21

OA?EIANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OIIAA?NEOAO

OAeE 575:167/168:316.42

*AOEI AAeaiOei Oaaei?iae/

IAOEA I AeA?AEAAA.

IAOIAeIEIAI*IEE AIAEIC NIOeIAEUeII? INOI?I? IAOEE

(AAIAOEEA I NAEAEOeIss A ?INI? OA OE?A?II CA ?AAessINUeEEO *ANIA)

09.00.09 — oieinioiy iaoee

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oieinionueeeo iaoe

Oa?eia — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?i aaiaoeee i oeeoieiai? Oa?eianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo Iiiinoa?noaa inaioe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiai eiinoeueoaioe:

aeieo. aiie. iaoe, i?io. Oaoaacia Aaea?ie Aaeiae/, caa eaoaae?ith
aaiaoeee i oeeoieiai? Oa?eianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo;

aeieo. oii. iaoe, i?io. Oaiii Ieaenie Ieeieaeiae/, ?inienueea aeaaeaiiy
iaoe (i.Iineaa)

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe:

aeieo.oieinio.iaoe, i?io. Noo?ia Aaeaioeia Oaioai?aia, caa. eaoaae?ith
oieinioi? Oa?eianueeiai aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo — Ia?iaeii? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai??;

aeieo.nieueaini. iaoe, noa?oee iaoe.niia?ia. Eicoaaiei Eaiiiae
Aaneeueoae/, caa. aiaeaeieii naeaeoei? oa ianiiieoeoaa eoeo?oaece
?inoeoooo ?ineeiieoeoaa ii. A.ss.TH?’?aa Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??
aa?a?ieo iaoe;

aeieo.oieinio.iaoe, i?io. O?oia Aieiaeeie? Aeaieeiae/, caa. eaoaae?ith
eia?ee Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? (i. Oa?e?a).

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa:

A/aia ?aaea ?inoeoooo ethaeeie ?in?enueei? aeaaeai?? iaoe, ?in?y, i.
Iineaa

Caoeno aeena?oaoei? aiaeaoaeaoueny 24 ethoiai 1999 ?. i 1515 aiae ia
caniaeaiii Niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.06 i?e Oa?eianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi (Oe?a?ia, 310077, Oa?eia, iaeaeai Naiaiaee,
4) a aoae. III-83

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Oeaio?aeueiie iaoeiaie
aiaeiioaoei Oa?eianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo (Oe?a?ia, Oa?eia,
310077, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee 19 n?/iy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.N.Noa?iaieo

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie aeineiaeaeaiiy.O aio/eciyiie inoi?i? ieoaiiy i?i
aca?iiaiaeiioaiiy iniae oa aeaaee, aea?aeaae oa iioeo nioeiaeueieo
iinoeoooia caaaeaee aoei iaeiei c eeth/iaeo. I?ioa iaeaieueoo
aeooaeueiinoue aiii iaaoei o XX noi?i//i, eiee aoei iinoaaeaii
a?aiaeiiciee aenia?eiaio c ?aoeiiiaeicaoei? onueiai aeeooy noniieuenoaa
oa iiaeii?yaeeoaaiith eiai oioaeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio eiio?ieth.Noiniaii
aei oieinionueei-iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue oeae aniaeo eiie?aoeco?oueny o
aea/aii? aca?iiaiaeiioaiue aeaaee i iaoee a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithci, a ua
oi/iioa — i?eioeeiia aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueei?
aeiyeueiinoi i eiai ianeiaeeia aeey ?icaeoeo naii? iaoee oa iia’ycaieo c
iath noa? nioeiaeueiiai aeeooy. Aeoiaeiith aeaeea?iaaiith iaoith
noai?aiiy ia ?o?iao ?inienueei? iiia?i? iiai? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
ea?oaaiiy iaoeith aoea iaiaoiaeiinoue ?aoeiiiaeicaoei? i iioeiicaoei?
aca?iica’yceia ooiaeaiaioaeueii? i i?eeeaaeii? iaoee i ae?iaieoeoaa, ui
aoee ni?yiiaaii aei nei?i/aiiy aeenoaioei? iiae iaoeiaei aiaee?eooyi i
eiai i?aeoe/iei aeei?enoaiiyi (oae caaia oaca i?i “ceeooy iaoee i
i?aeoeee”). A inoi?e/iiio ieaii aeieo?eia ia?aaoaeiae noniieuenoaa
caiaeii c iaia?aae noai?aiei ieaiii, ui aaco?oueny ia iaoeiaeo canaaeao,
aiaeiineoueny aei ?aoeiiiaeinoe/ii? noeiaioenonueei? oieinionueei?
o?aaeeoei?, o ?aieao yei? aeiee ia?eneci. I?ioa, ye iiaee?aneth?oueny o
oeueiio aeineiaeaeaiii, oaiaeaioeiy aei iiaeii?yaeeoaaiiy iaoee
iioa?anai ie?aieo nioeiaeueieo a?oi i iaiaoiaeiinoue o?aooaaiiy
?icii?iaeieo nioeiaeueieo i iieioe/ieo ianeiaeeia iaoeiaeo iiiaaoeie,
c?inoaiiy aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai, aeiiiii/iiai oa iioeo oi?i eiio?ieth ca
aeineiaeieoeueeith aeiyeueiinoth ? i/aaeaeieie ao?eaooaie no/anii?
oeeaieicaoei? i oieueee ii?iaeueia ooieoeiiioaaiiy iaoaiiciia
nioeiaeueiiai aiiainoaco iiaea caiiaiaoe iioaioeiaeueiei iaaaoeaiei
ianeiaeeai iieioe/iiai ao?o/aiiy a oeth noa?o aeeooy nioeioio. Caiaene —
oa cia/aiiy, yea iaaoaa? iaoiaeieiai/ia i nioeiaeueii-inoi?e/ia
aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?aaeoiia oa oaeoi?ia iiioeiaoei? i ?icai?oaiiy
aeano?oeoei? iaoee oa iia’ycaieo c iath nioeiaeueieo iinoeoooia, ui ?,
ye eaaei ia?aeiiaoeny, aeecueeeie aiaeiaaie i?ioeania aeieiai/ieo
eaoano?io, /anoi c ia iaio oyaeeeie ianeiaeeaie. I?e oaeie iinoaiiaoei
ieoaiiy i?ioeane, yei ni?e/eieee ca?iaeaeaiiy i eiie?aoii aoieaiiy
aeieo?eie eeaniai? iaoee, ao?a/athoue oiieaeueiinoue a inoi?i? (oi/a a —
yeinio), i?ioa noathoue aeineoue aeooaeueieie ia oieueee aeey e?a?i
iino?aaeyinueeiai i?inoi?o, aea i aeey caoiaeiiai aeineiaeieea oaeiae.

Nooiiiue aea/aiiy i?iaeaie. Aeieo?eia eeaniai? iaoee aeieeea o ?aieao
noeiaioenonueeiai ?aoeiiiaeinoe/iiai iiaeoiaeo aei i?aaiicaoei?
iieioe/ii? aeaaee, ui aa?a naie ii/aoie aiae eiioeaioei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee Ieaoiia. (I/aaeaeiee i ?aaeoeoeiii?nonueeee eiiiiiaio, ui
iaiaaaany caanoe iaoeo aei ?icaeoeo aeiiiiiee). Aeooaeicaoeiy eiai
i?eaaea, i?ioa, aei i?ioeeaaeiiai ?acoeueoaoo — ao?aoe iaoeith
nioeiaeueii? aaoiiiii? oa o?ainoi?iaoei? a aeaiaio aea?aeaaii? iaoeie.

Iaeei c ia?oeo (i iaeaieueo iineiaeiaieo) aa?iaioia eiioeaioei?
“i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee” ye iniaeeai? ?? oi?ie, ui i?ioeeaaeia ao?aeoaciie
ia oieueee ca iaoiaeieiai/ieie canaaeaie, aea i ca ciinoii, noi?ioethaaa
I.I.Aiaaeaiia a 1918 ?. Aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy eeaniai? i?e?iaee iaoee
(iaeiiai c aeaiaioia eoeueoo?e) aii aoa ciooaiee i?iiaii?oaaoe aeania ??
aeooiaiee, iioaeaeooaeueiee aiino.

Eioa?aoo?a c oeueiai ieoaiiy iaaecae/aeii /eneaiia, iaaioue yeui ia
a?aoe aei oaaae aaee/acii? eieueeinoi aiieiaaoe/ieo ?aaeyinueeeo
aeaea?ae 1929-1965 (ii/anoe i aieueo iiciio) ??. (Nai ii niai oeae
iaoa?iae ia? cia/io oeiiiinoue c iiaeyaeo nioeiaeueii? ineoieiai? i
inoi?i? no/anii? iioioai?/inoi. Aeieeaaeii aea/aia oaeoia?aoiy ?icaeoeo
aaiaoeee i naeaeoei? oa oiae “aiieiai/ieo aeeneonie” a N?N?
(A.Ashby, T.Dobzhansky, D.Joravsky, I.Aeoaiiii, AE.I?aea?ae?a, A.Aaaeia,
I. I?aea?ae?a, O.Aaooa?a A.Aaeneiiae/, A.Nieoa?, J.Janko, R.Levontin,
and R.Levins, J.Sekerak, Ae.Iii/aa, A.Oiieue, A.E?oiiia oa ii.). Oa
naia iiaeia neacaoe i?i aiaeic oieinionueeeo aniaeoia “Ii/o?iinueei?
aa?iaiieiai?” oa “i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee” acaaae? (L.Graham, D.Lecourt,
D.B.Paul, I.O?ieia, Ae.A?ey?a oa ii.).

O oeieiio iiaeia aecia/eoe aeaeieueea iiaeoiaeia aei i?iaeaie
aaiaceno “Ii/o?iinueei? aaiaoeee” ye iaeiiai c eiie?aoieo aoieaiue
aeieo?eie eeaniai? (“i?ieaoa?nueei?”, iieioeciaaii?) iaoee. Iiiiae
?aaeyinueeeie inoi?eeaie oa oieinioaie ca c?icoi?eeo i?e/ei
aeinoaoiueith iiioey?iinoth ei?enooaaeeny aeaa i?eiouaiiy. Ii-ia?oa,
iaeiei c aieiaieo oaeoi?ia oniioo eiie?aoieo aoieaiue aeieo?eie
“eeaniai? iaoee” (“Ii/o?iinueei? aaiaoeee”, cie?aia) aaaaeaeenue
iniaenoi ineoieiai/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee oa neiiaoi? ?aaeyinueeeo
aea?aeaaieo aeiy/ia c iaeiiai aieo i eiaea?ia eiioeieooth/eo oa?oioaaiue
ona?aaeeii iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa — c iioiai. Iaiaoiaei?noue
o?aooaaiiy oeueiai oaeoi?a ia iiaeeyaa? noiiiao, aea ia ae/a?io? oni??
i?iaeaie. Iioa oaca ioioeieii? ?aaeyinueei? inoi?iia?aoi? iia’yco?
ia?aiiao O.Eenaiea c “iaeaieiai/ieie iiieeeaie” oa “iinooieaie
iaeaaeicio” c aieo i?iaiaeieo ?aaeyinueeeo aaiaoeeia. *anoi iaeaeaa oei
oaa?aeaeaiiy cono?i/athoueny ?acii (aeea. iai?., ?iaioe I.Aeoaiiiia).
Oea i?eiouaiiy c iiceoei? no/aniiai ciaiiy ?aaeyinueei? inoi?i?
aeaeyaea? aaeueie ni?iuaiei oa iaei iaa?oioiaaiei.

Iiiiae aeayeeie caoiaeieie aeineiaeieeaie oaca i?i inioaaiiy “aeaio
iaoe” — “ao?aeoacii?” i “nioeiaeinoe/ii?”, iia’ycaii? aaciina?aaeiuei
c ia?enenonueeith oieinioi?th) aeineoue /anoi ni?eeiaeany aac
aoaeue-yeeo canoa?aaeaiue, a nai O.Eenaiei i eiio iiaeiaii “iaoeiai
eiaea?e” aaaaeaeeny naiaeiieie oaeueneoieaoi?aie (C.Zircle oa ii). C
iioiai aieo, ye iiiioea ua O.Aeia?aeainueeee (T.Dobzhansky), iiaeyaee
O.Eenaiea iiaoi?thaaee eaia?einonueei eiioeaioei? XIX noi?i//y, eiee
aiie iiaee aaaaeaoeny oe?eeii iaoeiaeie. Iaa?oioiaaio e?eoeeo oei??
eiioeaioei? aeathoue i iioe aeineiaeieee (N.Roll-Hansen, D.B.Paul,
D.Joravsky, L.Graham).

Iaiaieueo aeecueei aei iiceoeie oeueiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeoiaeeoue
eiioeaioeiy E.A?aoaia (L.Graham), yeee noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui nooiinoue
“i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee” neeaaea? “oetha oeaio?aeiciaaiiai iieioe/iiai
eiio?ieth c nenoaiith oieinioi?, yea iaea i?aoaicith ia
oiiaa?naeueiinoue”. O?aaa caaaeaoe oaeiae inoi?e/io eiioeaioeith c
oei?? i?iaeaie A.Nieoa?a, yeee iia’ycoaaa iioe?aiiy inaaaeiiaoee o
eieeoiueiio ?aaeyinueeiio Nithci o 30i-50i ?iee c iaoaiiciii i?eeiyooy
iieioe/ieo ?ioaiue, ui aacoaaany ia i?eioeeii oae caaiiai
“aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeaio?aeicio” oa aeeeth/aa inioaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo
oi/ie ci?o, e?ii ioioeieii i?eeiyoeo, oa iioe?aiith oeueiai iaoaiicio ia
iaoeia? aeeneoni? a i?e?iaeiciaa/eo iaoeao.

O oae?e iinoaiiaoei ieoaiiy, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, iaae?a? aaciina?aaei?
cia/aiiy aeey aiaeico iaeii?? ?c caaaeueieo i?iaeai no/anii? oieinioi?
iaoee — aecia/aiiy ?iei nioeiaeueiiai ioi/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy oa
aaiethoei? iaoeiaeo oai?ie.

O?aaeeoeieia aeey aiinaieiai? oyaeaiiy i?i iaoeiaa iiciaiiy ye
aca?iiaeith noa’?eoa, ui iicia?, c ia’?eoii iiciaiiy a no/aniie
nioeiieiai? iaoee i iinoiiceoeainonueeee oieinioi? aeiiiaith?oueny
o?ao?i aeaiaioii — nioeiaeueiei eiioaenoii. O iaiiiceoeainonueeie
oieinioi? ciino i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe aaaaeaany iacaeaaeiei aiae
nioeiaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua. Iinoiiceoeainonueea aiinoaiieiaiy aeoeaioo?
oaaao ia ca’yceo oai?aoe/ieo eiino?oeoeie iaoee c iieioe/ieie,
oieinionueeeie i eoeueoo?ieie oaeoi?aie. Caiaene — iiai?io aei iii?e ia
inoi?ith iaoee, i?ioean ?icaeoeo iaoeiaeo iaeae (T.Kuhn, M.Polanyi oa
ii.). I?eioeeiiaa iiaeeeainoue aeaia?eaoei? (C.Popper) iaoee i iaiaoee
oa caieueiaiiy iaoee aiae iaeaieiai/ieo eiiiiiaioia (P.Aron, D.Bell oa
ii.) c oaei? oi/ee ci?o ? iaaeinyaeiith. Eiino?othaaiiy eiie?aoieo
iaoeiaeo oai?ie ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaaiae’?iia aiae aeei?enoaiiy
ciaiioieo iioaeaeooaeueieo ?ano?nia (M.Mulkey).

I/aaeaeia iineeaiiy nioeiaeueiiai eiio?ieth iaae
iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueeith aeiyeueiinoth, yea aiaeaoaa?oueny oaia?, ua
aeoae/a caieueoo? cia/aiiy oeueiai oaeoi?o. Ca aeoieith I.Oae??aaaiaea
(P.C.Feyerabend), nioeiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiinoue iaoee iio?aao? ia
aiaeie?aiethaaoe ?? aiae iioeo oi?i iioaeaeooaeueiiai aoooy i
aei?aaaeiao? iieioe/ia ao?o/aiiy o ?icaeoie iaoee. O oeueiio
aiaeiioaiii aa?enoe/ii iiaeeeainoi eiioeaioei? “oiiaeicaoei? iaoee”
Ooa?iaa?anueei? a?oie (G.Bohme, W.van den Daele, W.Krohn) ? aeineoue
ia?niaeoeaii c oi/ee ci?o nenoaiiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioeania aaa??aoei?
aiiainoaoe/ii? aca?iiaei? nioeioio oa iaoee, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei a?ici?
iaoee ye nioeiaeueiiai iinoeoooa oa ?? o?ainoi?iaoei? o inaaaeiiaoeo.
Oei aieueo aaaeeeaei ? aeineiaeaeaiiy iaoaiiciia i e?eoa?i?a aiaeai?o,
yeeie ea?oaaeeny aeaaeii no?oeoo?e i?e ?ica’ycaii? ieoaiiy i?i
iiaeo?eieo iaeii?? c iaoeiaeo oeie, ui eiieo?othoue, a oiiaao, eiee
eiioeaaee i?aeoe/iee ianeiaeie ?aaeicaoei? oai?ie, ui aiaenoiththoueny
ieie, ua aeaeaei ia aecia/aiee. Iiae i?aeoe/iei ianeiaeeii ooo ia?oueny
ia aeoioei ia inyaiaiiy ia’?eoeaii? inoeie, a ?ica’ycaiiy eiie?aoieo
nioeiaeueieo i?iaeai (oa aeieeiaiiy iiaeo), yei aeineoue /anoi iathoue
iieioe/ia caaa?aeaiiy, — o eiioeaaiio aeiaaeeo naia oeae aniaeo
iaoiiaeth? nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ia ni?eeiyooy ianeiaeeia “iaoeiaiai
i?ia?ano”.

