I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea

Naaao Iaae?y Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 37.01 (09)

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEOIAAIIss

O*I?ANUeEI? IIEIAe? AAEE*EIE

(1869 – 1914 ??.)

13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

?aaii-O?aie?anuee – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o I?eea?iaonueeiio oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

Nooia?ee Aiaaeai Ieoaeeiae/,

I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee

oa oe?a?iiciaanoaa I?eea?iaonueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea

(i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee)

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeo?ou Aiaoie?e Aieiaeeie?iae/,
Oa?iii?euenueeee aenia?eiaioaeueiee ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe,
i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe (i. Oa?iii?eue)

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Eaaa Na?oeaia Aiaaeai?aia,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee (i. Euea?a)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? O.Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee aeui?
oeiee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “___” _________ 1998 ?ieo i ___ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 20.051.01 o I?eea?iaonueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea ca aae?anith: 284001, i.
?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. Oaa/aiea, 57.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? I?eea?iaonueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea (284001, i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
aoe.Oaa/aiea, 57).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “___ “_____________ 1998 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ?aaa I. N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie oa nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie.

O no/anieo oiiaao ?icaoaeiae iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae ia ia?oee ieai
aeoiaeeoue i?iaeaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe ye
ia?aaeoiiae aeoiaaiiy iiaiai iieie?iiy oe?a?ioe?a. Iniiaith ?aeaieia??
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa i?iaieioaii iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath. ??
?aae?caoe?y aeiaaa? ea?aeeiaeueiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy, iaoith yeiai Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia “Ina?oa”
(“Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”) aecia/eea “iaaoooy iieiaeei iieie?iiyi
nioe?aeueiiai aeina?aeo, oniaaeeoaaiiy aeooiaieo iaaeaaiue oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, aeinyaiaiiy aeniei? eoeueoo?e i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo aca?iei,
oi?ioaaiiy o iieiae? iacaeaaeii a?ae iaoe?iiaeueii? iaeaaeiino?
iniaeno?nieo ?en a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ?icaeiaii?
aeooiaiino?, o?ce/ii? aeineiiaeino?, ooaeiaeiuei-anoaoe/ii?, i?aaiai?,
o?oaeiai?, aeieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e”.

Caaaeaiiyi iaaeaaia?ee a no/anieo oiiaao ? oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo ?
cania?a aeoiaaiiy iieiae?, caeaoii? caaacia/eoe oni?o aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa. Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii o oe?e ni?aa? ia? noaoe
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c oai??? oa i?aeoeee aeoiaaiiy iieiae?.

Ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiao? ?noi??y ?icaeoeo oe?eueieoeoaa oa
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee a Aaee/ei? e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., ine?eueee
naia ooo a icia/aiee ia??iae aaeaeiny ae?iaeoe oai?aoe/i? iniiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe oa ao?eeoe iniiai? ?o iieiaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo
aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iieiae?.

Aeine?aeaeaiith ?icaeoeo oe?eueieoeoaa, iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee Aaee/eie
i?enay/aii iaiaei ?ia?o. Aaea o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. aeeoee i?aoe?
iieuenueeeo o/aieo A.Nei/aea, E.A?aeiaia, E.Oaeueeaae/a, ui ?ice?eaaee
noai oe?eueieoeoaa Aaee/eie a e?ioe? OV??? oa ia ii/aoeo O?O no.

O aei?aaeyinueeee ia??iae i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a eiioaeno?
?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee Aaee/eie aiae?coaaee I.A?eaithe,
I.Aaeoueinueeee, I.A?ooaanueeee, TH.Aeca?iae/, I.?aoai, ?.E?ei’yeaae/,
A.Ia/ianueeee, I.Ia/ianueeee, ?.THueoei oa ?io?.

Ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo oe?eueieoeoaa, iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee e?ath
aeine?aeaeoaaee o ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae E.Aa?e, A.I?oth?ia, A.Aiaeia?,
I.Ae?aeoo, A.Eiiae?aothe oa ?io?. I?ioa c a?aeiieo i?e/ei aiie ia iiaee
?icaeyaeaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? aniaeoe aeoiaaiiy aaeeoeueei? iieiae?.

C iiaeo iiceoe?e, ia’?eoeaii ?ice?eaathoue i?ioeane, ui i?ioiaeeee a
No?aei?e Aaee/ei?, aeine?aeaeaiiy 90-o ?ie?a: I.Aa?ie, Ae.Aa?oethea,
?.Eo?eye, N.Eaae, C.Iaaa/aanueei?, A.Nooia?eea. Iaeiae niaoe?aeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
o/i?anueei? iieiae? Aaee/eie, a?aenooi?.

Aeooaeuei?noue, i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue, a?aenooi?noue oe?e?niiai
?noi?eei–iaaeaaia?/iiai aiae?co icia/aii? i?iaeaie coiiaeee aea?? oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy: “Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei?
iieiae? Aaee/eie (1869–1914??.)”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? iia’ycaia c i?iaeaiaoeeith iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.Noaoaieea.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?noi??y ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean ?icaeoeo oai??? oa i?aeoeee
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae? Aaee/eie o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no.

Iaoa ?iaioe: i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th iaoe, ci?noo, iaoiae?a ?
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?
e?ath.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

– aeyaeoe noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oa nioe?aeueii–aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae
?icaeoeo ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae;

– i?inoaaeeoe aieea iaaeaei?i?yinueei? oa cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei?
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee ia oi?ioaaiiy ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a
e?a?;

– aeine?aeeoe aeeaae aaeeoeueeeo iaaeaaia?a ? a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a o
?ic?iaeo oai?aoe/ieo canaae iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy a icia/aio
aeiao;

– i?iaiae?coaaoe i?aeoeeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy aaeeoeueei? iieiae?;

– aecia/eoe iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo c
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ia?aei? ?aea? oe?a?inueeeo
(O.Oaa/aiea, ?.O?aiea, E.Ooeinueeiai, I.Aeooiiae/a, A.A?aoeueiie,
I.A?ooaanueeiai, N.?oniai?, N.N??iiieea, I.Aaeoueinueeiai, I.?aai/oea,
?.THueoeia) oa cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo (ss.A.Eiiainueeiai,
E.A.Ianoaeioeoe?, AE.AE.?onni, E.O.Aa?aa?oa) iaaeaaia?a. Aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaee eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy, ui
i?noyoueny a Caeii? Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”, Aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e
i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”), Eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy oa a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?.

