EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

EOCUeIAIEI Iaae?y Ieoaee?aia

OAeE: 373.31:371.671

IAOe?IIAEUeIA NI?ssIIAAI?NOUe CI?NOO

OE?A?INUeEEO OE?EUeIEO I?Ae?O*IEE?A C *EOAIIss

AeEss IIEIAeOEO OEIEss??A

(1857 — 1997)

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?NAAA* Aaeeia
Ieoaee?aia,Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,i?ioani?
eaoaae?e eia?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaioIAEAIA? Ea?ena
Iaenei?aia,Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,caa?aeoth/a
eaoaae?ith oe?a?inueei? o?eieia?? aeey ianiaoe?aeueieo
oaeoeueoao?a;eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII
Oe?a?ie OAE?OE?IA Aaneeeia Ieeiea?aia,aee?aeoi? Oe?a?inueeiai eieaaeo
?i.A.I.Nooiieeinueeiai

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, eaai?aoi??y
ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 6 ” ___aeiaoiy_____1999 ?ieo i __10__
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.16 a
Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae. 314).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, i.Ee?a, aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea,58, e?ii.10).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii ” 5 ” __ aa?aniy____ 1999 ?ieo.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaeeI.I.Ei?i?a

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie Na?aae iaeaieiai?oeo i?iaeai, ui iinoaee
nueiaiaei? ia?aae Oe?a?iith, ye noaa?aiiith aea?aeaaith —
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe. O ca’yceo c oeei iniaeeai?
aino?ioe iaaoaa? ieoaiiy noai?aiiy i?ae?o/iee?a ia iaoe?iiaeuei?e
iniia?, yea a Oe?a?i? o?eaaeee /an caeeoaeiny a?aee?eoei. Aoiai?noe/ia
ia?aaeeaia, noaa?aeaeoaaia o no/ani?e ina?oi?e neooaoe??, aeiaaa? oaeiae
aianaiiy nooo?aeo ei?aeoea o ni?yiiaai?noue ci?noo iaa/aeueii?
e?oa?aoo?e aeey ae?oae. Naia i?ae?o/iee iieeeeaiee ni?eyoe
a?ae?iaeaeaiith aeooiaiino? noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio ? eiaeii? iniaenoino?
cie?aia, aeoiaoaaoe o oeiey??a iaoe?iiaeueio a?aei?noue.

Iaa/aeueia e?oa?aoo?a c aoaeue-yei? aeenoeeie?ie iiaeiia aooe
iaoe?iiaeueii ni?yiiaaiith, ? ia eeoa ca iiaith aeeeaaeo. Aaaeeeai, uia
on? aac aeiyoeo i?ae?o/ieee noai?thaaeeny c aeei?enoaiiyi e?aueo
o?aaeeoe?e iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?ee. Ciaiiy, ui aa?ooueny ye
iaia’yceiaee i?i?ioi aeey i?ae?o/ieea, iiaeii? i?i?inoaoe ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??oio? ? caaaa/oaaoeny c iiaeyaeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
o?aaeeoe?e, ia?yae?a ? cae/a?a (oaenoe, eiiaioa??, i?eeeaaee, ci?no
ai?aa, caaaeaiue oiui). ? iaea?eueo? iiaeeeaino? a oeueiio iai?yieo,
aacnoii?aii, — o eieae aeey /eoaiiy.

I?iaeaia noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?ae?o/ieea ia? aeaaith ?noi??th.
Aiia aoea ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia ?c aaaaoia?eiaith ai?ioueaith ca
noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee. ?aeay oaei? oeiee
i?eaaaethaaea aaaaoueio aecia/ieo ae?y/?a ieioeiai, iniaeeai
ienueiaiiee?a — A.Aeiie/aiea, A.A??i/aiea, I.Eoe?oa, ?.O?aiea,
O.Oaa/aiea oa ?ioeo. Aeaeaoi? ieooe? noaa?aeaeoaaee, ui na?aae on?o
iio?aa iaoiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy iio?aaa ??aeii? oeiee iaeaieiai?oa,
“ai ia?iae, yeee ia ia? nai?? oeiee, iiaea aooe eeoa iana?aii /oaeeo
ia?iae?a ? i?eiee ia aea’?oueny ia naiino?eio aei?iao ?nioaaiiy”
(I.A?ooaanueeee).

Aeine?aeaeoaaia i?iaeaia ?aae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe a
iaa/aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? aeey ae?oae aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? iaaeaaia?ee,
ine?eueee ian oe?eaaeoue ia o?eueee oai??y oa ?noi??y oe?eueiiai
i?ae?o/ieea c /eoaiiy aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee, a oaeiae eiai coiiaeai?noue
iaioaeuei?noth iaoe??. A oea oaea ? noa?ith o?einio??, a oaeiae ia?
i?yiee ca’ycie ?c caaaeueiith oa oe?eueiith ineoieia??th.

A oe?a?inuee?e o?einio?? ieoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy
ooiaeaiaioaeueii ?ic?iaeyee oae? aecia/i? ieneeoae?, ye N.?oniaa,
A.Neiai?iaea, I.TH?eaae/, a oaeiae i?ci?o? aeine?aeieee — TH.Aieei,
Ae.Aeiioeia, Ae.*eaeaanueeee, I.Oeaieaae/. Na?aae a?o/eciyieo
ineoieia?a, ye? i?aoeththoue iaae i?iaeaiaie aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/eo
iieie?iue ia canaaeao iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
A.Iineaeueoey (iiiia?ao?y “Ineoieia?/i? ia??oiooaaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee” (1994)).

Ieoaiiy, ui noinothoueny iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo iaa/aiiy
oe?a?inueei? oeiee, ?icaeyaeathoueny no/anieie a?o/eciyieie a/aieie o
??cieo eiioaenoao: iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy —
I.Aeoiaanueeee, I.Ee?e/oe, I.Eiiiiaiei, A.Eocue, TH.?oaeaiei,
C.Na?a?e/oe, A.Neo?ao?anueeee, I.Noaeueiaoiae/, A.Nooia?ee, ?.Nyaaaei;
oe?e?niiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? — I.?aiaoaiei, ?.Cycthi, E.Eiaaeue,
A.Iiieoaeiee, A.Naaa/; ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa iaaeaaia?/ii?
aeoiee a Oe?a?i? — E.Aiae, A.Iia??aiee, I.Ne?ei/aiei, I.Nooiieeinueea;
ci?noo oa iaoiae?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano — A.Aeaenthe,
A.Iaeai?iaea, I.Naa/aiei.

Aaciina?aaeiuei i?iaeaie oe?eueiiai i?ae?o/ieea ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
?yae? aeine?aeaeaiue aeeaeaeo?a oa iaoiaeeno?a. Aea/aeenue, cie?aia,
ieoaiiy no?oeoo?e ci?noo i?ae?o/ieea (I.Aaiaeo?a, A.Aaee?inii,
A.Aaniaeueei, Ae.Co?a, A.Aeaaeaeia, E.Aeieaa?a, A.Nioi?,); noo?, ?ie? oa
i?noey i?ae?o/ieea o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? (TH.Aaaainueeee, ?.Ian?/iee,
A.Iieyeiaa, I.Neaoe?i,); aeeaeaeoe/ii? iiaeae? iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo
oa ?? ?aae?caoe?? a no?oeoo?? ? ci?no? i?ae?o/ieea (?.AEo?aaeueia,
E.Ci??ia, A.Eiiiiaiei, I.Naa/aiei, A.Oo?iai, A.Oeaoe?i) oiui.

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo O.Eoaaioey, A.Naaeaithe, I.Naaeaithe oa ?ioeo
iaoiaeeno?a ia?aeiieeai aeiaaaeaii ia?aaaae caoeiaiai
aiae?oeei-neioaoe/iiai iaoiaeo iaa/aiiy ae?oae oe?a?inueei? aaaoee. I?i
iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a no/aniiio
aeoiaaii? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a cacia/a?oueny o ioae?eaoe?yo I.Aeiieea,
A.Ee?eethea, C.Na?a?e/oe oa ?i.