Aiaeiioeii, i?ioa, ui oeae aniaeo inoi?e/iiai aeinaiaeo N?N?, nei?io ca
ana, cinoaany iica iieai ci?o aieueoinoi oieinioia i nioeiieiaia iaoee
ia Caoiaei, yei, neiaeii ca N.Ooeiiiii (S.Toulmin), aeciath/e ?ieue
“nioeiaeueiiai eiioaenoo” ?icaeoeo iaoee, cayaeythoue, ui aiaeic
ianeiaeeia iieioe/iiai oeneo, aeac?ioaa?aoei? eiioiieaoeie ona?aaeaii
iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa i oiio iiaeiaieo ianoaaei i i?ioeania “caiaeii
c oaia?ioiiie aeenoeeieiia?ieie noaiaea?oaie ia iathoue iiyeiai
aiaeiioaiiy aei ?icaeoeo iaoeiaeo aeenoeeieii”. Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaia
aaiaceno, ?icaeoeo i ianeiaeeia eiioeieoo iiae iaoeith i aea?aeaaith a
?aaeyinueeiio Nithci oi?ioeth?oueny ye nenoaiia aeineiaeaeaiiy e?eciaiai
?icaeoeo iaoee a oiiaao aei?noeiai aiaeai?o eiioeaiooaeueieo iiioeyoeie.

Iaoa i caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. I?aaeiao i iaoo iiaeaii? ?iaioe iiaeia
noi?ioethaaoe ye aenaioeaiiy oa iaoiaeieiai/iee aiaeic iaoaiiciia
e?eciaiai ?icaeoeo ooiaeaiaioaeueii? i i?eeeaaeii? iaoee a
aaiethoe?eiiio eoeueoo?iiio oa nioeiaeueiiio eiioaenoi, cie?aia, a
oiiaao oioaeioa?iiai iieioe/iiai ?aaeeio. Oey iaoa eiie?aoeco?oueny ye
?ic?iaea iaoiaeieiai/ii? aace nenoaiiiai nioeiaeueii-inoi?e/iiai aiaeico
eiaaiethoei? i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe (ia i?eeeaaei aaiaoeee oa naeaeoei?),
?aaeyinueei? aeieo?eie aea?aeaaiiai ea?oaaiiy iaoeith, ia?enenonueei?
oieinioi?, oa iniaeeainoae iaioaeioaoo ye naiiai iaoeiaiai
niiaoiaa?enoaa, oae i iioeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. ?iaioa a oeieiio
iaeaaeeoue aei aaiethoeieii-ai?noaiieiai/iiai iai?yieo oieinioi? iaoee,
oa aaco?oueny, cie?aia, ia iiaeaei eiioeaiooaeueieo iiioeyoeie N.Ooeiiia
(S.Toulmin). Iioeie iaoeiaeie ia?aaeoiiaaie aeineiaeaeaiiy aoee
eiioeaioeiy nioeiieiai? ciaiiy I.Iaeeay (M.Mulkey) oa oai?iy
oiiae?caoei? iaoee. Ia’?eoii aea/aiiy neoaoaaea inoi?iy ?icaeoeo
oai?aoe/ii? aiieiai? (ia?o ca ana — aaiaoeee), aa?iiiii? oa naeaeoei? i
nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a ?ini?, N?N? oa Oe?a?ii.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/aei ae?ioaiiy oaeiai eiiieaeno
caaaeaiue:

1. Aeineiaeaeaiiy iaeaieiai/ieo i oieinionueeeo iniia aaiaceno i
aaiethoei? ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ea?oaaiiy iaoeith; aiaeic
iniiaieo oaiaeaioeie ?? ?icaeoeo ia ia?oeo oacao noaiiaeaiiy “aea?aeaae
aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa?iaoo”.

2. Inoi?iia?aoi/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy oaiaeaioeie i caeiiiii?iinoae ?icaeoeo
iaoeiaeo oeie, iia’ycaieo c ?ic?iaeith i?iaeai, ui iathoue aeiaaeueia
eiioeaiooaeueia aai/i i?eeeaaeia cia/aiiy a oiiaao ?aaeyinueei?
iieioe/ii? nenoaie. (Iaoa?iaeii aeey oaeiai aiaeico noaea inoi?iy aeaio
iaoeiaeo aaiaoe/ieo oe?e — Oa?eianueei? a Oe?a?ii i Na?aoianueei? a
?ini?. Iaa?oiooaaiiy oaeiai iiaeoiaeo iaaiaeeoueny ieae/a).

3. Ii?iaiyeueia inoi?iia?aoi/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae iaoaiiciia
aca?iiaei? ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoee, i?eeeaaeieo
iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueeeo ?ic?iaie i oaoiieiai? a ?ini? i Oe?a?ii a
?aaeyinueeee ia?iiae.

4. Neioac i ocaaaeueiaiiy oaeoia?aoi/ii? aace, ui io?eiaia a ?acoeueoaoi
ae?ioaiiy o?ueio iiia?aaeiio caaaeaiue, aeey iaoiaeieiai/iiai nenoaiiiai
aiaeico i?ioeania ?icaeoeo ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoee oa ianooiii?
o?ainoi?iaoei? oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioeie o oaoiieiai/ii ?ic?iaee, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny ia i?aeoeoei (aieea oeeeeo, yea iecoiaeeoue: aiieiaiy
— aa?iiiiiy i naeaeoeiy — nieuenueea ainiiaea?noai), i i?aaiicaoei?
nenoaie iaoeiaiai caaacia/aiiy i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai, yei aeieeathoue
(aieea oiai ae oeeeeo, yea i?ae?eia?oueny).

5. Noai?aiiy o ?aieao iiaeaei eiioeaiooaeueieo iiioeyoeie caaaeueii?
noaie aca?iiaei? iaoee c iioeie nioeiaeueieie iinoeoooaie, a ia?oo
/a?ao, — aea?aeaaith. (A aeaiiio eiioaenoi i?ioeane ?icaeoeo iaoee i
aiieiai/ii? iie?iaaiethoei? ?icaeyaeathoueny ye aiiieiai/ii). Aecia/aiiy
e?eoa?i?a aiaeai?o oa?oioaaiue iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa, yei io?eiothoue
aea?aeaaio oa iioo nioeiaeueio iiaeo?eieo, i iiaeeeaeo i?e/ei aeaaiaoeie
nioeiaeueiiai aiianoaco, ui iiaeooue ni?iaieoaaoe aeano?oeoeaii-a?icieii
i?ioeane a iaoeiaiio niiaoiaa?enoai.

Iaoiaeieiai/ia i oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iniaeeainoth
iaoiaeieiai/iiai iiaeoiaeo ? niieo/aiiy oieinionueei-iaoiaeieiai/iiai
aiaeico i?iaeaie i nenoaiiiai ii?iaiyeueii-inoi?e/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy
?icaeoeo aaiaoeee, aa?iiiii? oa naeaeoei? i nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a
?ini?, N?N? i Oe?a?ii a 1917-1953 ??., ia?o ca ana ia i?eeeaaei 2-o
iaoeiaeo aaiaoe/ieo oeie — Oa?eiaa i Na?aoiaa, yea iaaeaaaei eiio
oaeoia?aoi/io aaco. Oaia? cia/ii aieueoa aiaeiii i?i iia’ycaii c
“aiieiai/ieie aeeneoniyie” iiaei?, ui aiaeaoaaeeny a noiee/ieo oeaio?ao
— Iineai, Eaiiia?aaei, Ee?ai, ii?iaiyii c ia?eoa?i?th. I?ioa, naia ooo,
aea iniaenoa iiioeiaoeaa iinoeaaeo aeaaeieo no?oeoo? ca c?icoiieeie
i?e/eiaie aoea aieueo neooa, a ?o aeiyeueiinoue o cia/iie ii?i
caiaeeeanue aei aeeiiaiiy aeaciaie oeaio?o, nioeiaeueia nooiinoue oiai,
ui aiaeaoaaeiny, aeyaeyeany /anoi aieueo ?aeue?oii. C iioiai aieo, iaaii
caeiiiii?iinoi ?aaeicaoei? ia?enenonueei? eiioeaioei? aca?iiaei? iaoee
i noniieuenoaa ii-?iciiio i?iyaeyeeny, iniaeeai, a ii/aoeiaee ia?iiae
noaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaaiinoi a oeaio?i i a nithcieo
?anioaeieao, ui aieueo ?icei iiaee?anethaaei aeayei oaiaeaioei?, yei
iia’ycaii, cie?aia, c iiaeyaeaie ia aiaeiioaiiy
iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi i ae?iaieoeoaa a oiiaao
aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa?iaoo.

Aeeneo?neaiee aiaeic ia?aoai?aiiy iniiaieo oyaeaiue, iia’ycaieo c
?aoeaeni?th nooiinoi i nioeiaeueii? ?iei iaoee, aeiiiaith?oueny
?acoeueoaoaie canoinoaaiiy eaaioeoieaoeieieo iaoiaeee (iaoeiiao?i?,
aa?iaoeieii? noaoenoeee, eiioaio-aiaeico oa ii.), yei aoee iaoa?iaeii
aeey aeaiiai nenoaiiiai iaoiaeieiai/iiai aiaeico.

Aaoi? nie?a?oueny ye ia ?iaioe c oieinioii iaoee, iaoiaeieiai/ieo
i?iaeai aaiaoeee, inoi?i? iaoee oa nioeiaeueii? inoi?i? Oe?a?ie i ?ini?
ca inoaiii 100 ?ieia, oae i ia aaeeeee ianea cia?aieo iei a?oiaieo
aeieoiaioia, ui neeaaeathoue aiie?i/io aaco aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeineiaeaeaiiy. 1. Iaoiaeieiai/ii aniaeoe aaiacena
aeieo?eie “eeaniai? iaoee” i ianeiaeeia ?? caeieniaiiy ia i?aeoeoei a
oiiaao oioaeioa?iiai iieioe/iiai ?aaeeio aeineiaeaeothoueny a ?iaioi ca
aeiiiiiaith nenoaiiiai inoi?e/iiai aiaeico aieeao ia i?eeeaaeia
aeei?enoaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoee o oaoiieiai? i aeiiiiioei o?ueio
eiiieaenia aca?iiiia’ycaieo nioeiaeueieo oaeoi?ia — oieinioi? ia?enecio
(1), oeaio?aeiciaaiiai aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca ?icaeoeii iaoee (2) i a
cia/iie ii?i iaoiiaeaii? ieie o?ainoi?iaoei? iaioaeioaoo (3) ye naiiai
iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa, oae i iioeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, (oey
o?ainoi?iaoe?y aiaeiineoueny, ia?o ca ana, aei iioieiaicaoei? oyaeaiue
i?i nioeiaeueio ?ieue i iiaeeeainoi iaoee o ae?ioaiii i?aeoe/ieo caaea/,
niaoeeoieo iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi; aeeiaiieo ?icaeoeo
aeiiiii/iiai iioaioeiaeo i i?ioeania, ui i?ioieathoue ona?aaeeii iaoee).

2. Inoi?iy “Ii/o?iinueei? aa?iaiieiai?” ye iaeii?? c oi?i inaaaeiiaoee
?icaeyaea?oueny a ?iaioi anoia?a/ iioe?aiiio iiaeyaeo ia ye i?yiee
ianeiaeie i?iieeiaiiy o iaoeo noi?iiiio aei ia? iaeaieiai? oa iieioeee,
a ye aaeaioeaia ?aaeoeiy iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa ia ciaiioiie oene, ui
iaa o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iieioe/iee oa?aeoa?. Cie?aia, a oiiaao
?aaeyinueei? iieioe/ii? nenoaie i?ieioa?aoeiy inaaaeiiaoee
iiioeithaaeany iacaeaoiinoth aiaeiiaiaeieo iaoeiaeo aeenoeeie?i
aeeiioaaoe a priori ia?aaeueia o eiie?aoieo oiiaao “nioeiaeueia
caiiaeaiiy” ia?oieii-aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, ye ianeiaeie i?enoinoaaiiy
iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa aei ao?o/aiiy c aieo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?.
Iaioaeueiith ia?aaeoiiaith oeueiai i?ioeano aoei eaac?-iaai/ia
ni?eeiyooy iiaeeeainoae iaoee — o iayaiiio aeaei aeiioneaeany
caeaoiinoue aei ia?aoai?aiiy ia’?eoeaieo caeiiia i?e?iaee a aeoni
ae?iaie/eo iio?aa, ui aeieeathoue. AEi?noeee oeaio?aeiciaaiiee eiio?ieue
?icaeoeo iaoee aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith ?icaeyaea?oueny o aeena?oaoei? ye
aiiieiai/iee caiiii i?e?iaeiiai aeiai?o ia aaci aieueii? eiieo?aioei?
iaoeiaeo eiioeaioeie, oeie, iai?yieia ooo/iith naeaeoei?th caiaeii c
iieioe/ieie aai iaeaieiai/ieie e?eoa?iyie.

3. Ia iniiai cia?aieo o ?iaioi ca ?icieie aeaea?aeaie
noaoenoe/ii-aeiiiii/ieo aeaieo, yei aiaeiinyoueny aei ?icaeoeo ie?aieo
aaeocae nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?ini?, N?N? i Oe?a?ie, oa
iiaeaeueoiai aa?iaoeieii-noaoenoe/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy aia?oa noai?aia
iiaeaeue, yea iieno? caeaaeiinoue aaee/eie aaeiiiino?aoeaiiai oeneo ia
?icaeoie aaiaoeee i naeaeoei? aiae ia?aiao?ia, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai
aa?a?iiai naeoi?o aeiiiiiee, ui iiaea aooe a iaeaooiueiio aeei?enoaia
i?e ?ic?iaoei iaoiaeieiai/ieo i?iaeai nioeiaeueii? inoi?i? iaoee i
i?iaiico ?acoeueoaoia ?icaeoeo iaoeiaeo oeie o eiie?aoiiio nioeiaeueiiio
eiioaenoi.

4. Aecia/aii oiiae aeieeiaiiy i iineeaiiy iaoaiiciia c iiceoeaiei
cai?ioiii ca’yceii o nenoaii nioeiaeueiiai eiio?ieth iaoeiai?
aeiyeueiinoi oa i?iaiaeiciaaii ianeiaeee ooieoeiiioaaiiy oeueiai
iaoaiicio aeey ?icaeoeo iaoee a oiiaao oioaeioa?iiai iieioe/iiai
?aaeeio.

5. I?iaeaiiino?iaaii, ui a oiiaao aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie
iaea iinoea oaiaeaioeiy aei iiaeiiie aeiyeueiinoi iaoeiaeo onoaiia
ainiiaea?/eie oa ae?iaie/eie no?oeoo?aie. Oea aaei aei
aeai?ioaniiiae?caoei? iaoee oeyoii, cie?aia, caeo/aiiy aei
aeineiaeieoeueei? ?iaioe “oe?ieeo ian o?oaeyueo”, ye? iiaeiii aoee
caiiieoe (oi/a a, /anoeiai) aeiyeueiinoue niaoeiaeinoia-i?ioaniiiaeia.

6. Ni?inoiaaia i?eiouaiiy, ui aei?noeee aaeiiiino?aoeaiee eiio?ieue ca
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi aeciaieo i?ei?ioaoieie iaoeiai-aeineiaeieo ?ac?iaie
aeicaiey? cia/ii nei?ioeoe oa?iii ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaeaaaeeeaioeo
oaoiieiai/ieo iiiaaoeie i neiiiainoaaoe aieueo aenieo niaiaa?oinoue
iiaeeeaeo aaeiiiino?aoeaieo iiieeie.

7. I?iaeaiiino?iaaii iioaioeiaeueii aa?enoe/ii iiaeeeainoi canoinoaaiiy
iiiyoieiiai aia?aoo oai?i? aiieiai/ii? aaiethoei? i aeiaaeueii? aeieiai?
aeey aiaeico eiie?aoiiai nioeiaeueiiai eiioaenoo ?icaeoeo iaoee i
oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiaeo oeie.

Oai?aoe/ia i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy caiaeeoueny aei aea/aiiy
iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aca?iica’yceia ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoee,
i?eeeaaeieo aeineiaeaeaiue i aeiiiiiee (ia i?eeeaaei ?icaeoeo
oai?aoe/ii? aaiaoeee, naeaeoei? i nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a N?N? a
1917-1953 ??.) A ?iaioi aecia/aii aeayei caaaeueii iaoaiicie oa oiiae
aeieeiaiiy ii?ooaiue nioeiaeueiiai aiiainoaca, ui aaaeooue aei
iiieeeiaeo ?ioaiue i?e ioeiioei ia?niaeoeaiinoi iiaeaeueoi? iiaeo?eiee
ie?aieo iaoeiaeo iai?yieia i ?ic?iaoei iniiaieo i?eioeeiia aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai? iieioeee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoia ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeineiaeaeaiue a ae?iaieoeoai.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy aeeeaaeathoueny a eo?ni “Caaaeueia aaiaoeea”
oa niaoeeo?nao “Inoi?iy i iaoiaeieiaiy aaiaoeee”, “Eieueeinia
niaaeeiainoue oa aaoa?icin”, a oaeiae aeei?enoaii i?e iiaeaioiaoei
eaoaeiaia eieaeeiaeo aenoaaie o Oeaio?aeueiie iaoeiaie aiaeiioaoei ii.
A.A.Ei?ieaiei (Oa?eia).

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeineiaeaeaiiy
aeeiiaii i?e iiaeo?eioei iiaeia?iaeii? i?ia?aie “Research support
scheme” (I?aaa, *anueea ?anioaeiea) Iinoeoooa aiaee?eoiai noniieuenoaa
(Open Society Institute, Aoaeaiaoo, Oai?ueia), a?aio No 132/1997.

