii c ae?eyieaie ?o/ii?
i?iiieee. O ca’yceo c oeei iaaeia?? o?iaeath caeaii? iane c ?ic?aooieo
ia 1 oe a?iiane ao?’yi?a (eiao?oe??io aeai?an?? a?iaeaeiino?) a aeaio
aeine?aeao neeaaeaa 0,52-0,61 oe.

Iniiaiei iieacieeii, ui oa?aeoa?eco? oeiaeo ao?’yi?a ? cieaeaiiy
a?iaeaeiino? aiane?aeie ?o eiieo?aioe?? c ethoea?iith ca na?oei, aieiao,
aeaiaioe aeeaeaiiy. Oiio aoaeoeai?noue ai?ioueae c ao?’yiaie ia aaniyieo
aaciie?eaieo iin?aao ethoea?ie aacia?a/ia. Aeiiin?aia aianaiiy aaeiai?
noi?o? aioaio 2-4 ea/aa c eaiaoeeeii 0,6-0,8 ea/aa ia cieaeo? aonoioo
noiae?a ethoea?ie ? ni?ey? ciaioaiith caao?’yiaiino? ia 96,4% ii??aiyii
c eiio?ieai.

A na?aaeiueiio ca 21 ??e aeine?aeaeaiue i?e aaniyieo aaciie?eaieo
iin?aao ?c canoinoaaiiyi aoaeoeaieo aa?a?oeeae?a oi?ioaaany o?iaeae
caeaii? iane ca aeaa oeine 235±9 oe/aa, c aeoiaeii 56,5±2,7 oe/aa nooi?
?a/iaeie oa 10,0 oe/aa ne?iai i?ioa?io.

O?iaeaei?noue caeaii? iane a iacia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia
aieiaicaaacia/aiino? (r = + 0,385+0,233). O?eueee a aeno?aiaeueieo
oiiaao aieiaicaaacia/aiino?, ye? niinoa??aaeenue a 1979 ?.,
o?iaeaei?noue caeaii? iane cieaeoaaeanue a 2,9 ?ac?a (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

O?iaeaei?noue caeaii? iane ? aeo?ae iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei i?e aaniyiiio
aaciie?eaiiio iin?ao ethoea?ie a ia?oee ??e aeeooy

?iee O?iaeae caeaii? iane, oe/aa Aeo?ae, oe/aa Iiaaee ca aaaaoaoe?th,
ii

1-e oe?n 2-e

oe?n ca aeaa oeine nooi? ?a/iaeie ne?iai i?ioa?io

1969* 182 86 268 66,5 12,4 377

1971* 192 101 293 73,5 13,4 350

1974* 157 100 257 62,3 9,3 554

1975 101 120 221 55,4 9,5 418

1976 142 68 210 47,0 8,1 422

1977 117 129 246 62,1 9,6 485

1978 122 129 251 79,2 12,4 451

1979 40 42 82 25,3 4,6 199

1981 148 75 224 54,4 8,0 225

1982 98 119 217 39,8 7,4 326

1983 139 116 255 55,4 11,5 366

1984 132 160 292 71,2 12,1 262

1985 119 85 204 56,2 9,6 388

1986 80 159 239 59,3 12,7 250

1987 181 59 240 57,4 9,5 340

1988 72 140 212 42,8 6,5 320

1989 85 99 184 40,9 7,2 564

1990 102 182 284 69,3 13,0 272

1991 200 127 327 70,4 15,0 533

1995 156 65 221 50,4 8,8 438

1996 117 86 203 47,7 9,2 377

Na?aaei? 128 107 235 56,5 10,0 377

Eiao?oe??io aa??aoe??, % 34,3 33,1 16,5 20,3 36,4 31,2

— o?iaeae i?e ?o/iiio i?iiiethaaii?.

??no ? ?icaeoie ethoea?ie a i?aeiie?eaieo iin?aao nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aaciie?eaieo ?, a ia?oo /a?ao, iaoiiaeth?oueny
a?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie iie?eaieo eoeueoo?.

Na?aae ?aii?o ca?iiaeo iaea?eueo oaeaeei?ineeie ? y/i?iue ? iaan.
Ii/eiath/e c oace aeoiaeo a o?oaeo, yea ianoa? /a?ac 25-30 aei?a a?ae
noiae?a, niinoa??aa?oueny ?ioaineaiee e?i?eiee ??n ? ?icaeoie y/iaith ?
a?ana. Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no aieiaiiai noaaea aei oace eiein?iiy
neeaaea? 3 + 0,6 ni. Aenioa ?ineei y/iaith a oaco eiein?iiy aeinyaa? 81
+ 17 ni, eenoeiaa iiaa?oiy 40,6 i2/aa. Ii/eiath/e c oace eou?iiy ?aii?o
ceaeiaeo ina?oeai?noue ?ineei ethoea?ie ciaioo?oueny ia 4-6%, a c oace
eiein?iiy ia 17-20% i?ioyaii 40-45 aei?a.

Iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ethoea?ie
noai?ththoueny i?e iin?a? c i?ci?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie eoeo?oaecith ia
caeaiee ei?i oa i?inii ia ca?ii. Iia?eueiee ii/aoeiaee ??no ? ?icaeoie
i?ci?o y?eo eoeueoo? ia i?ioyc? 30-35 aei?a caaacia/o? iaeaea oaeo ae
ina?oeai?noue ?ineei ethoea?ie, ye a aaciie?eaieo iin?aao. Oaiia?aoo?a
a?oioo a oa?? 0-5 ni ia 2-3° N aeua, i?ae i?ae iie?eaii y/iaith ?
aeei-a?anyii? noi?oee. Cia/ii e?au? oiiae aieiaicaaacia/aiino? i?e
iin?a? ethoea?ie c i?ci?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie. Ia ia??iae cae?aiiy
iie?eaieo eoeueoo? i?iaeoeoeaia aieiaa a oa?? a?oioo 10-40 ni neeaaeaea
a 1976-1978 ??. i?ae iie?eaii y/iaith 19,2 + 13,6, eoeo?oaece ia caeaiee
ei?i 38,4 + 19,3, aaniyiiai aaciie?eaiiai iin?ao 42,1 + 12,8 ii.

Oiiae ina?oeaiiy, oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei, aieiaicaaacia/ai?noue,
o?eaae?noue i?aeiie?eaiiai ia??iaeo, i?ae ??cieie y?eie eoeueoo?aie,
nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia ??no ? ?icaeoie ethoea?ie a ia?oee ??e aeeooy
(oaae.2).

Oaaeeoey 2.

Aieea iie?eaieo eoeueoo? ia ??no ? ?icaeoie ethoea?ie a ia?oee ??e
aeeooy

Iie?eai? eoeueoo?e ?ie?a aeine?ae-aeaiue Aei?a i?ae iie?e-aii Oaca
?icaeoeo a ia??iae cae?aiiy Aoai i?aaii-aaiaco Aenioa ?ineei ethoea?-ie,
ni Iana* a

ss/i?iue ia ca?ii 14 84+10 4-5 eenoe?a ?? 10,4+1,2 1,2

Aeei — iaan ia caeaiee ei?i 10 61 +8 5-7 eenoe?a ?? 12,1+ 1,8 2,3

Ai?io ia ca?ii 4 80+3 noaaeo-aaiiy O 20,7+2,1 16,1

Eoeo?oaeca ia caeaiee ei?i 12 60+4 ii/aoie oea?o?iiy O??? 36,0+ 3,8 29,0

* Nooa iana 50 ?ineei.

C o?iaea?i iie?eaieo eoeueoo? aeiineoueny cia/ia e?euee?noue
eaaeiaeinooiieo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, ui oaeiae iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ??no ?
?icaeoie ethoea?ie. Ca 5 ?ie?a aeine?aeaeaiue c o?iaea?i y/iaith aeiin
iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaa (ea/aa): acioo 102±8; oinoi?o
32±4; eae?th 36±5; eaeueoe?th 28±3; iaai?th 7±0,5, a c o?iaea?i
aeei-a?anyii? noi?oee a?aeiia?aeii 115±12, 24±3, 65±4,48±4, 23±2 ea/aa.
C o?iaea?i eoeo?oaece ia caeaiee ei?i aeiin iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei aoa iaioei
? neeaaeaa (ea/aa): acioo 94±6, oinoi?o 12±5, eae?th 28±3, eaeueoe?th
30±2.

Ca 30 ?ie?a oaiieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ia aoei aeiaeiiai aeiaaeeo, eiee
a i?ney cae?aiiy y/iaith ia ca?ii ethoea?ia a ??e iin?ao aeinyaaea oace
aooii?caoe??. A oie /an, ye eiithoeia eo/ia ca ni?eyoeeaeo oiia
aieiaicaaacia/aiiy a in?ii?e ia??iae aeinyaa? oace oea?o?iiy.

Ethoea?ia ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy, iacaaaeath/e ia iecueeo eiieo?aioio
caeaoi?noue c iaeii??/ieie eoeueoo?aie, iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?o ??no ?
?icaeoie.

Iin?a ethoea?ie i?ae iie?ea y/iaith ciaioo? o?iaeae ca?ia ia 3,0 oe/aa,
aai ia 7,8%. Iniaeeai /ooeeaa aei i?aen?ao ethoea?ie eoeo?oaeca, yea
cieaeo? o?iaeae caeaii? iane ia 27,4%.

O?iaeaei?noue aeei-a?anyii? noi?oee c i?aen?aii ethoea?ie a ia?o?e
?ioaoe?? ei?iiai? n?aici?ie ca 1976-1982 ??. aoea iaioith ia 9,9%
ii??aiyii c o?iaeaei?noth aac i?aen?ao. *ooeea? aei i?aen?ao ethoea?ie
oaeiae iceia aeeoi ? ioaieoey ia caeaiee ei?i, aea o?iaeaei?noue
cieaeo?oueny ia 17,5 ? 13,6% a ii??aiyii? c i?aen?aii eiithoeie eo/ii?.

Eaai?aoi?iei aeine?aeii anoaiiaeaii neeueio ?ia?a?oi?io ae?th aiaeyii?
aeoyaeee ei??ioe?a ethoea?ie ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy ia ii/aoeiaee ??no
ei??ioe?a ? i?i?inoe?a y/iaith ? ioaieoe?. Aenioa i?i?inoe?a ioaieoe? ?
y/iaith i?e iin?a? o aiaeyio aeoyaeeo c ei??ioe?a ethoea?ie
ciaiooaaeanue o 2,2 ?ac?a ii??aiyii c i?i?inoaiiyi ia aeenoeeueiaai?e
aiae?.

O 1987-1991 ??. i?iaaaeai? iieueia? aeine?aee ii aecia/aiith
iioeiaeueii? aonoioe y?eo ca?iiaeo (aeeoi, y/i?iue, iaan), eaionoyieo
(no??ieoey, ??iae, a??/eoey a?ea, ?aaeueea ie?eia) ? i?ci?o y?eo
(eoeo?oaeca, i?ini ei?iiaa, noaeainueea o?aaa, ni?ai oeoe?iaa oa iaeca
ia caeaiee ei?i), ca yeeo ethoea?ia a ??e iin?ao aeinyaaea a oace
?icaeoeo — oea?o?iiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a iieacaee, ui o noi?nieo iin?aao ii/aoie oace
oea?o?iiy o ethoea?ie ianoa? /a?ac 68-70 aei?a i?ney noiae?a i?e aen?a?
y?eo eaionoyieo ? ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? c ii?iith 1,0 ? 2,0 iei/aa noiaeeo
ian?iei. Ethoea?ia aeinyaa? aenioe 61±6 ni, ieoiia aaaa caeaii? iane a
noi?oeao neeaaea? 2,8-6,2%. ss?? ca?iia? aeinyaathoue oace
iiei/ii-aineiai? noeaeino?, a eaionoyi? — iiao??iiy no?o/e?a.

I?e noi?nieo iin?aao c ?aii?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie ethoea?ia /a?ac 60-70
aei?a i?ney ia?oiai oeino oi?io? ae?oaee oe?n o oac? aooii?caoe?? c
o?iaeaei?noth 96±8 oe/aa caeaii? iane aeoiaeii 20,5 oe/aa ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue ? 3,45 oe/aa ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io.

I?e noi?niiio iin?a? c i?ci?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie iioeiaeueia aonoioa
iin?ao, yea caaacia/o? oea?o?iiy ethoea?ie a ia?oiio oein? neeaaea? aeey
eoeo?oaece ? ni?ai oeoe?iaiai 250 oen/aa, a ii?ia aen?ao aeey
noaeainueei? o?aae ? iaece 1,0 iei/aa, i?ina ei?iiaiai 2,5 iei/aa
noiaeeo ian?iei.

Oaca oea?o?iiy ethoea?ie o noi?nieo iin?aao c i?ci?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie
ianoa? /a?ac 60-64 aei?a i?ney noiae?a, i?e na?aaei?e aenio? ?ineei 54±3
ni ? ieoii?e aac? ?? a noi?oeao 0,6-1,2%. I?ney ia?oiai oeino noi?oie
ethoea?ia aeia?a ?icaeaa?oueny ? aei i?eieiaiiy in?iiuei? aaaaoaoe??
aeinyaa? oace ?icaeoeo – ii/aoie aooii?caoe??, ui aa?aioo? aeia?o
ia?acei?aeth ?ineei.