Iaa?oue ?c ei?ioeiai ?a?no?o ?noi??ia?ao?? ieoaiiy noa? i/aaeaeiei, ui
oeiea a Oe?a?i? iinooiiai iiaa?oa?oueny aei nai?o iaoe?iiaeueieo
aeoie?a. Eeaniaee i?aeo?ae aei noni?eueieo yaeu ? yaeu eoeueoo?e
iinooia?oueny i??i?eoaoo iaoe?iiaeueieo oa caaaeueiiethaenueeeo
oe?iiinoae. Aiaeii/an ?icaoaeiaa Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae aeiaaa?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?
oeiey??a. I?ae eooii ci?o oe??? i?iaeaie iathoue aooe oaeineiiaeai?
oe?euei? i?ae?o/ieee, i?ia?aie oa iin?aieee aeey a/eoae?a.
A?aenooi?noue ocaaaeueithth/eo ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? i?iaeaie coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy “Iaoe?iiaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue ci?noo oe?a?inueeeo
oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (1857 —
1997)”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? /anoeiith eiiieaenii? oaie “??cii??aiaaa iaaeaaia?/ia
i?aeaioiaea a oi?aa?neoaoao”, yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny eaoaae?ith
iaaeaaia?ee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?noi?e/iee eiioaeno noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
ci?noo oe?a?inueeeo oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ia??oiooaaii? ia??iae?a noaiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a oa aeyaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee ?o ?icaeoeo.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy: iaaoooy iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie nioe?aeueiiai
aeina?aeo, oniaaeeoaaiiy ieie aeooiaieo iaaeaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? cae?enithaaoeiaoueny oni?oii,
yeui o oe?eueieo i?ae?o/ieeao c /eoaiiy aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee:

— aecia/a?oueny nenoaia iaoe?iiaeueieo i???ioe??a ye iniiaa oi?ioaaiiy a
o/i?a iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?iiinoae;

— caaacia/o?oueny ?o aae?aei?noue, iaae?ei?noue, aaeaeaaoi?noue
no?oeoo?? ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie, ni?aa?aeianai?noue ?oiueiai ci?noo
iaa/aeueiei oe?eyi;

— i?aeoeeothoueny iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?euei? oi?ie i?acaioaoe?? ciaiue;

— iiaeaeththoueny iaa/aeuei? neooaoe??, ye? aeoea?cothoue oi?ioaaiiy
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e o/i?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ? a?iioace aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iinoaaeai?
oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ia iniia? aiae?co noaio aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie o iaaeaaia?/i?e
oai??? oa i?aeoeoe? ii/aoeiai? eaiee nenoaie ina?oe Oe?a?ie aecia/eoe ?
ia??oiooaaoe ia??iaee noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy a nenoai? iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e
aeey ae?oae ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao; ?ice?eoe i?eioeeie a?aeai?o ?
no?oeoo?oaaiiy ci?noo oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy a nenoai?
iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e aeey ae?oae ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao;

— ?ice?eoe i?eioeeie a?aeai?o ? no?oeoo?oaaiiy ci?noo oe?eueieo
i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey oe?a?inueei? ii/aoeiai? oeiee;

— aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeai? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo i?ae?o/iee?a c e?oa?aoo?iiai /eoaiiy o oi?ioaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue canoiniaoaaeenue oae? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

?noi?eei-eia?/iee aiae?c iaoiaeieia?/ii?, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy; nenoaiaoecaoe?y a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a
ea??aieo i?aai?a ina?oe, iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai, oe?eueii? aeieoiaioaoe??;
o?iiieia?/iee, ?ao?iniaeoeaiee, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee oa ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c ci?noo i?ae?o/iee?a; ocaaaeueiaiiy o?aaeeoe?eiiai oa
iiaaoi?nueeiai aeina?aeo i?ae?o/ieeioai?aiiy; aieaooaaiiy, ii??aiyiiy,
c?noaaeaiiy, eeaneo?eaoe?y.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue 1857-1997 ??. Eiai ieaeiy
iaaea iaoiiaeth?oueny aeaeaiiyi o 1857 ?ioe? “A?aiaoee” I.Eoe?oa oa
oe?ei? iecee oe?a?inueeeo aoeaa??a aeey iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee, ui
caii/aoeoaaee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? iaa/aeueii? eieae c /eoaiiy aeey
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a. Oi?iaeiaae 1857-1905 ??. o iaa/aeuei?e e?oa?aoo??
aeey ae?oae ia?aaaaea? ?ae?a?eii-iaoe?iiaeueiee oa iaoe?iiaeueiee
eiiiiiaio (1905-1917??.), a c 1917 -aei e?ioey 20-o ?. — iaoe?iiaeueiee
eiiiiiaio c ?aaiethoe?eieie neiaieaie. O 30-? — 50-? ?iee iaa/aeueia
oe?a?inueea eieaa iaaoaa? iie?oe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy; ia?aeeaaea?oueny c
iineianueeeo aeaeaiue (60-? — 80-? ?iee). ?, ia?aoo?, c ae?oai? iieiaeie
80-o ?ie?a — aei nueiaiaeaiiy oe?a?iiciaanoai aenooia? ?ioaa?oth/ith
iniiaith ci?noo oe?a?inueeeo oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy ??oioo?oueny ia canaaeao iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy, ae?aeaeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae??, aca?iiaieea?a aoi?/iiai,
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ? na?oiaiai o noni?eueiiio i?ia?an?;
aoiai?caoe?? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noinoie?a; ?yae? eiioeaiooaeueieo
iieiaeaiue o?einionueei?, ineoieia?/ii? oa iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoe; oai???
iniaenoino?, ?? ?icaeoeo.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue aeinyaiaiiy iaaeaaia?ee a
aaeoc? ?icaeoeo iniaenoino? oa ?? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?,
cie?aia i?aoe? A.Aeaenthea, A.Aauaiea, A.A??i/aiea, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
E.Eiaaeue, ?.Ian?/ieea, N.?oniai?, I.Naa/aiei, A.Naaa/, I.Ne?ei/aiei,
I.Noaeueiaoiae/a, A.Nooiieeinueeiai, E.Ooeinueeiai. O oeaio?? oaaae aoee
oaeiae ?iaioe aeeaeaeo?a oa iaoiaeeno?a I.Aaiaeo?e, A.Aaee?iniia,
O.Aoaaeei, O.Aoaaeea, I.Aieioeii?, Ae.Co?aa, A.Eoe’yiaoeue,
I.Iaco?eaae/a, I.Neaoe?ia, C.Oaa/aiei, A.Oeeiaaethea. Cia/iee ?ioa?an
aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeee i?aoe? a/aieo, ui aaciina?aaeiuei
caeiaeenue aea/aiiyi i?iaeai oe?eueiiai i?ae?o/ieea, cie?aia ?iaioe
TH.Aaaainueeiai, A.Aaniaeueea, ?.AEo?aaeueiaa, E.Ci??ia, A.Iieyeiai?,
A.Oeaoe?ia, A.Oo?iaia oa ?i.

Aeaea?aeiciaa/o iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iaoa??aee ?c oiiae?a
caeo oe?a?i?noeee (aoeaa?? oa /eoaiee, iioae?eiaai? a ia??iae ?c 1905
ii 1929 ??. a Oe?a?i? oa i?ae?o/ieee, aeaeai? a 60-o — 90-o ?ieao o
ae?anii??) oa ??aee?nii? eieae (“A?aiaoea” I.Eoe?oa 1857, 1861)
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?iai? A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai, ai?noiey?ia
niaaeueia O.Oaa/aiea, A.A??i/aiea, A.Aeiie/aiea oa ?ioeo ienueiaiiee?a,
oioioei?y “Aoeaa?y thaeii?onneiai”, ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a, a
oaeiae aeena?oaoe?ei? ?iaioe, iiiia?ao?? oa ?io? iaoeia? iaoa??aee,
aeaeaiiy ieioeeo ?ie?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?iiiiiaai?e ?iaio? cae?eniaii aiae?c
iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey
oe?a?inueei? ii/aoeiai? oeiee, aeaeaieo o ia??iae c 1857 ii 1997 ?.;
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao;
ia??oioiaaii ? aeiiiaiaii nenoaio i?eioeei?a a?aeai?o ? no?oeoo?oaaiiy
ci?noo oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c e?oa?aoo?e aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee a
?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?; aecia/aii ia?niaeoeai? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy o oi?ioaaii?
?ioaeaeooaeueii-aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae iieiaeoeo oeiey??a; iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo iaaoea cai?iiiiiaaia ia??iaeecaoe?y i?ae?o/ieeioai?aiiy ia
aeaiiio a?ae??ceo /ano.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeyaeai? oai?aoe/i?
iniiae i?ioeano ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue iaoe?iiaeueiiai ci?noo ina?oe o
no/anieo i?ae?o/ieeao c e?oa?aoo?e aeey ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai
a?eo oa ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo
i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey ii/aoeiai? oe?a?inueei? oeiee iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeeeaaea/aie aeueo ? na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o
aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a “Iaaeaaia?ea”, “?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee”, “?noi??y
Oe?a?ie”, “Oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a”, niaoeeo?n?a “Aeeoy/a e?oa?aoo?a” oa
“Oe?a?inueea aoiiiaaeaaia?ea”; i?aoe?aieeaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe
aaciina?aaeiuei o ?iaio? c oeiey?aie ia o?ieao oa o iicaeeani?e ?iaio?,
o eaeoe?eii-iaoiaee/i?e ?iaio? c aaoueeaie, a?iiaaenuee?noth.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Iniiai? ?aea? oa iieiaeaiiy, ui cae?eniai? o
iaaeao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aena?oeai? o iiaeai?e ?iaio?,
cie?aia, o?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiai? caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi. ?aea?
ni?aaaoi??a o ?iaio? ia aeei?enoiaoaaeenue.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ? iniiaieo ?? iaoeiaeo aeniiae?a
caaacia/o?oueny iaoiaeieia?/iith ia??oioiaai?noth aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue,
canoinoaaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo eiai ia’?eoo, iao? ? caaaeaiiyi;
oe?eani?yiiaaiei ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iei aiae?cii iaoeiaeo,
aeieoiaioaeueieo oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue
o i?ioean? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aaoi?a — a/eoaey I?aeeinueei?
oeiee N 12 *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?, i?ci?oa — noa?oiai aeeeaaea/a
eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee e iaoiaeeee ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee.
Ie?ai? ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe?? ? aeine?aeaeaiiy a oe?eiio iaaiai?thaaeenue
ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea oa ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee e iaoiaeeee
ii/aoeiaiai iaa/aiiy Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo oa anaoe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo o i.Ee?a? (1990, 1997),
i.Ia?ayneaa?-Oiaeueieoeueeiio (1990-1995), i.Oiai? (1993, 1994),
i.Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo (1993), i.*a?eanao (1994), i.Iieoaa? (1995,1996),
i.Oa?iiiie? (1995,1996), i.I?aeei? (1996), a?aeia?aaeai? oaeiae o 22
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a a iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeaeaiiyo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii a 22
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo; c ieo 13 — iaeiiin?aieo. Caaaeueiee ianya iniaenoiai
aianeo neeaaea? iiiaae 4 ae?oe. a?e.

