I(I(NOA?NOAI INA(OE OE?A(IE

IAOe(IIAEUeIA A(?IE*A AEAAeAI(ss OE?A(IE

IA?OEIAIEI Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/

OAeE 622.271.3:622.882.043.3

IAOEIAA IAA?OIOOAAIIss ( ?IC?IAEA AEIEIA(*II

I?((IOIAAIEO OAOIIEIA(E A(?IE*EO ?IA(O IA

CAE(CI?OAeIEO A(?IE*I-CAAAA*OAAEUeIEO EIIA(IAOAO

Niaoe(aeuei(noue :

05.15.03 — “A(aee?eoa ?ic?iaea ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei”

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe(( ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi(/ieo iaoe

Aei(i?iiao?ianuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe((th ( ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe(iiaeuei(e a(?ie/(e aeaaeai((
Oe?a(ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio

Caneoaeaiee aeiao(aeiee Oe?a(ie,

aeieoi? oaoi(/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
Ae?EAEAIEI

i?ioani? eaoaae?e a(aee?eoeo
Aiaoie(e TH?(eiae/

a(?ie/eo ?ia(o Iaoe(iiaeueii(

a(?ie/i( aeaaeai(( Oe?a(ie

Io(oe(ei( iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi(/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
I?IEIIAIEI

caa(aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii(
Aaneeue (aaiiae/

aeiiii(ee Iaoe(iiaeueii(

a(?ie/i( aeaaeai(( Oe?a(ie

aeieoi? oaoi(/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
A(EEOE

caa(aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii(
TH?(e A?eai?iae/

aeieia(( E?eai?(cueeiai oaoi(/iiai

oi(aa?neoaoo

aeieoi? oaoi(/ieo iaoe, noa?oee
AI?IAEIA

iaoeiaee ni(a?ia(oiee, caa(aeoaa/
A(eoi? Aeaieeiae/

eaai?aoi?(( Iaoe(iiaeueiiai

iaoeiai-aeine(aeiiai (inoeoooo

ioi?iie i?aoe(

I?ia(aeia onoaiiaa — (inoeooo aaioaoi(/ii( iaoai(ee

IAI Oe?a(ie, i. Aei(i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a(aeaoaeaoueny “ 30 ” _/a?aiy_1999 ?.

i 14 aiaeei( ia can(aeaii( niaoe(ae(ciaaii( a/aii( ?aaee

Ae 08.080.02 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe(( i?e Iaoe(iiaeuei(e

a(?ie/(e aeaaeai(( Oe?a(ie ii aae?ano:

320027, i. Aei(i?iiao?ianuee, i?. E.Ia?ena, 19

C aeena?oaoe((th iiaeeeai iciaeiieoenue o a(ae(ioaoe(

Iaoe(iiaeueii( a(?ie/i( aeaaeai(( Oe?a(ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic(neaii “_28 ”_o?aaiy_ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe(ae(ciaaii( a/aii( ?aaee,

ae. o. i., n. i. n.
I.A.Caa?ianueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei(noue i?iaeaie. Oe?a(ia caeia( iaeia c i?ia(aeieo i(noeue o
na(o( noiniaii caian(a oa aeaeiaooeo cae(cieo ?oae, aeieaaoe( /aaoia (
noae(. (( ne?iaeiia aaca i?aaenoaaeaia a iniiaiiio cae(cenoeie
eaa?oeeoaie, ye( caeyaathoue o aeaeyae( iiooaeieo neiee(iaeueieo
neeaaeie ( ieano(a e?ooiai iaae(iiy. Ia oeae /an iiiaae 86 % aeaeiaooeo
cae(cii( ?oaee a(aeaoaa(oueny a(aee?eoei niiniaii ia 11 ea?((?ao, ye(
aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo 6 iaee?oii(oeo a(?ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueieo eiia(iao(a
(ACE). A(?ie/( ?iaioe i?iaiaeyoue ia aeeaei( 250…360 i. A(aeiia(aeii
aei caoaa?aeaeaieo oaoi(/ieo i?iaeo(a (o a?aie/iee ?(aaiue neeaaea(
500…700 i. Iniiaiee ia((i aeeiaiiy ?ice?eao yaey( niaith neaeuei(
?(ciiaeaee ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae. Ine(eueee ai(no cae(ca a ?oae( ia
ia?aaeuo( 33…37 %, aeo(aeia ne?iaeia i(aeeyaa( caaaa/aiith oa
ieoneoaaiith. I?e oeueiio a(aeoiaee ae?iaieoeoaa o aeaeyae( ii?(ae
?ice?eao ( oaino(a caaaa/aiiy neeaaeothoue o ciai(oi(o noiaeuao, ui
caeia( iiiaae 50 % onueiai caiaeueiiai a(aeaiaeo ACE.

Aeaeiaoaaiiy oa ia?a?iaea cae(cii( ?oaee o iaoaeo?a(eio ne?iaeio
oa?aeoa?eco(oueny cia/ieie ieeiaaciaeie aeeeaeaie a aoiinoa?o.
Oaoiiaaiiee iee i(ae ae((th iia(o?y caa?oaeith( caiaeueio ieiuo
aaaeeeie iaoaeaie ia a(aenoai( a(eueoa 10 ei. A(aeea/oaaiiy
aenieii(ia?ae(ciaaieo aiae c aeeaieeo ea?((?(a i?ecaiaeeoue aei inooaiiy
i?eeaaei( oa?eoi?(( oa caa?oaeiaiiy ciai(oi(o aiaeieieu.

?ici(uaiiy ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ciai(oi(o a(aeaaeao oa?aeoa?eco(oueny ia
o(eueee cia/ieie ii?ooaiiyie caiaeue, aea e aeo?aoaie ia
a(?ie/io?ainii?oi( ?iaioe. A(?ie/i-caaaa/oaaeuei( eiia(iaoe ?icoaoiaai(
iiaeeco aaeeeeo i(no ( ianaeaieo ioieo(a, aiane(aeie /iai ieoaiiy
ioi?iie caiaeueieo ( aiaeieo ?ano?n(a a(ae ii?ooaiiy a(?ie/eie ?iaioaie
oa caiia(aaiiy (ioaineaiiio caa?oaeiaiith aoiinoa?e ieeiaaciaeie
aeeeaeaie yaeythoue niaith neeaaeiao /anoeio caaaeueiiai iaoeiaiai
iai?yieo c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua i(ae /an
ooieoe(iioaaiiy a(?ie/i-iaoaeo?a(eieo eiiieaen(a o oe(eiio.
O?aaeeoe(eiee ?icaeoie a(?ie/eo ?ia(o o ea?((?ao ia aeicaiey( aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe (o ieiu( aeey ?ici(uaiiy a(aeoiae(a ae?iaieoeoaa.
Aeaeiaoaa(i( ?ice?eai( ii?iaee i?eaeaoi( aeey noai?aiiy oaoiiaaiieo
?iaeiaeu, iaeiae oaoiieia(( (o oi?ioaaiiy a aeeaieeo ea?((?ao aeioaia?
ia ?ic?iaeai(. Iaoiaee ?aeoeueoeaaoe(( ii?ooaieo caiaeue iio?aaothoue
oaeineiiaeaiiy, a noai?aiiy oa inai(iiy aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo
oaoiieia(e a(aee?eoi( ?ic?iaee cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu yaeythoue niaith
aaaeeeao iaoeiao i?iaeaio.

O ca(yceo c oeei iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aeieia(/ii
i?((ioiaaieo

oaoiieia(e ?ic?iaee cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu (c oe(eani?yiiaaiei
oi?ioaaiiyi ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o aeeaieeo ea?((?(a ( noai?aiiy a ieo
oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu ( aeooaeueiith i?eeeaaeiith i?iaeaiith ia
a(?ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueieo eiia(iaoao Oe?a(ie.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aeena?oaoe(eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia ia iniia( oaiaoe/ieo ieai(a
iaoeiai-aeine(aeieo ?ia(o Iaoe(iiaeueii( a(?ie/i( aeaaeai(( Oe?a(ie a
aaeoc( i(aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino( e ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy ei?enieo eiiaeei
(oaie AI-29, AI-65) ( a(aeiia(aea( Aea?aeaai(e iaoeiai-oaoi(/i(e
i?ia?ai( I(iiaoee Oe?a(ie c i?(i?eoaoieo iai?yie(a ?icaeoeo iaoee oa
oaoi(ee 4.14 “Aeieia(/ii /eno( oaoiieia(( aeaeiaoaaiiy, ia?a?iaee,
o?ainii?ooaaiiy e aeei?enoaiiy ?oaeieo ( ia?oaeieo ei?enieo eiiaeei”.

Iaoa oa caaea/( aeine(aeaeaiue. Iaoith ?iaioe ( iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oa
noai?aiiy eiiieaeno oaoiieia(e c ?ic?iaee oa ia?a?iaee cae(cii( ?oaee ia
a(?ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueieo eiia(iaoao, ye( caaacia/othoue i(aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino( a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ( ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii( iaoe o aeena?oaoe(ei(e ?iaio( noi?ioeueiaai(
oae( caaea/( aeine(aeaeaiue:

1. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo
oaoiieia(e a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ia ACE.

2. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo oa iaa?oiooaaoe ia?aiao?e oi?ioaaiiy
?iai/i( ciie aeeaieeo ea?((?(a i(ae /an ia?aaeneaaaoe(( ai(uoth/eo
ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?.

3. ?ic?iaeoe e oaeineiiaeeoe oaoiieia(th aeaooiaiai iiae?(aiaiiy ii?(ae
a ia?(iae (ioaineaiiai oi?ioaaiiy ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o.

4. Onoaiiaeoe ?aoe(iiaeuei( ia?aiao?e aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo
a(?ie/i-o?ainii?oieo eiiieaen(a ( caeiiii(?iino( (o ci(ie a aeeaieeo
ea?((?ao.

5. ?ic?iaeoe oa ai?iaaaeeoe aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaai( oaoiieia((
ooee(caoe(( ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae ia cae(ci?oaeieo ACE.

(aeay ?iaioe iieyaa( a oiio, ui noai?aiiy oaoiieia(( a(aee?eoi( ?ic?iaee
cae(cieo ?oae c i(i(iaeueiei ii?ooaiiyi aeiae(eey caniiaaii ia
aeei?enoaii( caeiiii(?iinoae oe(eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o a ea?((?ao c ?icae(eueiei ?ici(uaiiyi a iueiio ?(ciioeiiaeo
ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae aeey ooai?aiiy oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu ( aeei?enoaiiy
a(ieia(/ieo iaoiae(a (o eiina?aaoe((.

Ia iniia( aeeiiaieo aeine(aeaeaiue noi?ioeueiaai( oae( iaoeia(
iieiaeaiiy:

1. I?e a(aee?eo(e ?ic?iaoe( e?ooicaeyaath/eo cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu
ia((i ciie iiaeeaeaiiy ci(ith(oueny ca ia?aaie(/iith caeaaei(noth a(ae
iiooaeiino( ieano(a, aeeaeie ?ic?iaee ( eoo(a oeino ai?o(a ea?((?a, ui
aea( ciiao aecia/aoe aoaeoeai( ia?aiao?e oaoiieia(e aeeiaiiy ai(uoth/eo
ii?(ae iioeeeie oa?aie oa ae(aaiiaeueieie iaiaeyie, noi?ioaaoe ?iai/o
ciio i(i(iaeueiiai ia((io aac cieaeaiiy ae?iaie/i( iiooaeiino(
i(aei?e(inoaa.

2. Aoaeoeai(noue ?oeioaaiy neaeueieo ii?(ae ( cieaeaiiy ieeiaaciaeo
aeeeae(a caaacia/othoueny ea?oaaiiyi aeaooiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue ii?(ae ca
?aooiie ciaioaiiy a?ecaioiino( oaeineiiaeaieo aiaeiai(uoth/eo oei(a A? c
iecueeei ai(noii o?ioeeo (10…20 %), a oaeiae eiia(iaoe((th (o ca?yae(a
c iaaiaeino(eeeie A? o iaaeao 20…30 % caeaaeii a(ae nooiaiy
iaaiaeiaiino( a(?nueeeo ii?(ae, aeei?enoaiiyi aoaeoo caie?aiiy
i?iaeoeo(a aeaooo i?e aioo?(oiueiio ( ciai(oiueiio iaaeaaii(
naa?aeeiaeie.

3. I(i(iaeueia a(aenoaiue o?ainii?ooaaiiy a(?nueei( iane
aaoinaiineeaeaie (0,8… 1,2 ei) o cii( iiaeeaeaiiy caaacia/o(oueny
oeyoii i(aeaioiaee ?iai/eo ai?eciio(a ia iniia( aeeaieiai aaiaeo
cae(cie/iiai ( eiiaae(?iiai o?ainii?oo a eiiieaen( c iia(eueiei
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiei onoaoeoaaiiyi, ui aea( ciiao ia?ai(uoaaoe (o one(ae
ca iiaeeaeaiiyi a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ii aenio( /a?ac 30…45 i oa ia a(aenoai(
ii ai?eciioo 0,8…1,25 ei.

4. Aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?n(a i?e aeaeiaoaaii( cae(cieo
?oae caaacia/o(oueny ooee(caoe((th ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae oeyoii
aoae(aieoeoaa aeaia iaaaeoaaiiy oainoinoiaeu, ae?iaieoeoaa
aoae(aaeueiiai uaaaith ( ia?aaeneaaaoe((th ia?aae(ciaaieo ia((i(a o
ae?iaeaiee i?ino(? c ooai?aiiyi oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu, iie?eoeo oa?ii
noaeeie(a iiooaei(noth 15…20 ni, aeeiiaiiyi a(ieia(/ii(
?aeoeueoeaaoe((.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao(a aeine(aeaeaiue:

1. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai( i?eioeeie noai?aiiy aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo
oaoiieia(e a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ia ACE, ia aac( yeeo ?ic?iaeaia
aeiiii(ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ( iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo aoaeoeaieo
ia?aiao?(a ?icaeoeo ?iai/i( ciie ea?((?(a, ui a(ae?(ciythoueny
nenoaiaoecaoe((th ea?((?ieo iie(a ca a(?ie/i-aaieia(/ieie oiiaaie,
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao eiiieaeno ae?iaie/eo i?ioean(a ia noai caiaeueieo
ianea(a oa aoiinoa?o, ?ici(uaiiyi ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiiio
i?inoi?( aeeaieeo ea?((?(a ( aeicaieythoue ieaioaaoe ?ic?iaeo cae(cii(
?oaee c i(i(iaeueiei ii?ooaiiyi aeiae(eey.

2. Oia?oa onoaiiaeai( caeaaeiino( ia?aiao?(a ciie iiaeeaeaiiy a(ae
iiooaeiino( ?oaeieo ieano(a, aeeaeie ?ic?iaee, eoo(a oeino ?iai/eo (
ia?iai/eo ai?o(a, i?ioyaeiino( ea?((?ieo iie(a, ia iniia( aeei?enoaiiy
yeeo caa?(aathoueny o?ainii?oi( eiioi(eaoe(( o i(noe( aioo?(oiueiai
a(aeaaeiooai?aiiy oa iaeneiaeueii caiiaith(oueny ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?
ai(uoth/eie ii?iaeaie.

3. ?ic?iaeai( iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao?(a oaoiieia(/ieo noai a(ae?iaee
cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu c i(i(iaeueii iaiao(aeiei iioi/iei ia((iii
aeeiaiiy ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae, ye( a(ae?(ciythoueny aeei?enoaiiyi
caeiiii(?iinoae oi?ioaaiiy cii iiaeeaeaiiy oa ia?ai(uaiiy c
ae(aaiiaeueiei i?((iooaaiiyi o?iioo a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ca i?inoyaaiiyi
?oaeieo ieano(a ( a(ae?iaeith ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae iioeeeie oa?aie ii
aeny/ei aieai iieeaae(a, ui aeicaiey( ia?aiineoe 15…20 % ia((io ii?(ae
?ice?eao ia caeeth/iee aoai ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeua.

4. Onoaiiaeai( caeiiii(?iino( ci(ie i?iaeoeoeaiino( aaoinaiineeae(a a(ae
aeeaeie ?ic?iaee, iaoeeo ae(caeieo o?aioae ( a(aenoai( o?ainii?ooaaiiy,
ye( a(ae?(ciythoueny o?aooaaiiyi aeo?ao iaeeaa ( aeeeaeo oe(aeeeaeo
?a/iaei o aoiinoa?o, ui aeicaiey( noai?eoe aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaai(
oaoiieia(/i( noaie i(aeaioiaee ?iai/eo ai?eciio(a c i(i(iaeueieie
a(aenoaiith ia?aaacaiiy a(?nueei( iane aaoio?ainii?oii ( caa?oaeiaiiyi
ea?((?ii( aoiinoa?e.

5. ?ic?iaeai( iaoaiaoe/i( iiaeae( oi?ioaaiiy ciie iiaeeaeaiiy i?e
eiia(iiaaieo aeaeao o?ainii?oo c aaoiiia(eueiith eaieith, ye(
a(ae?(ciythoueny a(ae a(aeiieo aenieoaoaoe((th aaoinaiineeae(a ia iea/(
a(aeeaoee 0,8…1,2 ei ( aeathoue iiaeeea(noue i?iaiicoaaoe e?ie
ia?ai(uaiiy iia(eueiiai ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy ia aeeaieeo
?iai/eo ai?eciioao ea?((?a.