4. INIAEEAINO? OI?IOAAIIss O?IAEATH OA CA?? IIAEEAIEO ?A*IAEI ?C
ETHOeA?IE Ae?OAIAI OA O?AOUeIAI ?IE?A AEEOOss A CAEAAEIINO? A?Ae
AA?IAEIEIA?*IEO OIIA ?INOO ? ?ICAEOEO A ??E IIN?AO

??aaiue o?iaeaeiino?, eiai ye?noue, aeo?ae iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ia ae?oaee
? o?ao?e ?iee aeeooy ethoea?ie ciaoiaeyoueny a i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae
aa?iaeieia?/ieo oiia ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?? a aa?io?oioeaiicao ia?oiai
?ieo.

ss?ee oei ?icaeoeo ethoea?ie, coiiaeaiee e?aueie oiiaaie ina?oeaiiy,
aieiaicaaacia/aiino?, ?aaeeio aeeaeaiiy a aaciie?eaieo ? noi?nieo
iin?aao, ni?ey? a?eueo?e oa ??aiii??i?e aonoio? o?aainoith, a?eueo?e
aenio? ?ineei, ui aa?aioo? cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino? aaaaoaoeaii?
iane, i?aeaeuaiith ai?noo i?ioa?io, ui aa?aioo? no?eea ca?eueoaiiy
aeoiaeo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei, a ii??aiyii? c iin?aii i?ae iie?ea y/iaith ia
ca?ii, aea ethoea?ia ?icaeaaeanue ca iceiei oeiii (oaae. 3).

A na?aaeiueiio ca 15 ?ie?a aaciie?eaiee iin?a ethoea?ie ?c canoinoaaiiyi
aa?a?oeeae?a ia ae?oaee ??e aeeooy caaacia/o? na?aaeith o?iaeaei?noue
aaaaoaoeaii? iane 545±85 oe/aa oa ca?? nooi? ?a/iaeie 122±17 oe/aa, ui
a?aeiia?aeii ia 67,2 ? 64,8% a?eueoa a?ae iieaciee?a iin?ao i?ae iie?ea
y/iaith ia ca?ii.

Ia o?ao?e ??e aeeooy aaciie?eaiee aaniyiee iin?a ia?aaa?oo? iin?a i?ae
iie?ea y/iaith ia ca?ii ca cai?ii nooi? ?a/iaeie ia 38,0%, ca cai?ii
ne?iai i?ioa?io ia 41,3%.

Iieueiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie 1987-1995 ??. aeiaaaeaii, ui i?e ii?iao
aen?ao ?aii?o y?eo ca?iiaeo 1-2 iei/aa noiaeeo ian?iei, o?iaeaei?noue
aaaaoaoeaii? iane ethoea?ie ia ae?oaee ??e aeeooy ?noioii ia
cieaeo?oueny ? neeaaea? i?e noi?niiio iin?a? c aeeoii y?ei 95,5%, a c
y/iaiai 94,9% ii??aiyii c aaciie?eaiei iin?aii. Ia o?ao?e ??e aeeooy
o?iaeaei?noue caeaii? iane ethoea?ie ?c noi?nieo ? aaciie?eaieo iin?a?a
i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaa.

Aeinoia??ii anoaiiaeaii, ui ca y?iai oeio ?icaeoeo iaeneiaeueia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ethoea?ie caaacia/o?oueny ia ae?oaee ??e aeeooy, a ca
iceiiai ia o?ao?e. Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no nooi? ?a/iaeie ? ne?iai
i?ioa?io o ethoea?ie ae?oaiai ?ieo aeeooy i?e iin?a? i?ae iie?ea y/iaith
ia ca?ii neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii 29 ? 4,9 ea/aa, a ia o?ao?e ??e aeeooy —
42 ? 8,2 ea/aa. I?e aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio iin?a? oe? iieacieee
neeaaeathoue a?aeiia?aeii 70 ? 14, 2 oa 58 ? 11,6 ea/aa. Noi?ni? iin?ae
ethoea?ie c ?aii?ie ca?iiaeie ? eaionoyieie ia ae?oaee ??e aeeooy
caaacia/othoue na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no nooi? ?a/iaeie ? ne?iai
i?ioa?io 57 — 58 oa 11,5 — 11,6 ea/aa, a ia o?ao?e ??e a?aeiia?aeii 53
-55 ? 10,7 — 11,0 ea/aa.

Oaaeeoey 3

O?iaeaei?noue caeaii? iane ? ca?? nooi? ?a/iaeie ethoea?ie ia ae?oaee
??e aeeooy i?e aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio ? i?aeiie?eaiiio iin?a? i?ae
y/i?iue, oe/aa

?iee E?euee?noue iiaae?a ca ea?oaiue – na?iaiue,ii Aaciie?eaiee aaniyiee
iin?a Iin?a i?ae iie?ea y/iaith ia ca?ii I?e??no a?ae aaciie?eaiiai
iin?ao

caea-ii? iane nooi? ?a/i-aeie caea-ii? iane nooi? ?a/i-aeie caea-ii?
iane nooi? ?a/i-aeie

1976 312 614 137 406 91 208 46

1977 471 474 107 265 60 209 47

1978 399 662 156 368 87 294 69

1979 268 458 124 288 62 230 62

1980 506 496 113 320 73 176 40

1982 426 499 109 251 55 248 54

1984 287 455 91 287 58 168 33

1986 289 647 137 336 74 311 63

1987 356 685 128 384 72 301 56

1988 431 528 109 330 68 198 41

1991 585 568 118 389 81 179 37

19922 256 416 104 248 61 168 43

1994 249 514 119 282 69 232 50

1996 467 578 133 357 83 221 50

1997 515 595 144 446 109 149 35

Na?aaei? 388 +108 545+85 122+17 326+63 74+12 219+48 48+10

Eiao?oe?-?io aa??-aoe??, %

27,8

15,6

14,8

19,3

16,2

21,9

20,8

A noi? ca aeaa ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith ethoea?ie i?e iin?a? i?ae
iie?ea y/iaith iaea?aeaii 142,2 oe/aa nooi? ?a/iaeie ? 27,43 oe/aa
ne?iai i?ioa?io. Noi?ni? iin?ae ethoea?ie c eoeo?oaecith ia caeaiee
ei?i, c ?aii?ie ca?iiaeie ? eaionoyieie, aea aa?iaeieia?/ieie oiiaaie
caaacia/o?oueny y?ee oei ?icaeoeo ca?? nooi? ?a/iaeie i?aeaeuo?oueny ia
24 — 33,7%, a i?ioa?io — ia 29,4 -41,6%. Aaciie?eai? e?oi? ? aaniyi?
iin?ae caaacia/othoue ca?eueoaiiy cai?o nooi? ?a/iaeie ia 34,2-53,4%,
i?ioa?io ia 40,1-59,8%, ii??aiyii c iin?aii i?ae iie?ea y/iaith, aea
ethoea?ia a ??e iin?ao ?icaeaa?oueny ca iceiei oeiii.

A na?aaeiueiio ca 16 ?ie?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?e iin?a? ethoea?ie i?ae
iie?ea y/iaith ia ca?ii ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue a ia?oee ??e aeeooy
neeaaea? 50,4 oe/aa c ai?noii 2,5 oe/aa ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io. Iaioee
ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue iaea?aeaii i?e iin?a? ethoea?ie i?ae iie?ea
aeei-a?ana — 44,1 oe/aa, i?e aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio iin?a? — 45,2, oa
iin?a? aeeoa iceiiai ye i?ii?aeii? eoeueoo?e — 42,3 oe/aa. I?ioa ca??
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io a oeeo aa??aioao a?eueoee a 2-3 ?ace. Cia/ii
a?eueoee ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io caaacia/othoue
noi?ni? iin?ae ethoea?ie c ?aii?ie ca?iiaeie ? eaionoyieie. Caaaeyee
oi?ioaaiith ae?oaiai oeino ethoea?ie ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue a oeeo
aa??aioao ca?eueoo?oueny ia 29,3-58,3%, a ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io a 3,6- 4
?ace.

Caaaeai? aeai? iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a ca 1966-1996 ??. ia?aeiieeai
na?ae/aoue i?i cia/io ia?aaaao eaiie n?aici?ie aea ethoea?ia aen?aaeanue
aaciie?eaii, aai noi?nii c ?aii?ie ca?iiaeie ? eaionoyieie eoeueoo?aie
(oaae. 4).

A?iaia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea eaiie ei?iiaeo n?aici?i iieaco?, ui iin?a
ethoea?ie i?ae iie?ea y/iaith c iine?aeoth/ei aeai??/iei aeei?enoaiiyi
o?aainoith iio?aao? iaea?eueoi? e?eueeino? noeoiii? aia?a?? — 54,6
AAeae/aa i?e iaeiaioiio cai?? aaeiai? ? iai?iii? aia?a?? a?aeiia?aeii
362,9 ? 205,1 AAeae/aa. Oiio eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? a
oe?e eaioe? ei?iiai? n?aici?ie neeaaea? 3,75, oiae? ye a aaciie?eaieo ?
noi?nieo iin?aao oeae iieaciee cia/ii aeuee 5,32 — 5,69.

5. AIEEA AA?IEE?IAOE*IEO OIIA ? AA?IOAOI?*IEO I?EEII?A AE?IUOAAIIss IA
I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe ? ssE?NOUe O?IAEATH ETHOeA?IE

Oiiae aieiaicaaacia/aiiy, ye iaea?eueo i?ieeaiai aeaiaioa iiaiaee, a
iacia/i?e i??? aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy o?iaeath ethoea?ie ae?oaiai
?ieo aeeooy. Eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? e?eueeino? iiaae?a ca aaaaoaoe?th
neeaaea? 27,8%, a oie /an, ye eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? o?iaeaeiino? caeaii?
iane i?e aaciie?eaiiio ? i?aeiie?eaiiio iin?aao cia/ii iaioa ?
??aiy?oueny a?aeiia?aeii 15,6 ? 19,3%.

10-oe ??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o
aaaaoaoeai?e ian? ethoea?ie o aaeee?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia
aieiaicaaacia/aiiy. Ca iaaeinoaoiuei? aieiaicaaacia/aiino?, i?e AOE
0,5-0,8 o caeai?e ian? aeinoia??ii i?aeaeuo?oueny ai?no nooi? ?a/iaeie,
ee?oeiaeie, AA?, eaeueoe?th oa ciaioo?oueny ai?no ciee ? i?ioa?io,
ii??aiyii c ?ieaie aeinoaoiueiai aieiaicaaacia/aiiy i?e AOE 1,1-1,8.
Iiynith?oueny oea yaeua, a ia?oo /a?ao, ia a?io?i?/ieie i?ioeanaie, a
ci?iith iaeenoyiino? ?ineei.

Aa?iaeieia?/i? oiiae ?inoo ethoea?ie a ??e iin?ao, ye? caaacia/othoue
y?ee oei ?icaeoeo, nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia iie?ioaiiy yeino? ei?io ia
ae?oaee ??e aeeooy. I?e oeueiio o aaaaoaoeai?e ian? i?aeaeuo?oueny ai?no
i?ioa?io, iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio, ea?ioeio, ciee oa cieaeo?oueny ai?no
ee?oeiaeie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i cia/ii e?au? oiiae acioio?enaoe?? ia ae?oaee ??e
aeeooy ethoea?ie i?e aaciie?eaieo ? noi?nieo iin?aao, i?i ui na?ae/aoue
aeai? ai?noo ania?aa?iiai? eeneioe a ?ineeiao, ye iniiaii? i?aai?/ii?
acioiai?nii? niieoee a ia??iae iaeneiaeueii? neia?ioe/ii?
acioio?enaoe??. Ai?no ania?aa?iiai? eeneioe a

Oaaeeoey 4

Ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io a eaieao

ei?iiaeo n?aici?i, a caeaaeiino? a?ae niiniao iin?ao ethoea?ie,

oe/aa (caaaeai? aeai? iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a ca ia??iae 1966-1996 ??.)