Iniiai? aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy: oiiaee Oeaio?aeueiiai Aea?aeaaiiai
?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie a i.Eueaia?, aea?aeaaieo iaeanieo a?o?a?a –
Euea?anueeiai, Oa?iii?euenueeiai, ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai;
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a oa ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy, oai?e
aaeeoeueeeo iaaeaaia?a, ioae?oeenoe/i?, iaoeia? i?aoe?
a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ieo ae?y/?a e?ath e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., ui
ciaoiaeyoueny o a?aeae?eao ??aee?nii? eieae oa oe?a?i?ee Iaoeiai?
a?ae?ioaee ?i. A.Noaoaieea AI Oe?a?ie, oiiaeao Oeaio?aeueii? iaoeiai?
a?ae?ioaee AI Oe?a?ie ?i.A.Aa?iaaenueeiai a i.Ee?a?; aeieoiaioe iocath
ina?oe I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.Noaoaieea; iaoa??aee
a?ae?ioae I?eea?iaonueeiai oa Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a.

O i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oae?
iaoiaee: o?iiieia?/iee, aiae?co, neioaco, oai?aoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy oa
ii??aiyiiy ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a, iiae?e, iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu;
nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa eeaneo?eaoe?? a?o?aieo aeaea?ae,
aeia?aeeiai-?ioi?iaoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ? e?oa?aoo?e.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca aeo?aeiee ?oa?ae ocyoee 1869 ?. –
/an i?eeiyooy aano?i-oai?nueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oe?eueiiai caeiio, ui
ni?eya iioe?aiith e ?icaeoeo ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy. Aa?oiy
iaaea ca?aa?oueny ?c ii/aoeii ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, yea i?ecaaea aei
ea?aeeiaeueieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ia?ai?i o ?a?ii?.

Aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa cae?enithaaeanue
oi?iaeiaae aeaio aoai?a. Ia ia?oiio (1995–1996 ??.) aea/aeany
e?oa?aoo?a, ooi/ithaaany iaoeiaee aia?ao: i?aaeiao, iaoa, caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy oiui.

Ia ae?oaiio (1997–1998 ??.) – aiae?coaaeeny oa ocaaaeueithaaeeny
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? ioae?eoaaeeny ie?aieie noaooyie oa
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo; i?iaiaeeeiny
ioi?ieaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a o aeaeyae? aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a eiiieaeniiio aiae?c? aaiethoe?? iaoe,
ci?noo ? oi?i iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a oi?iaeiaae 1869–1914 ??.

Aena?oeaii oai?aoe/i? iai?aoethaaiiy c ieoaiue iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
aaeeoeueeeo iaaeaaia?a ? a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a o eiioaeno? iia?oiuei?
iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee aea?aeaa Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai
oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua Aaee/eie, ia iniia? /iai ?ice?eoi
oiai/anio iiaeaeue iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a e?a?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a aeine?aeaeaii? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue,
ui i?noyoueny a iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoeyo aaeeoeueeeo iaaeaaia?a c ieoaiue
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, iaa?oiooaaii? cia/aiiy ?o oai?aoe/ii? oa
i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aea/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? oiai/anii? nenoaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a Aaee/eie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaoeiooue
aeaea?aeii aeey ?ic?iaee niaoeeo?n?a c iaaeaaia?ee, iaienaiiy
iaa/aeueieo oa iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a. Oai?aoe/i? iai?aoethaaiiy
aaeeoeueeeo iaaeaaia?a ? oe?iiei aeaea?aeii aeey i?aeoeee no/anii?
oeiee, yea aaaea aiaeia?/iee aei ieioeiai iiooe iioeiaeueii? iiaeae?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy. Ie?ai? aeaiaioe aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? iaoeiaoeyie, ui aeine?aeaeothoue ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo
oe?eueieoeoaa oa iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee Aaee/eie, a oaeiae o
aeeeaaeaoeuee?e ?iaio?.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii? aaiethoe??
iaoe, ci?noo oa oi?i iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a o aeine?aeaeoaaiee
ia??iae; aeyaeaii? oa aaaaeaii? a iaoeiaee ia?a i?aoeue oiai/anieo
aaeeoeueeeo iaaeaaia?a, a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a c iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ? iniiaieo aeniiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/o?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace; iaoeiaei
i?aeoiaeii aei aiae?co iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu ? oaeo?a; iii?ith ia i?eioeeie
?noi?ecio e ia’?eoeaiino?; canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
iao? e caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe, o ?o i?aai?/iiio aca?iica’yceo;
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iaea?aeaieo aeniiae?a ?c iio?aaaie no/anii? nenoaie
ina?oe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaoaaeeny
oeyoii aeiiia?aeae ? iaaiai?aiue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ?noi???
iaaeaaia?ee oa oe?a?iiciaanoaa I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.A.Noaoaieea, aeei?enoaiiy o aenooiao ia i?aeia?iaeieo oa
?anioae?eainueeeo, i?aeaoc?anueeeo iaoeiai–i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo a
?aaii-O?aie?anueeo (1996, 1997 ??.), Oa?iiiie? (1996, 1997 ??.), Ee?a?
(1996 ?.), a oaeiae o 20-oe ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a aei eiaeiiai ?icae?eo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui aeeth/a? 499 iaeiaioaaiue. Aeena?oaoe?y
i?noeoue iaeio oaaeeoeth ? /ioe?e aeiaeaoee, ye? ?icoaoiaai? ia 22
noi??ieao. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 208 n.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aea?? oa aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii eiai iaoo, caaaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
iaoiaee oa aoaie ?iaioe. Aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaea?aeueii? aace,
ia??oioiaaii iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy ye
nioe?aeueii–iaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeaia ? aaaeeeaee /eiiee
iaoe?iiaeueii–eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a Aaee/eie” –
i?iaiae?ciaaii noai aena?oeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie o iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? O?O–OO no., ?ice?eoi noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ye aaaeeeaiai /eiieea
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a e?ath, a oaeiae
aieea ia oeae i?ioean ia?aaeiaeo ?aeae ?c Iaaeaei?i?yiueie oa e?a?i
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie.

I?inoaaeaii ?icaeoie ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a eiioaeno?
?noi?e/iiai oa iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo e?ath.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui no?eaeiai, iaaeiei yeiai i?iaiaeeeeny iiooee iaoe
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, noaea oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay, yea
oaae i?ieoea aaiethoe?th oi?iaeiaae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. Oae, ia
ii/aoeo O?O no. nooi?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiaaaiue oe?a?ioe?a noaiiaeei
caeiaoooy aaoiiii?? Aaee/eie o neeaae? Aano???. Ia ia?aeii? O?O ? OO
noie?oue o noni?euei?e na?aeiiino? ooaa?aeeeany ?aeay ?icaoaeiae
iacaeaaeii? naiino?eii? aea?aeaae.