A aeineiaeaeaiii aeei?enoaii iaoa?iaee, cia?aii aaoi?ii a yeinoi
niia?iaioieea ?iai/i? a?oie Eiiini? AI N?N? (o oaia?ioiie /an — ?AI),
Aeaaeaii? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe i Aeaaeaii? iaaee/ieo iaoe
?ini? c aiaeico inoi?i? ?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueei? aaiaoeee i ianeiaeeia
eenaieiaueie.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe oaieoee o caio (1992 ?.) Eiiini? c
aiaeico inoi?i? ?icaeoeo aaiaoeee a N?N?, ui noai?aia ca niieueiei
?ioaiiyi I?aceaeie AI N?N? (o oaia?ioiie /an — ?AI), Aeaaeaii?
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe i Aeaaeaii? iaaee/ieo iaoe ?ini? aiae 5
o?aaiy 1988 ? .; a oaeiae aeeeaaeaii o aeiiiaiaeyo ia Onoaiia/ie ia?aaei
“Aiiaeaeo?e/ii aeanoeainoi eeioeiiiai yae?a i noai i?aaiicia (eenoiiaae
1989 ?., Oa?eia),V i VI c’?caeao Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa aaiaoeeia oa
naeaeoeiiia?ia (1986, Oiaiue, 1992, Iieoaaa),Iaoeiaie eiioa?aioei?,
i?enay/aiie 60-?i//th eaoaae?e aaiaoeee Oa?eianueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo
(aeiaoaiue 1994 ?., Oa?eia), THaieaeiie eiioa?aioei?, i?enay/aiie
80-?i//th canioaaiiy Niaa?nueei-Aeiiaoeueei? aiieiai/ii? noaioei?
Oa?eianueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo (aeiaoaiue 1994 ?., Aaeaea?e), Iaoeiaie
eiioa?aioei? “Aaiaoe/ii oa oeeoiaiioice/ii aniaeoe ianiaoeeoi/ii?
noieeinoi ?ineei, oaa?ei i ethaeeie” (o?aaaiue 1995 ?., Oa?eia).

Ioaeieaoei?. Iniiaii iaoa?iaee aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaiinoth aoee
iioaeieiaaii a iiiia?aoi? — A.O.*aoei. Iaoea e ainoaea?noai:
iaoiaeieiae/aneee aiaeec nioeeaeueiie enoi?ee iaoee (aaiaoeea e
naeaeoeey a ?innee e Oe?aeia a niaaoneee ia?eiae) Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa,
1997. 370 n. Oaae. 6. Eee. 16. Aeae. 525, a oaeiae o na?i? iaoeiaeo
ioaeieaoeie, cie?aia — 1 iiiia?aoi? (o niiaaaoi?noai) i 16 noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy ? ?oeiienii ianyaii 400 noi?. (oa
39 noi?iiie nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae) i neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 6
?icaeieia oa aeniiaeo.

CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

Caiaeii c aeeeaaeaiith iaoith aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?oa /anoeia aeena?oaoei?
i?enay/aia aaciina?aaeiuei oi?ioaaiith ?aaeyinueei? eiioeaioei?
aea?aeaaiiai ea?oaaiiy iaoeith i ?? ?aaeicaoei? a 1917-1940 ??. O
ia?oiio ?icaeiei (“Aeieo?eia “i?ieaoa?nueei? (eeaniai?) iaoee” ye
oaiiiai naioiai? eoeueoo?e oa ?icaeoie i?e?iaeiciaanoaa”) iaaiaeeoueny
inoi?eei-eiioeaiooaeueiee iaeyae ia?enenonueeeo oyaeaiue i?i nioeiaeueia
cia/aiiy iaoee, iioa?i?aoaoeith a ?aieao aeiaeaeoe/iiai oa inoi?e/iiai
iaoa?iaeicio oa?iiiia “i?aeoeea”, “oai?iy”, “ae?iaieoeoai”, “/enoa oa
i?eeeaaeia iaoea”; iinooiiao o?ainoi?iaoeith naino oeeo oa?iiiia o
i?aoeyo A.I.Eaiiia oa eiai iineiaeiaieeia, yea aoea iia’ycaia c
i?eaianaiiyi o ieo eiino?oeoeie i noa?aioeiia ianiai? naiaeiiinoi.

Iniiaii ieoaiiy, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny o ae?oaiio ?icaeiei (“Iaeaieiai/ii
i nioeiaeueii oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
ea?oaaiiy iaoeith”) ? oae?: I?aaiicaoeiy iaoee a “aea?aeaai aeeeoaoo?e
i?ieaoa?iaoo”; ii/aoeiai aoaie oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie
i?aaiicaoei? iaoee (1918-1920 ??.) oa aeueoa?iaoeaii iiaeeeainoi ??
?icaeoeo; c?iuoaaiiy iaoee i ia?oieii-aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo (?aoi?ia
aeui? oeiee oa aeaaeaii/ia ?aoi?ia); oeaio? i ia?eoa?iy (?aaeyinueea
aea?aeaaia iieioeea o aiaeiioaiii aei iaoee i ?? ?aaeicaoeiy a Oe?a?ii).
Oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo? ea?oaaiiy iaoeith a Oe?a?ii (ii/aoeiai aoaie
aca?iiaaeaioaoei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee i iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa), ye i
aeieeiaiiy iniiaieo aeaiaioia nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca
iaoeiaith aeiyeueiinoth i?ioiaeeei aeineoue aieinii i aei?noei.

Aeinoaoiuei neacaoe, iai?eeeaae, ui iacaaa?ii iiney anoaiiaeaiiy
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?ii ooo aoee ?icoi?iiaaii oiiaa?neoaoe, ia
aaci yeeo aei 1933 ?. inioaaee aaeocaai aeineiaeieoeueei i iaa/aeuei?
iinoeoooe, yei ianeoaiaoaaee ie?aii aaeoci ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.
(I/aaeaeiith iaoith oeueiai e?ieo aoea eieaiaeaoeiy aace iii?o
aieueoaaicaoei? c aieo iioaeiaaioei?, i?ioa a oeieiio aii ocaiaeaeoaaany
c oa?aeoa?iei aeey ioioeieiiai aa?iaioo ia?enecio iino?oiaioaeinonueeei
iiaeoiaeii aei aoaeue-yeeo nioeiaeueieo iinoeoooia ye caniao aeinyaiaiiy
iieioe/ii? iaoe).

I?e anio inoeieyoeiyo a iiaeoiaeao aei i?aaiicaoei? iaoee a e?a?ii aeai
iioeaaoeieii oaiaeaioei? aeyaeythoueny aeineoue /ioei ia i?ioyci ia?oeo
30-35 ?ieia — iineeaiiy aaeiiiino?aoeaiiai eiio?ieth i ciiuaiiy oeaio?o
aaae aeineiaeaeaiue, ui i?iaiaeeeeny, a aie “ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aaeiaiai
aeinaiaeo”, io?eiaiiai aaciina?aaeiuei a ae?iaie/eo oiiaao iniaaie, ui
ia iaee i?ioanieii? iiaeaioiaee. Iaeiei c iniiaieo iinooeaoia
?aaeyinueei? eiioeaioei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee aoea ia naiiipaaiicaoeiy
nioeiaeueii? nenoaie, a ?? oaeaieiai/ia eiinopothaaiiy ca cacaeaeaaiaeue
noai?aiei ieaiii.

I?ioean iaoeiaiai iiciaiiy caiaeii c ioioeieiei aa?iaioii ia?enenonueei?
aeieo?eie iaa aeaeieueea iniaeeainoae, ui aieeaaee ia ?acoeueoao
aiaeai?o i aeiiiiaoei? ie?aieo oa?oioaaiue. Iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueea
aeiyeueiinoue oyaeyeanue aiaeiaii eiiaae??iiai iiaeono?iaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa (a onyeiio ?aci — a iaeaaei, aei yeiai iaiaoiaeii aoei
i?yioaaoe). Aei oiai ae, iiaeeeainoi iaoee o ?ioaiii caaea/, yei
aeeeooaaeenue ioioeieiith iieioe/iith aeieo?eiith c ia?aaoaeiae nii/aoeo
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo no?oeoo?, a iioii eoeueoo?ii-ineoieiai/ieo
noa?aioeiia i iaaeieeoiuei? i?e?iaee ni?eeiaeenue ye iaiaiaaeaii.
Caiaene, aei ?a/i, aeoieaea ua iaeia iniaeeainoue ioioeieii? aa?ni?
ia?enecio — oaeoe/ia caia?a/aiiy “ii?iaeueii? iaoee” (a ?icoiiiii
O.Eoia).

?acoeueoaoe oeueiai aiaeico aeicaieythoue, ye iai caea?oueny, aieueo
oi/ii ioeiieoe ianeiaeee ?aaeicaoei? ?aaeyinueei? eiioeaioei?
aea?aeaaiiai ea?oaaiiy iaoeith aeey ?icaeoeo eiie?aoii-iaoeiaeo
iai?yieia aeineiaeaeaiue i iaoeiaeo oeie, a oaeiae c?icoi?oe eiaieo ?o
ioeiiee (c oi/ee ci?o iiaeeeai? i?aeoe/ii? aeaiaee), aiaeai?o i
aeiiiiaoei?,ui caeienithaaeenue oeaio?aeueieie eaieaie ?aaeyinueei?
nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ea?oaaiiy iaoeith. Oeie i?iaeaii i?enay/aii 3-e
(“Inoi?iy ?icaeoeo aeineiaeaeaiue c ooiaeaiaioaeueii? i i?eeeaaeii?
aaiaoeee a Oa?eiai”) i 4-e (“Na?aoianueea naeaeoeieii-aaiaoe/ia iaoeiaa
oeiea”) ?icaeiee, aea iaaiaeeoueny ii?iaiyeueiee inoi?e/iee aiaeic
?icaeoeo aeineiaeaeaiue o aaeoci aaiaoeee i naeaeoei? a aeaio aaeeeeo
iaoeiaeo oeaio?ao ?ini? i Oe?a?ie.

Aaea a inoaiii? ia?aae?aaiethoeieia aeanyoe?i//y na?aae aiieiaia
Oa?eianueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo niinoa?iaaany iiiioia iiaeianaiiy iioa?ano
aei niaaeeiainoi. Aeineiaee uiaei ia?aai?ee iaiaeaeaanueeeo
caeiiiii?iinoae noaaeeeny a Aioaii/iiio naaeo. Aoee iiaeaioiaeaii aeaa
eo?ne eaeoeie — “A/aiiy i?i niaaeeiainoue” (E.A.Aaiiea) i “Aaiethoeieia
oai?iy” (A.A.Oaei?a). Aeeeaaea/i oa niia?iaioieee aiieiai/ieo eaoaae?
iiaeo?eioaaee aeineoue aeaaai eiioaeoe c ia?oeie aio/eciyieie iaoeiaeie
aaiaoe/ieie oeieaie — I.E.Eieueoeiaa o Iineai i TH.I.Oieii/aiei a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?ci, ui caeienithaaeeny a iniiaiiio /a?ac caaiaeoth/iai
eaoaae?ith aioaiiee A.I.A?iieueaei. Eaoaae?a aaiaoeee aoea noai?aia ooo
o 1933 ?. i i/iethaaeanue aiaeiiei ?aaeyinueeei ai?onieiaii
A.E.?eaeeiaei, yeiio iaeaaeeoue aeineoue iiiioia ?ieue o ?ic?iaoei
i?iaeai iicao?iiiniiii? niaaeeiainoi, aaiaoeee noaoi oa ii. I?ioa, a
neeo inoi?e/ieo i?e/ei ia?aeaeueii c aeeeaaea/aie, ui i?eaoee c
Niioa?iiiey ?acii c A.E.?eaeeiaei, aeineiaeaeaiiy a aaeoci aaiaoeee
i?iaiaeeea ua iaeia aeineiaeieoeueea a?oia — iinoeaaa, ui i?aoethaaea o
oa?eianueeie oiei? Ciiaiieiai/iiai iinoeoooo, yeee caiaeii oaieoia aei
neeaaeo Oa?eianeiai oiiaa?neoaoo. I/iethaaa ?? A.O.A?iieueae.
Aacoiiaiith eiai caneoaith aoei oa, ui aii cia?aa aaeeeo a?oio caeiaieo
ciieiaia i aaiethoeiiiinoia, yei aaaaeaee naaa eiai o/iyie. Na?aae ieo —
I.I.Iieyeia, A.I.Eoeii, A.I.Oiainueeee oa ii. Oeieaai aiaecia/eoe, ui
oaeoi?ii, yeee ni?eya ?icai?oaiith aeineiaeaeaiue c aaiaoeee i
aaiethoeieii? oai?i? a Oa?eiai ia ia?oeo ii?ao aoea ?? iaeaieiai/ia
ni?yiiaaiinoue (ia ca ?aooiie iaoeiai? iaa?oioiaaiinoi i?iaeai, ui
?ic?iaeyeeny). Ieai ?iaioe naeoi?a aaiaoeee i aaiethoei? Oa?eianueei?
oiei? Ciiaiieiai/iiai iinoeoooo ca aeneiaethaaiiyi A.O.A?iieueaea,
aeeth/aa ?ic?iaeo “i?iaeaie ni?yiiaaiinoi i?ioeania i?aaii/ii?
aaiethoei?” c iiceoeie aeiaeaeoe/iiai iaoa?iaeicio.

Ae?oaei oeaio?ii aaiaoe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue o Oa?eiai noaea Oa?eianueea
naeaeoeieia noaioeiy, aea noi?ioaaeany aeineiaeieoeueea a?oia, yeo
i/iethaaa A.ss.TH?’?a; a a 1946 ?. aei ieo i?e?aeiaany Iinoeooo aaiaoeee
i naeaeoei? AI Oe?a?ie (aee?aeoi? — A.ss.TH?’?a), c yeei aeoeaii
niiai?aoethaaa ?yae aiaeiieo oa?eianueeio aaiaoeeia — I.I.Iieyeia,
E.I.Aeaeiia oa ii. Iinoeooo ieaioaaeinue ia?aoai?eoe o oeaio?,ui
caeienithaaa ?ic?iaeo i neioac aaeueie oe?ieiai eiea aeineiaeieoeueeeo
iai?yieia i aaeocae ooiaeaiaioaeueii? i i?eeeaaeii? i?i?ioaoei?. Iiney
iiaeie 1948-1949 ??. aiaeaoeinue i?ia?anoth/a cai?oaiiy aeineiaeaeaiue c
ooiaeaiaioaeueii? aaiaoeee i noiiaeieo aaeocae, oiaei ye i?eeeaaeii
aeineiaeieoeueei iai?yiee iino?aaeaeaee o iaioie ii?i. Ana oea i?eaaei
aei oiai, ui a aeiyeueiinoi iinoeoooo ?ineeiieoeoaa, naeaeoei? i
aaiaoeee, ui ooai?eany a 1956 ?. a ?acoeueoaoi ceeooy iinoeoooo aaiaoeee
i naeaeoeii i Oa?eianueeii naeaeoeieii? noaioeii; ?iaioe c
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?iaeai aaiaoeee (ye naiae/eoue aaea iacaa iinoeoooo)
aoee cai?iooi.

Na?aoianueea naeaeoeieii-aaiaoe/ia iaoeiaa oeiea aeieeea a 1911 ?., eiee
aoea noai?aia ia /iei c A.I.Noaaooii (iiney ?aaiethoei? — i?ioani?ii
A?ea?aaenueeiai oiiaa?neoaoa a THaineaai?) Na?aoianueea naeaeoeieia
aeineiaeieoeueea noaioeiy. A.I.Noaaooo, i/aaeaeii caaaeyee ia oieueee
aeaniiio ineoieiai/iiio /oooth i i?aaiicaoi?nueeei caeiaiinoyi, aea i
aeiiiiici naiai aaoueea, aaeaeiny c naiiai ii/aoeo noai?eoe ia noaioei?
yae?i eieaeoeao caeiaieo naeaeoeiiia?ia (A.I.A?iieueae, A.I.Iea/ae,
I.I.Oaoo?aeii oa ii.), yeei aiia ciaia’ycaia nai?ie ianooiieie oniioaie.

A 1914 ?. Iaoeiaa ?aaea Na?aoianueei? iaeanii? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
noaioei? iae?a? caaiaeoth/ei ?? naeaeoeieiei aiaeaeieii A.E.Iaenoa?a.
Ia?oa naioiaa a?eia i i?ecia aei a?ii? aiaeno?i/eee eiai ?aaeueiee anooi
ia iinaaeo aei 1918 ?. Oea i?ecia/aiiy naiae/eei i?i caaa?oaiiy ia?oiai
aoaio aeiyeueiinoi noaioei?. Iciaeiieaoenue c naeaoeieiei iaoa?iaeii, ui
aoa ia noaioei?,A.E.Iaenoa? ?icei ciiiea iai?yiie i iaoiaeeeo
oai?aoe/ieo iiooeia i i?aeoe/ii? naeaeoeieii? ?iaioe, aeoiaey/e c oiai,
ui iiaeeaiaeoaeueiee aiaeai? /enoieiiieiiai iaoa?iaeo nai ii niai ia
caeaoiee ae?ioeoe caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy canooinoieeeo, iioiieo aei
iaeaieueo iioe?aieo caoai?thaaiue, aenieia?iaeaeieo ni?oia ca?iiaeo
eoeueoo? c iie?auaieie oaoiieiai/ieie yeinoyie ca?ia. Ca eiai aeoieith,
“eeoa ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeaeaeiai? aia?eaeecaoei? iiaeeeai aeiei?iiii
ia?aoai?eoe oi?io, canoinoaaaoe ?? aei aaaaoia?aiieo aeiia caiea?iaa”. C
naiiai ii/aoeo oaaaa A.E.Iaenoa?a aoea cina?aaeaeaia ia aeeoi-ioaie/ieo
aia?eaeao, o aeineiaeaeaiiyo yeeo na?aoianueei aaiaoeee aeinyaee
iaeaieueo cia/iiai i?ia?ano oa c?iaeee iiiioiee aianie o ia?aaeoiiae
noai?aiiy iiai? ca?iiai? eoeueoo?e — o?ioieaea. Iacaaaeath/e ia
ciaiioiuei i?eeeaaeio i?i?ioaoeith aeineiaeaeaiue, ui i?iaiaeeeenue ia
noaioei?, iniiaiei iaoiaeieiai/iei i?eioeeiii, yeiai aeio?eioaaeenue
ooo, aoei iiaeaaaeaiiy iiae i?aeoe/io naeaeoeith aeeaieiai oai?aoe/iiai
ooiaeaiaioo. O oeueiio naini iiaeyaee A.E.Iaenoa?a niiaiaaeaee c
onoaiiaeaie I.I.Aaaieiaa, oi/a a iioeo ieoaiiyo, ye i a iniaenoiio
aeeooi, io noinoiee /anoi aoee aeineoue iai?oaeaieie.