NO?OEOO?A OA INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii
eiai a?iioaco, aecia/aii caaaeaiiy ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi
iaoeiao iiaecio, i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue, oeyoe ai?iaaoe?? oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Aaiacen iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiiiiiaioo a oe?eueieo
i?ae?o/ieeao c /eoaiiy aeey iieiaeoeo oeiey??a” — ?icaeyaeathoueny
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee A.A??i/aiea, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I.Eoe?oa,
N.?oniai?, O.Oaa/aiea, oa ?ioeo aeaeaoieo ?icaoaeiaoaa/?a oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee e??cue i?ecio ?oiueiai oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai
aeina?aeo ii noai?aiith oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy ia
iaoe?iiaeuei?e iniia? aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee.

?noi??y ii/aoeiai? ina?oe acaaae? oa ?noi??y noai?aiiy i?ae?o/iee?a aeey
ii/aoeiai? eaiee nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? oe?a?inueei? ina?oe cie?aia —
aaaeeee ? aeiaaio?eaaeee oeyo oai?/eo iiooe?a, iaaaea/, oni?o?a,
?ic/a?oaaiue oa iiaeo a?aee?eoo?a o/eoae?a aaaaoueio iieie?iue. Ciaiiy
oeueiai oeyoo oa aeina?aeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy c iaeaeaai?oeo
/an?a aei aeoiaieo nenoai OO no. cia/iith i??ith caaaaoeoue ?noi?e/io
iai’youe, aeooiaio, iaaeaaia?/io ? iaoiaee/io eoeueoo?o a/eoaey.

Ia?oee aoai ia oeueiio oeyoo o?eaa? c ae?oai? iieiaeie OY1 aei na?aaeeie
O1O no. Eiai, ii noo?, iiaeia iacaaoe i?aeaioia/ei, ai oea /an
noaiiaeaiiy oaoi?/ieo iiaeeeainoae eieaiae?oeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?.
Aaiaeeoueny oa?i?i “aoeaa?” noiniaii iacae ia?oeo eiea aeey iaa/aiiy
a?aiioe. Ia neia’yinueeeo caieyo, a oiio /ene? ? a Oe?a?i? aeaea?oueny
oe?ea na??y aoeaa??a (1574, 1578, 1644, 1671, 1690, 1692 ??., oiui).

Ae?oaee ia??iae o noai?aii? oe?a?inueeeo aoeaa??a oa /eoaiie —
caii/aoeiaaiee I.Eoe?oai aeaeaiiyi o 1857 ?. “A?aiaoee”. Oeae
i?ae?o/iee aeey naiai /ano aoa ia o?eueee iaiao?aeiei, ei?eniei, aea e
?ice?oiei: eieaeea ia 149 noi??iie c ie?aieie ?ethno?aoe?yie,
aeaaaeeeaeie caaieiaieie e?oa?aie, canoaaeaie, c ia?aaeiiaith ?
i?neyiiaith, ??oioiaiei eiiaiooaaiiyi iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, 70
noi??iie i?ae?o/ieea i?iiiioaaee aeey /eoaiiy oea?eiai? oaenoe.

Caiaeii ia eieaeeiaiio ?eieo c’yaeythoueny “Oe?a?inueea aaaoea”
I.Aaooeoea (1860), iaae?oeiaaia oea?eiaiineia’yinueeith acaoeith,
“Aeiiaoiy iaoea” E.Oaeeianueeiai (1860), ui aoea a iniiaiiio iiaoaeiaaia
ca nenoaiith aoeaa?y Cieioiaa (aeey ?in?enueeeo oe?e). Ca oaeei aea
c?aceii aoea neeaaeaia ? acaoea I.No?ii?ia, yea oae ? iaceaaeanue:
“Acaoea Cieioiaa aeey THaeii?onneiai e?ay” (1861).

Cia/iith iiae??th a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie noaa “Aoeaa?
thaeii?onne?e” O.Oaa/aiea (1861). Oeae i?ae?o/iee aoa ia’?eoii iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ua i?ae /an oae caaii? “o?ouianueei? a?aeeeae” (i?aoe?
A.Ai?iae?ia, TH.Nooiaea). Aiaeii/an o oeo oiiaao, eiee ia aea?aeaaiiio
??ai? i?iaiaeeeanue iie?oeea, ni?yiiaaia ia “ceeooy” iia, eoeueoo?,
ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e ? oe?eeo ia?iae?a, aea/aiiy aoeaa?y O.Oaa/aiea i?ae
eooii ci?o iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ia iiaei aooe ?aae?ciaaia.

O 70-90-o ??. O1O no. o eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie ii/aee
ooaa?aeaeoaaoeny ?aa?aneai? oaiaeaioe??. Na?aae iaeaieiai?oeo i?e/ei
a?aeoiaeo a?ae oeea?e?caoe?? aoea caai?iia oe?a?inueei? iiae ye /eiieea
?icaeoeo ina?oe, e?oa?aoo?e oa anueiai a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy.

O?ao?e ia??iae o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy
aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee ca?aa?oueny c ?aaiethoe?eieie iiae?yie ii/aoeo OO
no. ? o?eaa? c 1905 ii 1917 ?.

O noai?aii? i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy ia iaoe?iiaeuei?e iniia? iniaeeaa
?ieue iaeaaeeoue A.A??i/aieo. A 1907 ?. iiaa/eea na?o eiai “Oe?a?inueea
a?aiaoea”.

I?iaaaeaiee aeena?oaioii aiae?c no?oeoo?oaaiiy ci?noo iaa/aeueii?
eieae, aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui “A?aiaoea” A.A??i/aiea
noaea iaeiei ?c ia?oeo ?ioaa?aoeaieo i?ae?o/iee?a ia iniia?
oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

Na?aae eiai?oe a?o/eciyieo iaaeaaia?a ii/aoeo OO no., ui i?enayoeee
naith ae?yeuei?noue oi?ioaaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? o/i?a,
aena?oeaiith ?ie? eieae a aeeoo? aeeoeie ? noai?aiith i?ae?o/iee?a aeey
iaeiaioeo oeiey??a, iii?oia i?noea iaeaaeeoue N.?onia?e (“Oe?a?inueeee
aoeaa?”,1906), I.A?eionaieo (“A?iie: *eoaiea”, 1905, “A?iie: Ia?oa
/eoaiea”, 1918 oa ?i.), I.Noaoaiei (“??aei? eieinee”, 1917) oa aaaaoueii
?ioei ae?y/ai ia?iaeii? ina?oe.

*aoaa?oee ia??iae — 1917 — e?iaoeue 20-o ?ie?a. ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie
noni?euenoaa ia oeueiio aoai? coiiaeth? iiyao aoeaa??a ? /eoaiie aeey
iaa?aiioieo /a?aiiia?i?eoe?a, ?ia?oiee?a, naeyi.