Aieiaio ?ieue o oeueiio i?ioean? a?ae?a?aei iioe?aiiy a iaaeaaia?/i?e
aeoioe? ?aea? ia?iaeiino?, yeo ia?oeie c oe?a?inueeeo iaaeaaia?a
aeneiaeee I.A.Aeooiiae/ oa E.Ae.Ooeinueeee.

Aeine?aeaeaii, ui i?ae aieeaii ?aea? ia?iaeiino? o iaaeaaia?eo aoiaeeoue
i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueiiai o aeoiaaii?, eio?a aeoeaii ?ic?iaeyeany ye
aaeeoeueeeie, oae ? iaaeaei?i?yinueeeie iaaeaaiaaie. Iaiao?aei?noue
aeoiaaiiy iieiae? ia iaoe?iiaeueieo iniiaao a?aenoithaaee A.Aioiiiae/,
A.A??i/aiei, I.Ae?aaiiaiia, I.Eoe?o, ss.*ai?aa oa ?io?. Ni?euei?noue
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo iiooe?a aaeeoeueeeo ? iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo
iaaeaaia?a na?ae/eoue, ui iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy – ?noi?e/ii
iaoiiaeaia, ae?iaeaia ia?iaeii nenoaia aeoiaaiiy ae?oae oa iieiae? a
oe?a?inueeiio aeon?, iacaaaeath/e ia ooo/ia ?iciaaeoaaiiy Oe?a?ie.

O iaaeaaia?/i?e aeoioe? i?ia?aeiei /eiieeii iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
aeciaii iaoe?iiaeueio oeieo, ui i?ecaaei aei aeoeaii? ai?ioueae ca ??
iiaoaeiao, nii/aoeo iaaaeeeith a?oiith ?ioae?aaioe??, a a e?ioe?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo – oiaa?enoaaie, i?aai?caoe?yie, ye?
?ai?acaiooaaee cia/io /anoeio oe?a?ioe?a Aaee/eie.

Ia ii/aoeo OO no. i?ia?aeiith o oe?e ai?iouea? noaea aeiiaa iiaoaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee, ui iieyaaei o i?enoinoaaii? inoaiiuei? aei iio?aa
oe?a?inueei? noni?eueiino? (I.A?ooaanueeee). Oeiea “ioneoue aeeoe ?
?icaeaaoeny i?ae i?ii?iiyi iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?”, aooe i?ieiyoith
iaoe?iiaeueiei aeooii, aoaeoaaoeny ia iaoe?iiaeueieo canaaeao, aooe
caaaeueiiaeinooiiith, na?onueeith, aeaiie?aoe/iith, ?aeeiith,
ni?eueiith, a ?acoeueoaoii aeoiaiiai aieeao, “ei?iiith ae?yeueiino?”
iiaeii? noaoe iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeii? /eaie ia?iaeo, eio?? ?ioa?ane
iaoe?? noaaeyoue aeua iniaenoeo (?.THueoei).

Iieacaii, ui a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae o Aaee/ei? iaaoee iioe?aiiy iia?
?aea? c oai??? oa i?aeoeee ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy: a?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy,
o?oaeiai? oeiee, aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaaeaaia?ee, iaaeaaia?ee i?aaiaoecio
? o.ae. Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae c iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy aea/aee,
aiae?coaaee oa i?iiaaoaaee aaeeoeuee? iaaeaaiae A.A?aoeueiia,
?.Aeai’yi/oe, I.?aai/oe, ?.THueoei. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
na?ae/aoue, ui aiie aeei?enoiaoaaee oai?e ss.A.Eiiainueeiai,
AE.AE.?onni, E.A.Ianoaeioeoe?, E.O.Aa?aa?oa, O.O?aaaey oa ?ioeo
i?aaenoaaiee?a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee, ye?
?iciianthaeaeoaaeeny a Aaee/ei? ye a i?ea?iae?, oae ? a ia?aeeaaeao.
I?aoe? iaaeaaia?a iiaiai /ano aea/aee aeoiaaioe? o/eoaeuenueeeo
nai?ia??e e?ath.

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy aenooiaei iaeii/anii ye neeaaeiaa, /eiiee ?
?acoeueoao iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Oai?aoe/i? canaaee ? i?aeoeea iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueei? o/i?anueei? iieiae?” – ?ice?eoi aeeaae
iaaeaaia?a ? a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a o ?ic?iaeo oai?aoe/ieo canaae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, i?iaiae?ciaaii i?aeoeeo aeoiaaiiy aaeeoeueei?
o/i?anueei? iieiae? a iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeon?.

Aiae?c a?o?aieo aeaea?ae oa ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e
na?ae/eoue, ui o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae a Aaee/ei? ia
eiioeaiooaeueiiio ??ai? ii?aoeueiaoaaeany icia/aia i?iaeaia. O ?yae?
noaoae oa i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaio?a aaeeoeueeeie iaaeaaiaaie I.?aai/oeii,
?.Eaiono??i, ?.E?aaaoeueeei, I.Eoeeie/ai, I.Eiceinueeei,
N.Oiiao?anueeei, ?.O?aieii, ?.THueoeiei oai?aoe/ii ia??oioiaaii nooue,
iaoo, ci?no, caaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, eiai i?eioeeie,
caniae, iaoiaee, iniiai? oi?ie ?aae?caoe??.

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy ?icaeyaeaeiny ieie ye i?e?iaeia iio?aaa iaoe??,
ui ia? ae?inoaoe c ?? o?aaeeoe?e ? eoeueoo?iiai noaio, ei??ieoeny a ??
oa?aeoa?? ? cae/eao. O i?aoeyo I.Aa?a?inueeiai, I.Aiciyea, A.A?aoeueiie,
A.Ca?eoeueeiai, ?.Caa?nueeiai, E.Eaoieeaae/a, I.Iioy, I.Ia?oeoeueeiai oa
?ioeo iaoa aeoiaaiiy o?aeooaaeany ye oi?ioaaiiy “ethaeeie naiai a?eo ?
naiai ia?iaeo”, ieaeaiiy ? ooaa?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo /aniio:
aieaethaiino?, iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeooo, aeooiaiino?, iaoe?iiaeueieo
ii/ooo?a.