O oeieiio, aeineiaeaeaiiy Na?aoianueei? iaoeiai? oeiee, a oiio /enei
“aaiiiia oai?iy” aia?eaeicaoei?, eiioeaioeiy icieyoeieii? iiieeainoi i
oaiioeii/ieo iiaeioieaoeie ciaoiaeeeenue ia iaaino?aeueiiio oeyoo
?icaeoeo aaiaoeee, ui, aei ?a/i, aoei i/aaeaeii aaea a oi ?iee. Iaeaeai
aaeoci aeineiaeaeaiue, a yeeo na?aoianueea oeiea caeiaea i?iaiaeii
iicioei? (oai?iy aiaeaeaeaii? aia?eaeicaoei? i iia?iaeiiaa)
aeaiiino?oaaee oaiaeaioeith aei noai?aiiy neioaoe/ii? eiioeaioei?.
AEi?noei ?ai?ani?, ui ia?ooeeeny ia na?aoianueeo iaoeiao oeieo
iai?eeiioei 30-o ?ieia, oaeoe/ii ia?a?aaee ii?iaeueiee ?icaeoie oeeo
iaoeiaeo eiioeaioeie.

Caaaeueiee iaeyae ?icaeoeo aaiaoeee i naeaeoei? a Oa?eiai i Na?aoiai
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee. Oei oeiee inioaaee a iinoao, ui aoee
aeineoue aaeeeeie oeaio?aie iioaeaeooaeueiiai aeeooy i aaeiiiino?aoeaii?
aeiyeueiinoi (Oa?eia aei 1934 ?. aoa aei oiai ae noieeoeath Oe?a?ie).
Noi?ioaaeeny aiie, ia a inoaiith /a?ao, aianeiaeie aeaaaeo eiioaeoia i
iieaiiee c aiaeiieie i?aaenoaaieeaie caei?aeiiii? i aio/eciyii? iaoee,
cie?aia, c TH.I.Oieii/aieii (ui noiya aiey aeoieia aeineiaeaeaiue a
iaeanoi iaiaeaeaanueei? aaiaoeee a Oa?eiai), I.I.Aaaieiaei (aeayeee /an
aii i?aoethaaa o Na?aoiai i iiaeo?eioaaa ca’ycee, ui neeaeeny, i iioii)
I.E.Eieueoeiaei, I.I.Aeoaiiiiei oa ii. A iaio aeiaaeeao iaeii?th c
oeieae, yei ia?aneiaeoaaee iaeaea? a?oie aoea oieinionueea ?ic?iaea ia
aaci aeiaeaeoe/iiai iaoa?iaeicio ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?iaeai aiieiai? i
aa?iiiii?. O oeieiio ?o aianie aei ?icaeoeo oai?i? aoa aeineoue aaeeeee,
ye i a i?eeeaaeii aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aei na?aaeeie 30-o ?ieia na?aoianueea
iaoeiaa oeiea caeiaea eiaee?oth/a noaiiaeua o aio/eciyiie i naioiaie
iaooei a ?ic?iaoei oai?i? aiaeaeaeaii? aia?eaeicaoei?, a Oa?eianueea —
aaiethoeieii? oai?i? i aaiaoeee oa inoi?i? aiieiai?. Ciiia iieieiiue
iaoeiaeo ?iaioieeia, ui aiaeaoeany iaeii/anii c ia?aaoaeiaith iaoeiai?
?iaioe caiaeii c i?eioeeiaie “ii/o?iinueei? aa?iaiieiai?”, aeia?a
iethno?o? ciiio noeeth ieneaiiy i iioeaia iaoeiai? aeiyeueiinoi, ui
iaoiiaeaii i?ioeanii iaeaieiaicaoei? iaoee. Aiaeiioeii oaeiae ua iaeio
ianoaaeio. I/iethaaia A.E.Iaenoa?ii na?aoianueea iaoeiaa oeiea ciaii
i?ae?anii aiaeiiaiaeaea i?eioeeio “?aeiinoi oai?i? i i?aeoeee”. Aieueo
oiai, yeui ?aaeicaoeiy aeineiaeieoeueei? i?ia?aie I.I.Aaaieiaa aoea
?ic?aoiaaia ia o?eaaeo inoi?e/io ia?niaeoeao, oi ?iaioe Na?aoianueei?
naeaeoeieii? noaioei? aaea i?eianee oiaei aaeeeo i?aeoe/io aeaiaeo.
sseui aeiaeaoe aei oeueiai aaee/acia cia/aiiy, yea A.E.Iaenoa?
aiaeaiaeea ia?enenonueeiio oieinionueei-iaeaieiai/iiio iaa?oiooaaiith
oai?aoe/iiai ooiaeaiaioo naeaeoei?, oi ?ica?ii a 1937-1938 ??. naia
na?aoianueei? oeiee aeaeyaeaa e?aniiiiaiei i?i?aooieii ?aaeyinueei?
eiioeaioei? aea?aeaaiiai ea?oaaiiy iaoeith, ui neeaeany ia aaci
ia?enecio. Oa naia aiaeiineoueny i aei aianea I.I.Iieyeiaa i A.I.Eoeiia
a ?icaeoie no/anii? oai?i? aaiethoei? i ?? iaoiaeieiai/ia inieneaiiy c
iiceoeie ia?enecio. O oeieiio, ia i?ioyci 30o-40o ?ieia
aaeiiiino?aoeaiee i iaeaieiai/iee oene ia iaeaeai iaoeiai oeiee
ia?iaiaioii iineethaaany, iniaeeai caaino?thth/enue o 1937-1938 i
1947-1949 ??. I?e oeueiio noa?a iaeneiaeueii? iioaineaiinoi aeoeaiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy iioe?thaaeanue c /anii o iai?yieo aiae
i?eeeaaeii? aaiaoeee i naeaeoei? aei ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aaiaoe/ieo
aeineiaeaeaiiue, iaeaieueo oinii iia’ycaieo c oieinionueeeie i?iaeaiaie
i?e?iaeiciaanoaa, oeae aniaeo oaeiae aeiaaaa iiaeaeueoiai aeieeaaeiiai
aiaeico, yeee, ye iai caea?oueny, aeicaieea aieueo oi/ii aecia/eoe
ianeiaeee ?aaeicaoei? ?aaeyinueei? eiioeaioei? aea?aeaaiiai ea?oaaiiy
iaoeith aeey ?icaeoeo eiie?aoii-iaoeiaeo iai?yieia aeineiaeaeaiue i
iaoeiaeo oe?e, a oaeiae c?icoiioe eiaieo ?o ioeiiee (c oi/ee ci?o
iiaeeeai? i?aeoe/ii? ei?enoi), aiaeai?o i aeiiiiaoei?, yea
caeienithaaeany oeaio?aeueieie eaieaie ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
ea?oaaiiy iaoeith.

Ioaea, ca’ycie iai?yieo iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue iaio oeie c
ooiaeaiaioaeueiith aiieiai/iith i?iaeaiaoeeith iaa iiiioia cia/aiiy aeey
?icaeoeo i ni?eeiyooy noniieuenoaii naioiaeyaeieo eiioeaioeie, ui
aiaeiineeeny aei iioaioeiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae iaoee a ?ioaiii i?iaeai,
ui iathoue eiie?aoia nioeiaeueia aai oaoiieiai/ia cia/aiiy, iaoaiiciia
aca?iiaei? iaoee oa iioeo nioeiaeueieo iinoeoooia, caeiiiii?iinoae
i?ioeana ?inoo iaoeiaiai ciaiiy, aa?ioieaoe?? iaoeiaeo aiiioac i oai?ie.
A naith /a?ao oei ieoaiiy iaaoee o 30o-50o ?iee a i/ao ?aaeyinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ea?iaieoeoaa iiiioia iieioe/ia cia/aiiy.C?icoiiea oiio
aeoeaia o/anoue i?aaenoaaieeia oeeo oeie a “iaoeiaeo aeeneoniyo” oeo
?ieia. Oiio inoi?iy aaiaoeee, a oeieiio, i iaoeiaeo oeie, ui aea/aeeny,
cie?aia, aoea, c iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, aeineoue ei?eniith aeey aea/aiiy
nioeiaeueieo yaeu i i?ioeania, iia’ycaieo c aca?iiaiaeiioaiiyie iaoee i
aea?aeaae o eieeoiueiio N?N?.

sse iieacaii a ?iaioi, ?acoeueoaoii oaeiai aiaeico noaei aeyaeaiiy
?yaeo caeiiiii?iinoae o?ainoi?iaoei? iaoee o inaaaeiiaoeo iiae aei?th
ciaiioiueiai oeneo (cie?aia — a oiiaao oioaeioa?iiai iieioe/iiai
?aaeeio), ui iathoue ca iaoith aeoieith caaaeueii-nioeiaeueia cia/aiiy
(aeiee. aeea. “Aeniiaie”).

O ae?oaie /anoeii ?iaioe aeineiaeaeo?oueny aieea “ii/o?iinueei?
aa?iaiieiai?” ia ?icaeoie nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa i eiai
ni?eeiyoeeainoue aei aeeaieeo oaoiieiai/ieo o?ainoi?iaoeie
(“oaoiieiai/ieo ?aaiethoeie”), aeeeeeaieo aei aeeooy ?icaeoeii
oai?aoe/ii? aaiaoeee. ?icaeie 5 i?enay/aii “i?aaiicaoei? aa?iiiii/ii?
iaoee a ?inienueeie iiia?i? i a N?N?”. (Iiae “?inienueeith iiia?i?th” o
?iaioi ?icoii?oueny oa?eoi?iy ?ini? ia?aae 1917 ?., c Oe?a?iith
aeeth/ii). Iniiaieie ieoaiiyie, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny ooo, ? iaeyae
aei?aaiethoeieiiai ia?iiaeo ?icaeoeo aa?iiiii/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue a N?N?
i a Oe?a?ii; ianeiaeee aa?a?iiai i iieioe/iiai ia?aai?ioo 1917-1928 ??.;
?icaeoie naeaeoei? i ianiiieoeoaa a ?ini? i Oe?a?ii a ia?iiae IAIo i
eieaeoeaicaoei? (iniaeeaa oaaaa aiaeaiaeeoueny iaei aeineiaeaeaiiio a
inoi?e/iie eioa?aoo?i ieoaiith i?i ?ieue ni?oiaiaeieo noaioeie
Oeoe?io?anoo a oi?ioaaiii no?oeoo?e aea?aeaaii? nenoaie
ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy i ianiiieoeoaa i Ia?oiai oiaa?enoaa aaiaoeeia i
naeaeoeiiia?ia Oe?a?ie — o aeieeiaiii eenaieiaueie); ia?aaoaeiaa nenoaie
naeaeoei? i ianiiieoeoaa a N?N? o 30-o? ?iee, ?? iaoiaeieiai/ia i
iaeaieiai/ia aaca i ?acoeueoaoe. Iai?eeiioei ?icaeyaea?oueny oiae
?aaeicaoei? a Oe?a?ii o 40-? ?iee i?ia?aie “Ia?iaeii? naeaeoei?” —
ni?iae caeo/aiiy aei io?eiaiiy iiaeo ni?oia “oe?ieeo ian o?oaeyueo”, ye?
iiaeii? aoee caiiieoe (oi/a a, /anoeiai) niaoeiaeinoia-i?ioaniiiaeia.

I?aaiicaoeiy caaaeueii-iaoeiiiaeueii? nenoaie aeineiaeii? ni?aae
i?aeoe/ii ii/aeanue a ?ini? a ae?oaie iieiaeii XIX noi?i//y, neiaeii ca
ia?iiaeii ?aoi?i 1860-o ?ieia. I?eioeeiiaith aiaeciaeith oeueiai
ia?iiaeo aoei oa, ui iniiaio ?ieue o aeieeiaiii iiaeo aa?iiiii/ieo
onoaiia i ?icaoaeiai naeaeoeieii-ianiiieoeueei? ?iaioe aeeiioaaee ie?aii
iiaei?e?ioei i noniieueii i?aaiicaoeii, ii?yae c i?aaiaie iinoeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy (cainoaaie), i?e a oeieiio iacia/iie ieoiiie aaci
aea?aeaaiiai oiiainoaaiiy.

O oeueiio aiaeiioaiii aeiiiioth/a iieiaeaiiy na?aae iioeo ?aaiiiia
?inienueei? iiia?i? caeiaea caaaeyee inoi?e/ii iaoiiaeaiei
?eiiiiiei-aaia?aoi/iei iniaeeainoyi ia?aae?aaiethoeieiiai ia?iiaeo
Oe?a?ia. Aeinoaoiuei cia/iee ?iaaiue ?icaeoeo naeaeoei? i ianiiieoeoaa
iiynithaaany, ?aiio ca ana, inioaaiiyi ooo iiooaeii?
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? iio?ano?oeoo?e, yea noi?ioaaeany iaaeiei
iiaei?e?inoa oeoe?iai? i?iieneiainoi.A neeo naiai eiaee?oth/iai
iieiaeaiiy oe? i?aei?e?inoaa neoaoaaee oeaio?aie e?enoaeicaoei?
aa?iiiii/ii? eoeueoo?e acaaaei. Ca aiaeiiniei aeeaaeii o
caaaeueiinaioiaee cai? oeoe?iaiai ao?yeo iaia?aaeiaeii Ia?oi? naioiai?
aieie (iiiaae 1/5) ?inienueea iiia?iy iinooiaeany eeoa Iiia//eii. C
ii/aoeii Ia?oi? naioiai? aieie caaaeueia aeai?aniy,ui ioiieea nieuenueea
ainiiaea?noai ?inienueei? iiia?i?, iaei aiaeaeeany ia ianiiieoeueeeo
iiae?e?inoaao Iiaaeaiii-Caoiaeiiai e?ath, aea niinoa?iaaany iaaioue
iaaiee ?ino ?o aeoeaiinoi,ui aoa iaoiiaeaiee onoiaiiyi iiiaoeueeeo
eiieo?aioia.

O oeieiio, neooaoeith a ?icaeoeo aeineiaeii? ni?aae a ?ini?
iaia?aaeiaeii Ia?oi? naioiai? aieie iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe caaaeueiei
ciiuaiiyi, ui iicia/eeiny a oeae /an, oeaio?o oyaeiiiy iaoeiaeo
aeineiaeaeaiue a aie oai?aoe/ii? i i?aeoe/ii? naeaeoei? i aiaeiiaiaeiei
cieaeaiiyi ieoiii? aaae aeania aa?iiiii/iiai aea/aiiy oiia inioaaiiy
eoeueoo?ieo ?ineei, ui, ia a inoaiith /a?ao, aoei ni?e/eiaii ciiiith
eii`thieoo?e ia naioiaiio ?eieo, aea c`yaeeenue a aeinoaoiie eieueeinoi
naeaeoeieii ni?oe c e?aueie yeinoyie ca?ia c NOA i Eaiaaee.

?aaiethoeieii iiaei? ethoiai-aeiaoiy 1917 ?. i?eaaee aei ei?iiieo ciii
nioeiaeueii? ianoaiiaee a e?aiii i, a oiio /enei, — aei cieuaiiy aaeeei?
i?eaaoii? aeaniinoi ia caieth.

I?e?iaeii, oea iaei ae?ae aiae/ooii ianeiaeee aeey ianiiieoeoaa
eieeoiuei? ?inienueei? iiia?i?, yea, ye noaa?aeaeoaaeiny iiiney,
i?aeoe/ii ca ?ie aeyaeeiny “caaaeaiei iaeaea iaiiaaoeue”. Aei oeueiai
aeiaeaeenue ethaenueei oa iaoa?iaeueii ao?aoe, iaoiiaeaii ?aaiethoei?th
oa A?iiaaeyinueeith aieiith. Inoaiiii oaeoi?ii, uo aecia/ea noai
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aeineiaeii? ni?aae a e?a?ii o ia?oi
iiney?aaiethoeieii ?iee aoee aiaeiioaiiy c iiaith aeaaeith oa ua
ianoaaieueia nenoaia ?icieo aeaiaioia aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo.

Caaaea?ii, ia?aooi, ua i?i iaeei c ianeiaeeia ?icaeoeo ?aaiethoei? i
?iciaaeo ?inienueei? iiia?i? — i?aaiicaoeiy aeineiaeii? ni?aae, a
oeieiio, i naeaeoei? i ianiiieoeoaa, cie?aia, a ?ini? oa Oe?a?ii iaaoea
i?eaeecii ia aeanyoue ?ieia iaaii? niaoeeoi/iinoi i i?ioiaeeea,
iacaaaeath/e ia ?yae caaaeueieo caeiiiii?iinoae, ia cianii iaeiioeiii.

Ia?aoiae a 1921 ?. aei “Iiai? aeiiiii/ii? iieioeee (IAI)” iaa aeey
iioaineaiinoi ianiiieoeueei? i naeaeoeieii? ?iaioe iiiioiee iiceoeaiee
aieea. O 1922 ?. ii/aeanue i?aaiicaoeiy Aea?aeianiiieoeoaa i,
ia?aeaeueii oeueiio, — eiiia?aoeaiiai ianiiieoeoaa, ui noaea o?aoueith
eaieith nenoaie ianiiieoeoaa. Iai?eeiioei ia?iiaea IAIo (1928 ?.) ieoiia
aaaa ?icieo eaoaai?ie eiiia?aoei? o ae?iaieoeoai ni?oiaiai ianiiiy
neeaaeaea o na?aaeiueiio aiey 52%, aeinyaath/e aeey aeayeeo eoeueoo?
65-85%.