I’yoee ia??iae — ii/aoie 30-o — e?iaoeue 50-o ??. I?iaeaia ?aae?caoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? o oe?eueieo i?ae?o/ieeao aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee a
oiiaao oioae?oa?ecio ia iiaea aooe ae??oaiith. ?aeaieiae noa?i? nenoaie
ooaa?aeaeoaaee iiaeaeue ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee. Oaea oeiea ia
o?eueee ia aeoiaoaaea a o/i?a iaoe?iiaeueio naiina?aeii?noue, ia
oi?ioaaea iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, a, iaaiaee, ia??aeei ?oeioaaea ? oa,
ui ooaa?aeaeoaaeinue o ieo i?ae aieeaii ??cieo oaeoi??a — n?iaeiiai
aeoiaaiiy, nioe?aeueiiai i?e?ina?aaeiaeua oiui. ?ethno?aoe??th neacaiiai
iiaea aooe “Aoeaa? aeey oe?e a?aiioe” E.Aeaiieiae/, oaea aeaui
ia?a?iaeaiee oa aeiiiaiaiee A.ss?ioaieii (1947).

Oinoee ia??iae — 60-? — ii/aoie 80-o ??. Iaoe?iiaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue
oe?a?inueeeo i?ae?o/iee?a 60-o ?ie?a ii/eiaeanue ? caaa?ooaaeanue iiaith
aeeeaaeo, aei oiai ae ?c aaeeaaiiyi ?oneci?a. Uiaei ci?noo, — oe?
i?ae?o/ieee aoee ona?aaeiai?, iaeo?aeuei?, aeoiaoaaee iaeia?oa
iao??io?a N?N? oa yeonue iiao, ooo/ii aeaaaeaio iaoe?th — “?aaeyinueeee
ia?iae”. Noai?ai? o 60-o ?ieao, oae? iaa/aeuei? eieae aeo?eioaaee aei
10-15 ia?aaeaeaiue. Iai?eeeaae, “Aoeaa?” I.Aia’yaeianueei? o 1964 ?ioe?
iaa 9-a aeaeaiiy, “*eoaiea aeey 2 eeano” I.Aaa?eeaiei, A.Aeouaiei,
I.Ai?iaiai aoea o aaeeoeo c 1955 ii 1972 ?. ? o.ae. Iiae?aia
eaiii?caoe?y iiynith?oueny oei, ui caaaeai? i?ae?o/ieee ca nai?i ci?noii
aoee a?aeaeca?eaeaiiyi iie?oe/ieo iiae?e a iacaaiee ia??iae ? iiai?noth
caaeiaieueiyee iiaeyaee ia aeoiaaiiy ?aeaieia?a eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??.

Ie?aiith noi??ieith o i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ia iaoe?iiaeuei?e iniia? noaee aoeaa?? ? /eoaiee,
iioae?eiaai? a ae?anii??. Oea, cie?aia, “?aoai-c?eey: *aoaa?oa /eoaiea c
iiaieie oa a?aiaoe/ieie ai?aaaie e oe?.-aiae. neiaieeii” I.Aeaeei
(Eiiaeii, 1967), “Aaaoea c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie” E.Iieoaae (Iueth-Ei?e,
1973), “*eoaiea 1: Aeey 2-ai ?ieo iaa/aiiy” ?.Aiiaea?/oea (Iueth-Ei?e,
1988), “I?e aoeaa?” ss.Eiceianueeiai (Iueth-Ei?e, 1990) oa ?i.

Inoaii?i /anii ? a Oe?a?i? c’yaeeany na??y iiaeo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy
aeey iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, ui ea?aeeiaeueii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae
iiia?aaei?o aeaeaiue, a naia: “Iaoa?eiea”, “A?ea oaoa”, “Eano?aea”
Ae.*a?aaeie/aiea oa A.Ee?ie, “Noiaeeiee” I.A?eiai, “Aoeaa?” I.*i?ii?,
Ae.A?aaa?y oiui.

O ?icae?e? ?ice?eaathoueny oaeiae nioe?aeuei? ? iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo i???ioe??a o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, ui, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, ni?eyoeia aeoea?caoe?? coneeue noni?euenoaa ia ae??oaiiy
iioi/ieo ? ia?niaeoeaieo i?iaeai ?icaoaeiae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

O aeine?aeaeaii? iaaieioo?oueny, ui aeey aena?oeaiiy aeooiaieo
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a ?noi?e/iiio
?icaeoeo, cia/iee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue niaaeueia aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a
eoeueoo?e I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I.Einoiia?iaa, I.Iioaai?, N.?oniai?,
aoiia?ao?/i? i?aoe? I.Ai?iiay, I.*oaeinueeiai; na?aae no/anieo
iaaeaaia?a — aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Aauaiea, TH.A?iieay, A.Aa?aana,
I.Eiiiiaiea, A.Nooiieeinueeiai, A.Neo?ao?anueeiai oa ?i.

Ua aeaeaoiee oe?a?inueeee a/aiee I.Iioaaiy noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui ieuaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aei?iiinoae c iaoith oai?aiiy “?aeeiiai ethaenoaa”
iaieio/a i?eaaaea ia?iae aei aeooiaiiai oa ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai e?aoo.
A?aeiii, ui iaia? yei?nue aano?aeoii? caaaeueiiethaenueei? eoeueoo?e
iica iaoe?iiaeueieie . Eeoa aenie? caeiaooee oeeo eoeueoo? iaaoaathoue
caaaeueiiethaenueeiai cia/aiiy. Oiio ? a ethaeei? ?? ethaenueea
nooi?noue ?icaeaa?oueny aeeaoa ? e?aua o?eueee ia iniia? canai?iiy o???
/e ?ioi? iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. ? i?ia?aeia ?ieue o oeueiio i?ioean?
iiaeiia iaeaaeaoe iaoe?iiaeuei?e oeie?, iaa/aeuei?e e?oa?aoo??, yea
iieeeeaia oi?ioaaoe a o/i?a ethaia aei ??aeii? eoeueoo?e — i?aai?/ii?
/anoeie caaaeueiiethaenueeiai aeooiaiiai niaaeeo.

Ca aecia/aiiyi iiaiciaaoey A.Ao?y/ea, “iaeaieiai?oei /eiieeii
eiinie?aeaoe?? iaoe??, ?? iniiaiith iciaeith”, a cia/eoue ? iaeaeuei ??
aeoai?ii aaaaea?oueny iiaa. Cieuaiiy iiae (e?iaaioeeae) aaaea aei
cieuaiiy ia?iaeo ye eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiioe. Inue /iio oaeiai
aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? i?iaeaia noai?aiiy oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a ia
iaoe?iiaeuei?e iniia?. Aaeaea iaa/aiiy ??aeiith iiaith, e??i
aeeaeaeoe/ii? iaoe, ia? ua e ii?aeueii-aeoiaiee aniaeo, ine?eueee ae?oe,
eaaei canaithth/e c?icoi?e? e aeecuee? ?i iiiyooy oa ia?ace, a/aoueny
ethaia? aei naiai ?iaeiaiaeo, aaouee?a, nai?? A?o/ecie.

O ioae?eaoe?yo inoaiiueiai /ano c ieoaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe a
Oe?a?i? (?.Ian?/iee, A.Neo?ao?anueeee oa ?i.) a?aecia/a?oueny, ui
aieiaieie aeaiaioaie no?oeoo?e iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ? ciaiiy,
ia?aeiiaiiy, ii/oooy, aiey, a/eiee aeeoeie.

Noiniaii oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a aeooiaii-?ioaeaeooaeueieo,
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo aa?oinoae oea icia/a? iei?: a) aeeaiea
iiaioaaiiy nea?aaie ??aeii? iaoa?einueei? iiae (i?i ui aaea aoei
neacaii aeua), aaaaoi? eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo, ciaiiy eiai neaaii? ?
o?aa?/ii? ?noi??? (aac i?ee?an, oaiaeaioe?eiino?), cae/a?a, ia?yae?a
oiui; a) a?aei?noue, ia?aeiiaiiy a oiio, ui eiaeia ethaenueea aeiey —
oea oi?eaeueia, iaiiaoi?ia yaeua; a) a??ia ethaia aei nai??
Aaouee?aueie, ia?iaeo; oi?iiy ?icoi?oe i?aaiaiiy an?o ia?iae?a, ui
i?iaeeaathoue ia oa?eoi??? noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae ? o.i.