Eaiee n?aici?i

Ca?? ca o?e ?iee % i?ioe eiio?ieth Ai?no

ia?ao

ei?-ii-aeo iaee-ieoeue ia?ao?aaiiai i?i-oa?-io ei?-ii-aeo iaee-ieoeue
Ia?ao?aaiiai i?i-oa?-io ?aaiiai i?ioa?-io a 1 ei?ii-a?e iaee

ieoe?, a

ss/i?iue ia ca?ii – ethoea?ia

2 ?iee (eiio?ieue) 167,0 23,9 100,0 100,0 143

Aeei-iaan ia caeaiee ei?i —

Ethoea?ia 2 ?iee 181,7 30,4 108,8 127,2 167

Eoeo?oaeca ia caeaiee ei?i

Ethoea?ia 2 ?iee 192,6 32,6 115,3 136,4 169

Iceia aeeoi ia caeaiee ei?i

Ethoea?ia 2 ?iee 198,7 36,1 119,0 151,0 181

ss?? eaionoyi? ia n?iaae –

Ethoea?ia 2 ?iee 221,1 40,1 132,4 167,8 181

?aii? ca?iia? ia ca?iin?iaae – ethoea?ia 2 ?iee 234,9 39,4 140,7 164,8
168

Ethoea?ia aaniyiiai iin?ao ?c canoinoaaiiyi aa?a?oeeae?a ia 3 ?iee 223,5
42,1 133,8 176,2 188

?ineeiao ethoea?ie a ia??iae ii/aoeo oea?o?iiy i?e aaciie?eaiiio ?
noi?niiio iin?aao ia 45,8%, a a noaaeao ia 86,5% aeuee ii??aiyii c
iin?aii i?ae iie?ea y/iaith.

Ia?ao?aai?noue i?ioa?io caeaii? iane ethoea?ie aaciie?eaiiai iin?ao ia
10% aeua, i?ae i?aeiie?eaiiai, aiane?aeie /iai ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no
iai?iii? aia?a?? ia 0,20 IAeae/ea nooi? ?a/iaeie.

Aeeeaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae oanoe iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a,
i?iaaaeaieo o 1981-1989 ??., ii iaa?oiooaaiith iioeiaeueieo ii?i aen?ao
ethoea?ie caeaaeii a?ae niiniao iin?ao. Iaeneiaeueia i?iaeoeoeai?noue
ethoea?ie ca aeaa ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith i?e aaciie?eaieo iin?aao
caaacia/o?oueny i?e ii?i? aen?ao 6-8 iei/aa ian?iei, a noi?nieo iin?aao
c ?aii?ie ? i?ci?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie i?e aen?a? 8-10 iei/aa.
I?aeiie?eai? iin?ae i?e ii?iao aen?ao 10-12 iei/aa ian?iei
caaacia/othoue iaeneiaeueio i?iaeoeoeai?noue, yea cia/ii iinooia?oueny
aaciie?eaiiio iin?ao c ii?iith aen?ao 6 iei/aa ian?iei.

6. AIEEA NO?IE?A CAE?AIIss IA EI?IIAO I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe ETHOeA?IE

Ca ia??iae aaaaoaoe?? a eiaeiiio oein? ethoea?ie a cia/i?e i???
ci?ith?oueny ai?no iniiaieo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei. Ca ia??iae aeoeaiiai
?inoo ethoea?ie a?ae oace noaaeoaaiiy aei oace oea?o?iiy i?ioyaii 30
aei?a aaaaoaoe?? a ia?oiio oein? ai?no i?ioa?io ia nooo ?a/iaeio
cieaeo?oueny 24,3 aei 19,0%, ai?no ea?ioeio — c 282 aei 163 ia/ea,
ciaioo?oueny oaeiae ai?no aee?o ? ciee. Ai?no ee?oeiaeie ca oeae
ia??iaeca?eueoo?oueny c 22,8 aei 33,6%. Ci?ia o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ca
ia??iae aaaaoaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy
iaeenoyiino? ?ineei c 60 aei 35%. Anoaiiaeai? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee i?ae
ai?noii iniiaieo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ? e?euee?noth aei?a aaaaoaoe?? a?ae
noaaeoaaiiy aei oea?o?iiy. Aeaaaeai? ?aa?an?ei? iiaeae? aeicaieythoue c
aenieith aeinoia??i?noth i?iaiicoaaoe ai?no nooi? ?a/iaeie, ne?iai
i?ioa?io, ee?oeiaeie, aee?o, AA? a eenoeao ? noaaeao ethoea?ie a ia?oiio
oein?, yeee caaacia/o? 50-60% caaaeueiiai cai?o iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei.

I?eaaaeai? iaoa??aee aeiaaino?ieiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue naie iieueiaeo
aeine?ae?a, i?iaaaeaieo a 1968-1972, 1976-1980, 1986-1989 ??., ii
aea/aiith aieeao no?ie?a oa ?aaeei?a neiooaaiiy ??cieo ni?o?a ?
ni?oic?ace?a ethoea?ie ia ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai
i?ioa?io i?e aeai- ? o?e??/iiio aeei?enoaii? o?aainoith. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
iaeneiaeueiee ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io
caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao iin?ao oa ni?oiai? iaeaaeiino? i?e ?ioaineaiiio
aeei?enoaii? o?aainoith. Iaea?eueoee ?ioaineaiee i?e??no nooi? ?a/iaeie
? i?ioa?io i?ioiaeeoue a ia??iae a?ae ii/aoeo aei iiaiiai oea?o?iiy ia
i?ioyc? 10-12 aei?a, ui iiynith?oueny iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaeie
aeieia?/ieie oiiaaie, oiaoi aeiaoith o?eaae?noth na?oeiaeo aiaeei oa
aeuith oaiia?aoo?ith iia?o?y. Aaeiaee i?e??no nooi? ?a/iaeie ? i?ioa?io
ca oeae ia??iae neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii 97,9 ? 70,8% a?ae i?e?inoo ca
ia??iae a?ae iiiiaeaiiy aaaaoaoe?? aei aooii?caoe??, yeee
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?ioyaii 50-52 aei?.

I?ioa i?e cae?aii? ethoea?ie a oac? oea?o?iiy cia/ii cieaeo?oueny
iiaeeai?noue ei?io. Cae?aiiy ethoea?ie a oac? oea?o?iiy i?e e?oiueiio ?
aaniyiiio aaciie?eaieo iin?aao i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy cai?o ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io ia 20,2 ? 25,4% ii??aiyii c
o?e?aciaei neiooaaiiyi ia ii/aoeo oace oea?o?iiy. I?e iin?a? ethoea?ie
i?ae iie?ea y/iaith aeinoia??ii a?eueoee ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia
12,5% ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io iaea?aeaiiai i?e aeaio oeinao o oac?
oea?o?iiy. Ciaioaiiy cai?o iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei i?e aeaioe?niiio
aeei?enoaii? o?aainoith o oac? oea?o?iiy iniaeeai a?ae/ooia o ni?o?a
i?aaeaiii? naeaeoe?? — Iaaeaaeaea ? ?aaeoaa, a yeeo ca?? ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io ciaioo?oueny a?aeiia?aeii ia 35,7 ?
39,3% oa 37,6 ? 42,8%. Ni?oe A?iie/aiea ? ss?ineaaia iaeneiaeueiee ca??
ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue 90 ? 95,5 oe/aa ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io 17,4 ? 17,5
oe/aa caaacia/othoue i?e cae?aii? ia?oiai oeino a oac? oea?o?iiy,
ae?oaiai — ia ii/aoeo oea?o?iiy ? o?aoueiai — a oaco aooii?caoe??.

I?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii aea/aiith aeeiai?ee ai?noo
aoaeaaiae?a a ei??ioeyo ethoea?ie caeaaeii a?ae no?ie?a ? niinia?a
iin?ao, ?aaeei?a aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith, ni?oiaeo a?aei?iiinoae oa
o?eaaeino? aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith. I?e o?eoe?niiio aeei?enoaii?
o?aainoith o oac? aooii?caoe?? ai?no aoaeaaiae?a o ei?aiaa?e oeeoe?
ethoea?ie cieaeo?oueny a 1,8 ?ac?a, e?ioiaeth ia 50% ii??aiyii c
aeaioe?niei aeei?enoaiiyi o oac? oea?o?iiy. Anoaiiaeaia i?yia
caeaaei?noue i?ae ai?noii aoaeaaiae?a a ei?aiaa?e oeeoe? ethoea?ie ?
e?euee?noth i?aai?a iiiiaeaiiy aaaaoaoe??. A?eueoa iana ei??ioe?a ca
?aooiie a?eueoiai ae?aiao?a ei?aiaai? oeeee oa a?eueoa e?euee?noue
a?oiueie iiiiaeaiiy aaaaoaoe?? oi?io?oueny ia ae?oaee ? o?ao?e ?iee
aeeooy ca y?iai oeio ?icaeoeo ethoea?ie a ??e iin?ao.

7. AIEEA I?AAI?*IEO ? I?IA?AEUeIEO AeIA?EA IA O?IAEAEI?NOUe

? ssE?NOUe EI?IO C ETHOeA?IE

I?eaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue /ioe?ueio ei?ioeioa?i?iiaeo
(1968-1972 ??.) ? o?ueio aeiaaino?ieiaeo noaoe?iia?ieo (1976-1993 ??.)
iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a ii aea/aiith aieeao aiith aianaiiai aaciina?aaeiuei
i?ae ethoea?io ? i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea ia i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino?
ethoea?ie ? aeo?ae iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei.

Caaaeai? aeai? /ioe?ueio iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aenieo
aoaeoeai?noue aianaiiy 40 o/aa aiith i?ae ethoea?io e?oiueiai
aaciie?eaiiai i?neyoe?niiai iin?ao ia /i?iicaiao aeeoaoaaieo ? n??eo
e?niaeo a?oioao. A na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith ca??
nooi? ?a/iaeie ? ne?iai i?ioa?io ca?eueoo?oueny a?aeiia?aeii ia 22,9 ?
25,7% ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai (oaae. 5).

Anoaiiaeaia ??aiioe?ii?noue ui??/iiai aianaiiy a i?aeaeeaeaiiy ?60E60 c
iaeii?aciaei aianaiiyi i?ae i?aieo ?180E180, aea i?e??no nooi? ?a/iaeie
neeaaeaa a?aeiia?aeii 23,7 ? 21,5%. O noaoe?iia?iiio aeine?ae? a
na?aaeiueiio ca n?i ?ie?a i?e aianaii? ?40E60 ia ae?oaiio ?ioe? aeeooy
ni?eyei ca?eueoaiith aeoiaeo ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia 23,6 ? ia?ao?aaiiai
i?ioa?io ia 26,9%, i?e aianaii? ?40E100 ia o?ao?e ??e aeeooy ca?eueoeei
aeo?ae ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? i?ioa?io a?aeiia?aeii ia 16,3 ? 18,6%. Ia
/aoaa?oiio ?ioe? aeeooy i?e i?aeaeeaeaii? o?aainoith ethoea?ie
N60?60E100 ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? i?ioa?io ca?eueoo?oueny ia 31,0 ?
33,7%. A na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith ethoea?ie
e?oiueiai iin?ao noia?ia aianaiiy N60?140E260 caaacia/o? ca?eueoaiiy
cai?o ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia 23,3% ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io ia 26,1%, ui
i?aeoe/ii ??aiioe?iii aianaiith 40 o/aa aiith.

Oaaeeoey 5

Aieea aiith ia ca?? nooi? ?a/iaeie ? ne?iai i?ioa?io ethoea?ie i?e
e?oi?o aaciie?eaieo i?neyoe?nieo iin?aao, oe/aa

?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith Aac aeia?ea Aianaiiy

40 o/aa aiith I?e??no a?ae aeia?ea

Nooi? ?a/i-aeie ne?iai i?ioa-?io nooi? ?a/i-aeia ne?iai i?ioa-?io
nooi? ?a/iaeie ne?iai i?ioa?io

oe/aa % oe/aa %

1-e ??e —

1969, 1970, 1972, 1976 ??.

61,7

12,34

80,2

16,15

18,5

30,0

3,81

30,8

2-e ??e —

1970, 1971, 1973,1977 ??.

71,2

13,42

86,5

16,51

15,3

21,5

3,09

23,0

3-e ??e – 1971, 1972, 1974, 1978 ??.

65,7

11,95

77,3

14,76

11,6

17,6

2,81

19,0

A noi? ca o?e ?iee

198,6

37,71

244,0

47,42

45,4

22,9

9,71

25,7

I?eaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ai?noo i?ioa?io,
ee?oeiaeie, ciee, aee?o, aoaeaaiae?a, ea?ioeio i?ae ae??th i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea ? aiith ia i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe?? ethoea?ie . Aianaiiy aiith
? oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea a?ae/ooii aieeaa? ia i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioa?io,
aee?o, ciee, ea?ioeio oa cieaeaiiy ai?noo ee?oeiaeie. I?ae ae??th
oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea ? aiith i?aeaeuo?oueny iiaeeai?noue ei?io ?c
ethoea?ie.

I?eaaaeai? aeai? a?iaia?aaoe/ii? ioe?iee niinia?a aianaiiy ? aeic
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea oa aiith ca iieacieeii aia?aaoe/iiai eiao?oe??ioa,
noaa?aeaeothoue i?i aenieo aoaeoeai?noue aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo, iniaeeai
oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea ? aiith aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ethoea?io (oaae.
6).

8. ?IEUe ETHOeA?IE A I?AeAEUAII? I?IAeOEOEAIINO? EI?IIAEO N?AICI?I

Aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaea?aeaieo a
oei/aniaeo ? noaoe?iia?ieo iieueiaeo aeine?aeao ii aecia/aiith aaee/eie
a?ieia?/ii? acioio?enaoe?? caeaaeii a?ae niiniao iin?ao ethoea?ie ?
aianaiiy aeia?ea, caaaa/aiiy a?oioo a?ieia?/iei acioii ia iniia?