Iaeiei c aaeaeeo iiaiaaaaeaiue ?aoi?ie aeineiaeii? ni?aae noaei
ooai?aiiy a 1924-1925 ??. iinoeoooo naeyi-aeineiaeieeia. Acaaaei, 20-i
?iee iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye /an aeineoue iioaineaiiai c?inoaiiy
eoeueoo?ii? aa?noae naeyinoaa (“ae?iaie/i-eoeueoo?iiai aeoeao naea” ca
ia?enenonueeith oa?iiiieiai?th), ui neoaoaaea iina?aaeieeii iiae
eoeueoo?ii-inaioieoeueeeie i iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie i iniiaiith ianith
nieuenueeeo ainiiaea?ia.

O 20-i ?iee a Oe?a?ii a neeo inoi?e/ieo i?e/ei neeaeenue aeai a cia/iie
ii?i iacaeaaei? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ianiiieoeoaa — iaeanii noaioei?
Ia?iaeiiai eiiina?iaoo caiaeueieo ni?aa (IECN) i ia?aaea noaioeie
Ni?oiaiaeii-ianiiieoeueeiai oi?aaeiiiy (NIO) Oeoe?io?anoo (Aieiaoeoe?o).
Ianiiieoeueea nenoaia Oeoe?io?anoo yaey? aacia?a/iee inoi?e/iee iioa?an,
ineieueee aiia c?iaeeanue niaaeei?ieoeath iaeia i niaoeiaeinoia
aaaaoi/enaeueieo eiia?oeieieo naeaeoeieii-ianiiieoeueeeo oi?i, ui
ciaoiaeeeenue ia oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?ie aei 1917 ?. C iioiai aieo
Oeoe?io?ano, aeiyeueiinoue yeiai iioe?thaaeanue ia oieueee ia Oe?a?io,
aea i ia ?inith, noaa ?aaeicaoei?th nioeiaeinoe/iiai iaeaaeo a ?icoiiiii
A.I.Eaiiia i I.A.Noaeiia — iaea?aeaaethaaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniinoi eiaeii?
noa?e aeiiiiiee o iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaie ii?i. Caiaeii i?eioeeie
i?aaiicaoei? ianiieoeueei? ?iaioe NIO iaee iiiioiee aieea ia i?iaeo
ia?aaoaeiae ianiiieoeoaa a N?N? o eiioei 30-o ?ieia, yeee noai?aii iiae
ea?iaieoeoaii O.Ae.Eenaiea.

I?ioa, naia a nenoaii Oeoe?io?anoo aeieeea oa/?y, yea /a?ac aeaeieueea
?ieia, ?ic?inoath/enue i aeath/e iaoanoace iiaeiaii ?aeiaie iooeeii,
io?eiaea iacao “ii/o?iinueei? aa?iaiieiai? i ?aaeyinueeiai oai?/iai
aea?aiiicio”. Aeiaiaeeoueny aeciaoe, ui ianoa/a niaoeiaeinoia, ui
aeieeea ia ii/aoeo 20-o ?ieia,oa iia’ycaia c oeei iaaeiiiy ?o
eaaeioieaoei?, ?iaii, ye iaaiein ia i?eeeaaeieo, nooi i?aaiaoe/ii
aniaeoe i?e iiniioiie iiaeaioiaoei eaae?ia iaeaooiio ianiiieeia i
naeaeoeiiia?ia ia i?ieoee aaniethoii aacneiaeii i ooai?eee aeineoue
ni?eyoeeaa iioaeaeooaeueia na?aaeiaeua aeey aeieeiaiiy i ia?ainii?
aeniaini? oeueiai iai?yieo “i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee”.

Iiioeiaoeao ooo i?iyaeee aeioneieee eo?nia naeaeoei? i ianiiieoeoaa
Oeoe?io?anoo, yei i?aaiicoaaee oae caaia “Oiaa?enoai naeaeoeiiia?ia
Oe?a?ie”, iaoith yeiai aoea aeaeea?iaaia ?ic?iaea iiaeo,
“iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo” iaoiaeia naeaeoei?. A 1922 ?. oiaa?enoai
io?eiaei Aieioea?eianueeo ni?oiaiaeio noaioeith (niaaeei?ieoeth
Aaeeeiiieiaaoeueei? noaioei? a?aoeii A?aieoeueei?). Naith caaea/o
ia?niiae oei?? noaioei? (caaiaeoth/ee — I.I.?eaaeue/aiei, iaeei c
niia?iaioieeia — O.Ae.Eenaiei) aa/ea o ai?ioueai c “ni?oiaiaeiei
oaoeoeciii”, ui aeiee a ?acoeueoaoi “inoi?e/iiai niaaeei?iiiai ca`yceo”
a aeiyeueiinoi naeaeoeieieo onoaiia i ie?aieo naeaeoeiiia?ia, yei
“caiice/oaaee iaeei a iaeiiai iaoiaeeeo i aeeoa?aioeththaaeenue a
oeueiio aiaeiioaiii eeoa a aeaoaeyo”. I/aaeaeii, iaeaeiee i aii??e/iee
ooiaeaiaio ianooiieo eenaieianueeeo oai?aoe/ieo eiinooeoeie (iaaeiai?a
aei oai?aoe/ii? iaoee, y?iaecaoeiy, aaaaoaoeaia aia?eaeecaoeiy) aoei
caeeaaeaii aaea ia Aieioea?eianueeie noaioei? o 1922-1923 ??., ui
aecia/eei a cia/iie ii?i ana eiai (O.Ae.Eenaiea) ianooiia aeeooy.

Ioaea, a iapiiae IAIo naeaeoeiy i ianiiieoeoai a ?ini? i Oepa?ii
picaeaaeeny aeineoue aiapaieii iaeii/anii c pinoii naeyinueei? eoeueoope
caiea?ianoaa. I?ioa ipeioeeiiaith iniaeeainoth 20-o ?ieia aoei oa, ui
aeaiaioe nenoaie ipaaiicaoei? aapiiiii?, naeaeoei? i ianiiieoeoaa a
e?a?ii, yei oipioaaeeny a oeae /an, (ye aea?aeaaii, oae i eiiiapaoeaii)
ciaoiaeeeenue iiae aeineoue aei?noeei eiiopieai iapoieii-aea?aeaaii?
iaoeie i picaeyaeaeenue ye iinopoiaioe ieaiiiipii? nioeiaeueii?
paeiinopoeoei?. Oey ianoaaeia ?iaeea io /ooeeaeie aei ciii iieioe/ii?
eii’thieoope, a neeo /iai iapaoiae aei caaaeueii? eieaeoeaicaoei? noaa
noapoiaith oi/eith aaeeeiianooaaieo paipaaiicaoeie i a oeie aaeoci.

Iaeii/anii c caaino?aiiyi nieuenueeiainiiaea?nei? e?ece, yea aoea
iaoiiaeaia ii/aoeii caaaeueii? eieaeoeaicaoei?, noaei ioeiithaaoeny ye
iacaaeiaieueia iieiaeaiiy c oi?iaaaeaeaiiyi iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie o oeth
aaeocue aeiiiiiee. Ianeiaeeii oeueiai noaei i?iaaaeaiiy o ia?aaeai?iii
?iee oae caaieo “aiieiai/ieo aeeneonie”, ?ai?aaiicaoeiy AANAIIE i
aaaaoie?aoia ciiia eiai ea?iaieoeoaa (1935-1940 ??.), ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iiai? nenoaie ni?oiaei?iaoaaiiy i ianiiieoeoaa ia iniiai i?iiiceoeie
eiiini? iiae ea?iaieoeoaii O.Ae.Eenaiea (1938 ?.).

I?ioa, aaea aei napaaeeie 40-o ?ieia aoei iaeiie/aii aeinoaoiuei
oaeoia, yei naiae/eee, ui oey nenoaia ipaaiicaoei? ianiiieoeoaa i
naeaeoei?, yea ca neiaaie O.Ae.Eenaiea iiaeiia caaacia/eoe picea
nei?i/aiiy no?ieia noai?aiiy iiaeo ni?oia i c?inoaiiy apiaeaeiinoi aaea
inioth/eo, ia ni?aaaeeea niiaeiaaiue, iieeaaeaieo ia ia?. Aiaaionueeie
aeniapeiaio, yeee aoa iinoaaeaiee iieeaaeaieo ia 1/6 /anoi nooiaeieo a
iaaei? ni?inooaaoe oaipith /enoeo eiiie i oaco i?i ianiaaeeiaee oapaeoap
aeaaiiaaooeo iciae aeaa iaeiicia/ii iaaaoeaii, noaoenoe/ii aeinoiaipii
pacoeueoaoe.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, iai?eeiioei 40-o ?ieia aoea c?iaeaia ua iaeia
ni?iaa ceeooy aai caeeaeaiiy (a oi/iioa — iiaeiiie) aeiyeueiinoi
iaoeiaeo onoaiia c ainiiaea?/eie oa ae?iaie/eie no?oeoo?aie (a oeueiio
aeiaaeeo eieainiaie i ?aaeainiaie). Ia?oueny ia oaaci oae caaia i?ia?aia
“ia?iaeii? naeaeoei?”, yea neii/eeany, ianeieueee aeicaieythoue noaeeoe
a?oiaii iaoa?iaee, ui ? a ?acii?yaeaeaiii aaoi?a, i?aeoe/ii iiaiei
i?iaaeii.

sse ae oi ia aoei, iaaaaeaii oaeoe aeicaieythoue iinoaaeoe iiae noiiia
inoeiiinoue oaa?aeaeaiue i?i oa, ui iaea? i i?iiiceoei? “ii/o?iinueei?
aa?iaiieiai?” i?ieoee (iica noaaei?th aeania oai?aoe/iiai i
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aiaeico) oe?ieo ae?iaie/o ia?aai?eo i aoee iath
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii. Ciiie, ui aoee iaoiiaeaii aieeaii “i?ieaoa?nei? iaoee”
ia i?aaiicaoeith ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoee (ia?o ca ana — aaiaoeee) i
aa?iiiii?, cie?aia — naeaeoei? i ianiiieoeoaa i?eaaee aei a?ici? iaoee,
ye nioeiaeueiiai iinoeoooo i c?oeioaaiith iaoiaeieiai/iiai i
eoeueoo?ii-ineoieiai/iiai ooiaeaiaioo, ia yeiio aacoaaeiny nieuenueea
ainiiaea?noai e?a?ie.

Iaaaaeaiee ooo oaeoia?aoi/iee iaoa?iae aeei?enoaii o oinoiio ?icaeiei
aeena?oaoei? (“Oaoiieiai/ii ?aaiethoei? a naeaeoei? i nieuenueea
ainiiaea?noai”), yeee i?enay/aii aaiaco aca?iiaiaeiioaiue iiae ie?aieie
aeaiaioaie a eaioethao “ooiaeaiaioaeueia iaoea (aaiaoeea)-oaoiieiaiy
(naeaeoeiy i aa?iiiiiy)- nieuenueea ainiiaea?noai”. Aiaeico oeueiai
ieoaiiy ia?aaeoaaa iaeyae iniiaieo oaiaeaioeie ?icaeoeo aa?a?ii?
aeiiiiiee ?inienueei? iiia?i?, N?N? i Oe?a?ie ii?iaiyeueii c — NOA i
e?a?iaie Caoiaeii? ?a?iie a 1860-1960 ??., ineieueee oea caea?oueny
iaiaoiaeiei aeey aecia/aiiy ye nooiaiy aoaeoeaiinoi ooieoeiiioaaiiy
?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie o ae?iaieoeoai,
oae i /ooeeainoi aei ieo nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa niiaaiaeiinii c
aeueoa?iaoeaieie iiaeaeyie nioeiaeueii? i?aaiicaoei? iaoee. Cia?aiee c
??cieo aeaea?ae noaoenoeei-aeiiiii/iee iaoa?iae, yeee aiaeiineoueny aei
oaeeo ia?aiao?ia ?icaeoeo nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ye aaeiaee cai?,
o?iaeaeiinoue iniiaieo nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? i o.i., aoei
iiaeaeaii ?aa?anieiiio aiaeico i ?aeiino?oeoei? c aeei?enoaiiyi AII. Oea
aeicaieeei i?iaanoe aaaaoioaeoi?ia aa?iaoeieii-noaoenoe/ia
aeineiaeaeaiiy i?ioeano eiaaiethoei? aa?a?iiai naeoi?a aeiiiiiee,
oai?aoe/ii? aaiaoeee i ciii aea?aeaaii? iieioeee ii aiaeiioaiith aei
?icieo oa?oioaaiue iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa a N?N?. sse ii?a ao?o/aiiy
aea?aeaae a ai?ioueao “ii/o?iioeia” i “aaeniaiinoia-ii?aaiinoia” a
?iaioi aoei i?eeiyoi iiaeaen aaeiiiino?aoeaiiai oeneo, ui aei?iaith?
?icieoei iiae eieueeinoth ?ioaiue, yei i?eeiaeeny ia ei?enoue eiaeiiai c
oeeo “iai?yieia” aiaeiiaiaeii ca iaaiee ia?iiae /ano.

sse c’ynoaaeiny, aaeiiiino?aoeaia iiaeo?eiea “ii/o?iinueei? aaiaoeee”
iia`ycaia c aaee/eiith i?e?inoo a?iaeaeiinoi iniiaieo ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?
caeaaeiinoth, yea iaeaieueo aaeaeaaoii aiaeiiaiaea? nenoaiai, ui iathoue
eiioo? c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca`yceii.

sse oeiiaee i?eeeaae aca?iiaei? ooiaeaiaioaeueii? i i?eeeaaeii?
aaiaoeee, ui i?eaia aei oaoiieiai/ii? ?aaiethoei?, ?icaeyaea?oueny
aeei?enoaiiy aaoa?icenieo aia?eaeia i neioaoe/ieo iiioeyoeie a N?N? i ca
ei?aeiiii. Ooai?aiiy aaiaoe/ii? eiioeaioei? aaoa?iceno icia/aei
aeiei?iiiee ia?aai?io o naeaeoei? nieuenueeiainiiaea?cueeeo eoeueoo?, a
ia?oo /a?ao, eoeo?oaece, ye i a ae?iaie/iio oaa?eiieoeoai. Iaeii/anii
oey i?iaeaia aeyaeeany oinii iia`ycaiith c ?ioaiiyi iaeaaaeeeaioeo
caaaeueiiaiieiai/ieo ieoaiue.

A?aoie ?icoe?aiiy iiniaieo ieiu aia?eaeii? eoeo?oaece a NOA i N?N? ia?
S-ia?acio oi?io, i?e/iio o oaci eiiieiiai c?inoaiiy (1938-1940 ??. a NOA
i 1955-1965 ??. a N?N?) ui?i/ii oaiie c?inoaiiy iiniaieo ieiu
aaoa?icenieo aia?eaeia oei?? eoeueoo?e neeaaeathoue a iaio aeiaaeeao
i?eaeecii 4-5%. Noaey/e c ioioeieieo noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aaoa?icenieo iiaeeiiieieo aia?eaeia caaacia/eei i?i?ioiaii aieueo ye
35-40% i?e?inoo a?iaeaeiinoi eoeo?oaece a NOA i aiey 20% — a N?N?.

Ii?iaiyiiy o?iiieiai? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaoa?icenieo aia?eaeia
eoeo?oaece aeyaey? oeieaao caeiiiii?iinoue. Noa?oiai iiceoei? ?ini? i
NOA o oai?aoe/ieo i i?eeeaaeieo aeineiaeaeaiiyo a aaeoci noai?aiiy i
aeei?enoaiiy eiinoaioieo aaiaoe/ieo eiiie i aaoa?icenieo aia?eaeia
i?aeoe/ii caiaaeeny: ?icieoey neeaaeaea aiae 4 aei 8-10 ?ieia
(caoaaaeeii, ui ii/aoie i?eeeaaeieo aeineiaeaeaiue aeia?aaeea aeaoo
ia?iaeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ii? iaiaeaeaanueei? eiioeaioei? aia?eaeii? neee ia
aeaeieueea ?ieia, ui aeaei NOA aeayeo ia?aaaao o aiaeiioaiii
iioaioeieii? iiaeeeainoi nei?i/aiiy no?ieia noai?aiiy iiaeeiiieieo
aia?eaeia). A oie aea /an ii/aoie ooai?aiiy naiicaieeueieo eiiie
eoeo?oaece a ?icieo ?aeiiao NOA ?icoyaioeiny ia 30-35 ?ieia (a aeayeeo
ooaoao ia?oi naiicaieeueii eiii? aoee io?eiaii oieueee o 40-i ?iee).

Iieiaeaiiy nooo?ai ciiieeiny aianeiaeie Ia?oi? naioiai?, oa ua
aieueoa — A?iiaaeyinueei? aieie i ?aaiethoeieieo iiaeie 1917 ?.
Aiaenoaaaiiy N?N? aiae NOA c?inei aei 20-23 ?ieia i eeoaeiny ia oiio ae
?iaii aei eiioey 60-o ?ieia.

Oeae oaeo oei aieueoa e?aniiiiaiee, ui ii ii?i ?icoe?aiiy
eieueeinoi e?a?i i aaia?aoi/ieo ?aeiiia, yei ii/aee aeei?enoaiiy
aia?eaeii? eoeo?oaece, no?iee noai?aiiy iiaeeiiieieo aia?eaeia ca
oeieeii c?icoiieeo i?e/ei ?icei nei?i/oaaeenue — aoonaeaea?e aeyaeyeeny
c oei?? oi/ee ci?o a e?auiio noaiiaeui.