Aaiethoe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? i?ecaaea aei ci?ie o oi?ioethaaii? iaoe
aeoiaaiiy. ?c ii/aoeii iiaiai noie?ooy aiia ioioiaeithaaeany ?c
oi?ioaaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, ae?yeueiiai iao??ioecio, oiaoi
ieaeaiiyi aea?aeaaioai?/i? iieiae?. ?acoeueoaoii iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy iiaeiia aoea noaoe aa?iii?eii ?icaeiooa iniaeno?noue, yea
ii?aeioaaea a o nia? noi?iiaaio iaoe?iiaeueio naiina?aeii?noue,
oiea?aioia noaaeaiiy aei ethaeae ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, ye?e aoee a
i?eoaiaii? caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino?.

O aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae iaaeaaiaaie e?ath iaa?oioiaoaaeeny oai?aoe/ii
? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? oae? iniiai? caniae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy: ??aeia iiaa, ?noi??y, aaia?ao?y;
oieueeei?ii-aoiia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee; ia?iaei? oa ?ae?a?ei? o?aaeeoe??,
cae/a?, ia?yaee; iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a; aeaoe ia?iaeiiai eaeaiaea?y;
iaoe?iiaeueia neiaie?ea.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae i?ia?aeieie i?eioeeiaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy aecia/aeeny:

a) ia?iaei?noue, eio?a iaeii/anii aaaaeaeany caniaii iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy ? ia?aaeaa/aea ?aei?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?
caaaeueiiethaenueeiai. Aeoiaaiiy, i?aee?anethaaee A.A?aoeueiia,
I.?aai/oe oa ?io?, iiaeiii ae?inoaoe c iio?aa ia?iaeo, a?aecia/aoeny
iaoe?iiaeueiith ni?yiiaai?noth, i?euaiethaaoe ethaia aei anueiai
??aeiiai, ia aeiioneath/e i?iyao oia?i?cio. Aaaeeeaith iciaeith
ia?iaeii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? aaeeoeuee? iaaeaaiae aaaaeaee ??aeio iiao;

a) i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aei?noue, ui aeiaaa? a?aooaaiiy a?eiaeo oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo a?aei?iiinoae ae?oae, a oaeiae ?o iaoe?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae;

a) aoiai?caoe?y, ui ia?aaeaa/a? noai?aiiy oiia aeey anaa?/iiai ?
aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?, ia?aoai?aiiy oeiee ?c iaa/aeueiiai
caeeaaeo o aeoiaoth/ee (A.A?aoeueiia, I.Iaea?ooea, A.?aoaeuenueeee,
?.THueoei), aea cae?enithaaoeiaoueny iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy ae?oae;

a) aeaiie?aoecaoe?y, oiaoi onoiaiiy aaoi?eoa?iiai noeeth aeoiaaiiy.
“Iniiaa naiaiaee” (A.A?aoeueiia) iiaeiia ii?aeioaaoeny ?c ona?aeiieaiiyi
aeeoeiith, o/iai nai?o a?iiaaenueeeo, noni?eueieo iaia’yce?a, ui
iia’ycaia ?c oi?ioaaiiyi ?aeaeiino?, oiaoi iaaeaiiy i??i?eoaoo ?ioa?anai
iaoe??, aioiai?noue ?c naiiiiaea?oaith i?aoethaaoe aeey ?? aeaaa.

Iniiaith iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy aaeeoeuee? iaaeaaiae aaaaeaee
iaoe?iiaeueio eoeueoo?o, ia?iaeiciaanoai, oe?a?iiciaanoai.

Aeey ia?aaaaeaiiy iaoe e caaaeaiue iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o i?aeoe/io
ieiueio, iaaieiooaaee iaaeaaiae, iaiao?aei? oae? oiiae:

– aenieina?aeiiee ?aeaeiee ??aaiue o/eoaeuenoaa;

– ??aeiiiiaia oe?eueieoeoai, ?aoi?ia eiai “ia i?eioeeiao naiaiaee ?
iinooio”;

– iiaoaeiaa aeoiaaiiy ia ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?yo;

– aeei?enoaiiy e?aueo caeiaooe?a ia?iaeii? iaaeaaia?ee;

– i?eeo/aiiy aeeoeie aei aeooiaiiai aeeooy ia?iaeo /a?ac ??aeio iiao,
iciaeiieaiiy c eoeueoo?ieie iaaeaaiiyie;

– ni?eueia ae?yeuei?noue on?o aeoiaieo ?inoeoooe?e;

– a?aeiia?aeia iaoa??aeueia aaca.

Aeey oni?oiiai aeoiaaiiy a?ae o/eoae?a aeiaaaeiny ciaiiy i?e?iaee
aeeoeie, ?? a?eiaeo ? ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, aaea/? c iaoith i?aeai?o a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiae?a aeoiaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui ?icaeoeia? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy ni?eyei ca?iaeaeaiiy a Aaee/ei? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?ane. *aniiene
“Aacaoa oeieueia”, “Oeieueia /aniienue”, “O/eoaeue”, “I?aii?”, “Iaoa
oeiea” aena?oethaaee iia? aeinyaiaiiy ca?oa?aeii? iaaeaaia?ee,
iaoe?iiaeuei? aeoiai? o?aaeeoe??, aeina?ae o/eoae?a e?ath c
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a. Ia ?oi?o noi??ieao ciaoiaeeee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy, iaeiei ?c yeeo aenooiaea aeeeaia “y ?
noni?euenoai”. Ia ii/aoie OO no. o iaaeaaia?/i?e i?an? ooaa?aeaeo?oueny
aeoiea, ui ethaee iiaeii? aeeoe ia eeoa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei aeeooyi, aea e
a?iiaaenueeei, yea i?iyaey?oueny ?o o/anoth a aeeoo? iaoe?? (I.?aai/oe),
oiaoi aooe ?aeaeieie – noni?euei? ?ioa?ane noaaeoe aeua nai?o aeanieo,
?icoi?th/e, ui “?o i?aaaeeaa aeia?i caeaaeia a?ae aeia?a caaaeo”
(?.O?ai/oe).

Eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, eio?a aaaaeaeiny
?aeeii i?aaeeueiei, ?ic?iaeyee oe?a?inuee? iaaeaaiae I.Aa?a?inueeee,
?.Aa?oioaanueeee, A.A?aoeueiia, A.Ca?eoeueeee, ?.Caa?nueeee, I.?aai/oe,
A.?eueieoeueeee, ?.Eiia/, I.Eoeeie/, I.Ia?oeoeueeee, I.Ia/ianueeee,
A.?aoaeuenueeee, N.Oiiao?anueeee, ?.O?ai/oe, ?.THueoei. Iniaeea?noth
aeoiaiiai i?ioeano icia/aiiai ia??iaeo ? oa, ui ii?yae ?c oai?aoe/ieie
iiooeaie ?ic?iaeyeeny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?aeoe/ieo ae?e aeey ?aae?caoe??
iaoe ? caaaeaiue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ice?eaa? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee aeoiaaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiith ?inoeoooe??th, yea iaea?eueoa aieeaa? ia
i?aai?ciaaia aeoiaaiiy iieiae?, aaeeoeueea noni?euei?noue aaaaeaea
oeieo. Ia?aae ia?oith na?oiaith a?eiith o e?a? ae?yea aea?aeaaia nenoaia
ina?oe, eio?a aeeth/aea 2,5 oen. ia?iaeieo oe?e, 6 a?iiac?e. E??i
oeueiai, ooieoe?iioaaea nenoaia i?eaaoieo iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a,
yea aeeth/aea an? ?oi? oeie, e??i aeueo oe?e. O aeine?aeaeaii?
i?iaiae?ciaaii iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean a oe?a?inueeeo caeeaaeao
ina?oe, oiaoi i?inoaaeaii aeoiaiee aieea ia ae?oae oa iieiaeue a?eii
a?ae 6 aei 18 ?ie?a.

Aeyaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiiiiiaioo ci?noo ina?oe
a?aeaoaaeiny ca ?aooiie aeeth/aiiy aei iaa/aeueieo ieai?a i?aaeiao?a
oe?a?iiciaa/iai ni?yioaaiiy: ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ??aeii? iiae, aaia?ao??
e?ath oiui, iane/aiiy i?ae?o/iee?a aeey an?o oei?a oe?e iaoa??aeaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.

O aeine?aeaeaii? ?ice?eoi iaoe?iiaeueii-aeoiaoth/ee oa?aeoa? iicaeeanii?
oa iicaoe?eueii? ?iaioe c iieiaeaeth, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?? iniiai? oi?ie –
“a?ae/eoe”, aeeniooe, aa/i?e, i?enay/ai? ??aei?e ?noi???, aaia?ao??
e?ath, aecia/iei ?noi?e/iei ae?y/ai, “?ii?ace”, oaao?aeuei? aenoaae,
aeneo?n??, “i?iaoeueee”, ae?yeuei?noue /eoaeaiue, iaoeiaeo ao?oe?a,
nooaeaionueeeo oiaa?enoa, iioe?aiiy o/i?anueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ??cieo
oi?i eiiia?aoe??: iuaaeieo ean, eiiia?aoea?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ua a?ae 60-o ?.?. O?O no. o aaaaoueio aaeeoeueeeo
na?aaei?o caeeaaeao ooieoe?iioaaee iaeaaaeuei? o/i?anuee? ao?oee –
a?iiaaee, eio?? i?iaiaeeee naiiina?oith ? noni?eueio ae?yeuei?noue (o
Euea?anuee?e aeaaeai?/i?e, Oa?iii?euenuee?e, Noai?neaa?anuee?e,
?iaaoeinuee?e a?iiac?yo). ?iaioa oa?iieo ao?oe?a a?aecia/aeany
iaoe?iiaeueiith ni?yiiaai?noth, i?aai?ciaai?noth. *eainoai o a?iiaaeao
ni?eyei ci?oeiaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? o/i?a, ?icoe?aiith ?o
e?oaici?o, oi?ioaaiith no?eeeo ?aeaeieo ia?aeiiaiue. O iaeaaaeueieo
ao?oeao iieiaeue aea/aea oai?e O.Oaa/aiea, aeaaoe oeei ii/ei aei
aoaioaaiiy Eiaca?y. Eoeueo O.Oaa/aiea ni?aaea aaeeeee aieea ia
ooaa?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? aaee/ai. Oe?a?inueea iieiaeue
i?ioe iieuenueeiai na?oiaeyaeo noaaeea na?e na?oiaeyae, i?ioe ieioeiai
iieuenueeiai ia?iaeo noaaeea nai? iaoe?iiaeueia ieioea, i?ioe
e?oa?aoo?ieo oai??a iieuenueeeo ienueiaiiee?a noaaeea oai?e naiai
ei?eoay. Aeyaeaii, ui iniiaieie oeyoaie aieeao aeeooy ? oai?/ino?
Eiaca?y ia aeoiaaiiy aeiai?iiiai iieie?iiy e?ath aoee iciaeiieaiiy
iieiae? c Oaa/aie?anueeeie oai?aie, aa/i?e oa aiaineoae?iiy ia eiai
/anoue, nii?oaeaeaiiy iai’yoiee?a oa anoaiiaeaiiy iai’yoieo ciae?a.

Ia na?oiaeyae aaeeoeueei? iieiae? cia/ii aieeaaea ae?yeuei?noue oaeeo
eaaaeueieo nooaeaionueeeo oiaa?enoa, ye “Aeaaeai?/ia aan?aea”,
“Aeaaeai?/ia a?iiaaea”, “Oe?a?inueeee nooaeaionueeee nithc”. Iniiaieie
oi?iaie ?oiuei? ?iaioe aoee i?aai?caoe?y ??ciiai ?iaeo eo?n?a,
i?aeaioiaea ?aoa?ao?a, aeaeaiiy ae?oeiaaieo aeaeaiue, noaoenoe/ieo
ca?o?a oiui. Eiinie?aeoth/ei /eiieeii ae?yeueiino? oiaa?enoa aenooiaea
oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay, aia?oa ienueiiai aeneiaeaia
aeoiaaioeyie aaeeoeueeeo na?aaei?o oe?e o “Iieiae?e Oe?a?i?”. Oeae
/aniien aieeioa ia ioi?ieaiiy ?aeaeieo ia?aeiiaiue na?aaeiueioe?eueii?
iieiae?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeyaeaii, ui aaeeoeuee? ina?oi? caeeaaee iaee nai?
iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe??, eio?? ia?aaeaaaeeny noa?oeie o/iyie iieiaeoei.
Oea, cie?aia, iioe?aiiy na?aae iieiae? oai??a Eiaca?y, nayoeoaaiiy
?ieiaei ia?iaeaeaiiy I.Oaoeaae/a, O.Oaa/aiea, canioaaiiy “I?ina?oe”,
aeiy ?ae?a?eiiai iao?iia a?iiac??, ii?ea iaae aeoiaaioeyie.