Oaaeeoey 6

A?iaia?aaoe/ia ioe?iea niinia?a aianaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea i?e e?oi?o
aaciie?eaieo i?neyoe?nieo iin?aao ethoea?ie.

Aeice aeia?ea, niin?a aianaiiy ?iee aeine?ae-aeaiue I?e??no a?ae aeia?ea
Aeo?aoe aia?a??, AAeae/aa Aia?aa-oe/iee eiao?oe?-aio

nooi? ?a/iaeie, oe/aa aaeiai? aia?a??, AAeae/aa

Ai?e 40 o/aa

8 45,4 83,5 23,6 3,54

Ai?e 40 o/aa + ?45E45 a i?aeaeeaeaiiy

3

48,4

89,0

24,6

3,61

?60E60 – ui??/ii a i?aeaeeaeaiiy 3 29,1 53,5 21,8 2,45

?180E180- iaeii?aciai i?ae i?aieo

3

26,4

48,6

10,4

4,67

N40P140K120 – i?aeaeeaeaiiy ca aeaa ?iee

3

23,5

43,2

11,1

3,89

N60P140K260 –i?aeaeeaeaiiy ca 3 ?iee

8

47,6

87,6

15,8

5,54

aeeooy, aieeao ethoea?ie, ye iiia?aaeieea ia o?iaeaei?noue
ca?iioo?aaeieo ? ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
i?aeaeuaieo aeic i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea a ei?iiaeo n?aici?iao.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui eiao?oe??io a?ieia?/ii? acioio?enaoe??, aecia/aiee
iaoiaeii ??cieoe? ai?noo acioo a iaaecaii?e ian? ethoea?ie ?
aaaaoi??/ieo ceaeiaeo o?aa o aaeee?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeo ceaeiai?
o?aae ? niiniao iin?ao. I?e aenie?e o?iaeaeiino? ethoea?ie ?
aaaaoi??/ieo ceaeiaeo o?aa ia /i?iicaiao aeeoaoaaieo i?e e?oiueiio
aaciie?eaiiio iin?ao eiao?oe??io acioio?enaoe?? neeaaea? aac aianaiiy
aeia?ea 0,67, a i?e aianaii? 40 o/aa aiith 0,56. I?e iecuee?e
o?iaeaeiino? ceaeiaeo o?aa ia n??eo e?niaeo a?oioao eiao?oe??io
acioio?enaoe?? c?inoa? aei 0,81-0,82.

Ai?no acioo a ei?aiaai-noa?iueiaeo ?aooeao caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao
iin?ao, ?aaeeio aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith, ?ieo aeeooy ethoea?ie ? ni?oo.
A ei?aiaai-noa?iueiaeo ?aooeao ethoea?ie ca aeaa ?iee aeei?enoaiiy
o?aainoith aeoioeth?oueny 227 ea/aa, a ca o?e ?iee 241 ea/aa
a?ieia?/iiai acioo. C o?aooaaiiyi ao?ao o?iaeath caeaii? iane ethoea?ie
i?e cae?aii? o?iaeath, yeee caaacia/o? 200-250 oe/aa nooi? ?a/iaeie, a
a?oio? caeeoa?oueny 500-600 ea/aa a?ieia?/iiai acioo.

Iin?a y/iaith ii ieanoo ethoea?ie aeai??/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 8-10 oe/aa, eoeo?oaece ia ca?ii ia 10-13 oe/aa, iceieo
? iaeii??/ieo o?aa ia caeaiee ei?i a?aeiia?aeii ia 11,8 ? 7,8 oe/aa
ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue. I?e aianaii? aeic i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea N120 ?80
E100 ii ieanoo ethoea?ie o?iaeaei?noue ca?ia eoeo?oaece c?inoa? ia 7,5
oe/aa ii??aiyii c iin?aii i?ney iceii? ioaieoe? i?e aianaii? oi? ae
e?eueeino? aeia?ea.

Aaaaoi??/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iaea?aeaieo a aeiaaino?ieiaeo
noaoe?iia?ieo aeine?aeao, i?iaaaeaieo a 1984-1992 ??. ia?aeiieeai
na?ae/aoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue aianaiiy aiith a ei?iiaeo n?aici?iao
aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ethoea?io e?oiueiai iin?ao aai i?ae i?ii?aeiee
iin?a aeeoa ia caeaiee ei?i, a ii??aiyii? c aa??aioii aea ai?e aiineany
i?ae eoeo?oaeco ia neein, aai ca?ii ca ??e aei iin?ao ethoea?ie i?ae
iie?ea iaeii??/ieo o?aa ia caeaiee ei?i. Aeai- ? o?e??/ia aeei?enoaiiy
o?aainoith ethoea?ie a ei?iiaeo 5-7-i?eueieo n?aici?iao ni?ey? cia/iiio
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, aea ca??
ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io c?inoa? ia 32,3 ? 37,3% a
ii??aiyii? c n?aici?iith aac ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie. Eiaeiee e?eia?ai
ae?th/i? ?a/iaeie i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea, aianaieo ia aaeoa? n?aici?iii?
ieiu? ? aeic? N65P65K135 caaacia/o? ca?eueoaiiy aeoiaeo ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io i?e aeai??/iiio aeei?enoaii?
ethoea?ie a?aeiia?aeii ia 5,6 ? 0,79 ea/aa, a i?e o?e??/iiio — 6,9 ?
1,04 ea/aa. Iayai?noue a ei?iia?e n?aici?i? 28% ethoea?ie caaacia/o?
iaea?aeaiiy ei?io c ai?noii 105-110 a, a i?e 40% — 130-140 a
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io a iaei?e ei?iia?e iaeeieoe?.

Oaeei /eiii, a?ieia?/iee acio aeoioeueiaaiee ethoea?iith a a?oio?
a?ae?a?a? iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeao ?ieue o i?aeaeuaii? ei?iiai?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? n?aici?i i?e aianaii? i?aeaeuaieo aeic i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea.

9. AEIIII?*IA AOAEOEAI?NOUe AE?IUOAAIIss ETHOeA?IE A AACIIE?EAIEO

? I?AeIIE?EAIEO IIN?AAO

Ia iniia? oaoiieia?/ieo ea?o, i?eaiaeyoueny aeai? a?ioiaeo aeo?ao ia 1
aa iin?ao ethoea?ie i?e i?aeiie?eaiiio ? aaciie?eaiiio ae?iuoaaii?. C
o?aooaaiiyi aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe??, ?ic?aoiaai? oiiaii /enoee aeio?ae a
a?eaiyo ca oe?iaie, ca?aeii iaeaco Aea?aeeiinoaoo Oe?a?ie ? 109 a?ae
25.12. 1997 ?.

Ca o?e ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith aeo?aoe ia 1 aa o aaniyieo
aaciie?eaieo iin?aao ?c canoinoaaiiyi aa?a?oeeae?a ia cia/ii
ia?aaeuothoue aeo?aoe i?e iin?a? i?ae iie?ea y/iaith ia ca?ii, ?c-ca
aeiiii?? aeo?ao ian?iaaiai iaoa??aeo y/iaith 80-100 ea/aa ? ian?iiy
ethoea?ie 4-6 ea/aa. I?ioa cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io i?e aaciie?eaieo iin?aao ethoea?ie,
oiiaii /enoee aeio?ae c 1 aa a?eueoee ia 68,9%.

Iaeiaioa nia?aa?o?noue ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io
caaacia/o?oueny i?e noi?niiio iin?a? ethoea?ie c y?eie eaionoyieie
eoeueoo?aie.

A E N I I A E E

1. Aa?iee?iaoe/i? ?ano?ne E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie ca iieacieeaie i?e?iaeii?
?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a, oiia aieiaicaaacia/aiino?, oaiia?aoo?iiai ?
na?oeiaiai ?aaeei?a, ni?eyoeea? aeey iaeneiaeueii? ?aae?caoe??
a?ieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo ei?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ethoea?ie iin?aii?
?aeiiiaaieo ni?o?a.

Ethoea?ia eoeueoo?a aeai?o/ea ? caeaaeii a?ae aeieia?/ieo oiia
?icaeaa?oueny ye ca y?ei, oae ? ca iceiei oeiaie. Ca y?iai oeio ?icaeoeo
i?e aaniyiiio /enoiio iin?a? ethoea?ia oi?io? ian?iiy, aai aeaa oeine
aaaaoaoeaii? iane o oac? ii/aoeo oea?o?iiy a ia?oee ??e aeeooy
caaa?oo?oueny oi?ioaaiiy ei?iiee, aea iaeiie/o?oueny aeinoaoiy
e?euee?noue aoaeaaiae?a, ui aa?aioo? iaeneiaeueio ia?acei?aeth ?
noaaeiooai?thth/o caeaoi?noue ?ineei, a iine?aeoth/? ?iee aeei?enoaiiy
o?aainoith.

I?e aaniyiiio /enoiio iin?a?, aa?io?oioeaiice ethoea?iiaiai iiey ia?oiai
?ieo yaeythoue niaith iano?ee? aeinenoaie c iecueeith
eiieo?aioiicaeaoi?noth aeii?iaioe — ethoea?ie ii a?aeiioaiith aei
noaaeii?iaioe — ao?’yi?a, ui aeiaaa? iino?eiiai eiio?ieth oa
?aaoethaaiiy ?o aca?iia?aeiinei i?eeiiaie aa?ioaoi?ee, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
cieuaiiy ao?’yi?a. Eiao?oe??io aeai?an?? (iaaeia?? o?iaeath ethoea?ie ia
1 oe a?iiane ao?’yi?a) neeaaea? 0,52-0,61.

4. Aeiiin?aia aianaiiy noi?o? aioaio c eaiaoeeeii (2-4 + 0,8-0,6 ea/aa)

caaacia/o? cieuaiiy aei 95% iaeii- ? aeaiaeieueieo ao?’yi?a ia aaniy
ieo aaciie?eaieo iin?aao ethoea?ie, ui aa?aioo? iaea?aeaiiy aeaio
oein?a o oac? ii/aoeo oea?o?iiy c na?aaeiueith o?iaeaei?noth caeaii?
iane 235±9 oe/aa oa aeoiaeii 56,5±2,7 oe/aa nooi? ?a/iaeie c ai?noii
10±0,4 oe/aa ne?iai i?ioa?io. O?iaeaei?noue caeaii? iane a iacia/i?e
i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia aieiaicaaacia/aiino?. Eiao?oe??io i?yii?
ei?aeyoe?? 0,38±0,23. I?e canoinoaaii? aoaeoeaieo aa?a?oeeae?a ethoea?ia
aaniyiiai aaciie?eaiiai iin?ao eiieo?aioiicaeaoia c y?eie iaeii??/ieie
iie?eaieie eoeueoo?aie oa a 2-3 ?ace ia?aaaaea? ?o ca aeoiaeii i?ioa?io
. C aaeoa?a iin?ao c o?iaea?i ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy aeiineoueny: acioo
160±3, oinoi?o 18±0,9, eae?th 60±3, eaeueoe?th 98±5, iaai?th 42±2 ea/aa.

Ei?aiaaa nenoaia ethoea?ie ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy i?e aaciie?eaiiio iin?a?
i?iieea? ia aeeaeio 1,9-2,5 i, ui caaaeaee aa?aioo? aeia?o ia?acei?aeth
?ineei

I?e iin?a? ethoea?ie i?ae iie?ea ?aii?o y?eo eoeueoo? c iiieaeaiith
ii?iith aen?ao ia 20-30%, noai?ththoueny iani?eyoeea? aa?iaeieia?/i?
oiiae aeey ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo a ia?oee ??e aeeooy. Ia ??no ? ?icaeoie
ethoea?ie iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ?ioaineaiee ??no ?aii?o y?eo eoeueoo?,
aiane?aeie /iai cia/ii ciaioo?oueny ina?oeai?noue ?ineei ethoea?ie ia
i?ioyc? 40-45 aei?a. ?ineeie ia i?ioiaeyoue na?oeiai? oace ?icaeoeo ? ia
ia??iae cae?aiiy iie?eaieo eoeueoo? ciaoiaeyoueny a oac? 4-7 o??e/aoeo
eenoe?a i?e aenio? 10,4-12,1 ni, ui oa?aeoa?eco? iceiee oei ?icaeoeo.

Ia ??no ? ?icaeoie ethoea?ie i?aeiie?eaieo iin?aao iaaaoeaii aieeaa?
oaeiae iaaeinoaoiy caaacia/ai?noue aieiaith, cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
a?oioo ia 2-3 N, ciaioaiiy eaaeiaeinooiieo oi?i iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei. A
e?ioe? aaaaoaoe?? ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy i?e iin?a? i?ae iie?ea y/iaith
o?aaino?e c??aeaeo?oueny ia 25-30%. Ei?aiaaa nenoaia i?iieea? ia aeeaeio
60-80 ni (ia cae?i/aii oi?ioaaiiy ei?iiee), ui ia caaaeaee aa?aioo?
aeia?o ia?acei?aeth ?ineei. Ethoea?ia a aa?io?oioeaiicao c y?eie
eoeueoo?aie iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?o ??no ? ?icaeoie, cieaeoth/e o?iaeae
?aii?o y?eo ia 7-9%, a eoeo?oaece ia caeaiee ei?i — ia 27%.