6. Oia?oa ?ic?iaeai( iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao?(a ?icae(eueiiai
?ici(uaiiy ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?( c o?aooaaiiyi (o
o(ceei-iaoai(/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ( ainiiaea?nueei( oe(iiino(, ui
aeicaiey( i?iaeooaaoe ( noai?thaaoe oaoiiaaii( ?iaeiaeua a i?ioean(
a(ae?iaee aeeaieeo ea?((?(a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao(a iieyaa( o oaeiio:

1. Iaa?oioiaai( ia?aiao?e ( oaoiieia(/i( noaie eiino?othaaiiy ai?o(a
ea?((?a Iieoaanueeiai ACE (IACE) (c a(ae?iaeith (o iioeeeie oa?aie oa
ae(aaiiaeueieie iaiaeyie, ye( aeaee iiaeeea(noue ciaioeoe ia((i
ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o eiioo?ao ea?((?iiai iiey ia 103,5 iei i3, ?icoe?eoe
i?iieneia( caiane ia 40,8 iei o ?oaee, ciaioeoe oa?i(i aeinyaaiiy
i?iaeoii( ae?iaie/i( iiooaeiino( o 2 ?ace. (Aeia(aeea AAO
“Oe?a(i?i?oaea” a(ae 16.09.98 ?.).

2. ?ic?iaeaii iia( niieoee aiaeiai(uoth/eo A? c iecueeei ai(noii
o?ioeeo. Caoaeiaaii oeao aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aeaaoieo O-20 ia IACE
iiooaei(noth 10 oen.o/?., ui cieceei ia 30 % canoinoaaiiy o?ioeeo oa
ciaioeei ia 40…60 % ieeiaacia( aeeeaee i?e i?iaaaeaii( aeaooiaeo
?ia(o. Ca ?aooiie oeueiai o 1998 ?. aeiiii(/iee aoaeo neeaa 2,5 iei a?i.
(Aeia(aeea AAO “Oe?a(i?i?oaea” a(ae 16.09.98 ?.).

3. ?ic?iaeai( ?aoe(iiaeuei( eiino?oeoe(( eiia(iiaaieo naa?aeeiaeiieo
ca?yae(a aeey iaaiaeiaieo ii?(ae (c canoinoaaiiyi A? (c ?(cieie
aeaoiiaoe(eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ye( a(ae?(ciythoueny ?(ciia?aae((ioiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia ianea ( caie?ath/ei aoaeoii i?e aioo?(oiueiio oa
ciai(oiueiio iaaeaaii(, ui aeicaiey( i(aeaeueoe aoaeoeai(noue aeaooiaeo
?ia(o ia 12…15 %. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaeeo ca?yae(a ia ea?((?( IACE
caaacia/eei aeiiii(/iee aoaeo

o ?ici(?( 655,3 oen. a?i. (Aeia(aeea IACE a(ae 10.09.98 ?.).

4. ?ic?iaeai( eiino?oeoe(( e iaa?oioiaai( ia?aiao?e e?ieo ia?ai(uaiiy
iia(eueiiai ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, ye( caaacia/othoue
aeeaiea oaaaeaiiy cae(cie/iiai o?ainii?oo oa no?(/eiaeo eiiaae(?(a ia
?iai/( ai?eciioe ( aeathoue iiaeeea(noue i(aeaeueoe aoaeoeai(noue
o?ainii?oieo ?ia(o o ea?((?(. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia?anoaii( ae?iaa?ee ia
ea?((?( IACE aeicaieeei cieceoe aaioaaeiiai?io aaoio?ainii?oo o 3 ?ace,
aea(eueieoe c aenieoaoaoe(( 7 aaeeeiaaioaaeieo aaoinaiineeae(a (
ciaioeoe (ioaineai(noue caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?e ieeiaaciaeie aeeeaeaie ia
30…40 %. (Aeia(aeea AAO “Oe?a(i?i-?oaea” a(ae 16.09.98 ?.).

5. ?ic?iaeai( i?iiiceoe(( uiaei cieaeaiiy aeoiaeo a(aeoiae(a
a(?ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa (o ooee(caoe(( oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae i(ae /an aoae(aieoeoaa aeaia iaaaeoaaiiy
oainoinoiaeu ( ia?a?iaee ia uaa(iue; aeaoeii(oiaeo aeei ( aaiiyeo — aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy ieaoeo(a; iaai(oii-a(ae?aae(/iiai niiniao caaaa/aiiy
cae(cenoeo eaa?oeeo(a — aeey cieaeaiiy aeoiaeo oaino(a. Aeei?enoaiiy
oeeo i?iiiceoe(e ia IACE aea( iiaeeea(noue a(aeiiaeoenue a(ae i?ea(cieo
aaioii(oiaeo aeei, a ciaioaiiy ia((io aeoiaeo oaino(a oa i(aeaeuaiiy
yeino( eiioeaio?aoo ia 1,88 % — io?eiaoe o 1993-1997 ??. aeiiii(/iee
aoaeo 2,57 iei a?i. (Aeia(aeea IACE a(ae 10.09.98 ?.).

6. ?ic?iaeai( e ai?iaiaai( ia ea?((?( IACE oaoiieia(/i( noaie
ia?aaeneaaaoe(( ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae (c canoinoaaiiyi aaoiiia(eueiiai oa
cae(cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, ye( aeicaieythoue aacia/ii ?ici(uoaaoe (o o
ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?(, cieceoe a(aenoaiue ia?aaacaiiy a ea?((?( (
caaaeyee oeueiio iaea?aeaoe aeiiii(/iee aoaeo o ia?(iae 1993-1998 ??.
6,5 iei a?i. (Aeia(aeea IACE a(ae 25.12.98 ?.).

7. I(aeoaa?aeaeaia i?aaii(?i(noue eiina?aaoe(( iiaa?oi( oaoiiaaiieo
?iaeiaeu oeyoii iie?eooy oa?ii noaeeie(a iiooaei(noth 10…20 ni, ui
aea( ciiao aeey eoeueoeaaoe(( ia iueiio iaaeaaaeeaeo ?ineei.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii naiino(eii noi?ioeueiaai( iaoa e
caaea/( aeine(aeaeaiue, (aeay ?iaioe, iniiai( iaoeia( iieiaeaiiy,
aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe((, ?ic?iaeai( eiioeaioe(y ?iaioe oa (( aieiai(
iaoeiai-oaoi(/i( i?eioeeie, onoaiiaeai( caeiiii(?iino( ci(ie ia?aiao?(a
ciie iiaeeaeaiiy a(ae iiooaeiino( ?oaeieo ieano(a, eoo(a oeino ai?o(a
ea?((?(a ( aeeaeie ?ic?iaee; noai?aii iaoaiaoe/iee aia?ao aeey
?ic?aooieo ia?aiao?(a ?ici(uaiiy ?(ciioeiieo ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o
aeeaieeo ea?((?ao; c eiai o/anoth aeeiiaii iiaeaethaaiiy a(?ie/eo ?ia(o
i(ae /an i(aeaioiaee aeeaieeo ai?eciio(a aei aenieoaoaoe(( oa
eiino?othaaiiy o?ainii?oieo noai (c canoinoaaiiyi iia(eueiiai
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy; oaeineiiaeaii niieoee
aiaeiai(uoth/eo A? ( eiino?oeoe(( ca?yae(a; ?ica(ycai( i?eeeaaei(
caaea/( uiaei cieaeaiiy ia((i(a ae?iaie/eo a(aeoiae(a oa (o ooee(caoe((,
eiina?aaoe(( oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu ( ?aeoeueoeaaoe(( ii?ooaieo oa?eoi?(e,
a oaeiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao(a aeine(aeaeaiue. Ci(no aeena?oaoe(
aeeeaaeaii aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe(y ?iaioe. Iniiai( iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe(eii(
?iaioe aeiiia(aeaeenue ( iaea?aeaee noaaeaiiy ia Anana(oi(o a(?ie/eo
eiia?anao c aeieia(( a(?ie/io?ainii?oieo ?ia(o (Aieaa?(y-1994 ?.,
Iaeneea — 1997 ?.); ia i(aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe(yo c aeaooo
(O?aioe(y-1993 ?.) ( c aeooaeueieo ieoaiue ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua (i. Aa?ia-1994 ?., i. Iineaa -1994 ?., i. E?aiai/oe —
1994-1996 ??., i. Iaaeia?aae-1997 ?.); c i?e?iaeiioi?iiii( oaoiieia((
a(aee?eoeo a(?ie/eo ?ia(o (i. *aeya(inuee-1996 ?., i. Iineaa-1998 ?.);
ia i(aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe(yo c i?iaeai eiiieaeniiai inai(iiy iaae? (
ia?niaeoea inai(iiy ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei (i.
Aei(i?iiao?ianuee-1995, 1998 ??.); ia oaoi(/ieo ia?aaeao eiioea?io
“Oe??oaei?ii”, (inoeooo(a “Oe?a(i?i?oaea” ( “E?eaaani?iaeo”, iaoeiaeo
nai(ia?ao a(aeae(e(a aaiiaoai(ee iniia oaoiieia(( AA? ( iaoai(ee aeaooo
(AOI IAI Oe?a(ie, a oaeiae eaoaae?e AA? IAA Oe?a(ie.

Ioae(eaoe((. Iniiai( iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe(( iioae(eiaai( o 2
iiiia?ao(yo, 2 a?ioo?ao, 13 noaooyo o iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 2
aaoi?nueeeo na(aeioeoaao ( 7 iaoaioao ia aeiao(ae, 2 a(aee?eooyo, 12
oacao ( iaoa?(aeao aeiiia(aeae ia eiioa?aioe(yo.

No?oeoo?a ( ianya aeena?oaoe((. Aeena?oaoe(y neeaaea(oueny c anooio, 6
?icae(e(a, aeniiae(a, ia?ae(eo e(oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (c 240 iaca,
aeiaeaoea, ia( 243 noi?(iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 61 ?enoiie ia 50
noi?(ieao, 36 oaaeeoeue ia 40 noi?(ieao, 7 aeiaeaoe(a ia 10 noi?(ieao
caaaeueiei ianyaii 344 noi?(iee.

INIIAIEE CI(NO ?IAIOE

?ICAe(E 1. Iaeyae e(oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie oaoiieia(e a(?ie/eo ?ia(o i?e
a(aee?eo(e ?ic?iaoe( e?ooiniaaeath/eo cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia((i aeaeiaooeo cae(cenoeo eaa?oeeo(a a(aee?eoei
niiniaii a Oe?a(i( ciaoiaeeoueny ia ?(ai( 86 %. Iecueeee ai(no cae(ca
a ne?(e ?oae( oa e?ooa niaaeaiiy ?ic?iaey(ieo iieeaae(a /eieoue nooo(aee
aieea ia aeiae(eey. I?e oeueiio aeaeiaooie ne?i( ?oaee
noi?iaiaeaeo(oueny ia o(eueee aeeeaeaie ieeo e oe(aeeeaeo aac(a a(ae
i?iaaaeaiiy ao?ii(ae?eaieo, ae(ieiai-iaaaioaaeoaaeueieo ( o?ainii?oieo
?ia(o, aea e ii?ooaiiyi cia/ieo ieiu i?iinii?oaeaie, ea?((?aie,
a(aeaaeaie, oainoinoiaeuaie, neeaaeaie aioiai( i?iaeoeoe((,
o?ainii?oieie ia?aaeaie oa (ioeie ia((eoaie. Aeeaie( ea?((?e oa?aeoa?i(
a(aeea/eith cia/ieo ia((i(a i(aecaiieo aenieii(ia?ae(ciaaieo aiae.
Aeiae(eey caa?oaeith(oueny oiene/ieie i(e?iaeaiaioaie aaaeeeo iaoae(a.

Ia?oiaeaea?aeii caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae(eey ( aeaeiaooie ne?i( ?oaee.
Aeina(ae ?iaioe ea?((?(a cae(ci?oaeieo ACE iieaco(, ui na?aaei(e
eiao(oe((io ?ice?eao ciaoiaeeoueny ia ?(ai( 1…7,5 i3/o. Ia((i
neaeueii( a(?nueei( iane a ea?((?ao neeaaea( iiiaae 90 %. Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui i?e ao?ii(ae?eaieo ?iaioao aeo(ae ieeo o
oe(eiio ii ea?((?o ia ?(e neeaaea( 21,6…68,7 oen.o, ieneae(a aoaeaoeth
oa acioo — 357…735 oen.i3. Aeeiaiiy oa iaaaioaaeaiiy a(?nueei( iane
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny aeeeaeii 8,2 ia/ea ieeo. I?e o?ainii?ooaaii( ((
aaoinaiineeaeaie ii aei?iaai c ia?iaeaiith iiaa?oiath aeeeae ieeo
noaiiaeoue 200…300 ia/n, cae(cie/iei o?ainii?oii — 80…120 ia/n,
no?(/eiaeie eiiaae(?aie — 20…50 ia/n. Ia ciai(oi(o a(aeaaeao
neeaaeoaaiiy ii?(ae aeneaaaoi?aie i?ecaiaeeoue aei (ioaineaiino( iee(iiy
485…1120 ia/n, aoeueaeica?aie — 97…160 ia/n. I?e ?icaaioaaeaii(
aaoinaiineeaea aeae(ey(oueny aei 184 ia/n ieeo, aeoiiea?a — aei 275
ia/n. Aeeeaee io?oeieo aac(a niinoa?(aathoueny eeoa o aeaeaoi(a
aioo?(oiueiai cai?yiiy ( caeaaeii a(ae (o iiooaeiino( ia iiaeooue
ia?aaeuoaaoe 9,5 a/eAo(aiae c ieneaeo aoaeaoeth, 3,4 a/eAo(aiae — c
aoaeaaiaeith oa 18,35 a/eAo(aiae — c ieneaeo acioo. Caaaeueia
e(euee(noue ieeiaaciaeo aeeeae(a caeaaeeoue a(ae na?aaeiuei( a(aenoai(
o?ainii?ooaaiiy.

O oe(eiio ii aaeoc( ACE ii?ooaii a(eueoa 33 oen. aa caiaeue, c yeeo
ea?((?aie — 4,8 oen.aa (14,5 %), ciai(oi(ie a(aeaaeaie — 7,7 oen.aa
(23,3 %), oainoinoiaeuaie — 8,7 oen.aa (26,4 %), i?iieneiaeie nii?oaeaie
— 2,8 oen. aa (8,5 %). Ciai(oi( iiaa?oi( a(aeaae(a ieeyoue. Ui?(/iee
ia((i a(aeea/oaaieo i(aecaiieo aiae noaiiaeoue a(eueoa i(ae 25 iei
i3. I(ia?ae(caoe(y (o aeinyaa( 5,9 a/e.

A ?(ci( /ane a o(e /e (io(e i(?( o ae?(oaiiy i?iaeai aeieia(/ii
i?((ioiaaieo oaoiieia(e a(aee?eoeo a(?ie/eo ?ia(o aianee nooo(aee aeeaae
i?aoe( aeaaeai(e(a I.(.Aaioeiaa, I.A.Iaeueieeiaa, A.A.?aeaanueeiai,
i?ioani?(a I.A.Iiaiaeeeiaa, I.(.A?naioue(aa, I.A.Aa?aniaae/a,
A.O.Aeciaa, A.A.Aeecith-eiaa, I.A.Aaneeue(aa, TH.A.A(eeoea,
A.Ae.Ai?iaeiaa, (.E.Aoiaieea, A.TH.Ae?eaeaiea, A.(.(o?aiiaa,
A.N.Eiaaeaiea, ?.N.E?en(ia, I.I.Ieoaeeiaa, A.Ae.Iao?aiea, A.E.Iie(uoea,
N.(.Iiiiaa, A.(.I?ieiiaiea, I.(.Oiiaeiaa, E.I.O?oaaoeueeiai,
A.N.Oio?yeiaa, I.N.*aoaa?eea, A.A.Oaia?a, A.E.sseia-e(aa oa (ioeo.

O oie aea /an a(eueo(noue i?ioean(a i?e oe(eani?yiiaaiiio iiaeeaeaii(
cae(ci?oaeieo ea?((?(a ( aieea (o ia noai aeiae(eey iaaeinoaoiuei
aeine(aeaeai(. Aieea neeaaeoaaiiy ?ice?eaieo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiiio
i?inoi?( ia i?iaaaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo i?ioean(a ( ciaioaiiy (ioaineaiino(
ii?ooaiue aeiae(eey iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy. O oeueiio
ca(yceo ia iniia( aiae(co a(aeiieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ( aeyaeaieo
iniaeeainoae aeieia(/iiai noaio a(aee?eoeo ?ic?iaie ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo
eiiaeei noi?ioeueiaai( aeooaeuei(noue, nooo(a(noue i?eeeaaeii( i?iaeaie,
iaoa ( caaea/( aeine(aeaeaiiy.

?ICAe(E 2. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeei(a oi?ioaaiiy aeieia(/ii
i?((ioiaaieo oaoiieia(e a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ia ACE

A(?ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueiee eiia(iao ( aaaaoioe(eueiaei i(aei?e(inoaii c
iiaiei oeeeeii aeaeiaoaaiiy oa ia?a?iaee cae(cii( ?oaee o iaoaeo?a(eio
ne?iaeio, yeee o nai(io neeaae( ia( iaeei /e aeae(eueea ea?((?(a,
a(aeaaee, ae?iaeeueii-caaaa/oaaeuei( oaa?eee oa oainoinoiaeua. C
aeei?enoaiiyi i?eioeei(a nenoaiiiai aiae(co onoaiiaeaii i(aeii?yaeeiaai(
i(ae niaith ?(ai( ((?a?o(( ie?aieo oe(eae oa caaaeaiue aeey
ooieoe(iioaaiiy aaeeei( nenoaie o oe(eiio, ui oyaey( niaith ACE.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, iniiaiiieiaeiee i?eioeei oai?(( aeieia(/ii
i?((ioiaaii( oaoiieia(( a(aee?eoi( ?ic?iaee cae(cieo ?oae iieyaa( o
aeeiiaii( a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ia aeeaieeo ea?((?ao c aoaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiyi
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o aeey ?ici(uaiiy ?ice?eaieo ii?(ae, iaeneiaeueiith
(o ooee(caoe((th i(ae /an aeeiaiiy oa caa?(aaiiy, eieae(caoe((th
ieeiaaciaeo aeeeae(a i?e aeeiiaii( an(o oaoiieia(/ieo i?ioean(a,
i(i(iaeueiei ii?ooaiiyi caiaeueieo ieiu ( i(aecaiieo aiae oa (o
?aeoeueoeaaoe((th, ui aeinyaa(oueny oaoiieia(/ieie niiniaaie (c
canoinoaaiiyi ae(th/iai oa ciia noai?thaaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy (
a(aeiia(aea( i(i(iaeuei(e nia(aa?oino( aeaeiaoaieo ?ia(o.