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy aoaea cae?enithaaoenue iiaiioe?iii ? oni?oii
eeoa oiae?, eiee naia aeeoeia ona?aeiieoue cia/aiiy ? ?ieue ??aeii? iiae
a nai?io aeeoo? oa aeeoo? noni?euenoaa, a?ae/o? ai?ae?noue ca ?noi??th
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aoaea ciaoe eiai neiaie?eo, oieueeei?, ethaeoe
??aeio i?e?iaeo, i?nith, /eoaoe oe?a?inueeo eieaeeo oiui. O oeueiio
a?aeiioaii? i?ae?o/ieee c /eoaiiy aeey iaeiieiaeoeo oeiey??a iathoue
aooe iaoe?iiaeueii ni?yiiaaieie ye ca ci?noii, oae ? ca oi?iith.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? cacia/a?oueny, ui ai?iaeiaae
aeanyoee?oue ia oa?ai? O?N? iaeaaaeeea?oeie e?eoa??yie, ia iniia? yeeo
aeiae?aeenue o i?ae?o/ieeao oaenoe aeey /eoaiiy, aoee ?aeaieiaaie —
eeania?noue ? eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?ei?noue. Oai?e c yne?aai ae?aaeaiith
iaoe?iiaeueiith nai???aei?noth caiia/oaaeenue aai i?aeaeaaaeenue
ino?ae?cio. Aoeaa?? e /eoaiee caiaaeoi ia?aaaioaaeoaaee aeeoy/? aieiae
caiie?oeciaaieie, iaaeinooiieie a?eiaei iniaeeainoyi, oai?aie i?i
“uaneeaa aeeoeinoai”, canoiniaoth/e i?e oeueiio an? oi?ie ii?aoethaaiiy
ooaeiaeiueiai ? i?ciaaaeueiiai oaeno?a, a?ae i?inoiai i?ineooiaoaaiiy
aei “aea??eiaiai” oa “aeecueeiai aei oaenoo iiaiiai ia?aeaco”.

I?iaiae?ciaaiee iaoa??ae ia i?inoi ?ethno?o? noai?o ?aaeaiaioaoe?th
ci?noo oe?eueiiai i?ae?o/ieea nioe?aeueiei caiiaeaiiyi, a a iei?oi?o
oiiaao e?eoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e canoa??aa? ian a?ae
iiaoi?aiiy iaaaoeaiiai aeina?aeo iiia?aaeiee?a. Iaa/aeueia e?oa?aoo?a
ia? aooe iicaaaeaia caneeey nioe?ieia?caoi?noaa aoaeue-yeiai eieuei?o.
Ia eeania? i??i?eoaoe iathoue aecia/aoe ci?no oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a, a
ia?o ca ana aeu? oe?iiino? caaaeueiiethaenueeiai oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny no/ani? i?ae?o/ieee (“Iaoa?eiea”
Ae.*a?aaeie/aiea, “Aoeaa?” I.*i?ii?, Ae.A?aaa?y oa ?i.) e??cue i?ecio
iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? ?oiueiai iaoa??aeo.

I?aenoiiaoth/e neacaia, aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy cacia/a?, ui i?eioeeie
a?aeai?o, no?oeoo?oaaiiy ? niiniae i?acaioaoe?? iaoa??aeo o oe?eueieo
i?ae?o/ieeao c /eoaiiy aeey iieiaeoeo oeiey??a iiaeii? a?aeiia?aeaoe
nooeoo?? e eia?oe? naiiai iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo ? aecia/aoenue
oe?eueiith i?ia?aiith.

Aieiaiei aeaea?aeii oaeno?a o iaa/aeueieo eieaao iathoue noaoe
oieueeei?, oai?e ooaeiaeiuei? eeane/ii? oa no/anii? oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e ( a oiio /ene? e i?aaenoaaiee?a ae?anii?e), ca?oa?aeii?
e?oa?aoo?e o a?aeoai?aii? oe?a?inueeith iiaith e?aueie iaeno?aie
ooaeiaeiueiai ia?aeeaaeo, iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeuei? oaenoe.

Iayai?noue o i?ae?o/ieeao aaeaei i?ae?a?aieo ?ethno?aoe?e oa
ooaeiaeiuei-oaoi?/ia ioi?ieaiiy iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e ni?ey? e?auiio
inieneaiith o/iyie i?ia?aiiaiai iaoa??aeo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “?aae?caoe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai ci?noo ina?oe o
no/anieo i?ae?o/ieeao c /eoaiiy aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee” — aiae?cothoueny
iaeiia?o? i?ae?o/ieee c /eoaiiy aeey iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, iaienai? c
o?aooaaiiyi oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.

Cae?enith?oueny oai?aoe/ia ia??oiooaaiiy iaoe ? caaaeaiue noai?aiiy
iiaiai ci?noo i?ae?o/iee?a aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee, cie?aia,
aena?oeththoueny iiaeyaee a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo uiaei
iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy ?icaeaaeueiiai i?ae?o/ieea.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue iaoeiaoe?a eiinoaoo?, ui ii/aoeia?e oeie?, ye ?
an?e nenoai? ina?oe Oe?a?ie, iio??aai iiaee, a?ae ni?yioaaiiy aei
oaoiieia?? canoinoaaiiy, i?ae?o/iee. Aea yeei ia? aooe iiaee i?ae?o/iee
ca ci?noii ? no?oeoo?ith, ca ooieoe?yie ? oa?aeoa?ii aeei?enoaiiy eiai
a/eoaeai ? o/iai, — ua iiai?noth ia inieneaii.

Iaei? a/ai? aaaaeathoue, ui iiaee oei i?ae?o/ieea iiaeiai “?aae?coaaoe
iaa/aeueio ? ?icaeaaeueio ooieoe?? a ?aeiino?” (A.Iieyeiaa), ?io? —
ia?niaeoeaio oaiaeaioe?th ?icaeoeo i?ae?o/ieeioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?
aaa/athoue “o a?aeiia? a?ae ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai oeio
i?ae?o/ieea” ia ei?enoue “?icaeaaeueii-?ioaa?aoeaiiai” (I.A?a?e,
I.Aaooeaiei, A.Oo?iai). I?iaeaia ?ioaa?aoe?? iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy, yea
i?e?iaeii aeieeaa? c aaaeaiiy aeaoe iaeiieiaeoei oeiey?ai oe?e?nia
oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo, noni?euenoai ? nai? i?noea a ieo, iaaoaa? iei? a
ii/aoeia?e eaioe? ina?oe iniaeeai? aaae.

I?ioa ia eiaeia ia’?aeiaiiy iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a /e ?o neeaaeiaeo ? ?o
?ioaa?aoe??th. Iaiao?aeia i?ia?aeia ?aeay, ?aae?caoe?y yei? caaacia/eoue
ia?ic?eaiee ca’ycie, oe?e?ni?noue aeaiiai eo?no. A aeena?oaoe??
ia??oioiao?oueny ?ieue oe?a?iiciaanoaa, cie?aia iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eiiiiiaioo, a ?ioaa?aoe?? ci?noo ??ciii?aaeiaoieo ciaiue o iaa/aeuei?e
e?oa?aoo?? aeey iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

Inieneaiiy iaioaeueii? iniiae i?ae?o/ieea c /eoaiiy o i?ioean?
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a iaiiaeeeaa
oaeiae aac aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe o oeueiio iai?yieo. A
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aaoi? aena?oeth?, cie?aia, o?ae
i?iaaaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai c??co uiaei aeyaeaiiy
o/eoaeuenueei? aeoiee noiniaii ae?th/eo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy,
?acoeueoaoe anioe?aoeaiiai aenia?eiaioo, yeee i?iaiaeeany c o/iyie
iieiaeoeo eean?a.

Aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano a Oe?a?i? oaeoe/ii ia i?iaiaeeeenue oe?ie?
aii??e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoi?/ii? na?aeiiino?. Ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a, o
ia??iae aeoeaieo i?ioean?a ia?aioe?iee na?oiaeyaeieo iiceoe?e, i?iaeaia
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? iaaoaa? iniaeeai
i?eoyaaeueii? neee. Iaeiae aeey ?iaioe a oeueiio iai?yi? ?niothoue iaai?
ia?aoeiaee, iaeneeaaei?oith ?c yeeo ? ia?ic?iaeai?noue
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? ? iaoiaee/ii? aace. Caaaeath/e ia oea,
ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi ? iiooe ? ai?iaaoe?y iaoiaeee, ?ino?oiaio?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoi?/ii? na?aeiiino?. “Aiie iiaeii? aooe a?aeiinii
i?inoeie, aeinooiieie, aeeeeeaoe caoe?eaaeai?noue ? ia aoiiethaaoe
aeeoeio” (A.Iaaeaiei).