Ethoea?ia ?icaeaa?oueny ca y?ei oeiii a iin?aao c a?ieia?/ii noi?nieie
eoeueoo?aie — eoeo?oaecith oa ni?ai oeoe?iaei ? aeinyaa? oace oea?o?iiy
/a?ac 60-64 aei? i?ney noiae?a. Ni?eyoeea? aa?iaeieia?/i? oiiae aeey
y?iai oeio ?icaeoeo noai?ththoueny aeey ethoea?ie a ?ic??aeaeaieo
iin?aao c ?aii?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie. I?e noi?niiio ae?iuoaaii? c ?aii?ie
ca?iiaeie ca ii?iith aen?ao 2,0 iei/aa noiaeeo ian?iei oa c y?eie
eaionoyieie 1,0 iei/aa ian?iei, ethoea?ia aeinyaa? oace oea?o?iiy /a?ac
68-72 aei?. ss?ee oei ?icaeoeo ethoea?ie c ?aii?ie ca?iiaeie ?
eaionoyieie eoeueoo?aie caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy ae?oaiai oeino ethoea?ie,
oiio oe? aa?io?oioeaiice ca ei?iiaith i?iaeoeoeai?noth oa
a?iaia?aaoe/i?e ioe?ioe? cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue iin?ae ethoea?ie i?ae
iie?ea y/iaith ia ca?ii oa ia iinooia?oueny aaniyiei aaciie?eaiei
iin?aai ?c canoinoaaiiyi aa?a?oeeae?a. Aia?ai?ii?noue 1 oe nooi?
?a/iaeie ? ne?iai i?ioa?io i?e noi?niiio iin?a? ethoea?ie c ?aii?ie
ca?iiaeie neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii 0,43 ? 3,98 AAeae, c y?eie eaionoyieie
0,51 ? 3,38 c eoeo?oaecith ia caeaiee ei?i 0,66 ? 5,71, oiae? ye c
y/iaiai ia ca?ii 0,66 ? 9,27 AAeae.

Ca y?iai oeio ?icaeoeo iaeneiaeueiee o?iaeae ? ca?? iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei
oi?io?oueny ia ae?oaee ??e , a ca iceiiai, ye i?aaeei, ia o?ao?e ??e
aeeooy. I?e oeueiio i?e??no o?iaeath ia o?ao?e ??e aeeooy ca iceiiai
oeio ?icaeoeo, ia eiiiaino? i?e?inoo o?iaeath ae?oaiai ?ieo aeeooy ca
y?iai oeio. Ca y?iai oeio ?icaeoeo o?iaeaei?noue ethoea?ie ia ae?oaee
??e aeeooy ia?aaeuo? o?iaeaei?noue ca iceiei oeiii ?icaeoeo i?e
aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio iin?a? ia 69,0%, i?e e?oiueiio i?neyoe?niiio
iin?a? ia 44,8%, i?e noi?nieo iin?aao c ?aii?ie ca?iiaeie ? eaionoyieie
a?aeiia?aeii ia 40,1 ? 38,0%. Ca aeaa ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith
aaniyiee aaciie?eaiee iin?a caaacia/o? aa?aioiaaiee i?e??no nooi?
?a/iaeie ? ne?iai i?ioa?io a?aeiia?aeii ia 53,3 ? 59,8%, a noi?ni?
iin?ae c ?aii?ie y?eie — ia 33,7 ? 40,4%.

Eaiea n?aici?ie y/i?iue ia ca?ii-ethoea?ia aeai??/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ca
aeoiaeii ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io iinooia?oueny
eaieai ei?iiaeo n?aici?i y/i?iue ia ca?iin?iaae — ethoea?ia aeaa ?iee
a?aeiia?aeii ia 40,7 ? 64,8%, icei? ia caeaiee ei?i — ethoea?ia
e?oiueiai iin?ao aeaa ?iee — 19,0 ? 51,0%, aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio
iin?a? ?c canoinoaaiiyi aoaeoeaieo aa?a?oeeae?a i?e o?e??/iiio
aeei?enoaii? o?aainoith a?aeiia?aeii ia 33,8 ? 76,2%.

Ca a?iaia?aaoe/iith ioe?ieith aacia?a/ia ia?aaaaa iaeaaeeoue noi?niiio
iin?ao ethoea?ie c ?aii?ie ca?iiaeie ? y?eie eaionoyieie ia ca?iin?iaae,
aea eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii 5,69 ?
5,56, i?ioe 3,75 i?e iin?a? ethoea?ie i?ae iie?ea y/iaith, a?aoiaoth/e
aeo?ae iai?iii? aia?a?? ca?ia y/iaith ? aaaaoaoeaii? iane ethoea?ie ca
aeaa ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith. I?e aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio iin?a? c
aa?a?oeeaeaie eiao?oe??io aia?aaoe/ii? aoaeoeaiino? neeaaea? 5,32 ca o?e
?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith.

Ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a caeai?e ian? o cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae
i?ioiaeaeaiiy oac ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo, iiaiaeieo oiia oa niiniao iin?ao.
Ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o caeai?e ian? ethoea?ie a ia?oo /a?ao
caeaaeeoue a?ae iaeenoyiino? ?ineei. A noo?e ?a/iaei? eenoy ethoea?ie
i?noeoueny a 2 ?ace a?eueoa acioenoeo niieoe ? cieueieo aeaiaio?a, o 8
?ac?a a?eueoee ai?no ea?ioeio, a ai?no ee?oeiaeie 3,6 ?ac?a iaioee, i?ae
a noaaeao. Iaeenoyi?noue ?ineei ca ia??iae a?ae oace a?eeoaaiiy aei
iiaiiai oea?o?iiy ciaioo?oueny c 60 aei 35%. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae
iaeenoyi?noth ?ineei ? ai?noii i?ioa?io a noo?e ?a/iaei? neeaaea?
0,968±0,123. Aeyaeai? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee i?ae ai?noii iiaeeaieo
?a/iaei ? e?euee?noth aei?a aaaaoaoe?? a ia?oiio oein?. Aeaaaeai?
?aa?an?ei? iiaeae? aeicaieythoue c aenieith aeinoia??i?noth i?iaiicoaaoe
ai?no nooi? ?a/iaeie, ne?iai i?ioa?io, ee?oeiaeie, aee?o ? AA? a eenoeao
? noaaeao ethoea?ie. A ?iee c iaaeinoaoi?i aieiaicaaacia/aiiyi i?e AOE
0,68 o aaaaoaoeai?e ian? o oaco oea?o?iiy i?aeaeuo?oueny ai?no nooi?
?a/iaeie, ne?i? ee?oeiaeie, aee?o, AA?, eaeueoe?th oa ciaioo?oueny ai?no
i?ioa?io, ciee, ea?ioeio. Ca iceiiai oeio ?icaeoeo i?e i?aen?a?
ethoea?ie i?ae y/i?iue iia??oo?oueny ye?noue ei?io ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy
ai?noo i?ioa?io, iacai?iieo ai?iieeneio, aee?o, ciee, ea?ioeio oa
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo ee?oeiaeie. Caeaiee ei?i ethoea?ie ae?oaiai ?ieo
aeeooy i?e aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio iin?a? ia? aeuo ia?ao?aai?noue nooi?
?a/iaeie ia 4,1%, i?ioa?io ia 13,3% ii??aiyii c ethoea?iith i?ae
iie?eaii y/iaith ia ca?ii.

Iioeiaeueia ii?ia aen?ao ethoea?ie i?e aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio iin?a?
neeaaea? 6-8 iei/aa noiaeeo ian?iei. Ca?eueoaiiy ii?ie aen?ao c 6 aei 10
iei/aa ian?iei i?e aaniyiiio aaciie?eaiiio iin?a? i?eaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy iaeenoyiino? ?ineei c 49,2 aei 44,2%, ca ?aooiie iiaaeaiiy
eenoe?a ieaeiueiai y?ono, cieaeaiiy ai?noo i?ioa?io ? cai?o nooi?
?a/iaeie a ia?oiio oein? ia ae?oaee ??e aeeooy ethoea?ie. O noi?nieo
iin?aao c ?aii?ie ? i?ci?ie y?eie iioeiaeueio aonoioo i?e aeai??/iiio
aeei?enoaii? o?aainoith caaacia/o? ii?ia aen?ao 8-10 iei/aa ian?iei.
I?aeiie?eai? iin?ae c ii?iith aen?ao 10-12 iei/aa ian?iei cia/ii
iinooiathoueny ca i?iaeoeoeai?noth aaciie?eaiei iin?aai c ii?iith aen?ao
6-8 iei/aa ian?iei.

?aaeei neiooaaiiy ethoea?ie a cia/i?e i??? aieeaa? ia ca?? iiaeeaieo
?a/iaei, iniaeeai ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io, aeiaaino?ieia?noue aeei?enoaiiy
o?aainoith ? caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao iin?ao. Cae?aiiy ethoea?ie o oac?
oea?o?iiy i?e e?oiueiio ? aaniyiiio aaciie?eaieo iin?aao ciaioo? ca??
ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ? ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io ia 20,2 ? 25,4% ii??aiyii c
o?eoe?niei cae?aiiyi ia ii/aoeo oea?o?iiy. I?e iin?a? ethoea?ie i?ae
iie?ea y/iaith ia ca?ii aeinoia??ii a?eueoee ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ?
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io caaacia/o? aeaioe?nia aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith o
oac? oea?o?iiy. I?e o?e??/iiio aeei?enoaii? o?aainoith ethoea?ie, ca
y?iai oeio ?icaeoeo, iaeneiaeueiee ca?? ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ?
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io iaea?aeaii i?e ?aaeei? neiooaaiiy ca oacaie
?icaeoeo ia ae?oaee ??e aeeooy: 1-e oe?n — aooii?caoe?y, 2-e —
oea?o?iiy, 3-e — aooii?caoe?y; ia o?ao?e ??e aeeooy — 1-e oe?n —
oea?o?iiy, 2-e — aooii?caoe?y, 3-e — aooii?caoe?y.

I?aai?/i? ? oinoi?ii-eae?ei? aeia?eaa, aianai? aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae
ethoea?io aaciie?eaieo ? noi?nieo iin?a?a, o iaea?eueo?e i???
aieeaathoue ia i?aeaeuaiiy ei?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ethoea?ie oa
iie?ioaiiy yeino? ei?io. Aianaiiy 40 o/aa aiith ia /i?iicaiao
aeeoaoaaieo i?ae ethoea?io e?oiueiai i?neyoe?niiai iin?ao ca o?e ?iee
aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith caaacia/o? ca?eueoaiiy cai?o nooi? ?a/iaeie ?
ne?iai i?ioa?io a?aeiia?aeii ia 22,9 ? 25,7%. A ei?iiaeo n?aici?iao
a?eueo aoaeoeaia aianaiiy 40 o/aa aiith aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ethoea?io
ii??aiyii c aianaiiyi eiai i?ae eoeo?oaeco ia neein ca aeaa ?iee aei
iin?ao ethoea?ie. Aianaiiy oinoi?ii-eae?eieo aeia?ea o aeicao ?180E180,
aai 40 o/aa aiith aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ethoea?io iie?ioo? ye?noue ei?io
ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo i?ioa?io, ea?ioeio, cieueieo aeaiaio?a oa
cieaeaiiy ai?noo ee?oeiaeie.

Eiao?oe??io acioio?enaoe?? o ethoea?ie aecia/aiee iaoiaeii ??cieoe?
ai?noo acioo a o?iaea? ethoea?ie ? aaaaoi??/ieo ceaeiaeo o?aa, o aaeee?e
i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeo ceaeiai? o?aae ? niiniao iin?ao, ui aecia/a?
o?iaeaei?noue ? ai?no acioo a iueiio. I?e aenie?e o?iaeaeiino? ethoea?ie
? aaaaoi??/ieo ceaeiaeo o?aa, ae?iuaieo ia /i?iicaiieo a?oioao,
eiao?oe??io acioo?enaoe?? neeaaea? 0,50-0,66, a i?e iecuee?e
o?iaeaeiino? ceaeiaeo o?aa ia n??eo e?niaeo a?oioao 0,81-0,82. O
ei?aiaaeo ? noa?iueiaeo ?aooeao ethoea?ie ca aeaa ?iee aeei?enoaiiy
o?aainoith aeoioeththoueny 227-241 ea/aa a?ieia?/iiai acioo.
I?iaeoeoeai?noue ca?iioo?aaeieo ? ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?, aen?yieo ii ieanoo
ethoea?ie c?inoa?, ii??aiyii c iiia?aaeieeii iaeii??/ieo o?aa, ca?ia
y/iaith ia 8-12 oe/aa, ca?ia eoeo?oaece ia 10-13 oe/aa, iceieo ?
iaeii??/ieo o?aa ia caeaiee ei?i a?aeiia?aeii ia 11,8-7,8 oe/aa ei?iiaeo
iaeeieoeue.

Ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie a ei?iiaeo n?aici?iao, iniaeeai i?e aaciie?eaiiio
? noi?nieo iin?aao, cia/ii i?aeaeuo? i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?o ? iie?auo?
ye?noue ei?i?a ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaii? ae?? i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea ia oii? a?ieia?/iiai acioo. Iane/aiiy i?eoa?inueeeo n?aici?i
ethoea?iith ia 28% caaacia/o? aeo?ae ei?i?a c aaeoa?a n?aici?iii? ieiu?
?c ai?noii 105-110 a ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io a 1 ei?iia?e iaeeieoe?, a i?e
iane/aii? 40% n?aici?iii? ieiu? ethoea?iith — 135-140 a.

A noi? ca o?e ?iee aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith ethoea?ie iaea?eueoee oiiaii
/enoee aeio?ae ia 1 aa oa iaeiaioa nia?aa?o?noue ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ?
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io caaacia/o?oueny a noi?nieo iin?aao c ?aii?ie
ca?iiaeie, ? iniaeeai y?eie eaionoyieie eoeueoo?aie.

I?IIICEOe?? AeEss AE?IAIEOeOAA

Aeey no?eeiai i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ethoea?ie a ei?iiaeo
n?aici?iao canoiniaoaaoe aaniyi? ? e?oi? aaciie?eai? oa noi?ni? iin?ae c
?aii?ie ? i?ci?ie ca?iiaeie ? eaionoyieie eoeueoo?aie, ye? aa?aioothoue
y?ee oei ?icaeoeo ? cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino? a iine?aeoth/? ?iee
aeei?enoaiiy o?aainoith.

I?e aaniyieo aaciie?eaieo iin?aao ethoea?ie e?aua canoiniaoaaoe
aeiiin?aia aianaiiy aaeiai? noi?oee aa?a?oeeae?a aioaio (2-4 ea/aa) c
eaiaoeeeii (0,8-0,6 ea/aa), yea caaacia/o? cieuaiiy aei 95% iaeii- ?
aeaiaeieueieo ao?’yi?a ? oi?ioaaiiy aeaio oein?a ia ii/aoeo oace
oea?o?iiy.

Noi?ni? iin?ae i?iaiaeyoue c ii?iith aen?ao ethoea?ie 12-16 ea/aa, a
?aii? y?? eoeueoo?e aen?aathoue c ii?iith aen?ao (iei/aa noiaeeo
ian?iei): y/i?iue, iaan, aeeoi — 2,0, y?? eaionoyi? (a??/eoeth a?eo,
??iae, no??ieoeth) — 1,0; eoeo?oaeco ? ni?ai oeoe?iaa ia caeaiee ei?i —
0,15-0,25; noaeainueeo o?aao ? iaeco — 1,0 iei/aa ian?iei.

E?oi? aaciie?eai? i?neyoe?ni? iin?ae ethoea?ie i?ney iceieo ?
aeei-a?anyieo noi?oie ia ei?i i?iaiaeeoe ia i?ci?oa o?aouei? aeaeaaee
eeiiy. I?ney cae?aiiy iceieo ? aeei-a?anyieo noi?oie ia caeaiee ei?i
i?iaiaeyoue iai?aia?iaee ia?ia?oie a?oioo, ui cia/ii ciaioo?
caao?’yiai?noue.

I?e aaciie?eaieo ? noi?nieo iin?aao ai?e, ?c ?ic?aooieo 40 o/aa, aiineoe
aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ethoea?io. Oinoi?ii-eae?ei? aeia?eaa, aeoiaey/e ?c
ai?noo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a a?oio?, aiineoe iaeei ?ac i?ae cyaeaao i?aieo
c ?ic?aooieo ?120-180E180-240, a?aoiaoth/e iio?aao i?e o?e??/iiio
aeei?enoaii? o?aainoith.

I?e o?e??/iiio aeei?enoaii? o?aainoith ethoea?ie iaeei c oein?a eiaeai
??e iio??aii i?iaiaeeoe c ianoaiiyi oace oea?o?iiy.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? iaea?aeaiiy ei?i?a c ai?noii 105-110
a ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io a 1 ei?iia?e iaeeieoe? aeioe?eueii a
5-7-i?eueieo i?eoa?inueeeo ? ei?iiaeo n?aici?iao iaoe 2-3 iiey
ethoea?ie.

NIENIE INIIAIEO ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iiiia?ao??, eieae

Ea?oei A.I., Ai?iaeia A.N. Ae?iaieoeoai ? aeei?enoaiiy o?aa’yiiai
ai?ioia. -E.: O?iaeae, 1972. — 122 n.

Ea?oei A.I., N?ei?a O.A. I?aeaeuaiiy yeino? a?iaeath ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?.
-E.: O?iaeae, 1979. -100 n.

Ai?iaeia A.N., Ea?oei A.I. O?aa’yia ai?ioii //Caaio?aey oa eiina?aoaaiiy
caeaieo ei?i?a. -E.: O?iaeae, 1978. — N. 124-159.

Eaeoei A.I., Caa?iaeneee A.A., Oiaaa A.E., Aa?ueueiee A.E.
Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oicyenoaa ii i?iecaiaenoao ei?iia //I?iecaiaenoai e
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ei?iiaiai i?ioaeia. — E.: O?iaeae, 1979. —
N. 54-64.

Auae?ei TH.A., Aaeeineay I.I., Nooiieei O.I., Aaaae N.A., Iaitheiaa
I.A., Eaeoei A.I. Iiiaieaoiea o?aau //I?iecaiaenoai e ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea ei?iiaiai i?ioaeia. -E.: O?iaeae, 1979. — N. 144-151.

Eoeee I.O., Ea?oei A.I., Iaianthe ss.ss., O?i?/ A.A., Ia?aaeei I.I.
Ei?iiaa ieiua ? ioe?iea n?aici?i i?e ae?iuoaaii? ei?i?a aeey
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo ? noaiaea?oeciaaieo ?aoe?ii?a // Ei?iiaa aaca
eiiieaen?a ii ae?iaieoeoao iieiea ? yeiae/eie. -E.: O?iaeae, 1980. —
N.47-67.

I?ineo?a E.I., Aaae/ A.A., Eaeoei A.I., Iaea?aiei I.N., Noaeae A.Ae.,
I?ieiiaiei E.N. Nenoaia niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa
//Iao/iua iniiau aaaeaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa ciiu Eaninoaie ONN? a
nenoaia aa?ii?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena. — E.: O?iaeae, 1982. — N. 232-251.

I?ineo?a ?.I, Ea?oei A.I., Inoaiia A.?., Eoeee I.O., Iaca?ia N.A.
Oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?. Aaaaoi??/i?
o?aae//I?aai?-caoe?y ei?iiai? aace ? ae?iaieoeoai ei?i?a. Ca ?aae.
?.I.I?ineo?e. — E.: O?iaeae, 1982. — N. 12-29.

Iaaeaaaeianueeee I.E., Ea?oei A.I. I?aai?caoe?y eiiaae??a aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa caeaieo ei?i?a, aeaioiaeaiiy o?aa’yiiai ai?ioia, n?iaaeo ?
neeino //I?aai?caoe?y ei?iiai? aace ? ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a. Ca ?aae
?.I.I?ineo?e. — E.: O?iaeae, 1982. — N. 183-209.

Iao/ii iainiiaaiiay nenoaia caieaaeaeey Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe /Aaae/ A.A.,
Aoaiaeoeia E.I., Eaeoei A.I. e ae?. — Aeiieoea, 1983. — N. 136-166.

Ni?aai/iee a?eaaaee?a ei?iiaeiauaathuae a?eaaaeu. /Aaae/ A.A.,
Iinoeoeeee A.A., Eaeoei A.I. e ae?. — Iaeanna: Iaye, 1984. — 174 n.

Ooaoo TH.A., Ea?oei A.I. Caeaiee eiiaae?? //Aeia?aeiee c
ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa. — E.: O?iaeae, 1984. — N. 65-83.

Ea?oei A.I. Ei?iia? n?aici?ie //N?aici?ie — iniiaa ?ioaineo?eaoe??
caiea?ianoaa. — E.: O?iaeae, 1985. — N. 202-217.

Ea?oei A.I., Aaae/ A.I., Iaca?ia N.A., Aieei I.I., Aae?/aiei Ae.I.,
Eoeee I.O. Iieueiaa ei?iiae?iaieoeoai //Aeia?aeiee aa?iiiia. — E.:
O?iaeae, 1985. — N. 345-375.

Aaae/ A.I., Aaa?e/oe I.A., Caa?iaenueeee A.?., Ea?oei A.I., Iaea?aiei
I.N., Ie?oeinueeee N.E., I?aeiaeee ?.O. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an ?
oi?ioaaiiy aaeoc? ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa //Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. — E.: O?iaeae, 1985. — N. 249-266.

Aaae/ A.I., Ea?oei A.I. ?aoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a iin?aieo ieiu ei?iiaeo
eoeueoo? //?ioaineo?eaoe?y iieueiaiai ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa. Ca ?aae.
?.I.I?ineo?e. — E.: O?iaeae, 1985. — N. 6-17.

Ea?oei A.I., Ai?iia A.I., Aieioa I.O. Cia/aiiy ? ?ieue o?i?caoe?? o
i?aeaeuaii? a?iaeaeiino? oa iie?ioaii? yeino? ei?i?a //?ioaineo?-eaoe?y
iieueiaiai ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa. Ca ?aae. ?.I.I?ineo?e. — E.: O?iaeae,
1985. — N. 31-44.

Ea?oei A.I., Aaae/ A.I., Ia?aaeei I.I., Aieei I.I., Oaa/aiei A.I.,
Aae?/aiei Ae.I., Ai?iia A.I. Oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ?ioaineaieo ni?o?a
ei?iiaeo eoeueoo? /?ioaineo?eaoe?y iieueiaiai ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa. Ca
?aae. ?.I.I?ineo?e. — E.: O?iaeae, 1985. — N. 82-147.

Nio?uaei I.A., Iiainaeia TH.E., Eaeoei A.I. ?aoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a
iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae ei?iiauo eoeueoo? //Iooe eioaineoeeaoeee
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa e iiauoaiey ea/anoaa ei?iia. Iiae ?aae. E.I.I?ineo?u.
-I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao, 1986. — N. 12-19.

I?ineo?a E.I., Iiainaeia TH.E., Eaeoei A.I. Ei?iiaua naaiiai?iou —
iniiaa nicaeaiey onoie/eaie ei?iiaie aacu. //Iooe eioaineoeeaoeee
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa e iiauoaiey ea/anoaa ei?iia. Iiae ?aae.
E.I.I?in-eo?u. -I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao, 1986. — N. 19-36.

Iiainaeia TH.E., Eaeoei A.I. I?aaiecaoeey caeaiiai, neeiniiai e
nu?ueaaiai eiiaaea?a aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iaacaiaeaiiuo ei?iia. //Iooe
eioaineoeeaoeee ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa e iiauoaiey ea/anoaa ei?iia. Iiae
?aae. E.I.I?ineo?u. -I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao, 1986. — N. 36-61.

Iiainaeia TH.E., Eaeoei A.I., Au/eia A.I. ?ieue oeiecaoeee a iiauoaiee
ea/anoaa ei?iia. //Iooe eioaineoeeaoeee ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa e iiauoaiey
ea/anoaa ei?iia. Iiae ?aae. E.I.I?ineo?u. -I.: Aa?ii?iiecaeao, 1986. —
N. 61-95.

?aai/ay oao?aaeue aa?iiiia ii ei?iii?iecaiaenoao /Aaae/ A.A., Eaeoei
A.I., Aaee/aiei Ae.I. e ae?. — E.: O?iaeae, 1987. — 226 n.

Iao/ii iainiiaaiiay nenoaia caieaaeaeey Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe /Aaae/ A.A.,
Eaeoei A.I., Iiaeiaeue E.O. e ae?. -Aeiieoea, 1988. — N. 175-206.

2. Noaoo? o iaoeiaeo ? iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo aeaeaiiyo

25. Ea?oei A.I. Eiiaae?? eoeueoo? aeey o?aa’yiiai ai?ioia
//Oaa?ei-ieoeoai Oe?a?ie. — 1967. — ? 3. — N. 20-22.

Iae?aniaa E.O., Ea?oei A.I., Oa?ai I.O. E?oi?e iin?a ethoea?ie
//Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. — 1968. — ? 7. — N. 13-14.

Ea?oei A.I., I?ieiiaiei E.N. Aeaye? ieoaiiy ioe?iee ae?iaieoeoaa ca?ia
eoeo?oaece ia ei?i ooaeia? a oiiaao i?ai?/iiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie //Ei?ie
oa aiae?aey n.-a. oaa?ei. — E.: O?iaeae. — 1971.- Aei. 22. — N. 12-21.

Ea?oei A.I. O?aa’yia ai?ioii ? ne?iaeiia aaca //Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. —
1972. — ? 5. — N. 20-21.