Ioe(ithth/e ae?iaeaiee i?ino(? aeeaieeo ea?((?(a ye oaoiiaaiiee ?ano?n,
aeei?enoaiiy yeiai aeicaiey( nooo(ai cieceoe a(aenoaiue o?ainii?ooaaiiy
a(aeoiae(a ae?iaieoeoaa oa caieai(noe(noue ACE, aeae(eai( iiaeeea(
oaoiieia(( a(?ie/eo ?ia(o, ye( caaacia/othoue ?aoe(iiaeueia ?ici(uaiiy
ii?(ae ?ice?eao.

1. I?enei?aia a(ae?iaea /anoeie ?iaeiaeua aei e(ioeaai( aeeaeie
ea?((?iiai iiey c ?ici(uaiiyi ia?a(niiai ?ice?eao o ciai(oi(o a(aeaaeao
( iine(aeiaia ?ic?iaea oeueiai ?iaeiaeua c( neeaaeoaaiiyi iniiaiiai
ia((io ?ice?eaieo ii?(ae o noai?aiiio ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?(.

2. Iiaoaiia a(ae?iaea ea?((?iiai iiey c oei/aniaei neeaaeoaaiiyi /anoeie
ii?(ae ?ice?eao o iaaeao ea?((?iiai iiey oa ia?aaeneaaaoe((th (o o
ae?iaeaiee i?ino(? noi(nii c iniiaiei ia((iii.

3. Iine(aeiaia ?ic?iaea a?oie ?iaeiaeu aai (o ae(eyiie c aeei?enoaiiyi
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o ?ai(oa a(ae?iaeaiiai ea?((?a aeey ?ici(uaiiy a
iueiio ii?(ae ?ice?eao ianooiiiai ea?((?a cai(noue aoae(aieoeoaa iiaeo
ciai(oi(o a(aeaae(a.

4. Ooee(caoe(y /anoeie ii?(ae ?ice?eao, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy (o aeey
aoae(aieoeoaa a(?ie/ioaoi(/ieo nii?oae o ea?((?( oa ia oainoinoiaeuao.

Ine(eueee ?ici(?e oa oiiae caeyaaiiy cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu aeineoue
?(ciiiai(oi(, aeine(aeaeaiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao?(a a(?ie/eo ?ia(o
i?iaaaeaii ia i?eeeaae( oeiiaeo ea?((?ieo iie(a c aeiaaeeiith ca
iiaa?oiath a(ae 1 aei 6 ei ( aeeaeiith a(ae 300 aei 800 i. 1, 3 ( 6 oeie
a(aeiia(aeathoue neiee(iaeueiei neeaaeeai ?iaeiaeu; 2, 4 ( 5 —
e?ooicaeyaath/ei ieanoai. Aeey oeueiai aeeiiaia nenoaia-oecaoe(y
iniiaieo iieaciee(a ae(th/eo oa cai?iaeoiaaieo ACE. Ae?iaie/a
iiooaei(noue ea?((?(a i?eeiyoa caeaaeii a(ae ?oaeii( ieiu( ?iaeiaeu (
a(aeiia(aea( aiaeia(/iei a?oiai na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/ieo i(aei?e(inoa
Oe?a(ie oa e?a(i NIAe. Iniiai( (o iieacieee ?ic?aoiaai( ca ?ic?iaeaieie
caeaaeiinoyie (oaae. 1).

Aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaai( oaoiieia(( a(aee?eoi( ?ic?iaee e?ooicaeyaath/eo
cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu i?eioneathoue oe(eani?yiiaaia oi?ioaaiiy
ia?a(niiai ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o a ea?((?( ia?oi( /a?ae oeyoii ?icaeoeo
ciie iiaeeaeaiiy a iaeiiio c oi?oe(a ea?((?iiai iiey c i(i(iaeueiith
iiooaei(noth iie?eaieo ii?(ae. I?e aeinoaoiueiio oaii( iiaeeaeaiiy aeey
ea?((?iiai o?ainii?oo iiooaei(noue c aeaeiaoaaiiy ?oaee caaacia/o(oueny
iiia?a/iei ?icoeiii ( iicaeiaaei(i ia?ai(uaiiyi o?iioo a(?ie/eo ?ia(o c
oe?eiith ?iai/eo ieiuaaeie ia eiaeiiio ai?eciio( 30…50 i. I(aeo?eiaiiy
oa ia?iuo-aaiiy iiooaeiino( ea?((?a iiaeeeaa i?e aeae(eaii( ?ooiii( ciie
c i?enei?aiei ia?ai(uaiiyi aeai(a o aa?oi(e /anoei( ea?((?a acaeiaae
i?inoyaaiiy ?oaeieo ieano(a. Ia((i ciie iiaeeaeaiiy Vo (i3)
aecia/a(oueny c oi?ioee

( 1 )

aea Io — aeeaeia ?ic?iaee, i;

ma — ai?eciioaeueia iiooaei(noue ?oaeieo ieano(a, i;

Eo — eiao(oe((io oi?ie ?oaeieo ieano(a;

a? — oe?eia ?iai/eo ieiuaaeie, i;

a?.o — oe?eia ?ic?(cii( o?aioa(, i;

(e, (a — eooe oein(a o?iioaeueieo ai?o(a ea?((?a, a?aae;

( — eoo oeino ia?iai/iai oi?oey ea?((?a, a?aae;

(? — eoo oeino ?iai/iai ai?oo, a?aae

Ca noaiaea?oiith i?ia?aiith c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao(a
onoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aiao?e ciie iiaeeaeaiiy i(aeei?ythoueny ia?aaie(/i(e
caeaaeiino( a(ae aeeaeie ?ic?iaee, eooa oeino ?iai/iai

Oaaeeoey 1

Nenoaiaoecaoe(y iieaciee(a aeaeiaoaaiiy oa ia?a?iaee cae(cii(

?oaee ia oeiiaeo
i(aei?e(inoaao

Iieaciee Oei ea?((?iiai iiey

1 2 3 4 5 6

Ai?eciioaeueia iiooaei(noue

?oaeieo ieano(a, i

E(ioeaaa aeeaeia ?ic?iaee, i

?ici(?e ea?((?iiai iiey ca

iiaa?oiath, i:

— aeiaaeeia;

— oe?eia;

— ieiua, aa

Ia((i ii?iaee, iei i3:

— ?oaea;

— ?ice?ea;

— ieiua a(aeaaeueieo iie(a, aa

Na?aaei(e eiao(oe((io ?ice?eooy,

i3/i3

Ia((i oiaa?ii( ?oaee, iei i3

Ia((i oaino(a caaaa/aiiy, iei i3

Ieiua oainoinoiaeu, aa

Na?aaei(e eiao(oe((io a(aeoiae(a, i3/i3

Caaaeueia ieiua i(ae a(?ie/eie

?ic?iaeaie,aa

?(/ia iiooaei(noue ae?iaieoeoaa,

iei i3:

— ne?a ?oaea;

— ii?iaee ?ice?eao;

— oiaa?ia ?oaea;

— oainoe caaaa/aiiy 370 300 875 300 350
1300

300 400 500 500 600 800

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

1000 1200 2000 1200 1500 3000

82,6 194,6 487,2 476,2 826,3 1509

58,2 152,9 890,9 451,7 1013,6 4573

50,3 221,8 501,8 740,8 1716,4 2565

90,6 399,2 903,2 1333,5 3089,5 4617

0,86 1,45 0,56 1,64 1,69 0,56

23,3 61,2 356,4 180,7 405,4 1829,2

34,9 91,7 534,5 271 608,2 2743,8

139,6 366,8 2138 1084 2432,8 10975

3,6 5,1 2,9 5,6 5,7 2,9

312,8 960,6 3528,4 2893,7 6348,6 17101

2,6 4,0 6,8 6 9 12,4

2,2 5,8 3,8 9,8 15,2 7

1,04 1,6 2,7 2,4 3,6 5

1,56 2,4 4,1 3,6 5,4 7,5

ai?oo oa i?ioyaeiino( ea?((?iiai iiey Le (i) ( iathoue aeaeyae:

; ( 2 )

; ( 3 )

— ieoiia aaaa ia((io ciie iiaeeaeaiiy a eiioo?ao ea?((?iiai iiey

; ( 4 )

— ieoiia aaaa ia((io ii?(ae ?ice?eao a cii( iiaeeaeaiiy caeaaeii
a(ae i?i-

oyaeiino( ea?((?iiai iiey

. ( 5 )

C i?iaaaeaiiai aiae(co aeoiaeeoue, ui ia((i ciie iiaeeaeaiiy oa ii?iaee
?ice?eao a i(e, a iniiaiiio, caeaaeaoue a(ae aeeaeie ?ic?iaee ( eoo(a
oeino ?iai/eo ai?o(a. ?ici(?e (( ii caii(e iiaa?oi( ia ia?aaeuothoue
1,5…2,1 ei, ui a(aeiia(aea( i?ioyaeiino( ea?((?(a 1 ( 2 oeio. Ieoiia
aaaa ia((io ii?(ae ?ice?eao ?(cei cieaeo(oueny i?e ca(eueoaii(
i?ioyaeiino( ea?((?iiai iiey (?en. 1). Aeey ea?((?(a 1 oeio aiia
noaiiaeoue 73,6 % a(ae onueiai ia((io ?ice?eao; aeey ea?((?(a 2 oeio —
43,7 %; a aeey ea?((?(a 5 ( 6 oei(a — 18…19,5 %. C oeueiai c?iaeaii
aeniiaie, ui ea?((?e 1 ( 2 oeio iiaeooue aooe caneiaieie o(eueee i(ney
iiaii( a(ae?iaee ii?iaeaie c (ioeo i(aei?e(inoa, a ea?((?e 3-6 oei(a
i?eaeaoi( aeey neeaaeoaaiiy ii?(ae ?ice?eao iioi/iiai aeeiaiiy. I?e
oeueiio eiao(oe((io ia?aaeneaaaoe(( ia ia?aaeuoaaoeia 20 %.

Io?eiai( caeiiii(?iino( aeicaieythoue aiae(coaaoe ?(ci( iai?yiee
oi?ioaaiiy ?iai/i( ciie ea?((?(a c i(i(iaeueieie ia((iaie ae(iee
?ice?eao oa a(aenoai( eiai o?ainii?ooaaiiy, ui caaacia/othoue aeiiii(/io
aoaeoeai(noue ?iaioe ACE ( caoeno aeiae(eey a(ae caa?oaeiaiiy. I?e
oeueiio ia?aaeaa/a(oueny aeei?enoaiiy ?(ciioeiieo ii?(ae ?ice?eao a
yeino( iia(/ii( oiaa?ii( i?iaeoeoe(( ia o(eueee aeey iio?aa ACE, aea e
aeey noi(aeieo aaeocae ainiiaea?noaa.

?ICAe(E 3. ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao?(a oi?ioaaiiy ?iai/i( ciie aeeaieeo
ea?((?(a c ia?aaeneaaaoe((th ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?

?ic?iaea aeeaieeo ea?((?(a oa?aeoa?ia aeeiaiiyi cia/ieo ia((i(a
?ice?eao, ui nooo(ai iicia/a(oueny ia nia(aa?oino( aeaeiaoaieo ?ia(o.
Noi?ioeueiaaia eiioeaioe(y noai?aiiy oaoiieia(e ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu (c
i(i(iaeueiei ii?ooaiiyi aeiae(eey, yea iieyaa( o noai?aii( oei/aniai
ia?iai/eo ai?o(a cai(noue iinoaiiaee (o c?aco a e(ioeaaa iieiaeaiiy.

I?eaaioaaeaiiy oei/aniai ia?iai/eo ai?o(a ii?iaeaie ?ice?eao aea(
iiaeeea(noue ca(eueoeoe eooe (o a(aeeino ia 3…50 ( a(eueoa. Caaaeyee
oeueiio cia/aiiy eiao(oe((ioa caiano no(eeino( iiaea aooe i?eeiyoa
1,1…1,2 aeey oiia ei?ioei/aniiai iieiaeaiiy cai(noue 1,3…1,5 — aeey
iino(eiiai, ia no?ie anueiai iniiaiiai ia?(iaeo aenieoaoaoe((. Oea
aeicaiey( ciaioeoe caaaeueiee ia((i ?ice?eao a eiioo?ao ea?((?iiai iiey
ia 15…20 %.

Ca(eueoaiiy eoo(a a(aeeino ?iai/eo ai?o(a oeyoii a(ae?iaee ai(uoth/eo
ii?(ae ii aeny/iio aieo iieeaae(a iioeeeie oa?aie ia aeeaeio I? (i) oa
i?((iooaaiiy ae(ieiai( iaiae( a(aeiinii i?inoyaaiiy ?oaeieo ieano(a aea(
iiaeeea(noue ia?aiineoe ?ic?iaeo cia/ii( /anoeie ii?(ae ?ice?eao ia
caeeth/iee ia?(iae aenieoaoaoe(( ea?((?a. Oi?ioaaiiy ia?iai/iai ai?oo
ea?((?a ii eaaea/iio aieo ?iaeiaeua aeicaiey( ?ici(uoaaoe ia eiai
o?ainii?oieo ieiuaaeeao o iino(eiiio iieiaeaii( iaa(no?aeuei( cae(cie/i(
eiioi(eaoe(( oa no?(/eia( eiiaae(?e (?en. 2). O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo eoo
a(aeeino ?iai/iai ai?oo aecia/a(oueny c oi?ioee

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aea no — a?oie onooi(a, ye( neeaaeathoue iioeeee oa?, iae.;

ho — aenioa onooio, i;

(o — eoo a(aeeino ?iai/iai onooio, a?aae;

aa — oe?eia aa?ie aaciaee, i;

E — e(euee(noue oei/aniai ia?iai/eo onooi(a, iae.;

n? — e(euee(noue ?iai/eo ieiuaaeie o a?oi( onooi(a, iae.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui ?ice?eai( ii?iaee ne(ae a(ae?iaeyoe 3…6 iioeeeie
oa?aie i(ae eooii (?.e = 15…190 a iai?yieo a(ae eaaea/iai aieo
iieeaaeo oa (?.a = 29…300 — a(ae aeny/iai. Oe?eia ?iai/eo ieiuaaeie
An.a = 43…70 i. E?ie iiaoi?iiai iiaeeaeaiiy Io = 24…36 i. ?(/ia
iiieaeaiiy a(?ie/eo ?ia(o 8…12 i. Aenioa oei/aniai ia?iai/eo ai?o(a
i(ae ?iai/eie ieiuaaeeaie Ia = 60…180 i. Oa?i(i a(ae?iaee aoaio
6…24 ?iee. Aeiaaeeia ae(eyiee aoaio 600… 1200 i.

Eoo i?((iooaaiiy ae(ieiaeo iaiaeae a(aeiinii i?inoyaaiiy ?oaeiiai ieanoa
c( noi?iie eaaea/iai (e oa aeny/iai ((a) aieo (a?aae) aecia/a(oueny ca
oi?ioeaie

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aea ( — eoo caeyaaiiy ?oaeiiai ieanoa, a?aae.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui i(i(iaeuei( ia((ie ?ice?eaieo ii?(ae caaacia/othoueny
i?e i?((iooaaii( ae(ieiaeo iaiaeae c( noi?iie eaaea/iai aieo iieeaaeo
i(ae eooii 24…280 aei eiai i?inoyaaiiy oa i(ae eooii 30…360 — c(
noi?iie aeny/iai aieo. Caaaeyee oeueiio aeiaaeeia ?oaeiiai o?iioo
ii?(aiyii c iiia?a/ieie iaiaeyie ia onooiao ca(eueoo(oueny o 1,5…2
?ace. Ia ea?((?ao 4 ( 5 oei(a aeeiaiiy 15…25 % ?ice?eao
ia?aiineoueny ia caeeth/iee aoai ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu. I?e oeueiio i?yi(
ca(caee cae(cieoe( iiaeeea( ia aeeaeio 150…200 i. ?iaioe aaaeooueny c
iioi/iei eiao(oe((ioii ?ice?eao aeecueeei aei a?aie/iiai.

i(ae /an ?icaeoeo a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ii eiaeiiio e?eeo ?iaeiaeua
ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao 830 i, o(eueee ii iaeiiio e?eeo — 1660 i.