O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii anioe?aoeaiee aenia?eiaio, ye iaeio ?c
iaoiaeee, ui a?aeiia?aea? oeei aeiiaai, a oaeiae ineoieia?/iiio ?icaeoeo
ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo. Na?aae caaaeaiue, iinoaaeaieo o oiae?
aenia?eiaioo, aoei aeyaeaiiy noaaeaiiy o/i?a aei naiai aoiino oeyoii
aiae?co ?aaeoe?e ia neiaa-neiaiee ? ?ieue i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy o
oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? o oeiey??a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a .

C iaoith aeyaeaiiy o ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo noaaeaiiy aei
nai?? iaoe?iiaeueiino? ?i i?iiiioaaeinue a?aeiia?noe ia caieoaiiy:
“sseae aeiaaeiny iae?aoe iaoe?iiaeuei?noue, oi yeo a naia oe aea?aa ?
/iio?” Oe?a?ioeyie aaaeaee aooe 85% ia?oieeaniee?a, 10% ae?oae aaaaeeny
o aeai??, a 5% iieoaieo oeiey??a a?aeaeaee ia?aaaao ?in?enuee?e
iaoe?iiaeueiino?.

O a?aeiia?aeyo o/i?a 3(4) eean?a /ano?oa cono??/aeiny aaaeaiiy aea?aoe
?ioo iaoe?iiaeuei?noue (17%), 69% ?aniiiaeaio?a ci?ithaaoe naith
iaoe?iiaeuei?noue ia caoio?ee, 4% iieoaieo aaaaeeny, ye?e
iaoe?iiaeueiino? a?aeaeaoe ia?aaaao, a 11% ae?oae ia ciiaee i?/iai
neacaoe c oeueiai i?eaiaeo.

Aea?? “/oaei?” iaoe?iiaeueiino? aai aaaaiiy i?e aeai?? na?ae/aoue o
ia?oo /a?ao i?i a?aenooi?noue o /anoeie iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ii/oooy
aoi?/ii? i?e/aoiino? ? aenoaa? ia?aae oeieith a yeino? iaeiiai c
ia?oi/a?aiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue — oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? o/i?a.

sse cana?ae/ea aenia?eiaio, aaaeeeaa ?ieue o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? iaeaaeeoue i?ae?o/ieeai
c /eoaiiy (oea “Aoeaa?” — aeey 11% iieoaieo ia?oieeaniee?a, “*eoaiea” —
aeey 64,5%; “*eoaiea” — aeey 53% o?aoueieeaniee?a) — ia?oei eieaai, ui
?icaeaathoue ooaeiaei?e niae ae?oae, ae?iaeythoue ?ioi?oao i?ioe
iecueeii?iaieo yaeu ianiai? eoeueoo?e.

C iaoith aeyaeaiiy aeoiee ia?aaeiai? o/eoaeuenueei? a?iiaaenueeino? i?i
ae?th/? i?ae?o/ieee c /eoaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy e?auiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeina?aeo a 1995-96 iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe? aoei i?iaaaeaii a 9 i?nueeeo (NO
?24, 32 i.*a?i?aiaa, NO ?1,2,4 i. Ia?ayneaaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiai, NO ?12
i.I?aeeia, NO ?1,2 i.Ai?iaei? *a?i?a?anueei? iae., NO ?179 i.Ee?aa) ? 7
n?euenueeeo (Oeeae?anuee?e, Na?oaie?anuee?e, Eeciaoaiaineia?aenuee?e NO
oa Noiai’ycuee?e ii/aoeia?e oeie? Ee?anueei? iae., Iaeeoeinuee?e,
Ii?ianuee?e, Aa?aciyinuee?e NO *a?i?a?anueei? iae.) aieaooaaiiy.
Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i cia/iee ?ioa?an a/eoae?a aei i?iaeaie
iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy. A?eueo?noue
iaaeaaia?a a?aeaeaee ia?aaaao oei i?ae?o/ieeai, o yeeo iayaia aea?aeaaia
oa iaoe?iiaeueia neiaie?ea (33,3% iieoaieo), yne?aa? eieuei?ia?
?ethno?aoe?? c oai??a oe?a?inueeiai iaey?noaa (25,3%), aenieiooaeiaeiy
iiaa aeeeaaeo iaoa??aeo (14,6%), iayai?noue oieueeei?ieo c?ace?a oa
ia?iaeiciaa/i? ?ioi?iaoe?? (10,6%), ?iciia?ae? i?i aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a
eoeueoo?e (6,6%), iayai?noue ?noi?e/ieo iaoa??ae?a ?c aa?i?/iiai
ieioeiai Oe?a?ie (4%), ?iciia?ae? i?i aoiia?ao?/i? ciie, i?noa, ??ee,
ica?a, ai?e Oe?a?ie (2,6%), no/ania Oe?a?ia oa ?? i?noea ia
?a?iiaenueeiio eiioeiaio? ? a onueiio na?o? (1,3%).

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue o/i?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ye n?euenueeeo, oae ? i?nueeeo oe?e aeyaey? cia/iee
?ioa?an aei nai?o iaoe?iiaeueieo ca’yce?a. ? /ei ae??a?oei c aieo n?i’?,
oeiee, cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aoee oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?iaioe c
ae?oueie a aeaiiio iai?yieo, oei ??aaiue ia?ciaiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
c? nai?i aoi?/iei na?aaeiaeuai aoa aeuei. Naia o? o/i?, a n?i’yo yeeo
aaoueee ?iciiaeythoue ??aeiith iiaith, aeio?eiothoueny a iiaoo?
ia?iaeieo cae/a?a oa ia?yae?a, aea a iioai? oe?a?inueea eieaa oa
eoeueoo?a, aeyaeee aeeao? ciaiiy ia eeoa naiai ?iaeiaiaeo, nai??
iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?, aea e oiea?aioia noaaeaiiy, ?icoi?iiy
aoi?/ii? naiiaooiino? ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai iiooeo:

1. ?noi?e/iee oeyo ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey
ii/aoeiai? oeiee c iiaeyaeo iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo, ci?ie
eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a ? ia?aaeeai iiaeia oiiaii ?icae?eeoe ia oae?
ia??iaee:

Ia?oee — ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy oaoi?/ieo iiaeeeainoae eieaiae?oeoaaiiy,
aaeineiiaeaiiy aaaoie oiui, yeee ii/eia?oueny iai?ee?ioe? OY1 no., oiaoi
c iiiaioo canoinoaaiiy eiea aeey iaa/aiiy, ? o?eaa? aei na?aaeeie O1O
no., eiee aeoiaeyoue ae?oeii ia?o? oe?a?inuee? i?ae?o/ieee.

Ae?oaee (1857-1905 ??.), ui ?icii/eia?oueny aeoiaeii “A?aiaoee” I.Eoe?oa
oa na??? oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey
ii/aoeiai? oeiee. ssne?aaei yaeuai aeaiiai ia??iaeo noaa “Aoeaa?ue
thaeii?onne?e” O.Oaa/aiea. Eieae c /eoaiiy, ui c’yaeeenue o oeae /an,
iicia/ai? ?ae?a?eii-iaoe?iiaeueiei ni?yioaaiiyi.

O?ao?e ia??iae o ?icaeoeo eieaiae?oeoaaiiy ia iaoe?iiaeuei?e iniia?
ca?aa?oueny c ?aaiethoe?eieie iiae?yie ii/aoeo OO no. ? o?eaa? c 1905 ii
1917?. Aaoi?e i?ae?o/iee?a icia/aiiai ia??iaeo iiai?noth a?aeiiaeeenue
a?ae ?ae?a?eiiai eiiiiiaioo, acyaoe ca iniiao ia?iaeiee.

*aoaa?oee — c 1917 ?. — aei e?ioey 20-o ?ie?a. Oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a
aecia?oueny ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueeith, a ca?aene ? iiyaa i?ae?o/iee?a c
/eoaiiy aeey iaa?aiioieo naeyi, ?ia?oiee?a, /a?aiiia?i?eoe?a, a yeeo
ia?aaaaea? ia?iaeiee aeaiaio, ui ia?aie?oa?oueny c ?aaiethoe?eieie
neiaieaie.

I’yoee ia??iae — ii/aoie 30-o — e?iaoeue 50-o ??. A?ae aanea “Aaoue
i?ae?o/iee!” — aei “?iai/i? eieae c e?a?ciaa/ei ooeeii”, ui caiaeeany
aei yne?aai ae?aaeaiiai iie?oe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy (aioe?ae?a?eia
i?iiaaaiaea, a?aecia/aiiy ?aaiethoe?eieo nayo, aoaioaaiiy
a?eueoiaeoeueeeo aiaeae?a).