Ea?oei A.I., Oea/oe O.?. I?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ethoea?ie a oiiaao
oeaio?aeueiiai E?ninoaio //Oeyoe ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ei?i?a a
Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? : Ca. iaoe. i?. — E.: IA AANAI?E, 1975. — N. 74-77.

Ea?oei A.I., Oea/oe O.?. Oaeoi?e i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ethoea?ie a
ei?iiaeo n?aici?iao ainiiaea?noa oeaio?aeueiiai E?ninoaio //Ei?ie ?
ei?iiae?iaieoeoai. — E.: O?iaeae. — 1976. — Aei. 1. — N. 18-22.

Ea?oei A.I. Ioe?iea ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieo iciae ethoea?ie a oiiaao
E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. //Ei?ie ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoai. — E.: O?iaeae. — 1977. —
Aei. 4. — N. 50-53.

I?ineo?a ?.I., Ea?oei A.I. Ia?niaeoeae ae??oaiiy a?eeiai? i?iaeaie a
iieueiaiio ei?iiae?iaieoeoa? //A?niee n.-a. iaoee. — 1977. — ? 9. — N.
47-51.

I?ineo?a ?.I., Ea?oei A.I. ?aca?ae a?eea a ei?iiae?iaieoeoa? //Oe?ai?ia
Oe?a?ie. — 1978. — ? 8. — N. 24-28.

I?ineo?a E.I., Eaeoei A.I., Aaee/aiei Ae.I., Aieei I.I., Aanth?a N.A.,
Neei?a O.A. Iooe oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa i?ioaeia //Aanoiee n.-o.
iaoee. — 1978. — ? 4. — N. 65-69.

Ea?oei A.I. Oeyoe ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ?ineeiiiai a?eea
//Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. — 1980. — ? 7. — N. 12-16.

Ai?iia A.I., Ea?oei A.I., ?eue/aiei E.N., Na?aethe A.I. Ae?iuoaaiiy
ethoea?ie o aaciie?eaieo //Ei?ie ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoai. — E.: O?iaeae. —
1980. — Aei. 10. — N. 9-12.

Eaeoei A.I. Iooe oaaee/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa ?anoeoaeueiiai aaeea
//Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe e onoie/eainoe caieaaeaeey ia Oe?aeia e a
Iieaeaaee. — E.: O?iaeae, 1981. — N. 212-215.

Iaianthe ss.ss., Eaeoei A.I., Iaca?ia N.A. Oaeia?aiey e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
//Ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa. — 1981. — ? 10. — N.39-40.

Ea?oei A.I., Iaca?ia N.A. I?ia?aneaia oaoiieia?y ae?iuoaaiiy ethoea?ie
ia ei?i //A?niee n.-a. iaoee. — 1981. — ? 9. — N.32-35.

Eaeoei A.I., Aieei I.I. Acaeiinaycue neiaeio?ioiiai e ieia?aeueiiai
acioiiai ieoaiey ca?iiaiaiauo eoeueoo? //Atheaoaiue AIEE n.-o
iee?iaeieiaee. — 1982. — ? 35. — N. 37-39.

I?ineo?a E.I., Eaeoei A.I., Iaianthe ss.ss., Aaee/aiei Ae.I. Ei?iiaua
naaiiai?iou a Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu //Caieaaeaeea. — 1983. — ?10. — N.
13-15.

Ea?oei A.I. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y aaeoc? ? ioe?iea i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei?iiaeo
eoeueoo? //A?niee n.-a. iaoee. — 1985. — ?1. — N. 33-36.

Aaae/ A.A., Eaeoei A.I., Aaoiai I.ss., Iaca?ia N.A. ss?iaay ?iaeue —
oeaiiay ei?iiaay eoeueoo?a //Ei?iii?iecaiaenoai. — 1985.- ?2. — N.
34-35.

Eaeoei A.I., Ia?aaeei I.I. I?ia?anneaiua i?eaiu au?aueaaiey ethoea?iu e
neeiniuo eoeueoo? ia Oe?aeia //Eioaineoeeaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa ei?iia ia
iieaauo caieyo. — I.:AEE,1985. — Aui.33. — N. 76-82.

I?ineo?a E.I., Eaeoei A.I., Aaee/aiei Ae.I., Iaianthe ss.ss. I?eaiu
iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ei?iiauo naaiiai?ioia //Ei?ia e
ei?iii?iecaiaenoai. — E.:O?iaeae. — 1985. — Aui.19. — N. 3-7.

Aaae/ A.I., Ea?oei A.I., Iaea?aiei I.N. Aieiai? iai?yiee ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iieueiaiai oa eoeiianiaeuiiai ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa //A?niee n.-a. iaoee. —
1985. -?12. — N. 5-11.

I?ineo?a E.I., Eaeoei A.I., Aaee/aiei Ae.I. ?ieue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo
naaiiai?ioia a eioaineoeeaoeee ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa //Aeieeaaeu AANOIEE. —
1985. — ?6. — N. 4-6.

Aaae/ A.I., Ea?oei A.I., Aae?/aiei Ae.I., I?ieiiaiei E.N., Aaoiai I.ss.
ss?a aeeoi a ei?iiae?iaieoeoa? //Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. — 1986. — ? 11.
— N. 26-27.

Oooaiei A.E., Eaeoei A.I. A oaniii nio?oaeie/anoaa //Ei?iii?i-caiaenoai.
— 1987. — ? 3. — N. 8-10.

I?ineo?a E.I., Eaeoei A.I., Aaae/ A.A. Oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa
?anoeoaeueiiai aaeea ia Oe?aeia //Nicaeaiea onoie/eaie ei?iiaie aacu. —
I.: AEE. — 1987. — Aui. 36. — N. 106-115.

I?ineo?a E.I., Aaee/aiei Ae.I., Eaeoei A.I. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue ei?iiauo
naaiiai?ioia a caaeneiinoe io eo no?oeoo?u e oaeia?aiey. //Oai?aoe/aneea
iniiau iino?iaiey e inaiaiey ei?iiauo naaiiai?ioia. — I.:
Aa?ii?iiecaeao, 1987. — N. 119-133.

Eaeoei A.I., Iaca?ia N.A. Aeeyiea ii?i aunaaa e niiniaia iinaaa ia ?ino,
?acaeoea e o?iaeaeiinoue ethoea?iu ia ei?i. //Ei?ia e
ei?iii?iecaiaenoai. — E.: O?iaeae. — 1988. — Aui. 25. — N. 16-21.

Eaeoei A.I., Iaca?ia N.A. ?aiianic?aaathuea iie?iaiua eoeueoo?u aeey
ethoea?iu. //Ei?ia e ei?iii?iecaiaenoai. — E.: O?iaeae. — 1989. — Aui.
28. — N. 25-29.

Eaeoei A.I. Eioaineaiay oaoiieiaey au?aueaaiey ethoea?iu ia Oe?aeia
//Eioaineaiua oaoiieiaee aicaeaeuaaiey ei?iiauo eoeueoo?: Oai?ey e
i?aeoeea. — I.: AI Aa?ii?iiecaeao, 1990. — N. 136-142.

Eaeoei A.I., Iaca?ia N.A. Oaoiieiae/aneea i?eaiu iiauoaiey
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe iinaaia ethoea?iu iiae iie?ia eoeo?ocu. //Ei?ia e
ei?iii?iecaiaenoai. — E.: O?iaeae. — 1990. — Aui. 20. — N. 10-14.

Ea?oei A.I., Aiiaithe E.N., Ooieei I.I. Aieea aeia?ea ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa ? acioo?enaoe?th ethoea?ie a oiiaao
E?ninoaio. //Ei?ie ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoai. — E.: O?iaeae. — 1992. — Aei.
35. — N. 35-38.

Ea?oei A.I. Aoaeoeai?noue iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ii ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iieueiaiai ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?. //Ei?ie ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoai. —
E.: O?iaeae. — 1993. — Aei. 36. — N. 28-32.

Aae?/aiei Ae.I., Ea?oei A.I., Aanth?a N.A, Eoeee Ae.A., AEa?e?inueea
A.N., ?ica?oeueea I.A, Iaianthe ss.ss. Niaoe?ae?ciaai? ei?iia? n?aici?ie
aeey ainiiaea?noa ii ae?iaieoeoao iieiea ? yeiae/eie a E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie
//Ei?ie ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoai. — E.: O?iaeae. — 1993. — Aei. 36. — N.
40-47.

Ea?oei A.I., Eeieaiue I.A., I?i/ei I.I., Oea/oe A.I. Aiaia? o?aae o
ei?iiae?iaieoeoa? oa oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ?o i?iaeoeoeaiino?
//Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. — 1996. — ? 3. — N. 24-25.

Ea?oei A.I., Eeieaiue I.A. I?iaeoeoeai?noue aaaaoi??/ieo aiaiaeo o?aa oa
?o noi?oie ia n?ii a noi?nieo iin?aao c ?aii?ie y?eie eoeueoo?aie.
//Ei?ie ? ei?iiae?iaieoeoai. — E.: Aa?a?ia iaoea. — 1998. — Aei. 41. —
N. 12-17.

Ea?oei A.I. Aieea aa?iaeieia?/ieo oiia ? oaoiieia?/ieo i?eeii?a ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ethoea?ie iin?aii? a E?ninoaio: Ca. iaoe. i?. ?inoeoooo
ei?i?a. — A?iieoey, 1999. — N. 63-72.

3. Aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa

62. A.n. ? 646482 Aa?aeoeeaeiue ninoaa /E.I.I?ineo?a, A.I.Ai?iia,
A.I.Eaeoei (NNN?). — ? 2424784/30-15; Cayaeaii 29.11.76; Iioae.
13.05.79,

Athe. ? 5. — N. 211.

A.n. ? 1577714, A1 Niinia au?aueaaiey naiaiiie ethoea?iu
/E.N.I?ieiiaiei, A.A.Iiaaeeiie, A.A.Aaae/, A.I.Eaeoei, ?.A.Ieiie/aaa
(NNN?), ? 4452188/30-15; Cayaeaii 26.05.88; Iioae. 15.07.90, Athe. ? 12.
— 2 n.

4. Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, a ?ic?iaoe? yeeo aaciina?aaeith o/anoue
i?eeiaa aaoi?

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eioaineoeeaoeee ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa ia iaoioiuo caieyo
Eaninoaie e Noaie Oe?aeiu, Iieaeaaee i Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiie ciiu
?NON? /I?ineo?a E.I., Eaeoei A.I., Iaianthe ss.ss. e ae?. — I.: Eiein,
1978. — N. 9-14.

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ae?iuoaaiith ian?iiy ethoea?ie o eieainiao ?
?aaeainiao Oe?a?inueei? ?N? /I?ineo?a ?.I., Ai?iia A.I., Ea?oei A.I. oa
?i. — E.: INA O?N?, 1979. — 55 n.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oaaee/aieth i?iecaiaenoaa ca?ia, ei?iia, iiauoaieth
yooaeoeaiinoe e onoie/eainoe caieaaeaeey a Oe?aeineie NN? /Eaeoei A.I.,
Iaea?aiei I.N., Iaianthe ss.ss. e ae?. — I.: Eiein, 1980. -N. 44-55.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eioaineoeeaoeee ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa, iiauoaieth
ea/anoaa ei?iia e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio eo eniieueciaaieth a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa
Oe?aeineie NN? e Iieaeaaneie NN? /Aaae/ A.A., Eoeee I.O., Eaeoei A.I. e
ae?. — E.: O?iaeae, 1984. — N. 7-18.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oaoiieiaee au?aueaaiey ethoea?iu ia ei?i e naiaia
/I?ineo?a E.I., Aaae/ A.A., Eaeoei A.I. e ae?. — I.: Eiein, 1984. — 45
n.

Iniaeeaino? noai?aiiy caeaiiai eiiaae??a a ?aiiueiaaniyiee ia??iae 1987
?ieo /Eo?eo??i ?.A., Aaae/ A.I., Ea?oei A.I. oa ?i. — E.: INA O?N?,
1987. — 13 n.

5. Oace aeiiia?aeae

Eaeoei A.I. I?ia?anneaiay oaoiieiaey au?aueaaiey ethoea?iu ia ei?i
//O?oaeu iao/.-i?iec.eiio. ii ei?iii?ieca.”Eiaeono?eaeueiay oaoiieiaey
au?aueaaiey aunieeo o?iaeaaa ei?iiauo eoeueoo?”. –E. – 1983. – N.
131-133.

Eaeoei A.I. Iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ethoea?iu a ei?iiauo naaiiai?ioao
e auaiaeiuo iieyo //O?oaeu ?ani.iao/.-oaoi.eiio. “I?ia?anneaiua
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e caaioiaee aunieiea/anoaaiiuo ei?iia. –
Aeiieoea. – 1985. – N. 12-13.

Eaeoei A.I. Yia?ainaa?aaathuay oaoiieiaey au?aueaaiey ethoeai?iu ia ei?i
//O?oaeu ?ani. Iao/.-oaoi.eiio. “Yia?ainaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa, caaioiaee e o?aiaiey ei?iia”. – Aeiieoea. – 1988. – N. 6.