I?e ?ic?iaoe( e?ooicaeyaath/eo ?iaeiaeu ai?eciio oei/aniaiai
a(aeaaeiooai?aiiy ne(ae ?ici(uoaaoe ia aeeaei( 150…200 i. I?e oeueiio
eiai aeiaaeeia ci(ith(oueny a(ae 3,5 ei — aeey iieeaae(a iiooaei(noth
200 i, aei 0,7 ei — aeey ?iaeiaeu iiooaei(noth 1200 i. Aeey i(aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino( aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o aa?oith ieiuaaeeo
iino(eiiai a(aeaaeo ?aeiiaiaeo(oueny a(aeneiaoe ia 60…100 i aeua
caiii( iiaa?oi(. A(aeiia(aeii aei iaiao(aeii( iiooaeiino( aeaeiaoaaiiy
ne?i( ?oaee c i(i(iaeueieie aeo?aoaie ia a(?ie/io?ainii?oi( ?iaioe
?aeiiaiaeothoueny oaoiieia(( c aioo?(oi(i a(aeaaeiooai?aiiyi o oaeeo
iai?yieao.

Ea?((?e 1 oeio caneiathoueny a(aeoiaeaie ae?iaieoeoaa (ioeo i(aei?e(inoa
i(ney iiaii( a(ae?iaee.

Ea?((?e 2 oeio ia?aoiaeyoue ia aioo?(oi( a(aeaaeiooai?aiiy o caeeth/iee
ia?(iae a(ae?iaee, i(ney /iai caneiathoueny a(aeoiaeaie (c noi?iii(o
aeaea?ae.

Ea?((?e 3 ( 6 oei(a c oaiiii iiaeeaeaiiy aei 10 i/?. ia?aoiaeyoue ia
aioo?(oi( a(aeaaeiooai?aiiy i?e iiai(noth noi?iiaaiiio ae?iaeaiiio
i?inoi?( a cii( iiaeeaeaiiy. Aeeiyoa c ia( ii?iaea ?ice?eao ?icae(eueii
neeaaeo(oueny ia caii(e iiaa?oi( a eiioo?ao ea?((?iiai iiey ( i?e
iiaeaeueo(e ?ic?iaoe( ?iaeiaeua ia?aaeneaaiao(oueny noi(nii c
ai(uoth/eie ii?iaeaie iioi/iiai aeeiaiiy o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?.

Ea?((?e 4 ( 5 oei(a c oaiiii iiaeeaeaiiy a(eueoa 10 i/?.
a(ae?(ciythoueny a(ae ea?((?(a 3 ( 6 oei(a iaiao(aei(noth oi?ioaaiiy
?ooiii( ciie, aea ia i?ii(aeiiio ai?eciio( iiaeeeai oei/aniai
?ici(uoaaoe ai(uoth/( ii?iaee c iiaeaeueoith ia?aaeneaaaoe((th (o o
ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?.

Ia i(aenoaa( oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie aeey ea?((?a IACE aeeiiaii
eaeaiaea?iee ieai aeoiaeo ia i?iaeoi( iieacieee aei 2003 ?. Na?aaei(e
eiao(oe((io ?ice?eao noaiiaeoue 1,14 i3/o. ?(/ia iiaeeaeaiiy a(?ie/eo
?ia(o 10,5 i. I?e oeueiio oa?i(i aeeiiaiiy a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ciaioaii o 2
?ace.

?ICAe(E 4. ?ic?iaea oa oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia(( aeaooiaiai
iiae?(aiaiiy ii?(ae i(ae /an (ioaineaiiai oi?ioaaiiy ae?iaeaiiai
i?inoi?o

Iaoiaeii aoiiii-aani?aoe(eiiai aiae(co aeine(aeaeaia nooi(iue
caa?oaeiaiiy caiaeue iaaeiei I(aaeaiiiai, Iiaie?eai?(cueeiai oa
Iieoaanueeiai ACE. C?acee a?oioo ianith 500…600 a a(aeae?aeenue ia
aeeaei( 0, 10, 30 ( 60 ni ia a(aenoai( 1, 3, 5 ( 10 ei a(ae ea?((?a ii
6…8 ?oiaai a(aeiia(aeii noi?(i na(oo. Aeey ii?(aiyiiy a yeino(
ciiaeueieo a?oio(a (eiio?ieue) aea?ai( n. Aaaaee(aea
Aei(i?iiao?ianue-ei( iaeano( o 250 ei a(ae E?eaaano oa n. I?iiciaea
Iieoaanueei( iaeano( — o 80 ei a(ae IACE. Onoaiiaeaii, ui a E?eaaan(
a?oioe caa?oaeiai( cae(cii, i(aeaeth, oeeieii, naeioeai ( i(eaeai,
eiioeaio?aoe(y yeeo iacia/ii ia?aaeuo( AAeE. Ii?(aiyii c eiio?ieai
a?oioe E?eaaano caa?oaeiai( cae(cii o 5…9 ?ac(a a(eueoa. (io(
i(e?iaeaiaioe ia?aaeuothoue eiio?ieue o 1,5…2 ?ace ( o(eueee eaaei(e —
o 3…8 ?ac(a. I?e oeueiio aaeeea ?ieue o caa?oaeiaii( a?oioo iaeaaeeoue
ia o(eueee ea?((?ai, ae?iaeeueii-caaaa/oaaeueiei oa aaeioaa?eeai ACE,
aea e iaoaeo?a(eiei oa eienio(i(/iei caaiaeai, OAOe ( n(euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noao.

Iai?eeeaae, caa?oaeiaiiy i(noeaaino( iaaeiei IACE ii?(aiyii c E?eaaanii
ieae/a ii cae(co a 20…35 ?ac(a, c (ioeo aeaiaio(a — i?eaeecii
oaea(/(. Oae( aeaiaioe ye eaaei(e, eiaaeueo, o?ii ( i(eaeue i?aeoe/ii
a(aenooi(. Ine(eueee cae(ci ia ( iaaacia/iei caa?oaeithaa/ai a?oioo (
iie(ioo( eiai no?oeoo?o ?acii c eaa?oeai, ui aeiaaea( (c ieeiaaciai(
oia?e i?e aeaooao ( iee(ii( oainoinoiaeu, aieea eiai ia iaaeieeoi( caie(
i?e aioo?(oiueiio a(aeaaeiooai?aii( ?ice?eao iiaeia ia a?aoiaoaaoe.
Iaeiae, iaca(ycaiee ae?(aiiaeenia?niee eaa?oeaaee iee o aoiinoa?( (
iaaacia/iei aeey ethaeae ( oaa?ei.

Cae(eniaii aiae(c ieeiaaciaeo aeeeae(a noaoe(iia?ieo oa ianoaoe(iia?ieo
ia((eo(a ACE. Onoaiiaeaii aeenia?niee oa o(i(/iee neeaae ieeo ( aac(a.
Oeiaethaaiiy ieeo i?e ae?iaeaii(, caaaa/aii( oa ieoneoaaii( ?(cieie
i?eno?iyie aeinyaa( 99 %. Iaeiae, ieneaee aoaeaoeth e acioo, iee ( aace
ea?((?(a, a(aeaae(a, oainoinoiaeu ( neeaae(a aioiai( i?iaeoeoe((
aeeeaeathoueny a aoiinoa?o aac iiia?aaeiueiai i/euaiiy. Ia i?eeeaae(
IACE onoaiiaeaii, ui ieoiia aaaa aeeeaeo ieeo i?e aeeiiaii(
ao?ii(ae?eaieo ?ia(o o ea?((?( noaiiaeoue 18,1 %; ae?iaeaii( oa
iiae?(aiaii( ?oaee — 3,7 %; ieoneoaaii( eiioeaio?aoo — 23 %;
neeaaeoaaii( ?ice?eao, ieaoeo(a ( uaaith c ii?(ae ?ice?eao — 19,4 %;
neeaaeoaaii( a(aeoiae(a caaaa/aiiy — 34,4 %. O oe(eiio ii ACE iniiaiei
aeaea?aeii ieeiaaciaeeeae(a ( ieoneoaaiiy eiioeaio?aoo oa
oaieiiinoa/aiiy — 46,1 %; ea?((?e — 16,4 % ( oainoinoiaeua — 22 %.

Iaeiei c iniiaieo aeaea?ae aeeeaeo ieeo i?e ianiaeo aeaooao ( ciia
ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe(e ia eiioaeo( “ca?yae-ii?iaea”, ia((i yei(
caeaaeeoue a(ae a?ecaioiino( A?. Aeei?enoaiiy aeey ?oeioaaiiy a(?nueei(
iane A? c aenieei ai(noii o?ioeeo a(ae?(ciy(oueny aenieeie aeo?aoaie oa
aeae(eaiiyi aaeeeeo ia((i(a oiene/ieo aac(a, i?eaiaeeoue aei
ia?aiiae?(aiaiiy ii?iaee a ciiao ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe(e oa i(aeaeuaiiai
aeoiaeo ieeiaeo /anoeiie. A oiiaao noeniaiiai i?inoi?o ciie iiaeeaeaiiy
oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaaacia/ieo neooaoe(e.

C o/anoth aaoi?a ?ic?iaeaii caaaeaiiy ia i?iaeooaaiiy oa iiaoaeiao (o
1991 ?.) ia IACE ae(eueieoe( aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aiaeiai(uoth/eo A? oeio
aeaaoie O-20, a a iiaeaeueoiio ( eiai iiaeo iiaeeo(eaoe(e. Ii?(aiyii c
a?aioeioieii aeaoo aeaaoiea O-20 oa?aeoa?eco(oueny iaioei ia 25…40 %
ia((iii aeeeaeo io?oeieo aac(a ( ia 20…25 % ieeo. Oi?ioaaiiy
eiia(iiaaieo naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae(a (c aiaeiai(uoth/eo A? a iaaiaeiai(e
/anoei( oa ai(aeiai-nae(o?yieo — a noo(e aeicaiey( aeei?enoiaoaaoe aoaeo
aeaooiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue, ui iiaoi?ththoueny. Aeine(aee iieacaee, ui
iiaea?i(ciaai( A? oeio aeaaoie O-15i ( O-10i ca nai(ie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
a(aeiia(aeathoue iaea(eueo ?iciianthaeaeaiei A? oeio a?aiii(o(a.
Ciaioaiiy o?ioeeo a (o neeaae( aeae(eueea iineaaeei aeo(aei( ia?aiao?e
aeaaoie(a O-15i ( O-10i ii?(aiyii c aeaaoieii O-20. Cie?aia, oaeaee(noue
aeaoiiaoe(( iiaea?i(ciaaieo aeaaoie(a noaiiaeoue 4,5…4,8 ei/n i?ioe
5…5,5 ei/n aeey aeaaoiea O-20. Oaieioa aeaooo cieceeanue c 3941 aei
3360 ( 2364 Eaeae/ea a(aeiia(aeii aeey aeaaoie(a O-15i ( O-10i. Aea oea
i?aeoe/ii ia iicia/eeinue ia i?aoeacaeaoiino( iiaea?i(ciaaieo A?, yea
noaiiaeea 0,95 aeey O-10i; 1,05 — aeey O-15i ( 1,1 — aeey O-20 ii?(aiyii
aei aoaeiiii( A? (a?aiii(oa 79/21). sse(noue iiae?(aiaiiy oa i?i?iaee
i(aeioae onooi(a caaeia(eueia. Aeo(ae a(?nueei( iane e?oii(noth a(eueoa
400 ii o oe(eiio ia ia?aaeuoaaa 12…16 %.

Aiae(c aeaieo aeine(aeaeaiue aea( i(aenoaae aeey ieaioaaiiy aeei?enoaiiy
aiaeiai(uoth/eo A? oeio aeaaoie O-20 oa (ioeo o ianooiieo iai?yieao:

Aeey ?oeioaaiiy iaiaaiaeiaieo ii?(ae aa?oi(o ai?eciio(a o ea?((?( —
a?aiii(o 79/21 ( A? iaei?ino(oiai neeaaeo oeio (aaeai(o(a oa eiai
iiaeeo(eaoe(e c ai?th/eie aeii(oeaie 20…25 % ca ia((iii. Aeey
iaaiaeiaieo ii?(ae na?aaeiuei( oa ii?(ae aeua na?aaeiuei( i(oeiino( —
oea aeaaoiee O-20, O-15i ( O-10i a ia((i( 50…60 % a(ae caaaeueiiai
niiaeeaaiiy. Aeey i(oeieo ii?(ae /anoeiai aeei?enoiaothoue a?aioeioie.

Canoinoaaiiy aiaeiai(uoth/eo A? oeio O-20 aeicaieeei cieceoe aeeeae
iaaacia/ieo ?a/iaei ii ieeo a 2…3 ?ace, ii aacai — o 1,5…2 ?ace. I?e
oeueiio (o iaeneiaeuei( i?ecaii( eiioeaio?aoe(( neeaaeathoue c ieeo —
0,48 ia/i3; c ieneaeo aoaeaoeth — 0,16 ia/i3; c ieneae(a acioo — 0,067
ia/i3. O 1998 ?. aeei?enoaii aeey ?oeioaaiiy a(?nueeeo ii?(ae 4350 o
aiaeiai(uoth/eo A?. Caaaeyee oeueiio aeei?enoaiiy a?aiii(oa 79/21
ciaioaii aei 30 %, a o?ioeeo — aeeeth/aii aei i(i(ioio. Ea?oaaiiy
i?ioeanii ae?iaeaiiy ii?(ae ( aa?iaeeiai(eith aeaooo aeinyaa(oueny ca
?aooiie ?aoe(iiaeueii( eiino?oeoe(( oa iaaeaaiiyi naa?aeeiaeiiiai
ca?yaeo. Aoaeo “caie?aiiy” i?iaeoeo(a aeaooo A? caaacia/o(oueny
eiia(iiaaieie aioo?(oi(i ( ciai(oi(i iaaeaaiiyi, a oaeiae noai?aiei
?(ciia?aae((ioiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ianeao ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy o
naa?aeeiaeiiiio ca?yae( A? c ?(cieie oaeaeeinoyie aeaoiiaoe((.
Aeiiii(/iee aoaeo a(ae aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo A? ( eiino?oeoe((
naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae(a o 1998 ?. neeaa 2,5 iei a?i.

?ICAe(E 5. Onoaiiaeaiiy ?aoe(iiaeueieo ia?aiao?(a aeieia(/ii
i?((ioiaaieo a(?ie/io?ainii?oieo eiiieaen(a ( caeiiii(?iino( (o ci(i a
aeeaieeo ea?((?ao

Aeeiai(ea ?icaeoeo cae(ci?oaeieo ea?((?(a o i?inoi?( oa?aeoa?ia
nenoaiaoe/iei ca(eueoaiiyi aeeaeie a(?ie/eo ?ia(o, yea iaoiiaeth( ia
o(eueee ia((ie aeeiaiiy a(?nueei( iane, aea e aeae o?ainii?oo, a oaeiae
a(aenoaiue aeey (( ia?ai(uaiiy. Ine(eueee ia?a(nia i(noea ?ice?eooy oa
i(aeaioiaee aei aenieoaoaoe(( ai?eciio(a o iiaeaeueoiio ia ci(ith(oueny,
aoaeoeai(noue ca(eueoaiiy eoo(a oeino ?iai/eo ai?o(a ea?((?a (, ye
iane(aeie, ciaioaiiy iioi/ieo ia((i(a ?ic?iaee ii?(ae ?ice?eao, a oaeiae
o?anoaaiiy o?ainii?oieo eiioi(eaoe(e ciaoiaeyoueny o o(niiio
aca(iica(yceo c oaoi(/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?ooiiiai neeaaeo.

Iaea(eueoith (ioaineai(noth aeae(eaiiy iaaacia/ieo aac(a oa ieeo
a(aecia/athoueny aaeeeiaaioaaei( aaoinaiineeaee, ye( aenieoaoothoueny a
aeeaeii(e /anoei( ?iai/i( ciie. Ca(eueoaiiy a(aenoai( o?ainii?ooaaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoo iee(iiy aaoioeyo(a. O oeueiio ca(yceo cieaeaiiy
a(aenoai( ?ooo aaoinaiineeae(a i?ecaiaeeoue ia o(eueee aei ?(ceiai
nei?i/aiiy nia(aa?oino( ia?aaacaiiy a(?nueei( iane, aea e ni?ey(
nooo(aiio ciaioaiith ieeiaaciaiai caa?oaeiaiiy ea?((?ii( aoiinoa?e.
Ine(eueee aiae(oe/ii aaaeei aecia/eoe ci(io iieaciee(a ?iaioe
aaoinaiineeae(a caeaaeii a(ae ooai?aieo a(?ie/ioaoi(/ieo oiia, (o
cia/aiiy iiaeeeai onoaiiaeoe oeyoii o?iiiiao?aaeiiai iaaeyaeo. Oae,
iai?eeeaae, o ea?((?( IACE i?e ia((i( aeai?ee c 591 cia/aiiy ci(iia
i?iaeoeoeai(noue aaoinaiineeaea I1 (o) ( I2 (oei) iieno(oueny oaeeie
?(aiyiiyie iiiaeeiii( ?aa?an((

— 1,3 Ia + 396 Oa; R1 = 0,72 ;

— 3,2 Ia + 514 Oa; R2 = 0,83 , (8)

— a(aenoaiue ia?aaacaiiy a(?nueei( iane, ei;

Ia — aenioa i(aeeiio aaioaaeo, i;

Oa — /an ?iaioe aaoinaiineeaea i?ioyaii ci(ie, aiae;

R1, R2 — eiao(oe((ioe iiiaeeiii( ei?aeyoe((.

Na?aaeiy a(aenoaiue aaoiiia(eueieo ia?aaacaiue ei?aeth( c Ia oa oeeiiii
aaoioeyo(a i? (aeie( iae.) ( iieno(oueny ?(aiyiiyi

= 1,1 + 13 ( 10-3 Ia — 1,1 ( 10-3 i? ; i?e R = 0,7 .
(9)

sse aeaeii c oaae. 2 (ioaineai(noue aaioaaeiiioieo aaoinaiineeae(a
nooo(ai caeaaeeoue a(ae a(aenoai( ia?aaacaiue ( iaeneiaeueia aeey
aeiaaeeie 0,8…1 ei. I?e ca(eueoaii( a(aenoai( aiia ?(cei cieaeo(oueny
( aeey na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy ii ea?((?o 2,3 ei ciaioo(oueny i?eaeecii
oaea(/(. E?(i oiai, iecueea i?iaeoeoeai(noue aaoio?ainii?oo
iiynith(oueny ( iaeei /anii eiai aenieoaoaoe(( i?ioyaii ci(ie.