Aaeeoeuee? iaaeaaiae ia?oith aeoiaiith ?inoeoooe??th aaaaeaee n?i’th, o
ye?e caeeaaeathoueny i?aeaaeeie aeey oi?ioaaiiy ii?aeueieo /aniio.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aiie a?aenoithaaee iio?aao c oe?eueiiai a?eo
aiooaaoe ae?oae aei n?iaeiiai aeeooy oeyoii iciaeiieaiiy ?o ?c
aaaeeeaeie aeoiaieie ooieoe?yie aaoueea oa iaoa??. C aeiiaith
i?aai?caoe?? aaouee?anueeiai anaiao/o aenooiaee I.Aa?a?inueeee,
A.?eueieoeueeee, I.Ia?oeoeueeee. A oiiaao ianiai? iaienueiaiiino? na?aae
aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy ni?eueia ae?yeuei?noue n?i’? oa oeiee ?icaeyaeaeany
ieie ye “aeoaea iiaeaaeaia”, iio??aia e iaiao?aeia. O ?iaio?
i?iaiae?ciaaii oiai/ani? oai?aoe/i? iai?aoethaaiiy c ieoaiiy aeoiaaiiy
ae?oae a n?i’?, a oaeiae aena?oeaii iniiai? oi?ie ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo ?inoeoooe?e: iao??ioe/i? nayoa, aa/i?e, “ia?aee”.

Aeyaeaii, ui i?ioyaii onueiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo o aeoiaiiio
i?ioean? aeii?ioaaei ?ae?a?eia ni?yioaaiiy, ui iiynith?oueny i?aaiaiiyi
aaee/ai, ye? ia iaee nai?? aea?aeaae, caa?aaoe iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath
/a?ac oea?eao.

C? noai?aiiyi “I?ina?oe” aeoea?co?oueny iaoe?iiaeueia aeeooy a e?a?.
Iinoathoue iia? i?aai?caoe??, iaoa ae?yeueiino? yeeo ia?aaeaa/aea e
?iaioo na?aae iieiae?. I?ioa aiie ia iiaee iiai?noth caaeiaieueieoe
iio?aae thiiai iieie?iiy a naii?aae?caoe??. Oiio a?iiaaenuee?
i?aai?caoe?? ?i?oe?ththoue noai?aiiy iieiae?aeieo oiaa?enoa — ianiai
aeieeathoue “Nieiee”, “N?/?”, “Ieano”.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o/eoaeyie ni?eueii c n?i’?th, a?iiaaenueeeie oa
iieiae?aeieie i?aai?caoe?yie aaeany aaeeea ?iaioa c aeoiaaiiy iieiae? a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeon?, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeoiaaoe iiaa iieie?iiy –
ethaeae c aea?aeaaioai?/ei ono?aie?iiyi, ye? a?aenoithaaee
iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie a ianooii? ?iee.

Aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace, a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a
aeicaieeei c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.

1. ?icaeoie ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a Aaee/ei? a?aeaoaaany i?ae
aieeaii noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o i?ioean?a, aoa a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iinooio oe?a?ioe?a o
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?.

2. O ?icaeoeo ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy i?aai?/ii ii?aeiai?
caeiaooee oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? iaaeaaia?ee, a?o/eciyii? oa
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee. Oeae ia??iae
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iineeaiiyi aca?iica’yce?a Aaee/eie ?
Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie.

3. Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy ?icaeyaeaeiny aaeeoeueeeie iaaeaaiaaie ye
?noi?e/ii iaoiiaeaia nenoaia aieea?a ia aeeoeio, aeanoeaa oe?a?inueeiio
ia?iaeo, ui ia? naith iaoo ? caniae ?? aeinyaiaiiy, ni?yiiaaia ia
ieaeaiiy ia?iaeieo /aniio ? iiai?thaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ii?ie?a
(A.A?aoeueiia).

Ca oiai/anieie ia?aeiiaiiyie, aeoiaaiiy iiaeiii aooe iia’ycaia c
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iei iinooiii oe?a?inueei? noni?eueiino?, neoaeeoe
iao? iiaoaeiae iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae. Aeoiaaiiy iieiae? a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeon? iaaeaaiae ?icaeyaeaee ye i?e?iaeith iio?aao
ia?iaeo, can?a caa?aaeaiiy iaoe??. Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy aaaaeaeiny
ioi?iiiei ueoii a?ae /oaeeo aieea?a, a?ae aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe??. Oiaoi,
e??i ooieoe?? ?icaeoeo, aiii aeeiioaaei ? ooieoe?th caoenoo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeyaeaii, ui iaoa iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o i?ioean?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a i?ieoea oeyo a?ae
iiaii-e?oa?aoo?iiai aoiia?ao?cio, iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii??, iio?aae
“cao?eiaiiy iieiae? i?e oe?a?inuee?e ia?iaeiino?” (I.Aiciye) aei aeiiae
“caeaeaiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aoaeiae o an?e ?? oe?e?niino?” (?.O?aiei).
sseui a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. iaoo aeoiaaiiy aecia/aee ye oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, aie?, ieaeaiiy oaeeo /aniio, ye iiaiaeiino?,
oa?ieiino?, ethaia? aei ??aeii? iiae oiui (A.A?aoeueiia,
A.?eueieoeueeee, I.Ia?oeoeueeee), oi ?c ii/aoeii OO no. aiia
ioioiaeith?oueny c oi?ioaaiiyi iao??ioa-aea?aeaaieea, yeee ona?aeiieth?
naith i?eiaeaaei?noue aei iaoe?? ? caeaoiee iiaoaeoaaoe aeanio aea?aeaao
(I.?aai/oe, ?.O?aiei, ?.THueoei). Ioaea, iaoith aeoiaaiiy noa? ieaeaiiy
aea?aeaaioai?/i? iieiae? c aenieith iaoe?iiaeueiith na?aeii?noth. Oea
aoei coiiaeaii aaiethoe??th oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, yea ia
ii/aoeo O?O no. iieyaaea o aeiic? aaoiiii?? Aaee/eie o neeaae? Aano???,
a ia ia?aeii? O?O-OO no. ioioiaeithaaeany c naiino?ei?noth Oe?a?ie,
aeiiaaie caeiaoooy aeey aea?aeaae iiaiioe iaoe?iiaeueieo ? iie?oe/ieo
i?aa.

Caaaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iaaeaaiaaie aecia/aii oi?ioaaiiy
aa?iii?eii? ethaeeie, ?icaeoie ?? ?ae?a?eieo, ii?aeueieo, noni?eueieo
/aniio, aeoiaaiiy ae?yeueiiai /eaia noni?euenoaa, a iniiaieie caniaaie
aeey oeueiai – ??aeio iiao, ?noi??th, iaoe?iiaeuei? neiaiee, ia?iaei?
o?aaeeoe??, oieueeei?, i?eeeaae aaouee?a, o/eoae?a, ?noi?e/ieo in?a,
ciaiiy ?noi??? e?ath, i?aoeth aeey ia?iaeo oiui. Aaaeeeaei caniaii noa?
ia?iaeiciaanoai, oe?a?iiciaanoai (I.A?ooaanueeee, ?.O?aiei, ?.THueoei).