Oaeei /eiii, a?aeiiaa aiae eiioeaioei? /enoeo eiiie i iia?eaeeiao,
ye naeaeoeieiiai caniao, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aeinyaiaiiy
aaiaoe/ii? iaeii?iaeiinoi naeaeoe?eiiai iaoa?iaeo (oea aoei oiiaith
aeciaiiy iaoiaeeee iiaeeiiieieo aia?eaeia “Ii/o?iinueeith”), noaea
iiai?ioiei ioieoii a i?aeoe/iiio aeei?enoaiii naeaeoei? ia aaoa?icen a
N?N?. I?ioa ua aieueo aaaeeeaei aoei caaaeueia iaaeiiiy eoeueoo?e
caiea?ianoaa oa aioiaiinoi nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa e?a?ie, ye i
nenoaie ea?oaaiiy iaoeiaeie aeineiaeaeaiiyie i ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?o
?acoeueoaoia o ae?iaieoeoai, aei ni?eeiyooy iiaeo iaoiaeia iiaeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi.Oiio ?icii? caiiciaiiy ia ciiieany i iiney iiaa?iaiiy
aei iaiaeaeaanueei? iaoiaeeee iiaeaieieo iiaeeiiieieo aia?eaeia (1956
?.).

Ioaea, i?eiouaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?iee aeey ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie
aei?noeee aaeiiiino?aoeaiee eiio?ieue ca ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi aeciaieo
i?ei?ioaoieie iaoeiai-aeineiaeieo ?ac?iaie aeicaiey?, cia/ii nei?ioeoe
oa?iii, yeee iio?iaai aeey ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaeaaaeeeaioeo
oaoiieiai/ieo iiiaaoeie (i oaeei /eiii neiiiainoaaoe aieueo aenieo
niaiaa?oinoue iiaeeeaeo aaeiiiino?aoeaieo iiieeie), a iaoiio aeiaaeeo
yaii ia iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeoaie.

I/aaeaeii, ui ?iaaiue aaeiiiino?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy a oiceeo i oiiith aoa
cia/ii ieae/ee, ii?iaiyeueii c aaiaoeeith i, iai?eeeaae, aeiiiii/i?
iaoee. Iaei?inoioa iiyniaiiy — aaeoci, /ee ca’ycie c iai?iiicaeaoiinoth
? aieueo iai/iee, caciaaaee aieueo iaa?aaeiiai iaiiioethaaiiy. I?ioa
aeoeaiinoue aeaaeieo no?oeoo? ii aiaeiioaiith aei aaiaoeee i aa?iiiii?
iaaoea cia/iiai ianooaao, eiee i?iaeiaieue/a e?eca 1929-1933 ??. noaea
iiiioii aieeaaoe ia ?aaeyinueeee aienueeiai-aeiiiii/iee iioaioeiae.
Aieueo aaaeeeao ?ieue ooo aiaeia?aea caeaoiinoue aiaeiiaiaeieo iaoeiaeo
aeenoeeie?i aeeiioaaoe “nioeiaeueia caiiaeaiiy” ia?oieii-aea?aeaaiiai
aia?aoo (iiaeeeainoue iaaaoeaii? aiaeiiaiaei cacaeaeaaiaeue
aeeeth/aeany).

Oaeei /eiii ia ia?oeo ii?ao iaeaieiai/ii eieici? ia aiaeia?aaaee
aieiaii? ?iei o eiioeieoi iieioe/ii? nenoaie c iaiia “iaoeiaeie
iai?yieaie”, ui iineethaaany, i aoee aeei?enoaii eeoa aeey
aei?aaaeiaoaaiiy ?acoeueoaoia oeueiai eiioeieoo.

O Aeniiaeo (“Iaoea i ?aaiethoeiy: aca?iiaiaeiioaiiy iaoee i aea?aeaae a
ia?iiae nioeiaeueii? e?ece”) ?icaeyaea?oueny iaoaiici aeieeiaiiy aoaeoo
aaeueioaaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoaoia, ui io?eiaii ooiaeaiaioaeueiith
aaiaoeeith a nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeie i?aeoeoei. Oey i?iaeaia
aiaeico?oueny a aeaio aniaeoao. Ii-ia?oa, c oi/ee ci?o oaiiiaiieiai/iiai
iieno ianeiaeeia aacipaoeaiaeaioiiai ca inoaiii aeaa noi?i//y
iiaeeaeaiiy i picoe?aiiy ianooaaia iaeaieiaiciaaiiai aea?aeaaiiai
eiiopieth ia oieueee iaae eiiepaoieie pacoeueoaoaie aeineiaeaeaiue (ye
ipeeeaaeieie, oae i oaipaoe/ieie), aea i iaae ?o oaiaoeeith; ii-ae?oaa,
— nopoeoopii-ooieoeiiiaeueiiai aiaeico ianeiaeeia aeooaeicaoei?
?aaeyinueei? eiioeaioei? nioeiaeueii? piei iaoee i iia’ycaieo c iath
nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieo i eoeueoopieo cnoaia.

Ianeiaeee ia?aaoaeiae iaoeiai? ?iaioe ia i?eioeeiao “ii/o?iinueei?
aa?iaiieiai? i ?aaeyinueeiai oai?/iai aea?aiiicio” (ye iaeiiai c
eiie?aoieo aa?iaioia ?aaeicaoei? “i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee”) aeoaea
aaaaoia?aiii i oi?eathoueny i?aeoe/ii anio aieia ?icaeoeo i i?aaiicaoei?
iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue a N?N?. A ?iaioi aiaeicothoueny eeoa /ioe?e
iaeaieueo aaaeeea? c oi/ee ci?o nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaeo aniaeoe oei??
i?iaeaie.

1. No?oeoo?ii ciiie. Oa?aeoa? aeeiaiiee aaeiiiino?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy a
aeiyeueiinoue iaio a?oi iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa aeicaiey? cai?iiiioaaoe
iiaeaeue “eiioeaiooaeueii? iiioeyoeieii? no?oeoo?e”, aea oeaio?aeueia
yae?i (“iaoa?einueea iiioeyoeiy” — “iaiaeaeici-ii?aaiici”) i?aaenoaaeaia
ooiaeaiaioaeueieie oai?iyie, a ia?eoa?ith noa?e aieeao iaoeiai?
aeenoeeie?ie (a iaoiio aeiaaeeo — aaiaoeee) neeaaeathoue i?eeeaaeii
aeineiaeaeaiiy, iaeaieueo oinii eiioaeooth/e c nioeiaeueiei na?aaeiaeuai
i neeaaeath/e nai??iaeiee “caoeniee iiyn” (oey iiaeaeue ia? i/aaeaeii
aiaeiai? c eiioeaioei?th aeineiaeieoeueei? i?ia?aie I.Eaeaoina). Oeei
iiyniththoueny eiie?aoii inoi?e/ii caeiiiii?iinoi ?icaeoeo iaoeiaeo
oeie, ui iienaii a iiia?aaeiio ?icaeieao, cie?aia, iinooiiaa aeniainiy
aaeiiiino?aoeaiiai oeneo a iai?yii aiae i?eeeaaeii? aei
ooiaeaiaioaeueii? aaiaoeee. Iinoeoooeieia aeano?oeoeiy ?icaeaaeany aiae
ia?eoa?i? aei oeaio?o. Iiioe?thth/ei oaeoi?ii oeueiai i?ioeano noaee, ye
aaea caaaeoaaeinue, ia iaeaieiai/ii i?ioe?i//y oeaio?aeueiiai yae?a i
ia?enenonueei? aeieo?eie, a i?eei?aeiiii eiioeieoe.
Oieinionueei-iaeaieiai/ia aaca iiae “ii/o?iinueeo aiieiaith”, (ye i iiae
iio? eiioeaioei? “i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee”) iiaeaiaeeeany aaea a
?acoeueoaoi i?eeiyooy iieioe/iiai ?ioaiiy, ui cae?iiethaaa ??
i?eiaeaaeiinoue aei iaeaieiai/iiai yae?a iieioe/ii? aeieo?eie, yea aoea
ia /ooo?aa aei aei? ciaiioiuei? e?eoeee. Naia oeueiio oieinionueea
a?aoiaioaoeiy aaeaioia eenaie?aueie aeeiioaaea iieioe/io caaea/o i
ciiithaaeanue aaaaoi ?acia caeaaeii aiae ianoaaei.

C iaaaaeaieo ooo iaoa?iaeia, ae?iaiaeii, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
iieioeea aeeeoaoo ae?iaie/eo iio?aa o aiaeiioaiii aei aioo?ioiio
caeiiiii?iinoae ?icaeoeo iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue i aeiiaa caeeaeaiiy
iaoee i i?aeoeee i?eaaee aei ia?aaeienaeueieo, ia ia?oee iiaeyae,
?acoeueoaoia. Ia?o ca ana, aiaeaoeiny cia/ia nei?i/aiiy aeiei
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue i iiaeei?aiiy ?o i?eeeaaeiei ?ic?iaeai,
caaaeueiee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee i oai?aoe/iee ?iaaiue yeeo iiiioii
iiieceany. Oea, a naith /a?ao, ia iiaei ia aiaeaeoeny ia noaii
caaaeueii? ae?iaie/i?, cie?aia, oeiai?ianueei? eoeueoo?e. A eiioeaaiio
i?aenoieo niinoa?iaa?oueny iiaeeaeaiiy ?ic?eao iaoee i ae?iaieoeoaa,
iaaeiiiy aoaeoeaiinoi iaoeiai? ?iaioe i cia/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo iaoiaeia
aeineiaeieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi. Iiiiiieueia iieiaeaiiy O.Ae.Eenaiea,
A.?.Aieueyina oa iioeo i?aaenoaaieeia “i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee” o
eiie?aoieo aaeocyo ciaiiy aeieeei aianeiaeie, yeui iiaeia oae neacaoe,
caiiie i?e?iaeiiai aiaeai?o iaoeiaeo iai?yieia i oeie ooo/iei, yeee
caeienithaaany caiaeii c nenoaiith oieinionueeio i iaeaieiai/ieo
e?eoa?i?a. Oiiaeii oeueiai noaea ianeeueieoeueea aeiiiiaoeiy iaoeiaeo
oeie, yei a ?yaei aeiaaeeia caeiaee eiaee?oth/a iieiaeaiiy o naioiaie
iaooei. Oea oaeiae aoei iaeiei ic oaeoi?ia, ui iaoiiaeee caaaeueia
iaaeiiiy ?iaiy ?icaeoeo iaoee i aeaa?aaeaoeith nenoaiieo ca’yceia iiae
?? ie?aieie aeaiaioaie.

Aeiaeaoeiaa i?enei?aiiy i?ioean io?eiaa aiae ?aaeicaoei? “i?eioeeio
ia?oieiinoi”, ui i?eaaei aei naiiicieyoei? “ii/o?iinueei?
aa?iaiieiai?”(ye i oni?? “i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee”), yea noaea iaei??th c
aieiaeo aieie aaiethoei? naioiai? eoeueoo?e. ?? i?iaeaiaoeea i iaoiaee
aeineiaeaeaiiy ooai?eee caieiaio nenoaio, ui ?iaeoue aeai?aneaiee oene
ia ?iaaiue ?icaeoeo nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

2. Nioeiaeueia ineoieiaiy. Aiaeaoeany iiiioia aeaoi?iaoeiy iaioaeioaoo
iioaeiaaioei?. Nenoaia a?aoiaioia ia?aeoea aiae iii?e ia “ciaiioia
aei?aaaeaiiy” (aenia?eiaioaeueia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiy) i “aioo?ioith
aeineiiaeinoue” (eiai/io ianoia?a/iinoue) aei iineeaiue ia aaoi?eoaoe i
ioioiaeithaaiith oeyoii aiethioa?enonueeeo eiai/ieo iiaoaeoaaiue c
iaaieie oieinionueeeie nenoaiaie. Iaoeiaa naiaeiiinoue iaaoea, oaeei
/eiii, iciaee ?aeiaieii?. Iioeie neiaaie, ?icei c?inee i?aeiai/ii
eiiiiiaioe ieneaiiy. Ianeiaeeii noaea aneiieyoeiy iaoeith cia/ii?
eieueeinoi ?en ianiai? naiaeiiinoi oa a?iciy niaoeeoi/iinoi iaioaeioaoo
iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa. Iaiaoiaeii aiaeiioeoe ua iaeio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
o?ainoi?iiaaiiai iaioaeioaoo — o iayaiiio aeaeyaei aeiioneaeany
iiaeeeainoue ia?aoai?aiiy i ia’?eoeaieo caeiiia i?e?iaee a aeoni
ae?iaie/eo iio?aa, ui aeieeathoue, (ia?a?iaea i?e?iaee ?ineei i oaa?ei a
“ii/o?iinueeie aa?iaiieiai?”, iai?eeeaae), yea oyaeyeinue ianoieueee ae
?aaeueiei, ye aiaeiia “ieaiiii?ia ia?aoai?aiiy” noniieuenoaa i
aaia?aoi/iiai na?aaeiaeua.

3. Eiie?aoii-iaoeiaee aniaeo. Iiaeiaii ?ica?iio iaoeiaeo oeie aoea
ooo/ii ia?a?aaia ii?iaeueia aaiethoeiy ie?aieo oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioeie.
Caaaeueiee ia?iiae cao?eiee neeaaeaa ca ?ic?aooieaie aaoi?a 25-30 ?ieia.
A oie aea /an cia/ii coneeey i eiooe aoee ia?aeeth/aii ia ?ic?iaeo
aeineiaeaeaiue (iai?eeeaae, aaaaoaoeaii? aia?eaeecaoei?), ui oae i ia
aeaee iiceoeaiiai aoaeoo.

4. I?eeeaaeiee aniaeo. I?yia oeiaea aeey nieuenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
iia’ycaia, ia a inoaiith /a?ao, c aeano?oeoei?th nenoaie ianiiieoeoaa,
?acoeueoaoii /iai noaee cia/ii ao?aoe aaiioiiaeo oeiiieo ni?oia. Cia/ii
cao?eiaeinue, i/aaeaeii, noai?aiiy iiaeo ni?oia. Iaoiiaeaii oea aoei
?oeioaaiiyi oai?aoe/iiai ooiaeaiaioo naeaeoei?.

C /ioe?ueio a?oi oaeoi?ia,ui ?icaeyiooi ooo,caiaiaae aiae aei? aeaio
inoaiiio aeaeyaea? iaeaieueo i/aaeaeiei i, ai?iaiaeii, iaeaieueo eaaei
ioeiithaaiei c aeiiiii/ii? oi/ee ci?o. O oeieiio, oiiaieueiaiiy ?icaeoeo
oai?aoe/ii? i i?eeeaaeii? aaiaoeee i naeaeoei? aiaeiineoueny aei 30-o
?ieia. I?ioa oi?iiciee aieea aeeaiei? no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae
iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi i o?ainoi?iaoeiy nenoaie
nioeiaeueii? naiaeiiinoi, ui aiaeaoeeny a 20i-40i ?iee, iathoue,
eiiaoeue eiioeai, cia/ii aieueoee ia?iiae aei?, oa ?o ianeiaeee
aeyaey?oueny iaiiaeeeai onoiooe i?inoei aeciaiiyi iiieeeiainoi a/aiiy
O.Ae.Eenaiea i iioeo i?aaenoaaieeia “i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee” — iio?iaia
ei?iiia ?aoi?ia nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ea?oaaiiy iaoeiaith aeiyeueiinoth,
ui aaco?oueny ia oaeiio ae aeeaieiio ia?aaeyaei oieinionueeeo i
iaoiaeieiai/ieo eiioeaioeie, yei eaaeaoue a ?? iniiai.

Aiaei?aaiei ioieoii no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeiiiaeueiiai aiaeico aoea oaca i?i
aiiieiai/i?noue i?ioeania nioeiaeueii? inoi?i? i aaiethoei?
aaiaoeei-iiioeyoeieii? no?oeoo?e (o iaoiaeieiai/iiio ieaii aeaea?aeii
oei?? iiaeaei ? aaiethoeieia ai?noaiieiaiy N.Ooeiiia). Iioaioeiaeueia
iiaeeeainoue i?ieioa?aoei? iieioeciaaii? (eeaniai?) iaoee aeoiea? c
nioeiieoeueoo?ii? aeaoa?iiiaoei? (i?eiaeiii — iioeaaoeieii?
aeineiaeieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi. Iiioeiaeueiith oi/eith aaiethoei?
eenaie?aueie, ye eiie?aoiiai aoieaiiy aeieo?eie eeaniai? iaoee, noaa
eiioeieo iioa?ania iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa, ui i?aaioei aei caa?aaeaiiy
aeanii? nioeiaeueii? aaoiiiii?, i aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, yei ?icaeyaeaee
iaoeo oa a/aieo oieueee ye cania aeinyaiaiiy aeanii? iieioe/ii? iaoe.
sse ianeiaeie, ii/aeanue aeeaa?aaioeiy iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa ia aeai
noaiiioeyoei? — eiioi?iinoia i iiieiioi?iinoia.

Ca ae?acii E.Iiiia?a, “a/aii aeicaieythoue oai?iyi aia?oe caiinoue
naaa”. Iioeie neiaaie, ?icieoey iiae iaoeith oa iioeie iioaeaeooaeueieie
?ano?naie (?aeiaiy, iaeaieiaiy oa ii.) iieyaa? o aiaenooiinoi i?yiiai
ca’yceo iniaenoi? aeiei a/aiiai i eiai oai?ie (a ianoieueee neeueiie
oi?ii c oei?th oacith aaaeei ca?ac iiaiaeeoeny, oi/a inoi?e/ia
oaiaeaioeiy iiaeii/aia ai?ii). O ia?iiae iineeaiiy aca?iiaieeao iaoee i
aea?aeaae, iaaiaee, ioaei/ii aeneiaethaaiiy /eaiia iaoeiaiai
niiaoiaa?enoaa c i?ioanieieo ieoaiue aieueo aei?noei ei?aeththoue c
aoe/ieie ii?iaie iiaeeaeaeia. I/aaeaeiee aaiethoeieiee ianeiaeie —
c?inoaiiy noaiiioeyoei? eiioi?iinoia.