Eaeoei A.I. Eioaineaiay oaoiieiaey au?aueaaiey ethoea?iu ia ei?iiaua
oeaee //O?oaeu ?ani. Iao/.-iaoiae.niaau.”I?iaeaiu ei?iiaiai aaeea”. –
Aeiieoea. – 1989. – N. 7-9.

Eaeoei A.I. Iiauoaiea aaeeiaie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ethoea?iu a oneiaeyo
Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu //O?oaeu Ananithc. neii.”Nia?aiaiiua aniaeou ?aoaiey
i?iaeaiu oaaee/aiey ?ano?nia e iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
?anoeoaeueiiai aaeea”. – Aeiieoea. – 1992. – N. 118-119.

Ea?oei A.I. Aa?iaeieia?/i? oiiae noaa?eueiiai i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ethoea?ie ia ei?i a oiiaao E?ninoaio //Iaoa??aee
I?aeia?. eiio. “Oe?a?ia a na?oiaeo caiaeueieo, i?iaeiaieue/eo, ei?iiaeo
?ano?nao ? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiineiao”. – A?iieoey. – 1995. – N. 386-387.

Babich A.A., Kvitko G.P., Prokopenko L.S.Crop capacity formation and
yield of alfalfa mass depending upon agroecological conditions of
growing in forest-steppe zone of Ukraine //Proceedings of the 5-th
Internationalal Congress on Leaf Protein Research. “LEAFPRO –96” Volume
3. Russia. Rostov-on –Don, June. 1996.-p.87-88.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ea?oei A.I. Iaeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ? ?ic?iaea ?ioaineaieo aa?ioaoi?/ieo
i?eeii?a i?aeaeuaiiy ei?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ethoea?ie a E?ninoaio
Oe?a?ie.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.12 —
ei?iiae?iaieoeoai ? eoe?aieoeoai. ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI, nio.
*aaaie, 1999 ?.

Aaaaoi??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy (1965-1977 ??.) caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy
o?iaeath ethoea?ie ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue, ui noaa?eueia, aa?aioiaaia
i?aeaeuaiiy ei?iiai? i?iaeoeoeaiino?, a iine?aeoth/? ?iee aeei?enoaiiy
o?aainoith, iiaeeeai o?eueee ca aa?iaeieia?/ieo oiia, ye? caaacia/othoue
??no ? ?icaeoie ca y?ei oeiii, eiee ?ineeie a ??e iin?ao aeinyaathoue
oace oea?o?iiy.

Ca y?iai oeio ?icaeoeo a ??e iin?ao, ia ae?oaee ? o?ao?e ?iee ethoea?ia
oi?io? iaeneiaeueii iiaeeea? o?iaea?, iiai?noth aeei?enoiaoth/?
a?iee?iaoe/iee iioaioe?ae e?ninoaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie. ss?ee oei ?icaeoeo
caaacia/o?oueny aaciie?eaieie aaniyieie iin?aaie c canoinoaaiiyi
aoaeoeaieo aa?a?oeeae?a, e?oi?ie aaciie?eaieie iin?aaie, i?iaaaeaieie
aei o?aouei? aeaeaaee eeiiy, a oaeiae c noi?nieie iin?aaie c y?eie
eaionoyieie ? ?aii?ie ca?iiaeie i?e ii?iao aen?ao inoaii?o 1,0 ? 2,0
iei/aa noiaeeo ian?iei.

Eaiee n?aici?i c aaciie?eaieie ? noi?nieie iin?aaie ethoea?ie
caaacia/othoue ca?eueoaiiy cai?o ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeue ia 32,4-40,6%,
ia?ao?aaiiai i?ioa?io ia 64,9-76,2% ii??aiyii c eaieith n?aici?ie
y/i?iue ia ca?ii — ethoea?ia — ethoea?ia.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ethoea?ia, y?ee oei ?icaeoeo, aaciie?eaiee iin?a,
i?aeiie?eaiee iin?a, i?ioa?i, ei?iia? iaeeieoe?, i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

SUMMARY

Kvitko G.P. The scientific crowds and working out of intensive
agrotechnical methods of rising of fodder productivity of Lucerne in
forest steppe of Ukraine.

The dissertation is connected with the competition of the degree of
Doctor of Agricultural Science on speciality 06.01.12 — in fodder crops
and cultivation of meadows. Institute of Agriculture of UAAS, region
Chabane, 1999.

Of many years investigations (1965-1997) of growing lucernes crops show
theft a stable raising of fodder productivity, using herbage, are
possible only herbage, are possible only in agroecological conditions
which secure a further growth of spring crops, when the plant in the
year of sowing reaches the phase of flowering.

According to the type of spring crops in the year of sowing, Lucerne
favors a high harvest in two or three years, completely using
bioclimetical potential of forest steppe of Ukraine.

Spring crops type is proceeded with coverless spring crops, using
effective herbicides, coverless summer crops which were done before the
third decade of July, and also combined crops with spring cabbage and
early food grains using such standards of sowing 1,0 and 2,0 men/h. Of
germinating seeds.

Crop rotation with coverless and combined crops of Lucerne favours the
increasing of collection of fodder units 32,4-40,6%, protein 64,9-76,2%
in comparison with crop rotation barley grain — Lucerne — Lucerne.

Key words: Lucerne, type of spring crops, coverless spring crops,
coverless summer crops, protein, fodder units, efficiency.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eaeoei A.I. Iao/iia iainiiaaiea e ?ac?aaioea eioaineaiuo aa?ioaoie/aneeo
i?eaiia iiauoaiey ei?iiaie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ethoea?iu a Eaninoaie
Oe?aeiu.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiiie noaiaie aeieoi?a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.12 —
ei?iii?iecaiaenoai e eoaiaiaenoai. Einoeooo caieaaeaeey OAAI, iao.
*aaaiu, 1999.

Iiiaieaoiea enneaaeiaaiey oi?ie?iaaiey o?iaeay ethoea?iu oaaaeeoaeueii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi noaaeeueiia iiauoaiea ei?iiaie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe,
a iineaaeothuea aiaeu eniieueciaaiey o?aainoiy iaania/eaaaony
aa?iyeieiae/aneeie oneiaeyie, niinianoaothueo ?inoo e ?acaeoeth ca
y?iaui oeiii, eiaaea ?anoaiey a aiae iinaaa aeinoeaatho oacu oeaaoaiey.

Oacu oeaaoaiey a aiae iinaaa ethoea?ia aeinoeaaao i?e aanaiieo
aaniie?iaiuo iinaaao n eniieueciaaieai yooaeoeaiuo aa?aeoeeaeia,
oie/oiaeathueo 90-95% iaeii- e aeaiaeieueiuo ni?iyeia, i?e eaoieo
aaniie?iaiuo iinaaao, eee niaianoiuo iinaaao n eoeo?ocie ia caeaiue
ei?i, a oaeaea a niaianoiuo iinaaao n ?aiieie ca?iiauie e y?iauie
eaionoiuie i?e ii?iao aunaaa eo, niioaaonoaaiii 2,0 e 1,0 iei/aa
anoiaeeo naiyi.

Aanaiiea aaniie?iaiua iinaau ethoea?iu i?e aeiiinaaiii aianaiee niane
aa?aeoeeaeia yioaia 4 + eaiaoeeea 0,8 ea/aa oi?ie?otho aeaa oeina a oaca
oeaaoaiey n o?iaeaeiinoueth caeaiie iannu 235+9 oe/aa, auoiaeii nooiai
aauanoaa 56,3 oe/aa e niaea?aeaieai nu?iai i?ioaeia 10,0+0,4 oe/aa.

I?e niaianoiuo iinaaao n y/iaiai e ianii, a oaeaea n y?iauie eaionoiuie,
ethoea?ia aeinoeaaao oacu oeaaoaiey /a?ac 70-75 aeiae io anoiaeia.
ss/iaiue e iaan iaoiaeyony a oaca iiei/ii-aineiaie niaeinoe, y?iaua
eaionoiua — ai?/eoea aaeay, ?ain a oaca iiaeaeoaiey ieaeieo no?th/eia.
Oaeaeueiue aan ethoea?iu a yoeo nianyo ninoaaeyao 2-6%. Iinea ia?aiai
oeina ethoea?ia /a?ac 50-60 aeiae oi?ie?oao aoi?ie oein n
o?iaeaeiinoueth 60-90 oe/aa. A niaianoiuo iinaaao ca aeaa oeina nai?
nooiai aauanoaa e nu?iai i?ioaeia ninoaaeyao niioaaonoaaiii 71,8-88,3 e
9,6-11,0 oe/aa, i?ioea 65,7 e 4,7 oe/aa i?e iinaaa ethoea?iu iiae iie?ia
y/iaiy ia ca?ii, eiaaea iia ?acaeaaaony ca iceiui oeiii.

I?e y?iaii oeia ?acaeoey a aiae iinaaa, ia aoi?ie e o?aoee aiaeu
ethoea?ia oi?ie?oao iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiua o?iaeae, iieiinoueth
eniieuecoy aeieeeiaoe/aneee iioaioeeae eaninoaiiie ciiu.

Aeaooeaoiaa eniieueciaaiea o?aainoiy aa?aioe?oao oaaee/aiea nai?a nooiai
aauanoaa e i?ioaeia i?e aanaiiai aaniie?iaiii iinaaa niioaaonoaaiii ia
53,3 e 59,8% a niaianoiuo iinaaao n ?aiieie y?iauie e eaoieie
aaniie?iaiuie iinaaaie ia 33,7-40,4%, a n?aaiaiee n iinaaii iiae iie?ia
y/iaiy ia ca?ii.

Cia/eoaeueii i?iaeoeoeaiuie yaeythony caaiuey naaiiai?ioia n aanaiiei
aaniie?iaiui e niaianoiuie iinaaaie n y?iauie eaionoiuie e ?aiieie
ca?iiauie, aaea nai? ei?iiauo aaeeieoe oaaee/eaaaony niioaaonoaaiii ia
33,8, 32,4 e 40,6%, a ia?aaa?eiiai i?ioaeia ia 76,2, 67,8 e 64,9% ii
n?aaiaieth ni caaiii naaiiai?ioa y/iaiue ia ca?ii — ethoea?ia —
ethoea?ia, aaea ca o?e aiaea iieo/aii 167 oe/aa ei?iiauo aaeeieoe e 23,9
oe/aa ia?aaa?eiiai i?ioaeia.

I?eiaiaiea aaniie?iaiuo e niaianoiuo iinaaia iicaieyao aiineoue iaaic
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iiae ethoea?io, /oi cia/eoaeueii yooaeoeaiaa, /ai
aianaiea iaaica a ei?iiaii naaiiai?ioa, iiae ae?oaea ei?iiaua eoeueoo?u.
I?e aianaiee 40 o/aa iaaica iiae aaniie?iaiua iinaau iaania/eaaao
oaaee/aiea nai?a ei?iiauo aaeeieoe e ia?aaa?eiiai i?ioaeia ca o?e aiaea
eniieueciaaiey o?aainoiy, niioaaonoaaiii ia 45,4 e 9,71 oe\aa eee ia
22,9 e 25,7%. I?e yoii oeo/oaaony ea/anoai ei?ia ca n/ao iiauoaiey
niaea?aeaiey i?ioaeia a nooii aauanoaa a n?aaeiai ia 0,45%, ea?ioeia ia
28 ia/ea, oiaiueoaaony niaea?aeaiea eeao/aoee ia 0,9%.

Aaniie?iaiua e niaianoiua iinaau ethoea?iu iicaieytho aieaa yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue o?aainoie aeey oaaee/aiey nai?a ei?iiaiai aaeea, neaoeaay
ia?aue e aoi?ie oeinu a oaca aooiiecaoeee, a o?aoee a oaca oeaaoaiey.
I?e iiaeiie?iaiii au?aueaaiee ethoea?iu a ia?aii aiaeo, ia neaaeothuee
aiae ia?aue oein oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue a oaca ia/aea oeaaoaiey, a
aoi?ie e o?aoee — a oaca aooiiecaoeee, /oi niinianoaoao oaaee/aieth
nai?a ei?iiaiai aaeea.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e nicaeaiee aa?iyeieiae/aneeo oneiaee aeey y?iaiai oeia
?acaeoey ethoea?iu a aiae iinaaa, aa?aioe?oaony iaeneiaeueiay
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue aa a iineaaeothuea aiaeu eniieueciaaiey o?aainoiy. A
yoii neo/aa iainii?eiia i?aeiouanoai ii nai?o ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa e
aeieaiaa/iinoe o?aainoiy ca aaniie?iaiuie aanaiieie e eaoieie iinaaaie,
caueuaiiuie io ni?iyeia, e niaianoiuie iinaaaie n ?aiieie e iicaeieie
eoeueoo?aie, ii n?aaiaieth n iiaeiie?iaiuie iinaaaie, eiaaea ethoea?ia a
aiae iinaaa ?acaeaaaony ii iceiiio oeio.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ethoea?ia, y?iaie oei ?acaeoey, aaniie?iaiue iinaa,
iiaeiie?iaiue iinaa, i?ioaei, ei?iiaua aaeeieoeu, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

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