Ia?iaei?noue, i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aei?noue, aoiai?caoe?y, aeaiie?aoecaoe?y,
caoeuai?noue a?ae aieea?a ia?o?e aenooiaee i?ia?aeieie i?eioeeiaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy.

4. Iacaaaeath/e ia cae??ieai? caeiiiaeaa/i oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo ina?oe,
io?oe?eia nenoaia oe?eueieoeoaa aoea ni?yiiaaia ia aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?th
iieiaeiai iieie?iiy. Oiio i?ia?aneai? iaaeaaiae i?iaiaeeee
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeoiaio ?iaioo c o/iyie oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eiiiiiaioo ci?noo ina?oe, noai?aiiy ??aeiiiiaieo i?ae?o/iee?a,
i?aai?caoe?? oa i?aeo?eiee iieiae?aeieo ao?oe?a ? oiaa?enoa,
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i aeoiaii? ?iaioe. Ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy a
na?aeiiino? iieiae? ?aea? niai?iino? oe?a?ioe?a, iaiao?aeiino? aeey
oni?oiiai ?icaeoeo iaoe?? aeanii? aea?aeaae cia/iith i??ith aieeaaea
ae?yeuei?noue oa?iieo ao?oe?a – a?iiaae, o/anoue o/i?a-oe?a?ioe?a o
nooaeaionueeeo a?/ao, c?a?aiiyo oiui.

5. Aeey i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
coneeeyie i?ia?aneaii? a?iiaaenueeino? Aaee/eie ia ii/aoeo iiaiai
noie?ooy o neeaae? aea?aeaaiiai oe?eueieoeoaa aoei noai?aii nenoaio
i?eaaoieo oe?a?inueeeo oe?e , yea ioiiethaaea ia?iaei?, na?aaei?, oaoia?
iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee. Aeey oeueiai i?aai?ciaaii eii?aeeiaoe?eiee i?aai –
E?a?aee Oe?eueiee Nithc, eio?ee iniiaio oaaao i?eae?eya a?aee?eooth
na?aaei?o oe?e.

6. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? aeoiaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iieiae? e?ath
caaacia/oaaany i?eeo/aiiyi ae?oae ?c ?aiiueiai a?eo aei aeooiaiiai
aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a, aeoiaaiiyi ia ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?yo, cae/ayo,
aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeo oi?i aeoiaii? ?iaioe, ni?eueiith ae?yeuei?noth
oeiee, n?i’?, oea?eae, a?iiaaenueeeo oa iieiae?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e.
?acoeueoaoeai?noue aeoiaaiiy iieiae? cana?ae/eea iiaa aaia?aoe?y
iao??io?a–aea?aeaaiee?a.

7. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oeo caaaeaiue, ye? ia?aae iath noaaeoue
noni?euenoai, iaaeaaiae aeiaaaee ia?aoai?aiiy oeiee ?c iaa/ath/i?
?inoeoooe?? o aeoiaio, ine?eueee aeoiaaiiy ? iaoith ae?yeueiino? oeiee,
a iaa/aiiy – eeoa can?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe.

8. Aea/aiiy aeina?aeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ia?aeiio?, ui a?i ?
aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii caaaa/aiiy oai??? oa i?aeoeee aeoiaaiiy iieiae? a
no/anieo oiiaao. Oai?/a aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoeo iiia?aaeiee?a
ni?eyoeia ia?aoai?aiith no/anii? oeiee o oeieo iaoe?iiaeueio, caeaoio
aeoiaaoe iao??io?a Oe?a?ie, ni?iiiaeieo a?aenoiyoe ?? iacaeaaei?noue,
i?eiiiaeeoe aeooiai? oa ?noi?e/ii-eoeueoo?i? iaaeaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?aoaiaeo? ia iiaiioo ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie.
Aeaoaeuei?oiai anaa?/iiai aena?oeaiiy iio?aaothoue oae? ?? aniaeoe, ye
oe?a?inueei-cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? aca?iiaieeae o oi?ioaaii? oai?aoe/ieo
canaae aeoiaaiiy, aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo ?aea? aeoiaoth/iai iaa/aiiy a
iaaeaaia?/i?e aeoioe? Aaee/eie, iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee oa i?ina?oieoeueea
ae?yeuei?noue aaeeoeueeeo iaaeaaia?a, iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae noai?aiiy
??aeiiiiaieo i?ae?o/iee?a, aieea /aniieno “Iieiaea Oe?a?ia” ia
na?oiaeyae aaeeoeueei? iieiae? oa ?i.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1.Iiaeyaee N.?oniai? ia ?ae?a?eia aeoiaaiiy ae?oae // ?aeay
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee o iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? Nio?? ?oniai? oa Noaiaia
N??iiieea: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. –
?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1996. – N.133-134.

2. Noaiai N??iiieei i?i i?noea ??aeii? iiae a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio
i?ioean? ii/aoeiai? oeiee // ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee o iaaeaaia?/i?e
niaaeuei? Nio?? ?oniai? oa Noaiaia N??iiieea: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai–i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1996. – N.193–194.

3. Nenoaia aacia?a?aii? ina?oe a/eoaey a “I?i?eo? ia ci?io aea?aeaaiiai
oe?eueiiai caeiia c aeiy 14. iay 1869. ?ieo” ?.THueoeia //Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? a/eoaey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a:
Ca??iee iaoa??ae?a ?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. –
A?iieoey, 1996. – N.141–146.

4. Iaeaaaeeea?o? oe?euei? caeiie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. i?i iiae
aeeeaaeaiiy a oeieao Aaee/eie // Naiaioeea iiae ? oaenoo: Iaoa??aee
I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
1996. – *.1. – N.157–158.

5. Ia?oa i?ia?aia ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee o Aaee/ei? // No/ania
ii/aoeiaa oeiea: i?iaeaie, iiooee, ciao?aeee: Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??.–Oa?iii?eue, 1996. – *.1. – N.7–8.

6. N?i’y ye aaaeeeaee /eiiee oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? o
ae?oae (e?iaoeue O?O – ii/.OO no.) // Aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? o oeiey??a: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. – Ee?a:Oe?a?ia–A?oa, 1996. – N.110–112.

7. Iaia?a?aia ina?oa a/eoae?a o Aaee/ei? (?? iie. O?O – ii/. OO no.) //
Nenoaia iaia?a?aii? ina?oe: caeiaooee, iiooee, i?iaeaie: Iaoa??aee
I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai–i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? o 6-oe eieaao. – Ei. 2. –
*a?i?aoe?: Ieoaoeue, 1996. – N.128–131. (Ni?aaaoi? I.Eanuee?a) –
(aaoi?nueeeo 2 n.).