Aeieeath/i iaaeiei oeaio?aeueii? iaeaieiai/ii? aeieo?eie nenoaie
aeiooaii ?aaaoaaoe ia aeeeee nioeiaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, ui ciiith?oueny
(nioeiaeueiiai eiioaenoo), yea a ?yaei aeiaaeeia, noaaeoue iiae caa?ico
?o iiaeaeueoa inioaaiiy. Aoaeue-yea iaeaieiaiciaaia nenoaia (ia?eneci —
ia aeeeth/aiiy) iioaioeieii caeaoia aeiaea?aeoaaoenue aeaio
aeueoa?iaoeaieo no?aoaaie aeaeeaaiiy — aai i?enoiniaoth/e aeanio
no?oeoo?o i ciino iaeaieiai/ii? aeieo?eie aei naioo, ui ciiith?oueny,
aai iaiaaath/enue eiio?iethaaoe ciaiioi? nioeiaeueia na?aaeiaeua. A
inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo (o iiaiie ocaiaeaeaiinoi c iaeiei c aiaeiieo
aeneiaethaaiue O.Aiaaeuena), iiaea neeanoeny neooaoeiy, yea aaea ia
iiaeaea?oueny eiio?ieth i ? ia noiinia c inioaaiiyi naii? nenoaie.

Ia?aaoaeiaa no?oeoo?e “eiioeaiooaeueii? iiioeyoei?” ooiaeaiaioaeueii? i
i?eeeaaeii? aaiaoeee noaei iiaeeeaei caaaeyee ii nai?io iineiaeiaiiai
aoieaiiy a aeeooy aeaio i?eioeeiia ia?enenonueei? oieinioi? — “i?aeoeea
— e?eoa?ie inoeie” i “i?eioeeio ia?oieiinoi”. I?e oeueiio ciino
aeei?enoaieo ooo oieinionueeeo oa?iiiia aoa, a aieueoie aai iaioie ii?i,
o?ainoi?iiaaiee aianeiaeie ?o ceeooy c oyaeaiiyie i noa?aioeiaie ianiai?
naiaeiiinoi. Iaiaoiaeii c?aco aiaeiioeoe caoaeaiiy oieinionueeiai ciinoo
iiiyooy “i?aeoeea” (ye ethaenueei? aeiyeueiinoi, ui ni?yiiaaia aei
ia?aoai?aiiy iaoa?iaeueiiai naioo) aei eiai aoaeaiiiai ?icoiiiiy
(iaoa?iaeueia ae?iaieoeoai). A oiiaao aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?,
ieaiiai? nenoaie, eiee “iiceoeaiee aoaeo” iiaiaaaaeaiue, ui
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue, aoa, oae ae iiaeoe, cai?ia?aiiaaiee aaea o
aeoiaeiiio caaaeaiii, aaaaoi?aciai iineethaaeanue inoi?e/ii oa
iaeaieiai/ii aeaoa?iiiiaaia iaiaaeaiinoue aeniiaeia, ui ?iaeeeny, i?i
?noeii?no? oeo aai iioeo oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioeie. Nei?io ca ana, oea i
aoei iaeii?th c aaaeeeaeo i?e/ei cai?a o ooieoeiiioaaiii ?aaeyinueei?
nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ea?oaaiiy iaoeith i io ianeiaeeia ye aeey ?iaiy
?icaeoeo iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue, oae i aeiiiiiee e?a?ie, o oeieiio.

?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ioeania, ui aea/aeeny,
iiaeaei “oiiaeicaoei? iaoee”, yea aoea aenoiooa a?oiith niia?iaioieeia
Iinoeoooo I.Ieaiea c aea/aiiy oiia aeeooy iiaeono?iaeueiiai naioo a
Ooa?iaa?c? (A.Aaia, A. Aai aeai Aeaaea i A.E?ii), caiaeii c yeith
iaeii?th c noaaeie ?icaeoeo iaoee ? iinoia?aaeiaiaeueia oaca inoi?i?,
eiee a iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? oai?i? aecia/aeueio ?ieue
aiaeia?athoue aaea ia aioo?ioii, a ciaiioii ii aiaeiioaiith aei naii?
iaoee oaeoi?e, a, ioaea, naii?icaeoie ia iniiai aieueii? eiieo?aioei?
iaoeiaeo oeie,oai?ie i iai?yieia caiaeii c aea?aiiianueeith iiaeaeeth
i?e?iaeiiai aiaeai?o iinooia?oueny iinoeai iieioeei-no?aoaai/iiio
ea?iaieoeoao. I?eioeeiiaith aiaeiiiiinoth neooaoei?, ui neeaeany a
?aaeyinuee?e aaiaoeoei, aoei oa, ui ic o?ueio oiia ia?aoiaeo ?icieo
aaeocae iaoee o oaco oiiaeicaoei? (iaaoooy ia’?eoaie eaai?aoi?ieo
aeineiaeaeaiue aaciina?aaeiueiai oaoiieiai/iiai cia/aiiy; ia?aoai?aiiy
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? oai?i? o “oi?io, a yeie iaoea ?aaeico?
naia aiaeiioaiiy aei ciaiioiuei? iaoe”; caaa?oaiee oa?aeoa? iaoeiai?
oai?i?) o?ao? aeeiiaii ia aoei, ui ?iaeei aaiaoeeo aieueo a?aceeaith aei
aaeiiiino?aoeaii-iieioe/iiai oeneo.

O aca?iiaiaeiineiao aaiaoeee i ia?oieii-aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo neeaeany
(ui o iaaiie ii?i iiaeoaa?aeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie iaoaiaoe/iiai aiaeico,
iaaaaeaieie o iiia?aaeiueiio ?icaeiei) nenoaia c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei
ca’yceii, yeee ii?oooaaa ii?iaeueia ooieoeiiioaaiiy i noieeinoue oni??
nenoaie.

Ia iiaeia neacaoe, ui nenoaia cai?ioieo ca’yceia iiae ie?aieie
aeaiaioaie nioeiaeueii? nopoeoope, o oiio /enei, iiae iaoeith i
aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith cianii ipeieieea nai? inioaaiiy. I?ioa
ia/ooo?ainoue iieioe/ii? aeieopeie aei iaoaiipoico nai?o aeoiaeieo,
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ipeioeeiia iiae aieeaii neaiaeia, ui iaaeoiaeyoue
ciaii i aeiaiaeyoue iiaio aai /anoeiao iaiiaeeeainoue paaeicaoei?
ipeeiyoeo iieioe/ieo ?ioaiue aac nooo?aeo iaaaoeaieo ianeiaeeia, ipeaaea
aei piceiai nei?i/aiiy iaaaoeaiiai i iineeaiiy iiceoeaiiai neeaaeieeia
cai?ioieo aieeaia nioeiaeueiiai iinoeoooo iaoee ia ipioean aea?aeaaiiai
ea?oaaiiy.

Ciiia eiioeaiooaeueii-iiioeyoeieii? no?oeoo?e a ?acoeueoaoi cioeiaiiy
aaeaioeaieo no?aoaaie aeaio oa?oioaaiue o iaoeiaiio niiaoiaa?enoai o
ia?oiio iaaeeaeaiii aecia/a?oueny ye ?iaiiaeith/a aeaio i?ioeania:
iineeaiiy aaeiiiino?aoeaiiai oeneo ia oa?oioaaiiy, ui aoee ia noeeueii
aeaaaoe iaeiiaa?oioiaaii iaioeyiee uiaei ?ioaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo caaea/,
i iath/iai aieueo i?ieiiaiaaiee ia?iiae iiioeiaoei? iaoaiicio ao?aoe
aeiai?e aei a?oi, yei aeio?eioaaeenue i?ioeeaaeii? no?aoaai?. A
?acoeueoaoi, no?aoaaiy aeaeeaaiiy O.Ae.Eenaiea (“oaeaeea ?aaaoaaiiy” ia
caaea/i, yei i?iiiioaaeeny aea?aeaaiei aia?aoii) aeyaeeany aieueo
aaeaeaaoiith ii?iaiyeueii c no?aoaai?th I.I.Aaaieiaa, ui aoea
?ic?aoiaaia ia o?eaaeo ia?niaeoeao. sseui i?iaeiaaeeoe
aaiethoeieii-aaiaoe/io aiaeiaith, aaeaioeaia no?aoaaiy O.Ae.Eenaiea
aiaeiineoueny aei K-oeio (aenieoaoaoeiy inioth/iai iieioe/iiai
na?aaeiaeua), a iaiaeaeaanueea no?aoaaiy — aei r-oeio (iaeneiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiaiai iioaioeiaeo aeey iioeiicaoei? aeiiiii/ii?
neooaoei?). Ia?aooi no?aoaaiy O.Ae.Eenaiea aoea oniioiith, iiee
oa?aeoa?enoeee inioth/iai aea?aeaaiiai iaoaiicio caeeoaeenue iinoieieie
oa inioaaee iaiaoiaeii aeey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeiiioaaiiy iaoee
aeiiiii/ii ?aca?ae. I?ioa “Ii/o?iinueea aa?iaiieiaiy” i?iiiioaaea
oieueee iiioaoeith aai no?iaao ?ioaiue ?aaeueieo oaoiieiai/ieo i?iaeai.
Ianeiaeeii aoei iineaaeaiiy ni?eyoeeaiai aeey ia? nioeiaeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua.

Aeeaeia oa ianooaae iinoeoooeieii? a?ici?, ui ?icaeaaeanue, aoaeooue
oei aieueoi, (1) /ei aeua iioaineaiinoue iieioe/iiai aai
nioeiaeueii-oiiainiaiai oeneo i (2) a?eueoa ?icieoey ia?iiaeia
iiioeiaoei? iaeiaio o?eaaeiai ?aia?aoeieii-aiiainoaoe/iiai iaoaiicio i
eiioo?o c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca’yceii. sseui niiaaiaeiioaiiy iaio
ia?aiao?ia oaea, ui aiaeiinia /enaeueiinoue aeayeeo iaoeiaeo oeie
(noaiiioeyoeie) aei iiiaioo ii/aoeo aei? ?aia?aoeieiiai iaoaiicio
iaaeeaeo?oueny aei ioey, i?ioean iinoeoooeieii? aeano?oeoei? iiaea noaoe
iacai?ioiei.

A nai?io aeno?aiaeueiiio aa?iaioi iienaiee iinoeoooeieii-aeano?oeoeaiee
iaoaiici noi?ioaaany ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia aaeiiiino?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii?
iieioe/ii? nenoaie, i?ioa a priori iaia? aeinoaoiio iiaenoaa aaaaeaoe,
ui a aieueo caeaaeaiiio aeaei oa naia oaiaeaioeiy ia aeieea? eiaeai ?ac,
eiee nioeiaeueia cia/aiiy i iia`ycaiee c iei aaeiiiino?aoeaiee aai
oiiainiaee oene ia aoaeue-yeo aaeocue aeineiaeaeaiue aeinyaa? e?eoe/ii?
aiaeiioee, aeoiaey/e ca iaaeo caiano aaeaioeaii? ieanoe/iinoi,ui
ooai?th?oueny ooiaeaiaioaeueiith iaoeith. Iaeiei c aeineoue yne?aaeo
i?eeeaaeia, ui iiaeoaa?aeaeo? oeae aeniiaie, ? aeineoue /anoa aaeeaaiiy
a aia?eeainueeeo aeo?iaeao 50-o ?ieia oa?i?io “eenaie?aueia”,yeui ni?aaa
aiaeiineeanue aei ieoaiue, yei iaee aaeeea iieioe/ia cia/aiiy, cie?aia,
— i?i iioaioeieio aaiaoe/io iaaaciaeo yaea?ii? oaoiieiai?. I?e?iaeii,
oei aeneiae iiaeia ni?eeiyoe ye /enoi iaoaoi?e/ii, iaaiyii iaaeaaiiie ia
oie /an inoi?e/ieie anioeiaoeiyie. Aieueo aaaiiee iioee oaeo — i/aaeaeia
aiaeiaiy iiae iioieiaiciaaiith aa?ni?th aeeeaaeaiiy eiioeieoa
O.Ae.Eenaiea c iaoeiaei niiaoiaa?enoaii oa iioe?aiith aa?ni?th inoi?i?
iai?eeiyoi? nii/aoeo aeaaeaii/iith iaoeith oaiiiniioe/ii? aiiioace
I.Iio/aeea. Iaeaeai oei aeeneo?nii eiino?oeoei? noiaeyoue, ye eaaei
ia?aeiiaoeny, aei aiaeiiiai a?aeaeiiai nthaeaoo “Aeaaeae i Aieiao”. Ca
niinoa?aaeaiiyie Aeae.Aieaa?oa i I.Iaeeay (1987) aioo?ioiy aiaaiaiinoue,
ui iani?eeiyooy aiiioac, ui aiaenoiththoueny ieie, iaoiiaeaia oieueee
iacaeaoiinoth aai iaaaaeaiiiyi ?aooe aeineiaeieeia ?o c?icoiioe, iiaeia
aeciaoe caaaeueiith aeeneo?niith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aeneiaethaaiue
aieueoinoi /eaiia iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa. Cae/aeii, ii?iaiyiiy
?acoeueoaoia aeeneo?niiai i no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeiiiaeueiiai iaoiaeia
aiaeico yaey? cia/ii o?oaeiiui, i?ioa ia noia?a/aoue iiaeaei, ui
?icaeyaeaeanue ooo.

Ca oaia?ioiueiai /ano noa?aie, aea ia iao iiaeyae ae?iaiaeiinoue
iieioe/ii iaoiiaeaii? aeaoi?iaoei? ii?iaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iaoee
iioaioeieii aieueo aeniea, ? aeieiai/ii ianeiaeee no/anieo oaoiieiaie
(iniaeeai — yaea?ia aia?aaoeea), iaaee/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy (cie?aia —
NIIAeo), aaiia iiaeaia?iy acaaaei i noiniaii Homo sapiens, iniaeeai.

Iaiaoiaeieie oiiaaie ?icaeoeo eiioo?o c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca’yceii ?
(1) a nioeiaeueii-ineoieiai/ieiio aniaeoi — iaioaeueia onoaiiaea
nioeiaeueiiai oa?oioaaiiy, ui ia? cia/io iieioe/io aaao, ui aeinyaiaiiy
aeeoo?ai aaaeeeai? aeey ia? iaoe i iioa?ania aaniethoii (aai, iaaiaee,
ianoiinia) c iaeii?th iaaiith iaoeiaith eiioeaioei?th; (2) a
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/iiio aniaeoi — aeineoue o?eaaeee ia?iiae
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ii? iai?oaeaiinoi, a ?acoeueoaoi yeiai iiaeeeainoi
oiiainoaaiiy oae caaii? “/enoi? iaoee” cia/ii nei?i/othoueny. O oeueiio
iieyaa? iaeei ic o?ieia inoi?i?, ui iaaeaiee iai “i?ieaoa?nueeith
iaoeith”.

A E N I I A E E

1. ?aaeyinueea nenoaia nioeiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ?icaeoeo iaoee
aacoaaeanue ia ?aoeiiiaeinoe/iie noei?ioenonueeie eiioeaioei?
i?aaiicaoei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ui noiaeeoue aei Ieaoiia. Aaiethoeiy
oei?? nenoaie i?eaaea, i?ioa, aei ia?aoai?aiiy iaoee a aeaiaio
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo i ao?aoe iath nioeiaeueii? oa iioaeaeooaeueii?
aaoiiiii?.

2. Nenoaia aca?iica’yceia iaoee oa iioeo aeaiaioia nioeiaeueii?
i?aaiicaoei? iaeaieueo aaeaeaaoii iieno?oueny iiaeaeeth eiioeaiooaeueieo
iiioeyoeie, aea oeaio?aeueia yae?i neeaaeathoue ooiaeaiaioaeueii
aeineiaeaeaiiy, a ia?eoa?ieii iiioeyoei?, yei iaeaieueo aeinooiii aei?
ciaiioiio (nioeiaeueieo, iieioe/ieo oa ii.) aieeaia — i?eeeaaeii
?ic?iaee. (Oey noaia ? neioacii iiaeaei eiioeaiooaeueieo iiioeyoeie
N.Ooeiiia i oyaeaiue i?i no?oeoo?o aeineiaeieoeueeeo i?ia?ai I.Eaeaoina
i a oeieiio ocaiaeaeo?oueny c i?eioeeiaie i iiaeoiaeaie aaiethoeieii?
aiinoaiieiai? iaoee).

3. Iniiaieie oaiaeaioeiyie a ?icaeoeo i?aaiicaoei? ?aaeyinueei? iaoee a
ia?iiae, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny,? ia?iaiaioia iineeaiiy aaeiiiino?aoeaiiai
eiio?ieth i iinoieii ni?iae ciiooaaiiy ooieoeie aeineiaeieoeueeeo
onoaiia i ae?iaie/eo no?oeoo?. Oaeei /eiii, o oiaei aaiethoei?
iieioe/ii? nenoaie ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco aiaeaoany ia?aoiae aiae aieueii?
eiieo?aioei? iaoeiaeo oai?ie i iai?yieia aei aei?noei? nenoaie
iieioeei-no?aoaai/iiai ea?oaaiiy.

4. Noa?a iaeneiaeueii? iioaineaiinoi aeoeaiiai aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a
?icaeoie aaiaoeee i naeaeoei? iioe?thaaeanue c /anii o iai?yieo aiae
i?eeeaaeii? aaiaoeee i naeaeoei? (1937-1938 ??.) aei ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aaiaoe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue, iaeaieueo oinii iia’ycaieo c oieinionueeeie
i?iaeaiaie i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe (1947-1949 ??.). I?e oeueiio iiioeithaaee
oeae i?ioean ia iaeaieiai/ii eieici?, a eiioeieoe, ui iaee
iieioeei-aeiiiii/io i?e?iaeo.