Aiaeia(/i( aeine(aee iieacothoue, ui ieoii( aeo?aoe iaeueiiai c
?ic?aooieo ia 1 oei/ci(io aeo (e) iieno(oueny ianooiiei ?(aiyiiyi

— 0,12 Ia , (10)

= 3,2;

= 0,42; RIa = 0,21.

I?iii?oe(eii aeo?aoai iaeeaa i?e ?on( aaoinaiineeae(a aeae(eythoueny
iaaacia/i( aace oa naaea. Ine(eueee i?e ca(eueoaii( a(aenoai(
o?ainii?ooaaiiy aeeeaee aac(a ciaioothoueny, i?(i?eoaoiei aeey
iie(ioaiiy oiia ?iaioe aaoio?ainii?oo ( ana ae oaee i?iaeoeoeai(noue,
yea ca nai(i c?inoii (1,5…2 ?ace) i?aaaeth( iaae (ioaineai(noth
caa?oaeiaiiy aoiinoa?e (4…6 %). Ia oe(e iniia( ?aeiiaiaeo(oueny
aenieoaooaaoe aaoinaiineeaee ia a(aenoai( 0,8…1,2 ei.

Oaaeeoey 2

Iieacieee ?iaioe aaoinaiineeae(a IAe-1200 ( A(eAC-7519 a ea?((?(

IACE ca ci(io

A(ae-

noaiue

ia?a-

aacaiue,

ei E(eue-

e(noue

cai(-

?(a Ia?aaacaii

a(?nueei( iane,

o A(ae?iaeaii

/ano, aiae (ioai-

neai(noue

aaioaaei-

iioieo,

o/aiae Aeae(eaiiy iaaacia/ieo

?a/iaei, ea

NI NO SO2 Naaea

0,8- 1

1,1-1,6

1,7-2,4

2,5-3,4

3,5-4,4

O na?aae-

iueiio

ii

ea?((-

?o 2,3

13

44

49

68

23

197 22515/1732

55858/1270

41378/844

52429/771

18078/786

190258/9658 50,5/3,9

200,2/4,6

182,7/3,7

276,9/4,1

90,8/3,9

801,1/4,1 445,8

279

226,5

189,3

199

237,5 564 948 756 94,5

4,7 7,9 6,3 0,8

550 936 744 92,4

4,6 7,8 6,2 0,77

540 912 732 91,2

4,5 7,6 6,1 0,76

528 876 696 87,6

4,4 7,3 5,8 0,73

504 840 671 84

4,2 7 5,6 0,7

— — — —

I?ei(oea: O /enaeueieeo iaaaaeai( aeai( o oe(eiio ii aaoiia?eo;

o ciaiaiieeo — ia iaeei aaoinaiineeae

Aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aoe(iiaeueieo oaoiieia(/ieo noai ?iaioe eiia(iiaaieo
aeae(a o?ainii?oo c aaoiiia(eueiith eaieith oa iia(eueiei
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiei onoaoeoaaiiyi aaoi?ii nenoaiaoeciaaii oi?ie o?an
?ice?eaieo ae?iaie, a i(ae eiai ea?(aieoeoaii noai?aii i?eioeeiiai iia(
eiino?oeoe(( aeieia(/ii aacia/iiai aacaeneaaaoi?iiai iia(eueiiai
onoaoeoaaiiy aeey ia?aaaioaaeaiiy a(?nueei( iane (c aaoinaiineeae(a o
cae(cie/i( aaaiie c aeaaioaaeaiiyi ii?iaee c aoiea?(a iiooaeieie
a(a?iaeeaeeueieeaie, aeeiiaii aiae(c aoaeoeaiino( iia(eueieo
aoiea?(a i?e cae(cie/iiio o?ainii?o( oa ae?iaa?ie — i?e eiiaae(?iiio,
noai?ai( iaoaiaoe/i( iiaeae( aeey aeai?o (o ia?aiao?(a.

Caeaaeii a(ae iaiao(aeii( i?iaeoeoeaiino( iia(euei( aoiea?e
eiiieaeoothoueny 2…3 a(a?iaeeaeeueieeaie ca ?ic?iaeaieie
eiino?oeoeaieie noaiaie. Oa?i(i iaaaioaaeaiiy iioya(a nei?i/o(oueny c
20…24 aei 8…12 oa. I?e oeueiio ca(eueoo(oueny (o iaa?oaeuei(noue.
I?iaeoeoeai(noue i?aoe( ia ea?((?iiio o?ainii?o( i(aeaeuo(oueny o
1,2…1,4 ?ace, aeo?aoe aeaeo?iaia?a(( cieaeothoueny a 2,3…2,5 ?ace, a
?ic?aooieo ia iaeio onoaiiaeo aea(eueiththoueny 1…2 iioya(a, 2
aeneaaaoi?e AEA-8(, iaeei aoeueaeica?. ?(/iee aeiiii(/iee aoaeo
noaiiaeoue a(ae 1,3 aei 3 iei a?i. Onoaiiaeai( ia?aiao?e ciie
iiaeeaeaiiy i(ae /an ?iaioe aaoinaiineeae(a ia iea/( a(aeeaoee 0,8…1,2
ei. I?e eiia(iaoe(( (o c cae(cie/iei o?ainii?oii a aenieoaoaoe((
aeinoaoiuei iaoe aeaa aoiea?e, c yeeo iaeei o ?iaio(, ae?oaee —
aeiiii(aeiee. A(aenoaiue i(ae ieie ii ai?eciioo onoaiiaee 1,2…1,8 ei.
E(euee(noue i(aeaioiaey(ieo ai?eciio(a — aei 4. Oa?i(i ia?aiino aoiea?a
ia iiaee ai?eciio 1…2 ?iee.

No?(/eia( eiiaae(?e ( ia o(eueee iaea(eueo aeieia(/iei aeaeii
o?ainii?oo, aea e aeicaieythoue ia?ai(uoaaoe a(?nueeo iano iaeei?iooith
a(aenoaiith. I?aoeththoue aiie o eiiieaen( c ae?iaa?eaie e?oiiiai
ae?iaeaiiy.

I(ae ea?(aieoeoaii aaoi?a ?ic?iaeai( iia( noaie eiia(iiaaiiai
aaoiiia(eueii-eiiaae(?iiai o?ainii?oo c iia(eueieie ae?iaa?eaie,
cae(eniaii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy (o o ae?iaieoeoai. Oae, c 1996 ?. ia ea?((?(
IACE aenieoaoo(oueny iai(aia?anoaia ae?iaa?ea o(?ie “E?oii” c ?(/iith
i?iaeoeoeai(noth 12 iei o. ?ic?aooiee na(ae/aoue, ui iia(euei(
ae?iaa?ee ne(ae anoaiiaethaaoe c e?ieii ii aenio( /a?ac 30…45 i, ii
ai?eciioo — /a?ac 1…1,25 ei. I?e oaii( iiaeeaeaiiy 5…7 i/?.
ia?ai(uaiiy ae?iaa?ie c iaeiiai iieiaeaiiy o ae?oaa i?iaiaeeoueny /a?ac
13…18 ?. C iaeiiai (o iieiaeaiiy ianeoaiao(oueny aei 6 ?iai/eo
ai?eciio(a caaaeueiith aenioith 90 i.

Onoaiiaeai( ia?niaeoeae iie(ioaiiy ?iaioe eiia(iiaaiiai
aaoiiia(eueii-eiiaae(?iiai o?ainii?oo oeyoii noai?aiiy e?ooiiioeeiai
no?(/eiai-a(ceiaiai eiiaae(?a (ENAE) iiai( eiino?oeoe((, yeee caeaoiee
iaaaioaaeoaaoenue iaae?iaeaiith ii?iaeith /a?ac eiaei( 15…30 i ii
aenio( oa i?aoeth( i(ae eooii aei 36…400. ?ici(uo(oueny ENAE o
aeeaeii(e cii( ea?((?a ( iiaea( a(?nueeo iano aei ?ai(o onoaiiaeaieo
noaoe(iia?ieo ae?iaa?ie ia aa?oi(o ai?eciioao.

?ICAe(E 6. ?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo oaoiieia(e
ooee(caoe(( ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae ia cae(ci?oaeieo ACE

?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe(y ooee(caoe(( ii?(ae ?ice?eao, yea iieyaa( a
caaacia/aii( i(i(iaeueii( nia(aa?oino( a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ia ACE oeyoii
noai?aiiy oaoiieia(e, ui caaacia/othoue cieaeaiiy ia((i(a aeeiaiiy
ii?(ae ?ice?eao a ea?((?( oa aeo(ae oaino(a i?e caaaa/aii( cae(cieo
?oae, aeei?enoaiiy ia?oaeii( i(ia?aeueii( ne?iaeie aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
ieaoeo(a oa noiooiuei( i?iaeoeoe((, noaeeie(a ( ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae aeey
aoae(aieoeoaa aeaia iaaaeoaaiiy oainoinoiaeu, ?ici(uaiiy a(aeoiae(a
ae?iaieoeoaa o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?( aeeaieeo ea?((?(a, eiina?aaoe((
iiaa?oi( oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu a(ae iee(iiy oa ?aeoeueoeaaoe(( ii?ooaieo
oa?eoi?(e.

Ca(aeii eiioeaioe(( ?ic?iaeai( oaoiieia(( ieoneoaaiiy
eiioeaio?aoo c

cai(iith aaioii(oiaeo aeei ia aeaoeii(oia( ea?((?ii( ae(iee oa aaiia.
Noai?aii onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aaiia o oeeeeiiieo
aeaea?aii(caoi?ao. ?ic?iaeaia e ai?iaaaeaeaia oaoiieia(y oa onoaoeoaaiiy
aeey iaai(oii-a(ae?aae(/ii( naia?aoe((, ui aeicaiey( ia o(eueee ciaioeoe
aeo(ae oaino(a, aea e i(aeaeueoe ye(noue eiioeaio?aoo ia 1,88 %.
Onoaiiaeaii ia?ae(e ii?(ae, ye( i?eaeaoi( aeey aeei?enoaiiy i?e
ae?iaieoeoa( ?(cii( i?iaeoeoe((.

Caneieo ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o ea?((?a ne(ae i?iaaaeeoe aeeeth/ii
ai(uoth/eie ii?iaeaie. Aenioa a(aeaaeueiiai y?ona iiaeiia caaacia/eoe
e?ooee ?acoeueoaoeaiee eoo oeino aioo?(oiueiai a(aeaaeo c i(i(iaeueii
iiaeeeaith a(aenoaiith ia?aaacaiiy ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae ea?((?iei
o?ainii?oii. Aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o aeinyaa(oueny
neeaaeoaaiiyi ii?(ae i(ae eooii, aeecueeei aei i?e?iaeiiai oeino. Oea
iieiaeaiiy aeio?eio(oueny i?e iiia?a/iiio oi?ioaaii( aioo?(oiueiai
a(aeaaeo c na?iiaeaeiei ia?ai(uaiiyi o?iioo a(aeaaeueieo ?ia(o iaao?ano
i?inoyaaiith a(ae?iaeaieo ?oaeieo iieeaae(a (aeea. ?en. 2). Aeey aaciaee
a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ia a(aeaaeao oa a ea?((?( iniiaa a(aeaaeueieo y?on(a
i?eaaioaaeo(oueny ianeiaie ii?(ae ia aenioo ia iaioa 2…3 i.

I?e oi?ioaaii( oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?( o aa?oi(e
eiai cii( ?ici(uo(oueny ia?oaeia i(ia?aeueia ne?iaeia: aaaeeicaaaa/oaai(
ieeni( oa iaeiiaeeoe(ei( cae(ceno( eaa?oeeoe, aio(aie(oe, i(aiao(oe,
oaeueeia( neaioe( oiui. Iine(aeiai(noue a(aeneiee a(aeaaeueieo caoiaeie
i?iaaaeeoueny c oi?ioaaiiyi i?yiie(i(eieo eiioaeo(a i(ae ?(ciioeiieie
ii?iaeaie (aeea. ?en. 2). Noaie a(aeaaeiooai?aiiy ia?aaeaa/athoue, i?e
iaiao(aeiino(, iiaoi?ia a(aeaaioaaeaiiy ia?oaeii( i(ia?aeueii( ne?iaeie
a(aeaaeueieie aeneaaaoi?aie.

Aia?oa aeey ea?((?(a Oe?a(ie oa e?a(i NIAe ?ic?iaeai( oaoiieia(/i( noaie
?ici(uaiiy ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?(. Iaa?oioiaai(
ia?aiao?e oa i?aai(caoe(y ?ia(o c eiina?aaoe(( iiaa?oi( oaoiiaaiieo
?iaeiaeu aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy iee(iiy. A(aeiia(aeii AeNO i?iiiio(oueny
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a yeino( a?oioioa(?ieo ii?(ae noaeeiee noiooii( ae(iee
iiooaei(noth 7…9 i, iaiineoe (o ia noeee a(aeaae(a neaeueieo ii?(ae (
iiaa?oith oainoinoiaeu oiaueiith 10…20 ni ye ca aeiiiiiaith
a(aeaaeueiio?ainii?oii( oaoi(ee, oae ( niaoe(aeueieie iaoaeueieeaie.
Iaaeyae ca naiica?inoaiiyi ( i?eaeeaethaai(noth ?ineei i?ioyaii 15 ?ie(a
i(aeoaa?aeaeo( a(aeiiaeaiiy ?iaeth/ino( iiaa?oi( oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu
oeyoii eoeueoeaaoe(( aaaaoi?(/ieo o?aa, oaeeo ye aeiiiee a(eee oa
e(ea?nueeee, ethoea?ia ania?oeao i(n/aiee, ?aea?an, eyaeaaiaoeue
?iaaoee, ethiei eoaiaee, einoa? aacinoee; aea?aa ( /aaa?iee(a: aa?eein,
aeiia?aae, a(yc, a?ooa, aa?aa, eeai, eio aocueeieenoee, iaeai(oa,
?iaei(y oiui. Niin(a iinaaeee ?yaeiaee c aeei?enoaiiyi oaoi(ee oa
a?o/io.

Ia i?eeeaae( IACE iieacaia aoaeoeai(noue a(aeiiaeaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n(a
ia ieiuao iiiaae 400 aa neeaeaiiyi a inooai( aiaeieieua /anoeie
ae?aiaaeieo aiae ia((iii 4,8 iei i3/?. Oea aoaea ni?eyoe noaa(e(caoe((
aeai?an(eii( ai?iiee oa iiia?aaeaeaoe i?iieeiaiith aei ia( no(/ieo aiae
c a(aeno(eieea E?aiai/ooeueeiai iaooiia?a?iaiiai caaiaeo.

?icaeyiooi 4 aa?(aioe aeeiaiiy oa ?ici(uaiiy ii?(ae ?ice?eao: 1 —
aaciaee, c oi?ioaaiiyi ciai(oi(o a(aeaae(a; 2 — ii?iaee c ciie
iiaeeaeaiiy neeaaeothoue o ciai(oi( a(aeaaee, c ?ooiii( ciie — o
aioo?(oi(; 3 — iniiaiee ia((i ii?(ae iai?aaey(oueny o aeaiae iaaaeoaaiiy
oainoinoiaeu ( ia ia?a?iaeo o uaa(iue, caeeoee — o ciai(oi( a(aeaaee; 4
— caeeoee iacaae(yieo ii?(ae ?ici(uothoue o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?( oa
oi?iothoue c ieo oaoiiaaii( ?iaeiaeua. Onoaiiaeaii, ui aeieia(/ii
i?((ioiaai( oaoiieia(( ?ic?iaee ea?((?ieo iie(a c ia?aaeneaaaoe((th
ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(? iiai(noth caiia(aathoue
ii?ooaiiy caiaeue ciai(oi(ie a(aeaaeaie (?en. 3, 4). I?e oeueiio
aeo?aoe ia o?ainii?oii-a(aeaaeuei( ?iaioe ii?(aiyii c aaciaith
oaoiieia((th (ciai(oi( a(aeaaee) ciaioothoueny ia 33,6…48,2
%.

Aeei?enoaiiy ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae aeey aoae(aieoeoaa aeaia iaaaeoaaiiy
oainoinoiaeu ( ia?a?iaee ia uaa(iue, a oaeiae canoinoaaiiy
no?(/eiai-a(ceiaeo eiiaae(?(a aeey o?ainii?ooaaiiy ii?(ae ?ice?eao c
oei/aniaeo a(aeaae(a o iino(ei( aeiaeaoeiai cieaeo( aeo?aoe ia
o?ainii?oii-a(aeaaeuei( ?iaioe ia 15…20 %.

AENIIAEE

O aeena?oaoe(ei(e ?iaio( iaea?aeai( iia( iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai(
?acoeueoaoe a aaeoc( aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei a(aee?eoei niiniaii (
ooee(caoe(( a(aeoiae(a ae?iaieoeoaa oeyoii onoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii(?iinoae
oe(eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o aeeaieeo ea?((?(a aeey
ia?aaeneaaaoe(( ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae, oaeineiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo aeaooiaeo
?ia(o, o?ainii?ooaaiiy a(?nueeeo ii?(ae ( noai?aiiy oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu
(c caoenoii (o iiaa?oi( a(ae iee(iiy, ui o noeoiiino( ae?(oothoue
aaaeeeao i?eeeaaeio i?iaeaio noai?aiiy aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo
oaoiieia(e a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ia cae(ci?oaeieo a(?ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueieo
eiia(iaoao Oe?a(ie.