Oinoee ia??iae — 60-o? ?iee — ii/aoie 80-o, eiee “oe?a?inueea”
iaa/aeueia eieaa caeaa?eueoiai ia?aeeaaeaeany c iineianueeeo oe?eueieo
i?ae?o/iee?a oa iin?aiee?a. Iaaeoi caoyaeia noaa?euei?noue iaa/aeueii?
e?oa?aoo?e, ui aoea o aaeeoeo (i?ae?o/ieee aeo?eioaaee aei 10-15
ia?aaeaeaiue), noaea i?e/eiith a?ae?eao oe?eueiiai iaa/aiiy a?ae iio?aa
aeeooy.

Nueiiee ia??iae aa?a ii/aoie c ae?oai? iieiaeie 80-o ?ie?a ? o?eaa? aei
iaoeo aei?a. I?ney aaaaoueio aeanyoee?oue iaieo?oecio oeiea a Oe?a?i?
iiaa?oa?oueny aei nai?o iaoe?iiaeueieo aeoie?a. I?ae?o/ieee iiaiai
iieie?iiy, neeaaeai? ye ca /eiieie, oae ? ca aaoi?nueeeie i?ia?aiaie,
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoe?iiaeueiith ni?yiiaai?noth
ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, iaoiaee/iei aia?aoii, nenoaiith ai?aa,
caaaeaiue, ye? aeoea?cothoue oai?/? cae?aiino?, oi?iothoue aeoeaio
aeeoo?ao iiceoe?th oeiey??a.

2. C?inoath/ee iio?e noni?eueii?, iaoeiai? ? oaoi?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?e
o?aaeeoe?eieo niiniaao a?aeai?o ci?noo iaa/aiiy iaieio/a aieeaa? ia
iueiai, /anoi oneeaaeith? ci?no, ii?ooo? noaa?euei?noue, i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ia?aaaioaaeaiiy oeiey??a ?ioi?iaoe??th, yea ia caaaeaee ia?
caaaeueiiina?oi? cia/aiiy. Oe?eeii aei?aaaeai? ni?iae iao?aaeeoe?eiiai
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie iiiaeaiiy ci?noo iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy o ?one?
i?aei?aaeiaoii? ?ioaa?aoe??.

Aeey ?ioaa?iaaiiai aea/aiiy e?eueeio a?aei?iieo iaeei a?ae iaeiiai
iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a /e ?o neeaaeiaeo iaiao?aeia i?ia?aeia ?aeay, ia
iniia? yei? caaacia/oaaoeiaoueny oe?e?ni?noue aeaiiai eo?no. I?iaaaeaiee
aiae?c no/anieo aoeaa??a ? /eoaiie na?ae/eoue i?i aoaeoeai?noue
?ioaa?oaaiiy ??ciii?aaeiaoieo ciaiue o iaa/aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? aeey
ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo ia iniia? oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

3.Ia?aaaioaaeaiiy iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e iaaei??iith ?ioi?iaoe??th —
iaeia c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo i?iaeai no/anii? ii/aoeiai? oeiee. O ii/aoeiaeo
eeanao oi?iothoueny o?eueee aeaiaioe na?oiaeyaeo aeeoeie. O ca’yceo c
oeei aeoaea aaaeeeai, uia ci?no i?ae?o/ieea ? eiai ianya ia ia?aaeuoaaee
ineoio?ce/ieo iiaeeeainoae o/i?a. Aaoi?ai iaeaooi?o iaa/aeueieo eiea
o?aaa iaooeeueii aeio?eioaaoenue i???ioaoe?? ia a?eia? iniaeeaino?
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

4. I?ae?o/iee c /eoaiiy ia?ane?aeo? ia iaeio iaoo, a i?eiaeii? e?eueea a
canai?ii? iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai niaaeeo iaoiai
ia?iaeo:

— iiaeaoe nenoaio ciaiue c oe?a?iiciaanoaa;

— iaa/eoe ae?oae /eoaoe: ia i?inoi a?aeoai?thaaoe caoei-a?ao?/iee ci?no
ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo, a noaoe ni?aaaei?ie /eoa/aie, ui a?ae/oaathoue
Neiai, ai?thoue aeaaaoe (ia nai?io ??ai?, cae/aeii) ioe?ieo
e?oa?aoo?iiio oai?ia?;

— iaa/eoe aeeoeio i?iaeoeoeaii ieneeoe, caaaeaii ae?yoe a neeaaeieo
aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?yo ? ?icaeaaoe aeani? oai?/? cae?aiino? ;

— noi?ioaaoe i?iaeoeoeai? niiniae (oi?iiy, ii?ie, i?eeiie oiui)
na?aeiiiai iia?oaaiiy ciaiiyie c oe?a?iiciaanoaa a o?aaeeoe?eieo ?
ianoaiaea?oieo neooaoe?yo;

— iniaeno?nii caae?yoe o/iy a nenoaio iaoe?iiaeueieo ?
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae oa aeiiiaoeny ?o aeooiaiiai inieneaiiy
eiaeiith aeeoeiith.

O ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie i?ae?o/ieeaie, a yeeo aeoeaio ?iaeoueny ia
canai?ii? nenoaie ciaiue, i?eioeeiiaith a?aei?ii?noth ?icaeaaeueieo
i?ae?o/iee?a ? oa, ui aiie aoaeooue iaa/aoe ae?oae aeoiaoe e ?icoi?oe,
aeiiiiaaaoe o/iyi naiino?eii i???iooaaoenue o oaeaeeiieeiiiio
i?iaeaiiiio na?o?, ?icaeaaoe ?oi? cae?aiino?, oi?ioaaoe iniaeno?ni?,
iaoe?iiaeuei? oa caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino?.

I?ae?o/iee iiaiai iieie?iiy ia? caaacia/oaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?eio,
iioeaaoe?eio ? i?ciaaaeueio ooieoe?? o/?iiy c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy anaa?/ii
(?ioaa?aoeaii) ?icaeiaii? iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a.

5. O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii aieea
ooaeiaeiuei-oaoi?/iiai ioi?ieaiiy oa iie?a?ao?/ieo yeinoae iaa/aeueii?
eieae ia noai caei?ia’y o/i?a. Cie?aia ae??aiee o?eoo, ia/?oei i?iaeo?
aoeae ia ii?enoiio iaia??, u?euei?noue iaai?o, iae? i?ii?aeee i?ae
neiaaie (ai?io) ? i?ae ?yaeeaie (?ioa?e?i’yae), eieuei?ia? a?aeo?iee
iaia?o i?ecaiaeyoue aei oaeaeei? aoiiethaaiino? i/ae, aei iia??oaiiy
ci?o. Ioaea, iiaeaeueoa aaeineiiaeaiiy aeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a ioi?ieaiiy
i?ae?o/ieea — iaeia c iniiaieo aeiia uiaei iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e iiaiai
iieie?iiy.

6. Iaoe?iiaeueii ni?yiiaaiee iaoa??ae iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a oa
i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey ii/aoeiai? eaiee nenoaie ina?oe Oe?a?ie
ni?eyoeia ?ica’ycaiith aieiaiiai caaaeaiiy no/anii? oeiee — oi?ioaaiiy
o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo,
aeooiaii-?ioaeaeooaeueieo oe?iiinoae.

7. O i?ioean? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie aeyaeaii
?yae aniaeo?a, ui iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy:

— oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? ci?noo oe?a?inueeeo oe?eueieo
i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy eiaeiiai icia/aiiai ia??iaeo;

— ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo A.A??i/aiea c?
noai?aiiy i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey oe?a?inueei? ii/aoeiai? oeiee;

ao?eaiiy aeoiaiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aeaaeo o oai?/?e niaaeuei?
A.Aauaiea oa N.?oniai?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaii o 22
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

Eocueiaiei I.I. Oe?a?iiciaanoai ye iniiaa ?ioaa?oaaiiy ci?noo oe?eueieo
i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee // Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. — 1998.
— ?10. — N.45-48.

Eocueiaiei I.I. “??aeia neiai” Ai?ena oa Ia??? A??i/aie?a — iaeei ?c
ia?oeo ?ioaa?aoeaieo i?ae?o/iee?a aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee // A?niee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Na??y: nioe?ieia?y,
ineoieia?y, iaaeaaia?ea. — 1998. — Aei.6. — N.71-73.

Eocueiaiei I.I., Eocueiaiei A.?. Iaoe?iiaeueiee eiiiiiaio o oe?eueiiio
i?ae?o/ieeo c oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e aeey 6 eeano // Iaoiaeeea.
Aeina?ae. Iiooe.: Iaoeiai-iaoiae. ca. — I?aeei, 1996.- N.4-9. —
Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie 0,2 ae?. a?e.