5. Ciiie, ui iaoiiaeaii aieeaii “i?ieaoa?nueei? iaoee” ia i?aaiicaoeith
ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoee (a oiio /enei — aaiaoeee) i aa?iiiii?, cie?aia —
naeaeoei? i ianiiieoeoaa, i?eaaee aei ?icaeoeo i?ioeano iinoeoooeieii?
a?ici? iaoee i ?oeioaaiiy iaoiaeieiai/iiai i eoeueoo?ii-ineoieiai/iiai
ooiaeaiaioo, ia yeiio aacoaaeiny nieuenueea ainiiaea?noai e?a?ie.

6.Aianeiaeie aiaenooiinoi /ioei? aiaeiiaiaeiinoi iiae iioaineaiinoth
aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth i noaaei?th ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/iiai ooiaeaiaioo
iaoeiai? aeenoeeieiie, iiooaeiinoue i?ioeania iinoeoooeieii?
aeano?oeoei? aeyaeeanue o aeiaaeeo, yeee aeineiaeaeoaaany, aeecueeith
aei iaeneioio.

7. sse iieaco? ii?iaiyeueia aeineiaeaeaiiy inoi?i? oaoiieiai/ii?
?aaiethoei? (ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaoa?icenii? naeaeoei?) a N?N? i NOA,
aei?noee aaeiiiino?aoeaiee eiio?ieue ca ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi i??i?eoaoieo
aeineiaeieoeueeeo ?ic?iaie ia i?eaia aei iiiioiiai nei?i/aiiy no?ieia
?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaeaaaeeeaioeo oaoiieiai/ieo iiiaaoeie i eiiiainaoei?
aieueo aeniei? a oeeo oiiaao niaiaa?oinoi iiaeeeaeo aaeiiiino?aoeaieo
iiieeie.

8. O aca?iiaiaeiineiao aaiaoeee i ia?oieii-aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo
noi?ioaaeany nenoaia c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca’yceii, ui ii?ooea
ii?iaeueia ooieoeiiioaaiiy i noieeinoue oni?? nenoaie. O aieueo
caeaaeaiiio aeaeyae? oa naia oaiaeaioeiy aeieea? anyeee ?ac, eiee
nioeiaeueia cia/aiiy i iia’ycaiee c iei aaeiiiino?aoeaiee aai oiiainiaee
oene ia aoaeue-yeo aaeocue aeineiaeieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi aeinyaa?
e?eoe/ii? aaee/eie, aeoiaey/e ca iaaeo aaeaioeaii? ieanoe/iinoi, yea
noai?aia ooiaeaiaioaeueiith iaoeith.

9. Aeeaeia oa ianooaae iinoeoooeieii? a?ici?, ui ?icaeaaeany, aeyaeeeny
oei aieueoi, (1) /ei aeua iioaineaiinoue iieioe/iiai aai
nioeiaeueii-oiiainiaiai oeneo i (2) aieueoa ?icieoey ia?iiaeia
iiioeiaoei? iaeiaio o?eaaeiai ?aia?aoeieii-aiiainoaoe/iiai iaoaiicio i
eiioo?o c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca’yceii.

Nienie iniiaieo ioaeieaoeie ca oaiith aeena?oaoei?.

1. *aoei A.O. Iaoea e ainoaea?noai: iaoiaeieiae/aneee aiaeec
nioeeaeueiie enoi?ee iaoee (aaiaoeea e naeaeoeey a ?innee e Oe?aeia a
niaaoneee ia?eiae) Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa, 1997. 370 n. Oaae. 6. Eee. 16.
Aeae. 525.

2.Oaoaacia A.A.,*aoei A.O.,Oa?aoaaneay Oe.I.Iaoaieciu aaoa?icena:
enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea i?iaeaiu. Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa, 1990. 120 n.

3. *aoei A.O.Eco/aiea iaoaieciia aaoa?icena a iieaeoey?iie aaiaoeea //
Aanoi.Oa?ueeia.oi-oa. 1982. No 226. C.50-52.

4. *aoei A.O.?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?e?iaea aaoa?icena a
aeioeie/aneie aaiaoeea // Enoi?eei-aeie.enneaae. 1983. Aui.9. N.186-191.

5. Oaoaacia A.A., *aoei A.O. ?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeioeie/aneeo e
aeioece/aneeo iaoaieciao yooaeoa aaoa?icena //Aeioeiey aeeaioiuo e
/aeiaaea (Eeaa). 1984. Aui.8. C.21- 30.

6. *aoei A.O.,Oaoaacia A.A. I?aaiecaoeey eaoaae?u aaiaoeee e oeeoieiaee
a Oa?ueeianeii oieaa?neoaoa (ec enoi?ee ?acaeoey aaiaoeee ia Oe?aeia) //
Oeeoieiaey e aaiaoeea. 1985. O.20, No 2. N.157-159.

7. Oaoaacia A.A.,*aoei A.O. Yooaeo aaoa?icena — aaaeiaeoee aaiaoe/aneee
iaoiae iiauoaiey i?iaeoeoeaiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?anoaiee e
aeeaioiuo //Aeieiaey — I?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie i?ia?aiia.Eeaa: Aeua oeiea,
1987, c. 130-141.

8.*aoei A.O., Oaoaacia A.A. [?aoe.]:Ioc?oeiaa A.A. ?ieue oeeoieiaee a
oi?ie?iaaiee e ?acaeoee iauaaeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai. I.: Iaoea,1988. 175
n. // Aii?inu enoi?ee anoanoaiciaiey e oaoieee, 1989. No 4. N. 144-145.

9. *aoei A.O., Oaoaacia A.A. Enoi?ey eco/aiey aea?eaeiie neeu //
Enoi?eei-aeie. enneaae.1989. Aui. 10. N.102-120.

10.*aoei A.O. Iao/iia niaauaiea “Aeiyeaeo?e/aneea naienoaa eeaoi/iiai
yae?a e ninoiyiea i?aaiecia” // Oeeoieiaey e aaiaoeea. 1990. O.24,No.3.
N. 76-77.

11.*aoei A.O. Iaeioi?ua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey enneaaeiaaiee iaoaieciia
aaoa?icena // I?e?iaea, i?iyaeaiey e i?iaiice?iaaiea aaoa?icena. Eeaa,
Iaoe. aeoiea, 1992, n.6-23.

12. Oaoaacia A.A., *aoei A.O. Aaiaoeea e oaoiieiae/aneea ?aaiethoeee OO
aaea (Aaiaoe/aneay eiaeaia?ey:enoiee,nouiinoue e iineaaenoaey aeey
ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee)// Aaiaoe/aneay eiaeaia?ey: enoi?ey, ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey. Oa?ueeia:OAIA, 1995, n. 4-11.

13.Nieiaeiaieeiaa A.N., Oiea?neee A.A.,*aoei A.O. Naaa?nei-Aeiiaoeeay
aeieiae/aneay noaioeey Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa // Iao/i.
enneaaeiaaiey ia Naaa?nei-Aeiiaoeeie aeieiae/aneie noaioeee. Iao-eu
thaeeae. eiio., iinayuaiiie 80-eaoeth iniiaaiey. Oa?ueeia:
Oa?ueeia.oi-o, 1995, n. 4-11.

14.Cheshko V.T. The development of general and human genetics in Kharkov
State University (a short historical essay) // School of Fund. Med.
Journ., 1996, No 3. P. 67-70.

15.*aoei A.O. Eaai Oiaeueaaocai: o/aiue e a?aiy // Aeieiaey a oeiea,
1996. No 6. N. 26-30.

16.*aoei A.O. Oaiaeinee Aeia?aeaineee: iaae aeaoo ie?ia // Aeieiaey
a oeiea. 1998. No 4. N. 25-29.

17. *aoei A.O.Aeieo?eia “eeanniaie iaoee” eae oaiiiai ie?iaie eoeueoo?u
e ?acaeoea anoanoaiciaiey: nenoaiiue aniaeo (ia i?eia?a aaiaoeee) //
Aini. Oa?eia. Oi-oo.1997. No 388. Aeooaeueii i?iaeaie oieinioi? iaoee i
no/anii? oaoiieiai?.

*aoei A.O. Iaoea i aea?aeaaa: iaoiaeieiai/iee aiaeic nioeiaeueii?
inoi?i? iaoee (aaiaoeea oa naeaeoeiy a ?ini? i Oe?a?ii ca ?aaeyinueeeo
/ania).- ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oieinionueeeo iaoe
ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 09.00.09 — oieinioiy iaoee, Oa?eianueeee aea?aeaaiee
oiiaa?neoao, Oa?eia, 1998

Aeena?oaoeiy yaey? niaith nenoaiia iaoiaeieiai/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy
i?ioeano e?eciai? eiaaiethoei? ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoee, i?eeeaaeieo
aeineiaeieo ?ic?iaie i oaoiieiai? (ia i?eeeaaei ?icaeoeo aaiaoeee). a
iieioe/iiio oa nioeiaeueiiio eiioaenoi. I?iaiaeiciaaia o?ainoi?iaoeiy
no?oeoo?e eiioeaiooaeueieo iiioeyoeie iiae aei?th o?ueio eiiieaenia
aca?iiiia`ycaieo nioeiaeueieo oaeoi?ia — oieinioi? ia?enecio,
oeaio?aeiciaaiiai aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca ?icaeoeii iaoee i
o?ainoi?iaoei? iaioaeioaoo. Noi?ioeueiaaii oiiae aeieeiaiiy o nenoaii
aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth iaoeiai-aeineiaeieoeueei? aeiyeueiinoi iaoaiicio
c iiceoeaiei cai?ioiei ca`yceii oa aecia/aii eiai ianeiaeee aeey
?icaeoeo iaoee i iaoeiaiai niiaoiaa?enoaa.

Eeth/iai neiaa: iaoea, iaoiaeieiaiy, nioeiaeueia inoi?iy,
eiioeaiooaeueia iiioeyoeiy, nioeii-eoeueoo?ia eiaaiethoeiy, iieioe/ia
i?eiooaiiy.

*aoei A.O. Iaoea e ainoaea?noai: iaoiaeieiae/aneee aiaeec nioeeaeueiie
enoi?ee iaoee (aaiaoeea e naeaeoeey a ?innee e Oe?aeia a niaaoneee
ia?eiae).- ?oeiienue

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeinioneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.09 — oeeinioey iaoee, Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1998

Aeenna?oaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaiiia iaoiaeieiae/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna e?eceniie eiyaiethoeee ooiaeaiaioaeueiie iaoee,
i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?ac?aaioie e oaoiieiaee (ia i?eia?a
?acaeoey aaiaoeee) a iieeoe/aneii e nioeeaeueiii eiioaenoa.
I?iaiaeece?iaaiu eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u eiioeaiooaeueiuo iiioeyoeee iiae
aeaenoaeai o?ao eiiieaenia acaeiinaycaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia —
oeeinioee ia?enecia, oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey ca
?acaeoeai iaoee e o?ainoi?iaoeee iaioaeeoaoa eae naiiai iao/iiai
niiauanoaa, oae e ae?oaeo neiaa ianaeaiey. Noi?ioee?iaaiu oneiaey
aicieeiiaaiey a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe iaoaiecia n iieiaeeoaeueiie
ia?aoiie naycueth e ii?aaeaeaiu aai iineaaenoaey aeey ?acaeoey iaoee e
iao/iiai niiauanoaa. Iniiaiuie iieiaeaieyie, ionoaeaaaiuie a
aeenna?oaoeee, yaeythony neaaeothuea. Niaaoneay eiioeaioeey
nioeeaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey ?acaeoey iaoee a iniiaiii
niioaaonoaoao ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie noeeaioenoneie eiioeaioeee
i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, ainoiaeyuae e Ieaoiio. ?acaeoea
yoie oaiaeaioeee i?eaaei iaeiaei e i?aa?auaieth iaoee a yeaiaio
ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeiu e oo?aoa ath nioeeaeueiie e eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aaoiiiiee. Nenoaia acaeiinaycae iaoee e eiuo yeaiaioia nioeeaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoii iienuaaaony iiaeaeueth eiioeaiooaeueiuo
iiioeyoeee, aaea oeaio?aeueiia yae?i i?aaenoaaeytho ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey, a ia?eoa?e/aneea iiioeyoeee, iaeaieaa iiaeaa?aeaiiua
aeeyieth aiaoieo (nioeeaeueiuo, iieeoe/aneeo e o.i.) aicaeaenoaee —
i?eeeaaeiua ?ac?aaioee. (I?aaeeaaaaiay iiaeaeue yaeyaony neioacii
iiaeaee eiioeaiooaeueiuo iiioeyoeee N.Ooeieia e i?aaenoaaeaiee i
no?oeoo?a enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii E.Eaeaoina e a oeaeii
niioaaonoaoao i?eioeeiai e iiaeoiaeai yaiethoeeiiiie yienoaiieiaee
iaoee). Iniiaiuie oaiaeaioeeyie a ?acaeoee i?aaiecaoeee niaaoneie
iaoee a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae yaeythony iai?a?uaiia oneeaiea
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai eiio?iey e iinoiyiiua iiiuoee niaoaiey ooieoeee
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo o/?aaeaeaiee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo no?oeoo?. Oaeei
ia?acii, a oiaea yaiethoeee iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu auaoaai Niaaoneiai
Nithca i?iecioae ia?aoiae io naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee iao/iuo oai?ee e
iai?aaeaiee e aeanoeie nenoaia iieeoeei-no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey.
Iaeanoue iaeneiaeueiie eioaineaiinoe aeoeaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a ?acaeoea aaiaoeee e naeaeoeee ?anoe?yeanue ni a?aiaiai
a iai?aaeaiee io i?eeeaaeiie aaiaoeee e naeaeoeee (1937-1938 aa.)
e ooiaeaiaioaeueiui aaiaoe/aneei enneaaeiaaieyi, iaeaieaa oanii
naycaiiui n oeeinioneeie i?iaeaiaie anoanoaiciaiey (1947-1949
aa.). I?e yoii eieoeee?iaaee yoio i?ioeann ia eaeaieiae/aneea eieeecee,
a eiioeeeou, eiaaoea iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneoth i?e?iaeo. Eciaiaiey,
iaoneiaeaiiua aeeyieai “i?ieaoa?neie iaoee” ia i?aaiecaoeeth
ooiaeaiaioaeueiie iaoee (i?aaeaea anaai — aaiaoeee) e aa?iiiiee, a
/anoiinoe — naeaeoeee e naiaiiaiaenoaa, i?eaaee e ?acaeoeth i?ioeanna
einoeoooeeiiaeueiie y?icee iaoee, e ?ac?ooaieth iaoiaeieiae/aneiai e
eoeueoo?ii-ineoieiae/aneiai ooiaeaiaioa, ia eioi?ii iniiauaaeinue
naeueneia oicyenoai no?aiu. A neeo ionoonoaey /aoeie acaeiinayce iaaeaeo
eioaineaiinoueth aaeieieno?aoeaiiai eiio?iey e noaaeeae ?acaeoey
oai?aoe/aneiai ooiaeaiaioa iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu, iiuiinoue i?ioeannia
einoeoooeeiiaeueiie aeano?oeoeee ieacaeanue a enneaaeoaiii neo/aa aeecea
e iaeneioio. Ai acaeiiioiioaieyo aaiaoeee e ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiia?aoa noi?ie?iaaeny iaoaieci n iieiaeeoaeueiie ia?aoiie naycueth,
ia?ooathuee ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e onoie/eainoue anae
nenoaiu. A aieaa naeaaeaiiii aeaea oa aea oaiaeaioeey aicieeaao anyeee
?ac, eiaaea nioeeaeueiia cia/aiea e nii?yaeaiiia n iei
aaeieieno?aoeaiia eee oeiainiaia aeaaeaiea ia eaeoth-eeai iaeanoue
enneaaeiaaiee aeinoeaaao e?eoe/aneie aaee/eiu, i?aauoay caian
nicaeaaaaiie ooiaeaiaioaeueiie iaoeie aaeaioeaiie ieanoe/iinoe..
Aeoaeia e ianooaau ?acaeaathuaeny einoeoooeeiiaeueiie y?icee
ieacuaaaony oai aieueoa, /ai auoa eioaineaiinoue iieeoe/aneiai eee
nioeeaeueii-oeiainiaiai aeaaeaiey e aieueoa ?aciinoue ia?eiaeia
eieoeeaoeee iaeiaiaa aeeeoaeueiiai ?aia?aoeeiiii-aiiainoaoe/aneiai
iaoaiecia e iaoaieci n iieiaeeoaeueiie ia?aoiie naycueth.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoea, iaoiaeieiaey, nioeeaeueiay enoi?ey,
eiioeaiooaeueiay iiioeyoeey, nioeei-eoeueoo?iay eiyaiethoeey,
iieeoe/aneia i?eioaeaeaiea.

Cheshko V.T. The science and the state: the methodological analysis of
social history of science (genetics and selection in Russia and Ukraine
in Soviet period).- The manuscript

Thesis for doctor`s degree by speciality 09.00.09 — phylo- sophy of
science, Kharkiv state university, Kharkiv, 1998

Dissertation is devoted to system methodological investigation of
coevolution process of fundamental science, applied research development
and technologies (on example of development of genetics) in political
and social context. The change of structure of conceptual populations
under action of three complexes interconnected factors — phylosophy of
marxism, centralized state control of development of science and
mentality transformation of the scientific community and other layers of
population were analysed. The conditions of formation in state control
of research activity system of cycle with positive feedback and its
consequences for development of science and scientific community were
formulated.

The key words: the science, the methodology, social history, conceptual
population, social-cultural coevolution, political coercion.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 24 /a?aiy 1998 ?.

Oi?iao 60o84 1/16. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 2,0 Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Iaae?oeiaaii RISO Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoa.

Oa?e?a, 310077, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4.

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