Noai ieoaiiy. Ca ianooaaaie a(aee?eoi( ?ic?iaee cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu (
ae?iaieoeoaa iaoaeo?a(eii( ne?iaeie a(?ie/iaeaeiaoaia i(aeaaeocue (
iniiaiith, yea aecia/a( o oeae /an aoaeoeai(noue ( ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
aaaeei( i?iieneiaino( e?a(ie. I?e oeueiio ieoaiiy caoenoo caiaeueieo (
aiaeieo ?ano?n(a a(ae ii?ooaiiy a(?ie/eie ?iaioaie, caiia(aaiiy
(ioaineaiiio caa?oaeiaiith aoiinoa?e oa i?eeaaei( oa?eoi?(( ieeiaaciaeie
aeeeaeaie a(?ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueieo eiia(iao(a yaeythoue niaith neeaaeiao
/anoeio caaaeueiiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua i?e ooieoe(iioaaii( a(?ie/i-iaoaeeo?a(eiiai
eiiieaeno e?a(ie o oe(eiio. Iai?yiie, ui ?icaeyaea(oueny, iaaecae/aeii
aaaaoia?aiiee, ioiieth( i?iaeaie noi(aeieo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ye( aei oeueiai /ano a aaeoc( noai?aiiy aeieia(/ii /enoeo
ae?iaieoeoa ia ae?(oai(, ui iio?aao( iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy
iniiaieo oaoiieia(/ieo i?ioean(a a(?ie/eo ?ia(o, ooee(caoe(( a(aeoiae(a
ae?iaieoeoaa, neeaaeoaaiiy (o ia?aae(ciaaieo ia((i(a o ae?iaeaiiio
i?inoi?( aeeaieeo ea?((?(a ( ?aeoeueoeaaoe(( ii?ooaieo oa?eoi?(e.

Iaoiaee ?ica(ycaiiy iaoeiai( i?iaeaie aeeth/athoue aei naaa eiiieaen
oai?aoe/ieo ( aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine(aeaeaiue, ocaaaeueiaiiy a(aeiieo
no/anieo aeinyaiaiue iaoee oa oaoi(ee c i?iaeaie, ui ?icaeyaea(oueny. A
iaeano( oai?aoe/ieo aeine(aeaeaiue canoiniaai( iaoiaee oai?((
eiia(?iino(, aiae(oe/iee, a?aoi-aiae(oe/iee, a(?ie/i-aaiiao?e/iiai (
oaoi(ei-aeiiii(/iiai aiae(co, a oaeiae aeiiii(ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy. A iaeano( aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine(aeaeaiue aeei?enoai(
iaoiaee ea?oaaiiy noaiii ianeao a(?nueeeo ii?(ae, aa?ia(ieia(/ieo (
a(iaeieia(/ieo aeine(aeaeaiue, aoiiii-aani?aoe(eiiai aiae(co, iie(aiii(
oa i?iieneia( aei?iaoaaiiy. Ia?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ia IAII
i?iaiaeeeanue iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii( noaoenoeee, ei?aeyoe(eiiai oa
?aa?an(eiiai aiae(co.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy a(?ia(aeiino( iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao(a, aeniiae(a (
?aeiiaiaeaoe(e i(aeoaa?aeaeo(oueny canoinoaaiiyi iniiaieo iieiaeaiue
oai?(( oa i?aeoeee a(aee?eoeo a(?ie/eo ?ia(o; aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae, ye( aacothoueny ia ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iieiaeaiiyo oai?((
eiia(?iino( ( aeiiii(/ieo iieacieeao a(?ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa;
iiaiaeaeai(noth oai?(( ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao?(a aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo
oaoiieia(e a(aee?eoi( ?ic?iaee e?ooicaeyaath/eo ?iaeiaeu cae(cieo ?oae c
o(ce/ieie oyaeaiiyie i?i i?ioeane, ye( i?io(eathoue; caaeia(eueiith
ca(aei(noth ?acoeueoao(a oai?aoe/ieo ( iaoo?ieo aeine(aeaeaiue
(?ica(aei(noue ia ia?aaeuo( 8…12 %); iiceoeaieie ?acoeueoaoaie
i?iieneiai( ia?aa(?ee iiaeo niinia(a ?ic?iaee aeeaieeo ea?((?(a c
ia?aaeneaaaoe((th ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?; caaaa/aiiyi oa
ieoneoaaiiyi oiaa?ii( ?oaee, ?aeoeueoeaaoe((th ii?ooaieo caiaeue, a
oaeiae oe?ieei ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao(a aeine(aeaeaiue i?e
i?iaeooaaii( oa ia ae(th/eo cae(ci?oaeieo ea?((?ao.

Iaea(eueo aaaeeea( iaoeia( oa i?aeoe/i( ?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee (
?aeiiaiaeaoe(( iieyaathoue o oaeiio:

1. Iaa?oioiaaia eiioeaioe(y aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo oaoiieia(e
a(aee?eoi( ?ic?iaee cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu Oe?a(ie, ye( i?aaenoaaeai(
neiee(iaeueieie neeaaeeaie ( e?ooicaeyaath/eie ieanoaie. ?ic?iaeaii
nenoaiiee i(aeo(ae aei oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia(/ieo i?ioean(a ( ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia ACE. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?icaeyaeaoe ae?iaeaiee
i?ino(? aeeaieeo ea?((?(a ye oaoiiaaiiee ?ano?n, aeei?enoaiiy yeiai
aeicaieeoue (noioii nei?ioeoe a(aenoaiue o?ainii?ooaaiiy a(?nueei( iane
( ciaioeoe ii?ooaiiy caiaeue ciai(oi(ie a(aeaaeaie. Aeae(eaii 4
oaoiieia(/ieo iai?yiee aeey aeine(aeaeaiiy ii?yaeeo a(ae?iaee ea?((?ieo
iie(a c oe(eani?yiiaaiei oi?ioaaiiyi ?iai/i( ciie i?e ia?aaeneaaaoe((
ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae. ?ic?iaethaai( ( ia?niaeoeai( ea?((?i( iiey aeeaeiith
aei 500…800 i nenoaiaoeciaai( caeaaeii a(ae i?ioyaeiino( oa oi?ie
?oaeieo o(e o 6 oeiiaeo ea?((?(a.

2. ?ic?iaeaia aeiiii(ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo
oaoiieia(/ieo eiiieaen(a cae(ci?oaeieo ACE. Oeyoii a(?ie/i-aaiiao?e/iiai
aiae(co oeiiaeo ea?((?ieo iie(a onoaiiaeai( caeiiii(?iino( ci(ie
na?aaei(o eiao(oe((io(a ?ice?eao ( noia?ieo a(aeoiae(a ae?iaieoeoaa,
cia/aiiy yeeo aeey ea?((?(a 1, 3 ( 6 oei(a (c ca(eueoaiiyi i?ioyaeiino(
a(ae 1 aei 6 ei ciaioothoueny c 0,86 ( 3,6 i3/i3 aei 0,56 ( 2,9 i3/i3
a(aeiia(aeii. Aeey ea?((?(a 2, 4 ( 5 oei(a oe( eiao(oe((ioe
neeaaeathoue 1,45…1,69 ( 5,1…5,7 i3/i3. Onoaiiaeaii, ui ?ici(?e
ciie iiaeeaeaiiy ca iiaa?oiath ia ia?aaeuothoue 1,5…2,1 ei, ui
a(aeiia(aea( i?ioyaeiino( aaciaeo ea?((?(a 1 ( 2 oei(a ( aeicaiey(
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe oaoiieia(( (o caneiaiiy ai(uoth/eie ii?iaeaie (ioeo
i(aei?e(inoa aaciina?aaeiuei (c caiii( iiaa?oi(. Iieacaii, ui ea?((?e
3…6 oei(a i(aeeyaathoue a(ae?iaeaiith c ia?aaeneaaaoe((th ai(uoth/eo
ii?(ae iioi/iiai aeeiaiiy o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?. Oea aeicaiey( caiia(aoe
ii?ooaiith caiaeue ciai(oi(ie a(aeaaeaie ia 28,5…48,6 %.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaia oaoiieia(y iinoaiiaee ai?o(a ea?((?a o oei/aniai
ia?iai/a iieiaeaiiy cai(noue iino(eiiai, ui aeicaiey( ciaioeoe ia((i
?ice?eao o eiioo?ao ea?((?iiai iiey ia 20…30 % ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy
eiao(oe((ioa caiano no(eeino( oein(a onooi(a aei 1,1…1,2 cai(noue
1,3…1,5 i?e o?eaae(e aenieoaoaoe((. Onoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aiao?e
oi?ioaaiiy ciie iiaeeaeaiiy iioeeeie oa?aie ia?aaeaa/athoue a(ae?iaeaiiy
ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae i(ae eooii 15…190 o iai?yieo a(ae eaaea/iai aieo
iieeaaeo ( 29…300 — a(ae aeny/iai, i?e oe?ei( ?iai/eo ieiuaaeie
43…70 i, ?(/iiio cieaeaii( a(?ie/eo ?ia(o 8…12 i, aenio( oei/aniai
ia?iai/eo ai?o(a i(ae ?iai/eie ieiuaaeeaie 60…180 i. Aeieacaii, ui
i(i(iaeueia iioi/ia caieai(noe(noue ea?((?a caaacia/o(oueny
i?((iooaaiiyi ae(aaiiaeueieo ae(ieiaeo iaiaeae c( noi?iie eaaea/iai aieo
iieeaaeo i(ae eooii 24…280 aei eiai i?inoyaaiiy ( i(ae eooii 30…360
— c( noi?iie aeny/iai aieo. Ca ?aooiie oeueiai aeiaaeeia ?oaeiiai o?iioo
o ii?(aiyii( c iiia?a/ieie iaiaeyie ca(eueoo(oueny o 1,5…2 ?ace ( ia
ea?((?ao 4…5 oei(a aeeiaiiy 15…25 % ii?(ae ?ice?eao
ia?aiineoueny ia caeeth/iee

aoai a(ae?iaee ?iaeiaeua.

4. Oia?oa oeyoii iiaeaethaaiiy a(ae?iaee ea?((?ieo iie(a iieacaii, ui
i?e eoo( noeeo ?oaeieo ieano(a aei 15…180 ?ice?eai( ii?iaee iiai(noth
?ici(uothoueny o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?( ea?((?a aeeaeiith iiiaae 150 i.
Ca(eueoaiiy eooa noeeo aei 300 iio?aao( ia?ai(uoaaoe o ciai(oi( a(aeaaee
10…36 iei i3 ?ice?eao (a iniiaiiio iooeiai). I?e eooao noeeo 30…360
ai(uoth/( ii?iaee ia((iii 52…58 iei i3 oei/aniaiai neeaaeothoueny a
cii( iinoaaiiy c iiaeaeueoith ia?aaeneaaaoe((th o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aa?oith ieiuaaeeo iino(eiiai a(aeaaeo a(aeneiaoe ia
60…100 i aeua caiii( iiaa?oi(, ui aeicaieeoue ca(eueoeoe ia 20…30 %
i?eeiaeueio caeaoi(noue ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o. Onoaiiaeaii, ui aeeaeia
?ici(uaiiy oei/aniaiai a(aeaaeo o cii( iinoaaiiy neeaaea( 150…200 i,
eiai aeiaaeeia ci(ith(oueny a(ae 700 aei 1660 i aeey ea?((?(a 3, 4, 6
oei(a ( aeinyaa( 3500 i aeey ea?((?(a 5 oeio.

5. ?ic?iaeai( e aei?iaoaai( ia Iieoaanueeiio ACE iiaea?i(ciaai(
aiaeiai(uoth/( A? (c ciaioaiei ai(noii o?ioeeo oeio O-20, O-15i ( O-10i,
ui aeaei iiaeeea(noue ciaioeoe ia((i aeeeae(a oe(aeeeaeo aac(a ia
25…40 %, ieeo ia 20…25 %, cieceoe ia 13…25 % aeo?aoe ia
ae?iaieoeoai aeaooiaeo ?ia(o. Iaa?oioiaai( ?aeiiaiaeaoe(( aeey
?oeioaaiiy iaiaaiaeiaieo ii?(ae aa?oi(o ai?eciio(a o ae?oaiio oa
ianooiieo ?yaeao naa?aeeiaei (c canoinoaaiiyi a?aiii(oa 79/21 a ia((i(
20…25 % a(ae caaaeueii( e(eueeino(, a aeey iaaiaeiaieo ii?(ae
na?aaeiuei( ( aeua na?aaeiuei( i(oeiino( — aeaaoie(a a ia((i( 50…60 %.
Onoaiiaeai( niiniae ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii ae?iaeaiiy ii?(ae oeyoii
noai?aiiy ?aoe(iiaeueieo eiino?oeoe(e ( iaaeaaiiy naa?aeeiaeiieo
ca?yae(a c aeei?enoaiiyi A? c ?(ciith oaeaee(noth aeaoiiaoe((, ui
aeicaiey( ciaioeoe ia((i ieeiaaciaeo aeeeae(a ia 40…60 %.

6. I?iaaaeaia aeieiai-oaoiieia(/ia ioe(iea a(?ie/io?ainii?oieo ?ia(o ia
aeeaieeo ea?((?ao. Cai?iiiiiaai( oaoiieia(/i( noaie oi?ioaaiiy ciie
iiaeeaeaiiy c aeeaieei oaiaeii ia ?iai/( ai?eciioe ea?((?(a aeieia(/ii
aacia/ieo aeaeo?eo(eiaaiiai cae(cie/iiai o?ainii?oo ( no?(/eiaeo
eiiaae(?(a o eiiieaen( c iia(eueiei ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiei onoaoeoaaiiyi
iiaeo eiino?oeoe(e, ui aeicaieeoue nei?ioeoe i?ia(a aaoinaiineeae(a o
2…2,5 ?ace ( ciaioeoe aeeeae oe(aeeeaeo aac(a ia 21,6…24,6 %.

7. Onoaiiaeai( ?aoe(iiaeuei( ia?aiao?e ia?ai(uaiiy iia(eueiiai
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy a cii( iiaeeaeaiiy:

— a(aenoaiue i(ae aoiea?aie ia ?iai/iio ai?eciio( (c cae(cie/iei
o?ainii?oii 1,2…1,8 ei, (c eiiaae(?iei — i(ae ae?iaa?eaie 1…1,25 ei;

— aenioa i(ae noi(aeieie aoiea?aie 60 i, a ae?iaa?eaie — 90 i;

— /an ia?aianaiiy aoiea?(a ia iiaee ai?eciio 1…2 ?iee,
ae?iaa?ie —

13…18 ?ie(a;

— i(ae /an aenieoaoaoe(( e?ooiiioeeeo eiiaae(?(a ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueia
onoaoeoaaiiy o aeaeyae( iai?yiieo eioe(a onoaiiaeth(oueny c e?ieii ii
aenio( /a?ac 30 i.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia IACE ia?anoaii( ae?iaa?ee e?oiiiai ae?iaeaiiy aeaei
iiaeeea(noue cieceoe eai(oaeuei( aeo?aoe ia iiaea?i(caoe(th ea?((?iiai
o?ainii?oo ia 80,8 iei a?i, aeo?aoe aeeciaeeaa ia 2,1 oen.o oa
(ioaineai(noue ieeiaaciaeae(eaiiy o 3…4 ?ace.

8. Ia iniia( cai?iiiiiaaii( eiioeaioe(( ooee(caoe(( a(aeoiae(a
ae?iaieoeoaa ?ic?iaeai( oaoiieia(( oa onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aeei?enoaiiy
aaiia ( ae?(aiiiie?eoaiiai aaiiyeo i?e aeaioiaeaii( ieaoeo(a, niin(a
iaai(oii-a(ae?aae(/ii( naia?aoe(( i?e caaaa/aii( cae(cii( ?oaee, noaie
caaaeaiiy aeaia iaaaeoaaiiy oainoinoiaeu (c noaeeie(a ( ai(uoth/eo
ii?(ae, ui caaacia/o( cieaeaiiy niiaeeaaiiy i?ea(ciiai aaioii(oo ia 10
%, aeo(ae oaino(a ia 1,88 % ( aeei?enoaiiy 35…70 % ?ice?eaieo ii?(ae
iioi/iiai aeeiaiiy c ciie iiaeeaeaiiy.

9. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia(/ia noaia caneiee ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o aeeaieeo
ea?((?(a aeiyoeiai ai(uoth/eie ii?iaeaie, yea i?aaeaa/a( i?e
aaoiiia(eueiiio o?ainii?o( a(aeneieo a(aeaaeueieo y?on(a aenioith aei 60
i, cae(cie/iei — ia iiaio aeeaeio ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o; oe?eia
a(aeaaeueieo ieiuaaeie i?eeia(oueny o iaaeao 40 i; a(aeaaeueiee o?iio
ia?ai(uo(oueny iaao?ano i?inoe?aiith ?oaeieo ieano(a iinooiiai cieco
aeiai?e; i?e oeueiio aaciaea a(?ie/eo ?ia(o caaacia/o(oueny
i?eaaioaaeaiiyi iniiae a(aeaaeueieo y?on(a ii?iaeieie ianeiaie aenioith
ia iaioa 2…3 i. Noaia aeicaiey( noi?ioaaoe oaoiiaaiia ?iaeiaeua c
?ici(uaiiyi o ieaei(e /anoei( a(aeaaeo ionoeo ii?(ae, a o aa?oi(e —
ia?oaeii( i(ia?aeueii( ne?iaeie c ooai?aiiyi i?yiie(i(eieo eiioaeo(a
i(ae ?(ciioeiieie ii?iaeaie, ui caaacia/o( i(i(iaeuei( (o ao?aoe (
cani(/aiiy i(ae /an iiaoi?ii( a(ae?iaee.