8. I?ia?aei? ?aea? i?ae?o/ieea c iaaeaaia?ee ?.Aa?oioaanueeiai //
“Aa?anoy–1596” a ?noi?e/i?e aeie? oe?a?inoaa: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-aiaineianueei? eiioa?aioe??. – Oa?iii?eue, 1996. – N.79–83.

9. O.Oaa/aiei ? i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? a
Aaee/ei? // Oa?an Oaa/aiei ? no/ani?noue. Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeiiai
e?oa?aoo?ii-ienoaoeueeiai Oaa/aie?anueeiai nayoa. – ??aia, 1996. –
N.86–88.

10. Oe?a?iiciaanoai a iaa/aeueii–aeoiaiiio i?ioean? ina?oi?o onoaiia
Aaee/eie (ii/. OO no.) // Oe?a?iiciaanoai o iaaeaaia?/iiio i?ioean?
ina?oi?o onoaiia. Ca??iee noaoae. Ca ?aae. ?.Neoeuenueeiai oa A.Eino?aa.
– ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997. – N.87–91.

11. ?.THueoei i?i ina?oo ? i?aaa ia?iaeiiai a/eoaey // Oai?/a
iniaeno?noue a/eoaey: I?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. – E.:OAeIO, 1997. – N.164-167.

12. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie o Aaee/ei? a aaeoc? ina?oe ia
ii/aoeo OO no. // Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei? o OO no.
Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai–i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (21–22
eenoiiaaea 1996 ?.). – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1997. – N.121–123.

13. I?aoey A.Oaioeoeueeiai ia iie? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy: ”Na?e
ia?iae, oe?a?inueeee, ethaeii o?enoeyinueeith ethaia’th” // ?aeay
iaoe?iiaeueii? oea?eae a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (17–18 aeiaoiy 1997 ?.). – Oa?iii?eue,
1997. – N.113–115.

14. Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay a oe?a?inuee?e iaaeaaia?oe? O?O–OO noie?oue //
Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. – 1997. – ?2. – N.94–102.
(Ni?aaaoi? A.Nooia?ee) – (aaoi?nueeeo 4 n.).

15. ?.O?aiei i?i caniae iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy // ?aai O?aiei ?
iaoe?iiaeueia oa aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
noaoae. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1997. – N.130–133.

16. “Iaaeaaia?ea…” I.Aa?aiianueeiai ye na?ae/aiiy
iieuenueei–oe?a?inueeeo ca’yce?a o aaeoc? oe?eueieoeoaa // Neaa?noe/i?
caienee. – Oa?iii?eue, 1997. – ?1–2. – N.69–75.

17. Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?icoi?iiy noo? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
I.A.Aeooiiae/ai oa E.Ae.Ooeinueeei // ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a
oe?a?inuee?e ineoieiai–iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe? O?O–OO no. Ca??iee noaoae ?
aeiiia?aeae Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai–i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. – Eieiiey:
A?E, 1997. – N.218–220.

18. Oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeie iaaeaaiaaie iniiaieo
canaae aeoiaoth/iai iaa/aiiy // Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe. – 1998. – ?1. – N.97–102.

19. Aaeeoeuee? iaaeaaiae i?i oi?ioaaiiy oai?/eo cae?aiinoae oeiey??a //
Ina?oyiei. – 1998. – ?2. – N.3–4.

20. “??aeia Oeiea” ? iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy iieiae? // A?niee
I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Iaaeaaia?ea. Aei.1. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee:
Ieae, 1998. – N.99–103.

Naaao I.A. Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae? Aaee/eie
(1869–1914 ??). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. –
I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? A.N.Noaoaieea, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
1998.

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?
Aaee/eie e?ioey XIX – ii/aoeo OO no. o eiioaeno? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai ?icaeoeo e?ath.
Aeyaeaii ? ocaaaeueiaii aianie oe?a?inueeeo aaeeoeueeeo iaaeaaia?a o
?ic?iaeo ? ao?eaiiy a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy.

Iiceoeai? aniaeoe aeoiaaiiy aaeeoeueei? iieiae? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy iieiaeiai iieie?iiy Oe?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy, iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue,
iaoe?iiaeueia oeiea, o/eoaeue, iaoa, ci?no, caaaeaiiy, oi?ie, i?eioeeie
aeoiaaiiy.

Naaao I.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiia ainieoaiea o/auaeny iieiae?aee Aaee/eiu
(1869–1914 aa). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. –
I?eea?iaoneee oieaa?neoao eiaie A.N. Noaoaieea, Eaaii-O?aieiane, 1998.

I?iaaaeaii enneaaeiaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainieoaiey o/auaeny iieiaeaaee
Aaee/eiu eiioea O?O – ia/aea OO a. a eiioaenoa
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e
eoeue-oo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneiai ?acaeoey e?ay. Eco/ai e iaiau?i aeeaae
aaeeoeeeo iaaeaaiaia a ?ac?aaioeo e aiaae?aiea a o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiue
i?ioeann eaeae iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainieoaiey. Iieiaeeoaeueiua aniaeou
ainieoaiey aaeeoeeie iieiae?aee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey
?ac?aaioee eiioeaiooaeueiuo iieiaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainieoaiey
iieiaeiai iieieaiey Oe?aeiu ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoeeiiaeueiia ainieoaiea, iaoeeiiaeueiia niciaiea,
iaoeeiiaeueiay oeiea, o/eoaeue, oeaeue, niaea?aeaiea, caaeaiey, oi?iu,
i?eioeeiu ainieoaiey.

Sabat N.V. National up-bringing of teenagers at the Halychyna Schools
(in 1869-1914). — Manuscript.

The dissertation submitted for a master’s degree in pedagogics,
speciality 13.00.01. — theory and history of pedagodics. – Precarpathian
University named after V.Stephanyk, Ivano-Frankivsk. — 1998.

The investigation of national upbringing of teenagers at the Halychyna
schools of the end XIXth century — the beginning of the XXth century,
has been done in the context of political, social, economical and
cultural development of this region. The important role of the Halychyna
teachers has been proved in this process.

Positive aspect of upbringing of the Halychyna teachers can be used for
working out some conceptual trends of national upbringing of the modern
Ukrainian youth.

Key-words: national upbringing, national schools, teacher, aim, context,
task, forms, principals of upbringing.

Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia “Ina?oa” (Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy) //
Ina?oa. — 1993. — ?44-46. — N.4.

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