10. Iaa?oioiaai( ia?aiao?e e i?aai(caoe(y ?ia(o c eiina?aaoe((
iiaa?oi(

oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu ( ?aeoeueoeaaoe(( ii?ooaieo oa?eoi?(e oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy a yeino( a?oioioa(?ieo ii?(ae noaeeie(a ea?((?iiai aeeiaiiy
iiooaei(noth 10…20 ni ( eoeueoeaaoe((th ia ieo aaaaoie(oi(o o?aa,
/aaa?iee(a oa aea?aa ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo aeae(a. ?ic?iaeaia noaia
a(ae?aae(/ii( ?aeoeueoeaaoe(( inooaieo aiaeiei, i?eeaaeeo aei ea?((?(a,
(c canoinoaaiiyi a(aeea/oaaieo i(aecaiieo aiae. Ia i?eeeaae( IACE
iieacaia aoaeoeai(noue a(aeoai?aiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n(a ia ieiuao iiiaae
400 aa oeyoii neeaeaiiy a ieo /anoeie ae?aiaaeieo aiae ia((iii 4,8 iei
i3/?. I?e oeueiio c ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa aiaeii( ?ineeiiino( o a(iian(
oo?eio(oueny aei 5…6 o ?(cieo nieae ( oe(aeeeaeo niieoe ai(aeo,
oaiieo, iaooe, ?ooo(, i(ae(, eiaaeueoo oa (i.

11. Onoaiiaeaii, ui aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaai( oaoiieia(( a(?ie/eo ?ia(o c
ia?aaeneaaaoe((th ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(? aeicaieythoue
iiai(noth aeeo/eoe ii?ooaiiy caiaeue ciai(oi(ie a(aeaaeaie, i?e oeueiio
aeo?aoe ia o?ainii?oii-a(aeaaeuei( ?iaioe cieaeothoueny ia 33,6…48,2
%. Aei i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeothoueny oae( oaoiieia(( c
aioo?(oi(i a(aeaaeiooai?aiiyi:

— ea?((?e 1 oeio caneiathoue a(aeoiaeaie ae?iaieoeoaa (ioeo i(aei?e(inoa
i(ney iiaii( a(ae?iaee;

— ea?((?e 2 oeio ia?aoiaeyoue ia aioo?(oi( a(aeaaeiooai?aiiy o
caeeth/iee ia?(iae a(ae?iaee, i(ney /iai caneiathoueny a(aeoiaeaie (c
ciai(oi(o aeaea?ae;

— ea?((?e 3 ( 6 oei(a c oaiiii iiaeeaeaiiy aei 10 i/?. ia?aoiaeyoue ia
aioo?(oi( a(aeaaeiooai?aiiy i?e iiaiiio oi?ioaaii( ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o
o cii( iiaeeaeaiiy. Aeeiyoee c ia( ?ice?ea ie?aii neeaaeo(oueny ia
caii(e iiaa?oi( o iaaeao ea?((?iiai iiey ( i?e iiaeaeueo(e a(ae?iaoe(
?iaeiaeua ia?aaeneaaiao(oueny ?acii c ii?iaeaie ?ice?eao iioi/iiai
aeeiaiiy o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?;

— ea?((?e 4 ( 5 oei(a c oaiiii iiaeeaeaiiy iiiaae 10 i/?. iio?aaothoue
oi?ioaaiiy ciie iinoaaiiy, aea ia i?ii(aeiiio ai?eciio( aeeaeiith
150…200 i iiaeeeai oei/aniai neeaaeoaaoe ai(uoth/( ii?iaee c
iiaeaeueoith ia?aaeneaaaoe((th (o o ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?.

12. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe(e c aeeiiaieo aeine(aeaeaiue aeaei ciiao
ia cae(ci?oaeieo ea?((?ao Oe?a(ie o ia?(iae 1993…1998 ??. cieceoe
ia((i aeeiaiiy ?ice?eao ia 14,5 iei i3, oeeanoe o ae?iaeaiiio
i?inoi?( 72,2 iei i3 ii?(ae, caiia(aoe ii?ooaiith ciai(oi(ie a(aeaaeaie
438 aa caiaeue. Ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy (ioaineaiino( aeeiaiiy ii?(ae
?ice?eao oa nei?i/aiiy a(aenoai( o?ainii?ooaaiiy aaoiiia(eueiei (
cae(cie/iei o?ainii?oii ciaioeeinue niiaeeaaiiy aeaeo?iaia?a(( ia 403,1
iei eAo(aiae; aeeciaeeaa ia 81,6 oen.o, cieceeenue aeeeaee ieeo ia 75,9
oen.o; oiene/ieo aac(a ia 11,3 oen.o. Noia?iee oaeoe/iee aeiiii(/iee
aoaeo a(ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe(e ia?aaeuea 8,7 iei
a?i. Iaeiaa o/anoue aaoi?a o ai?iaaaeaeaii( — 965,2 oen. a?i.

?aeiiaiaeaoe((, uiaei aeei?enoaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao(a

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe i?ieoee ai?iaaoe(th oa ai?iaaaeaeai( ia cae(ci?oaeieo
a(?ie/i-caaaa/oaaeueieo eiia(iaoao Oe?a(ie, ui i(aeoaa?aeaeaii
a(aeiia(aeieie aeieoiaioaie.

Iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao?(a: oe(eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy ciie
iiaeeaeaiiy ea?((?(a aeey ia?aaeneaaaoe(( ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiee
i?ino(?; oaoiieia(/ieo noai eiia(iiaaieo aeae(a o?ainii?oo c
ia?ai(uaiiyi aaoinaiineeae(a ia a(aenoaiue 0,8…1,2 ei; niinia(a
ooee(caoe(( ia?oaeii( i(ia?aeueii( ne?iaeie; eiina?aaoe(( iiaa?oi(
oaoiiaaiieo ?iaeiaeu ( ?aeoeueoeaaoe(( ii?ooaieo oa?eoi?(e —
?aeiiaiaeothoueny aei aeei?enoaiiy i?iaeoiei (inoeoooai “Oe?a(i?i?oaea”
( “E?eaaani?iaeo”.

Iaoiaee iaai(oii-a(ae?aae(/ii( naia?aoe(( i?e caaaa/aii( cae(cii( ?oaee
( aeaioiaeaiiy ieaoeo(a (c canoinoaaiiyi aaiiyeiaeo ca(ycoth/eo
?aeiiaiaeothoueny (inoeoooo “Iaoaiia?/i?iao”, eiino?oeoeai( ?(oaiiy
uiaei eiia(iiaaieo naa?aeeiaeiieo ca?yae(a aiaeiai(uoth/eo A? (
iia(eueiiai ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, a oaeiae noaie
neeaaeoaaiiy ai(uoth/eo ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?( aeeaieeo ea?((?(a
— a(?ie/i?oaeiei i(aei?e(inoaai Oe?a(ie.

I?iiiceoe(( c ?aoe(iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?n(a ( ioi?iie
aoiinoa?e a(ae caa?oaeiaiiy i?iieneiaeie aeeeaeaie iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai( a(aeiia(aeieie neoaeaaie I(i(noa?noaa aeieia(/ii( aaciaee oa
Aea?aeiaaeyaeioi?iii?aoe( Oe?a(ie i(ae /an ?ic?iaee ii?iaoeaii-oaoi(/ii(
aeieoiaioaoe(( c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey
a(?ie/eo i(aei?e(inoa.

Iniiai( iieiaeaiiy ( ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeeeaaeai( a ianooiieo
ioae(eaoe(yo:

1. Ane?uoea aeoaieeo ai?eciioia ea?uea?ia / A.TH.Ae?eaeaiei,
A.I.Ia?ouiaiei, A.E.Neiiiaiei, A.I.Aiaaeaiia, A.O.Aeoae/aiei // Iiae
?aae. A.TH.Ae?eaeaiei. — I.: Iaae?a, 1994. — 288 n.

2. I?iaeaiu yeieiaee ianniauo ac?uaia a ea?uea?ao / Y.E.Ao?aiia,
I.A.Aa?aniaae/, A.Ae.Iao?aiei, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei, A.E.Ai?enia // Iiae ?aae.
Y.E.Ao?aiiaa. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: N(/, 1996. — 179 n.

3. ?ano?nicaa?(aath/( oaoiieia(( aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei ia ea?((?ao
Oe?a(ie / A.A.Oaia?, A.TH.Ae?eaeaiei, N.C.Iie(uoe, A.O.Aecia,
I.I.Iaaeoi/aiei, I.I.Nie(e, A.I.Ia?oeiaiei, E.I.Oea/oe, A.Ae.Oo?ea(i. —
E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1998. — 92 n.

4. Aucia A.O., Ia?ouiaiei A.I., Noaieia A.I. AEaeaci?oaeiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue aeacaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yenia?oia. — E?eaie ?ia:
Ieia?ae, 1995. — 35 n.

5. Ia?ouiaiei A.I., Aaiueei I.I. Eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea
ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey ia Iieoaaneii AIEa // Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e
ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1996. — ? 1. — N. 19-24.

6. Ia?ouiaiei A.I., Yeean E.O. Ia?aue ae?iaeeueii-eiiaaea?iue eiiieaen
oe?iu “E?oii” ia Iieoaaneii AIEa // Ai?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1996. — ?
3. — N. 17-23.

7. Auai? oeia AA i?e ac?uaaiee ai?iuo ii?iae n o/aoii eo iaaiaeiaiiinoe
e io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu / Y.E.Ao?aiia, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei,
A.O.Aaaeaaia, E.A.Eioion, A.E.Aueia // Na.iao/.o?. EAOI IAI Oe?aeiu.
Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: EAOI IAI Oe?aeiu. — 1997. —
? 3. — N. 195-198.

8. Ia?oeiaiei A.I. Aenia?eiaioaeuei( aeine(aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino(
aiaeiiaiiaiaieo A? c ?(ciei ai(noii o?ioeeo // — A(aeiiino( AAI
Oe?a(ie. E?. ?(a: — 1997, ? 2. — N. 15-17.

9. Ia?oeiaiei A.I. Aoaeoeai( iaoiaee ieeiaaciiiaeaaethaaiiy i?e
aeaooiaeo ?iaioao ia Iieoaanueeiio ACE // — A(aeiiino( AAI Oe?a(ie. E?.
?(a: — 1997, — ? 2. — 27-28.

10. Ia?ouiaiei A.I., ?ueon A.A., ssoeaiei I.A. E aii?ino ia yeiiiiee
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia i?e yenieoaoaoeee ea?uea?iiai
aaoio?ainii?oa ia IAIEa // Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e ai?ii?oaeiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — 1997. — ? 3-4. — N. 53-54.

11. Ia?ouiaiei A.I. Iiuo no?ieoaeuenoaa e yenieoaoaoeee iiaeeueiiai
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai ae?iaeeueii-eiiaaea?iiai eiiieaena ia Iieoaaneii
AIEa // Na. iao/. o?. EAOI IAI Oe?aeiu. Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea. —
Aeiai?iiao-?iane: EAOI IAI Oe?aeiu. — 1997. — ? 2. — N. 21-24.

12. Ia?ouiaiei A.I. Iainiiaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia ai?iuo ?aaio
aeoaieeo ea?uea?ia i?e aioo?aiiai ioaaeiia?aciaaiee // Ai?iue
eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneee atheeaoaiue. — I.: IAAO. — 1998. — ? 3.
— N. 135-139.

13. Ia?ouiaiei A.I. I?iaeoeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea auaeaeaiiuo caiaeueiuo
ioaiaeia aeaeaci?oaeiuie ai?ii-iaiaaoeoaeueiuie eiiaeiaoaie // Ai?iue
eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneee atheeaoaiue. — I.: IAAO. 1998. — ? 5. — N.
100-104.

14. Ia?ouiaiei A.I. Enneaaeiaaiea eioaineaiinoe caa?yciaiey ii/a
oyaeaeuie iaoaeeaie a ai?iii?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiao // Na.iao/.o?. EOO.
?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. E.: Oaoi(ea. — 1998. — ? 62. — N.
94-98.

15. Ia?ouiaiei A. I. Iainiiaaiea ia?aiao?ia aioo?aiiaai ioaaei-

ia?aciaaiey i?e ioe?uoie ?ac?aaioea neieeeiaeueiuo aeaeaci?oaeiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee // Na.iao/.o?. EAOI IAI Oe?aeiu. Aaioaoie/aneay
iaoaieea. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: EAOI IAI Oe?aeiu. — 1998. — ? 4. — N.
42-48.

16. A.I.Ia?ouiaiei. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ae?iaeeueii-eiiaaea?iuo
eiiieaenia ia aeaeaci?oaeiuo ea?uea?ao// Na. iao/. o?. IAA Oe?aeiu. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu. — 1998. — ? 3. O. 4. — N. 11-15.

17. Ae?eaeaiei A.TH., Ia?ouiaiei A.I., ?ueon A.A. Iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa
ia?aiao?ia aaoiiiaeeueii-eiiaaea?iiai o?ainii?oa n ia?aaeaeaeiuie
ae?iaeeeaie // Na. iao/. o?. IAA Oe?aeiu. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA
Oe?aeiu . — 1998. — ? 3. O. 4. — N. 15-19.

18. Ioe?uoea ? 45. Caeiiiia?iinoue ?acoi?i/iaiey ae?iaeaiuo aeaeaciuo
?oae i?e aicaeaenoaee iaiaeii?iaeiiai eiioeueniiai iaaieoiiai iiey /
N.E.Auiaianaiei, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei, A.A.Ieaiye, A.E.Oeaeeianeee (Oe?aeia)
// Ioe?uoea ? A-055, 11.12.1996. 22 n.

19. Ioe?uoea ? 72. Caeiiiia?iinoue ?acaeaeaiey /anoeoe eciaeue/aiiie
aeaeaciie ?oaeu a oieii?iaiaeyueo aeeaeeinoyo / A.A.*oiaeia,
A.I.Ia?ouiaiei, A.O.Aaaeaaia, A.A.Eociaoeia, N.I.Oa?ai, A.A.Caiei,
A.E.Oeaeeianeee (Oe?aeia) // Ioe?uoea ? A-092, 14.03.1998. 56 n.

20. A.n. ? 722057 NNN?. IEE3 NI6A21/00 Niinia i?eaioiaeaiey
ai?y/aeuethuaainy aiaeiiaiieiaiiiai ac?ua/aoiai aauanoaa / A.I. Aiae,
I.TH.Aaa?ueyiiae/, A.E.Ieoaeiee, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei, E.I.Eiaooi (Oe?aeia). —
? 2629362/4N-23; — Cayaeaii 15.06.78. Aac i?aaa ioaeeeaoeee. 5 n.

21. A.n. ? 1786271 NNN?. 5A21N41/26 Ia?aa?oci/iue ioieo aeey nuio/eo
iaoa?eaeia e niinia no?ieoaeuenoaa aai a ea?uea?a / A.O.Aeoae/aiei,
A.E.Neiiiaiei, A.TH.Ae?eaeaiei, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei, A.A.Aiioeoe,
I.I.Aaiueei, E.A.*a?iieo? (NNN?). — ? 4890917/03; — Cayaeaii 17.12.90.
Iioae. 07.01.93. Athe. ? 1. 7 n.

22. Iaoaio ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ? 2041270. 6N22A1/243 Niinia
i?iecaiaenoaa ieaouoae / N.I.Iao?ooia, E.E.?iaaineee, A.I.Aei?ioaaa,
A.I.Ia?ouiaiei, I.I.A?eoei, A.I.Aaeion, TH.A.Ecthiia, I.E.Ieioieeia
(Oe?aeia). — ? 93036110/02; — Cayaeaii 12.07.93. Iioae.
09.08.95. Athe. ? 22. 3 n.

23. Iaoaio Oe?aeiu ? 6973. F25A15/00 Oeeeeiiiue aeaea?aiiecaoi? /
A.I.Aieei, I.A.Oaaei?ia, A.A.Iao?ianeee, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei, A.C.Eiaiaea,
A.I.Caaeiy (Oe?aeia). — ? 4906936/33; — Cayaeaii 24.08.91, Iioae.
10.01.95. Athe. ? 1. 9 n.

24. Iaoaio Oe?aeiu ? 2301. A03N1/00 Niinia iaaieoiiai iaiaauaiey
oiieiae?aieaiiuo aeaeaciuo ?oae / A.A.*oiaeia, I.I.Caaoauaaoueei,
A.A.Oa?eoiiiaa, A.A.Caiei, I.A.Oaeaoia, N.I.Oa?ai, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei,
A.O.Aaaeaaia (Oe?aeia). — ? 4757093; — Cayaeaii 09.11.89, Iioae.
2.10.96. Athe. ? 4-2. 2 n.

25. Iaoaio Oe?a(ie ? 8762. 4N22A1/24 Can(a iaea?aeaiiy oethniaaieo
ieaoeo(a c aenieie?aiienoeo cae(ci?oaeieo eiioeaio?ao(a /
Ae.A.Eiaaeueia, A.A.(o(iaiei, E.A.Oiao, A.I.Ia?oeiaiei, A.(.Eiaiaea,
A.A.(niieaoia, A.Ae.Anoao((a, A.I.Ianyieeia, N.(.Noe(iaiei,
I.Ae.Aaitheiaa, A.Ae.ssoeaiei (Oe?a(ia). — ? 4099799; — Cayaeaii
26.05.85, Iioae. 30.09.96. Athe. ? 3. 6 n.

26. Iaoaio Oe?a(ie ? 15027. N22A1/14 Niin(a ae?iaieoeoaa cae(ci?oaeieo
ieaoeo(a / A.I.Aieei, I.A.Iao?ianueeee, I.A.Oaaei?ia, A.I.Ia?oeiaiei,
A.(.Eiaiaea, I.I.A(eiiiaeei (Oe?a(ia). — ? 4839449; — Cayaeaii 14.06.90,
Iioae. 30.06.97. Athe. ? 3. 12 n.

27. Iaoaio Oe?a(ie ? 2723. 5N04A2/10 Niin(a ae?iaieoeoaa aaiia c
oiieiiaeaiiai aaiiyeo / A.I.Aieei, I.A.Iao?ianueeee, I.A.Oaaei?ia,
A.I.Ia?oeiaiei, A.(.Eiaiaea, I.I.A(eiiiaeei, A.I.Caaeiy (Oe?a(ia). — ?
4839196; — Cayaeaii 14.06.90, Iioae. 15.04.94. Athe. ? 5-1. 7 n.

28. Iaoaio Oe?a(ie ? 25395A. IIEF42Ae3/04, N42Ae1/08 Niin(a caaeaaiiy
naa?aeeiaeiiiai ca?yaeo aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei / A.I.Ia?oeiaiei, A.(.(o?aiia,
I.I.Aaiueei, N.I.?iaeae, I.(.Iy/eia, E.A.Eicae (Oe?a(ia). — ? 96062373;
— Cayae. 17.06.96. Iioae. 30.10.98. 6 n.

29. Ia?ouiaiei A.I., Aaiueei I.I., Ao?aiia Y.E. Eiiieaeniia ?aoaiea
i?iaeaiu ac?uaia ia ea?uea?ao // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeae.eiio. ii ac?uao. —
O?aioeey: — 1993. — N.48-56.

30. Ia?ouiaiei A.I., Aaiueei I.I., Ae?eaeaiei A.TH. Ia?niaeoeaiua
yeieiae/aneea oaoiieiaee e o?ainii?oiua noaiu i?e ?ac?aaioea aeoaieeo
ea?uea?ia ai?eciioia aeaeaci?oaeiuo ea?uea?ia // Iaoa?eaeu OVI Anai.
ai?i. eiia?anna. — Nioey: — 1994. — N. 326-335.

31. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua e i?iiuoeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey niiniaia iiaeaaeaiey
iuee e aacia i?e ac?uaa / Y.E.Ao?aiia, A.Ae. Iao?aiei, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei,
I.I.Aaiueei. Na?ey “Ie?iaay ai?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue”. — I.: Eioa?iei, —
1994. — ? 2. — N. 18-33.

32. ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea e io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu i?e ac?uaiuo ?aaioao
a ea?uea?a Iieoaaneiai AIEa / Y.E.Ao?aiia, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei, I.I.Aaiueei,
E.A.Eioion, E.A.Eicae // Oaceiu aeiee. iaaeae. eiio. ii yeieiaecaoeee
i?iiuoeaiiiai e n-o i?iecaiaenoaa I?eaeiai?iauey — Aeiai?iiao?iane:
Yeieia. oiiae I?eaeiai?iauey. — 1995. — N. 18.

33. Ia?ouiaiei A.I., Ao?aiia Y.E. Io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu i?e aeiau/a
aeaeaciuo ?oae ia Iieoaaneii AIEa // O?oaeu iaaeae.iao/. iaoiae. eiio.
“Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu”. — E?aiai/oa: — 1996. — N. 13-14.

34. Ae?eaeaiei A.TH., Ia?ouiaiei A.I., ?ueon A.A.
Yeieiai-oaoiieiae/aneia iainiiaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo noai ane?uoey
aeoaieeo ai?eciioia aeaeaci?oaeiuo ea?uea?ia // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeae. eiio.
I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey ianoi?iaeaeaiee aeoaieeie ea?uea?aie. — *aeyaeine:
?AI. 1996. — N. 143-144.

35. ?ac?aaioea e iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiay i?iaa?ea iiaea?iece?iaaiiuo
ai?y/aeuethueony AA / Y.E.Ao?aiia, A.Ae.Iao?aiei, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei,
E.A.Eioion // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeae. eiio. I?iaeaiu i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iiuoeaiiuo AA ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia e ooeeecaoeee aiai?eiania. —
Iaaeia?aae: II IOC. — 1977. — N.17-18.

36. Ia?ouiaiei A.I. ?ac?aaioea aaciooiaeiie oaoiieiaee ai?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ia Iieoaaneii AIEa // O?. 170 Ai?iiai eiia?anna. —
Aeaioeueei: — 1997. — N. 341-345.

37. Ia?ouiaiei A.I. ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea iaae? e
caieanaa?aaeaiea i?e yenieoaoaoeee aeaeaci?oaeiuo ea?uea?ia // —
Oaoiiiieen. — 1997. — ? 12. — N. 40-44.

38. Ia?ouiaiei A.I. Eiiieaeniia eniieueciaaiea iiiooii aeiauaaaiiai
ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey i?e aeiau/a e ieoneiaaiee aeaeaciie ?oaeu // Na.
iao/. o?. IAA Oe?aeiu. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu. — 1998. — ?
2. — N. 88-92.

39. Y.E.Ao?aiia, A.I.Ia?ouiaiei. Iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa iiaeaaeaiey
iueaaaciauo aua?inia i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ianniauo ac?uaia a ea?uea?ao //
Na. iao/.o?. IAA Oe?aeiu. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu. — 1998. —
? 2. — N. 299-306.

40. Ao?aiia Y.E., Ia?ouiaiei A.I., Eioion E.A. Io?aia ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu i?e ianniauo ac?uaao a ea?uea?ao // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeae. eiio.
Ninoiyiea e ?acaeoea ioe?uoie aeiau/e iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo a ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea. — Aa?ia: Iaoe. eiieoao ii IA?. — 1998. — N. 4-10.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a o ?iaioao, iioae(eiaaieo o ni(aaaoi?noa( iieyaa(
o ianooiiiio: [1,2,8,10,20,31,35] — (aeay, iinoaiiaea caaea/
aeine(aeaeaiue, aeeiiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie, noai?aiiy iaoiaeee
?ic?aooie(a, aiae(c ?acoeueoao(a; [7,16,19,21-28,30,32-34,36,40] —
(aeay, iinoaiiaea caaea/ aeine(aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaiiy /enaeueieo
?ic?aooie(a, aiae(c ?acoeueoao(a; [3,4,5] — aiae(c ?acoeueoao(a
aeine(aeaeaiue, iaa?oiooaaiiy aeniiae(a.

A I I O A Oe ( ss

Ia?oeiaiei A.I. Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ( ?ic?iaea aeieia(/ii i?((ioiaaieo
oaoiieia(e a(?ie/eo ?ia(o ia cae(ci?oaeieo eiia(iaoao. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe(y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi(/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe(aeuei(noth 05.15.03 — “A(aee?eoa ?ic?iaea ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo
eiiaeei”. — Iaoe(iiaeueia a(?ie/a aeaaeai(y Oe?a(ie, Aei(i?iiao?ianuee,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe(y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiieia(e
?ic?iaee cae(ci?oaeieo ?iaeiaeu Oe?a(ie c oe(eani?yiiaaiei oi?ioaaiiyi
ae?iaeaiiai i?inoi?o aeeaieeo ea?((?(a aeey ia?aaeneaaaoe(( ai(uoth/eo
ii?(ae. ?ic?iaeai( iia( iai?yiee ?icaeoeo ?iai/i( ciie ea?((?(a iioeeeie
oa?aie oa ae(aaiiaeueieie iaiaeyie. Onoaiiaeai( (o ia?aiao?e, ye(
caaacia/othoue aeeiaiiy i(i(iaeueieo ia((i(a ?ice?eaieo ii?(ae aac
cieaeaiiy ae?iaie/i( iiooaeiino( ii cae(ci(e ?oae(. ?ic?iaeai( niiniae
i(aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino( ?oeioaaiiy neaeueieo ii?(ae aeaooii oa
cieaeaiiyi (ioaineaiino( ieeiaaciaeo aeeeae(a o aoiinoa?o. ?ic?iaeai(
aeiiii(ei-iaoaiaoe/i( iiaeae( oi?ioaaiiy ciie iiaeeaeaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiia(iiaaieo aeae(a o?ainii?oo a eiiieaen( c iia(eueiei
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueiei onoaoeoaaiiyi. Oia?oa iaa?oioiaai( iaoiaee
?ic?aooieo ia?aiao?(a noi(niiai ?icoaooaaiiy ?(ciioeiieo ai(uoth/eo
ii?(ae o ae?iaeaiiio i?inoi?( aeeaieeo ea?((?(a. ?ic?iaeai( niiniae oa
iaoiaee ?aeoeueoeaaoe(( ii?ooaii( oa?eoi?((. Iniiai( ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe(
ciaeoee i?iieneiao ia?aa(?eo i?e i?iaeooaaii( oa ia a(?ie/eo
i(aei?e(inoaao oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia(e ( onoaoeoaaiiy
aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a(?ie/eo ?ia(o c i(i(iaeueiei oeneii ia aeiae(eey.

Eeth/ia( neiaa: ea?((?e, ciia iiaeeaeaiiy, caa?oaeiaiiy aeiae(eey,
ae?iaeaiee i?ino(?, ooee(caoe(y i?iieneiaeo a(aeoiae(a, oaoiiaaii(
?iaeiaeua, eiina?aaoe(y, ?aeoeueoeaaoe(y.

A I I I O A Oe E ss

Ia?ouiaiei A.I. Iao/iia iainiiaaiea e ?ac?aaioea yeieiae/anee
i?eaioe?iaaiiuo oaoiieiaee ai?iuo ?aaio ia aeaeaci?oaeiuo eiiaeiaoao . —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.03 — “Ioe?uoay ?ac?aaioea ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo”. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay ai?iay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu, Aeiai?iiao?iane,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oai?aoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey yeieiae/anee
i?eaioe?iaaiiuo oaoiieiaee ?ac?aaioee aeaeaci?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee
Oe?aeiu n oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui oi?ie?iaaieai au?aaioaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa
aeoaieeo ea?uea?ia aeey ia?ayeneaaaoeee aiauathueo ii?iae. Aeey
enneaaeiaaiey ia?aiao?ia io?aaioee ianoi?iaeaeaiee aeoaeiie aei
500…800 i ?ac?aaaouaaaiua e ia?niaeoeaiua ea?uea?iua iiey
nenoaiaoece?iaaiu a caaeneiinoe io i?ioyaeaiiinoe e oi?iu ?oaeiuo oae a
6 oeiiauo, ec eioi?uo 1, 3 e 6 — i?aaenoaaeaiu neieeeiaeueiuie
neeaaeeaie, a 2, 4 e 5 — e?ooicaeaaathueie ?oaeiuie ieanoaie.
Onoaiiaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey ciiu oaeoaee a caaeneiinoe io
iiuiinoe ?oaeiuo ieanoia, oaeia ioeinia ai?oia e aeoaeiu ?ac?aaioee, ia
iniiaaiee eioi?uo iainiiaaiu ia?aiao?u ?acaeoey ?aai/ae ciiu ea?uea?ia
iaeeiiiuie neiyie e aeeaaiiaeueiuie auaii/iuie iaiaeyie, iicaieythuea
?ac?aaaouaaoue ieieiaeueiua iauaiu ane?uoiuo ii?iae aac nieaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iiuiinoe ii aeaeaciie ?oaea. Yoi iicaieyao
?aeiiaiaeiaaoue oaoiieiaeth canuiee au?aaioaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa ea?uea?ia
1 e 2 oeiia aiauathueie ii?iaeaie ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee iaiin?aaenoaaiii
n caiiie iiaa?oiinoe, a 3…6 oeiia — n ia?ayeneaaaoeeae oaeeo ii?iae a
i?ioeanna io?aaioee ea?uea?iiai iiey.

?ac?aaioaiu e eniuoaiu iiaea?iece?iaaiiua aiaeiniaea?aeauea AA n
oiaiueoaiiui niaea?aeaieai o?ioeea. Onoaiiaeaiu niiniau oi?aaeaiey
i?ioeannii ae?iaeaiey ii?iae iooai nicaeaiey ?aoeeiiaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee
e caaieee neaaaeeiiuo ca?yaeia ec AA n ?acee/iie nei?inoueth
aeaoiiaoeee, /oi iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue iauai iueaaaciauo aua?inia ia
40…60 %, nieceoue ia 13…25 % cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai ac?uaiuo
?aaio. ?ac?aaioaiu yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee oi?ie?iaaiey ciiu
oaeoaee n eniieueciaaieai eiiaeie?iaaiiuo aeaeia o?ainii?oa n
aaoiiiaeeueiie aeinoaaeie ai?iie iannu ia ?annoiyiea 0,8…1,2 ei a
eiiieaena n iiaeeueiui ia?aa?oci/iui iai?oaeiaaieai. Onoaiiaeaiu
?aoeeiiaeueiua eiino?oeoeee e ia?aiao?u ia?aiauaiey ia?aa?oci/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey ia aeoaieeo ai?eciioao.

Ia iniiaa i?aaeeiaeaiiie eiioeaioeee ooeeecaoeee iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa
?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiaey e iai?oaeiaaiea aeey eniieueciaaiey ecaanoe e
iaeeieciaeue/aiiiai ecaanoiyea i?e ecaioiaeaiee ieaouoae, niiniaa
iaaieoii-aeae?aaee/aneie naia?aoeee i?e iaiaauaiee ?oaeu, noaiu
aicaaaeaiey aeaia iaaaeiaaiey oainoio?aieeeu ec noaeeieia e aiauathueo
ii?iae, /oi iaania/eaaao nieaeaiea iio?aaeaiey aaioiieoa ia 10 %,
auoiae oainoia ia 1,88 % e eniieueciaaiea 35…70 % ane?uoiuo ii?iae
oaeouae auaiee ec ciiu oaeoaee. Aia?aua iainiiaaiu iaoiaeu ?an/aoa
ia?aiao?ia niaianoiiai ?aciauaiey ?aciioeiiuo aiauathueo ii?iae a
au?aaioaiiii i?ino?ainoaa aeoaieeo ea?uea?ia n o/aoii eo
oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee e oicyenoaaiiie oeaiiinoe.
I?aaeeiaeaiu niiniau eiina?aaoeee oaoiiaaiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee io aua?ina
iuee iooai iaianaiey ia eo iiaa?oiinoue neiy noaeeieia iiuiinoueth
10…20 ni e eoeueoeaaoeee ia iai iao?aaiaaoaeueiuo ?anoaiee.
?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeu ?aeoeueoeaaoeee ia?ooaiiuo oa??eoi?ee.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou i?ioee i?iiuoeaiioth i?iaa?eo i?e
i?iaeoe?iaaiee e ia ai?iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo iooai aiaae?aiey iiauo
oaoiieiaee e iai?oaeiaaiey aeey auiieiaiey ai?iuo ?aaio n ieieiaeueiui
aicaeaenoaeai ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ea?uea?u, ciia oaeoaee, caa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, au?aaioaiiia i?ino?ainoai, ooeeecaoeey i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeia,
eiina?aaoeey, ?aeoeueoeaaoeey.

ABSTRACT

Martynenko V.P. Scientific foundation and development of ecologically
oriented mining technologies at iron ore enterprises.- Manuscript.

Thesis for scientific degree of doctor of technical science on
speciality 05.15.03 — “Opencast mining operations”.- National Mining
University of Ukraine. Dnepropetrovsk. 1999.

This thesis is devoted to the problems of theoretical foundation of
mining iron ore deposits in Ukraine aimed to form mined — out space in
deep guarries for re- excavation of enclosing rocks. New trends of
developing working zones in guarries with help of inclined seams and
diagonal pannels have been developed. Parameters which provide minimum
extraction of overburden rocks without decreasing productive efficiency
with regard to iron ore have been established. Methods of increasing
rock breaking efficiency by blasting and intensity reducing of dust and
gas emission into atmosphere have been developed. Economic —
mathematical models of forming recess zone by using combined types of
transportation with mobile relloading eguipment have been created. For
the first time parameter calculation methods of different type enclosing
rock total location in mined-out space of deep guarries are based.

Ways of conservation of technogen deposits and methods of damaged area
recultivation have been developed.

The main results of this thesis have been tested in mine design and at
mining enterprises applying new technologies and eguipment for mining
operations with minimum environmen- influence.

Key words: guarries, recess zone, environmental pollution, mined-out
space, industrial waste utilization, technogen deposit, conservation,
recultivation.

Ia?oeiaiei Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/

IAOEIAA IAA?OIOOAAIIss ( ?IC?IAEA AEIEIA(*II

I?((IOIAAIEO OAOIIEIA(E A(?IE*EO ?IA(O IA

CAE(CI?OAeIEO A(?IE*I-CAAAA*OAAEUeIEO EIIA(IAOAO

(Aaoi?aoa?ao)

A(aeiia(aeaeueiee ca aeione I.A. Caa?ianueeee

I(aeienaii aei ae?oeo 24.05.99. Caeaii aei iaai?o 25.05.99. Oi?iao
30o42/4.

Iai(? pollux. Niin(a ae?oeo — ?(cia?ao(y. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 2,0.

Iae.- aeae. a?e. 2,0. Cai. ? ___ . Oe?aae 120 i?ei.

Aaceiooiaii.

Aeae?oeiaaii o ?AE IAA Oe?a(ie. 320027, i. Aei(i?iiao?ianuee,

i?. E.Ia?ena, 19, Iaoe(iiaeueia a(?ie/a aeaaeai(y Oe?a(ie

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