Eocueiaiei I.I. I?eioeeie a?aeai?o, no?oeoo?oaaiiy ? niiniae
i?aae’yaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? o oe?eueieo i?ae?o/ieeao c /eoaiiy aeey
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a. — E.: III “Aoeeao”, 1996. — 22n.

Eocueiaiei I. A?eai??e Aauaiei i?i ?ieue ?iaeeie o aeoiaaii? iao??ioecio
//Oe?a?inueea ?iaeeia: Iaoe.-iaoiae. iin?aiee. — E.: Ee?anuee.
i?ae?aa?ii. ?ino. oaeineii. a/eo. ?i. A.A??i/aiea, 1998. — N.1105 —
1110.

Eocueiaiei I.I. I?ae?o/iee c /eoaiiy: a?ae ?aae?e aei ?aeaaeo //
Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. — 1999. — ?1. — N.57-58.

Eocueiaiei I.I. Anana?o iaoa?einueeiai neiaa: Aei 90-??//y aeoiaeo
“A?aiaoee” A.A??i/aiea // E?o. *a?i?a?a. — 1997. — ?10. — N.67-72.

Eocueiaiei I. Ni?aaaei? naiioea?oe // E?o. *a?i?a?a. — 1997. — ?11. —
N.113-116.

Eocueiaiei I.I., Oiae A.I. “Aoeaa?ue thaeii?onne?e” O.A.Oaa/aiea
//Ae?oa? oaa/aie?anuee? /eoaiiy, i?enay/ai? 150-??//th iaienaiiy
“Caiia?oo”: Iaoa??aee anaoe?a?inueei? iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. —
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1995. — N.106-108. — Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie 0,1
ae?. a?e.

Eocueiaiei I.I. ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia Iieoaauei? a OIO noie?oo?
// Oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/.-aeoiai. i?ioeano a ii/aoeiaeo eeanao oa
aeioe?eueieo caeeaaeao: Ca. no. ca iaoa??aeaie i?aeaoc. iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiio. — *.1. — Iieoaaa, 1996. — N.57-61.

Eocueiaiei I.I. C ?noi??? noai?aiiy i?ae?o/iee?a aeey iaoe?iiaeueii?
oe?a?inueei? oeiee //No/ania ii/aoeiaa oeiea: i?iaeaie, iiooee,
ciao?aeee: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. — Oa?iii?eue, 1996. —
N.3-4.

Eocueiaiei I.I. I?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? o oe?eueieo
i?ae?o/ieeao aeey ii/aoeiai? oeiee // ?aei?noue iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? o oe?e?niiio iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?: Iaoa??aee
iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio.- Iieoaaa, 1995. — N.106-109.

Eocueiaiei I.I., Eocueiaiei A.?. ?ieue ?ioaa?aoe?eieo ca’yce?a i?ae
i?aaeiaoaie ii/aoeiai? oeiee a aeieia?/iiio aeoiaaii?. // Aeieia?y ?
ina?oa. I?iaeaie oai??e ? i?aeoeee: Oace aeii. ? iia?aeiieaiue ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.- Oiaiue, 1994. — O.1.- N.90-92. —
Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie 0,1 ae?. a?e.

Eocueiaiei I.I., Eocueiaiei A.?. Ia?iaeiciaanoai ? i?ioan?eia
i?aeaioiaea a/eoaey // Oe?a?iiciaanoai ? aoiai?caoe?y ina?oe: Oace
aeiiia?aeae iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. *.1. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1993. —
N.97-98. — Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie 0,1 ae?. a?e.

Eocueiaiei I.I., Eocueiaiei A.?. ?aai ?aaiiae/ Ao?ei ye oieueeei?eno _/
Oace anaoe?a?inueei? iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. “Ia?ayneaanueea caiey oa ??
i?noea a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, aea?aeaaiino? e eoeueoo?e”. —
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1992. — N.127-129. — Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie 0,1
ae?. a?e.

Eocueiaiei I.I., Eocueiaiei A.?. Ia?iaeiciaanoai ? i?ioan?eia
i?aeaioiaea iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a // Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae
oi?ioaaiiy oai?/i? iniaenoino? iaaeaaiaa iiiaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
oeiee.- Oiaiue. 1992. — N.81-83. — Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie 0,1 ae?. a?e.

Eocueiaiei I.I., Eocueiaiei A.?. ss.A.Eiiainueeee i?i n?iaeia aeoiaaiiy
// Iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ss.A.Eiiainueeiai ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
ia?iaeii? ina?oe: Oace aeii. ? iia?aeiie. i?aeaoc. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.
*.2. — Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1992. — N.58-59. — Aaoi?nueeeo
noi??iie 0,1 ae?. a?e.

Eocueiaiei I.I. Iaaei?aaeiaoiua nayce eae iaeii ec n?aaenoa
iao?eioe/aneiai e eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainieoaiey nooaeai/aneie
iieiaeaaee // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu iao?eioe/aneiai eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiiai
ainieoaiey: Oacenu aeieeaaeia iaaeaoc. iao/.-i?aeo. eiio.- Aeooia, 1991.
— N.71-73.

Eocueiaiei I.I., Oeoeaiaea E.I.. A.N.Einothe i ?iee aeayoaeueiinoe a
onaiaiee aeaoueie iiiyoey /enea // Ineoieiae/aneay iaoea: I?iaeaiu e
ia?niaeoeau. Oacenu Ananithciie eiio., iinayu. 90-eaoeth ni aeiy
?iaeae. aeaeno. /e. AII NNN? A.N.Einothea. *.2.- E., 1990. — N.76-77. —
Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie 0,1 ae?. a?e.

Eocueiaiei I.I. “Ia?ayneaanueea in?iue” O.A.Oaa/aiea o iao??ioe/iiio
aeoiaaii? oeiey??a // O.A.Oaa/aiei ? Ia?ayneaaueia: Oace aeii. ?
iia?ae. i?aeaoc. iaoe.-oai?ao. eiio.- Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1990. —
N.210-211.

Eocueiaiei I.I. Yeieiae/aneia ainieoaiea ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia ia o?ieao
iaoaiaoeee // Yeieiaey: I?iaeaiu ia?aciaaiey e ainieoaiey. *.3.-
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeeee, 1990.- N.64-65.

Eocueiaiei I.I., Eocueiaiei A.E. I.E?oineay e I.Ai?ueeee //
Iaaeaaiae/aneia ianeaaeea I.E?oineie e ia?ano?ieea ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey: Oacenu aeiee. e niiau. iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. —
Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeeee, 1989. — N.27-29. — Aaoi?nueeeo noi??iie 0,1
ae?. a?e.

Eocueiaiei I.I. Iaoe?iiaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue ci?noo oe?a?inueeeo
oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c /eoaiiy aeey iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (1857-1997).
-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. —
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiaceno iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiiiiiaioo
a oe?a?inueeeo oe?eueieo i?ae?o/ieeao c /eoaiiy aeey iieiaeoeo oeiey??a
ca ia??iae 1857-1997??. O ?iaio? aena?oeaii i?eioeeie a?aeai?o ?
no?oeoo?oaaiiy ci?noo iaa/aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e c /eoaiiy aeey ae?oae
iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo. Aecia/aii ia??iaee i?ae?o/ieeioai?aiiy ia
aeaiiio a?ae??ceo /ano. Ia??oioiaaii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy iiaiai
iieie?iiy i?ae?o/iee?a aeey oe?a?inueei? ii/aoeiai? oeiee, ui aeiaeaei
a?aoiaio?a ia ei?enoue no?eaeiaaiai aaoi?nueeiai iieiaeaiiy i?i
?ioaa?oth/o ?ieue oe?a?iiciaanoaa o i?ioean? canai?iiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eiiiiiaioo ci?noo ina?oe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oe?a?iiciaanoai, iaoe?iiaeueia ni?yioaaiiy, ina?oa,
iaa/aiiy, oe?a?inueeee i?ae?o/iee, ci?no, no?oeoo?oaaiiy, ?ioaa?oaaiiy,
iieiaeo? oeiey??.

Eocueiaiei I.I. Iaoeeiiaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue niaea?aeaiey oe?aeineeo
oeieueiuo o/aaieeia ii /oaieth aeey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia (1857-1997).-
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. —
Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo enneaaeiaaiea aaiacena iaoeeiiaeueiiai
eiiiiiaioa a oe?aeineeo oeieueiuo o/aaieeao ii /oaieth aeey o/aieeia
ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa. A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony
iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneea acaeyaeu O.Oaa/aiei, I.Eoeeoa, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
A.A?ei/aiei, N.?oniaie e ae?oaeo aeaeiaeoeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaoee e
eeoa?aoo?u, aianoeo cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a no?ieoaeuenoai oe?aeineie
iaoeeiiaeueiie oeieu, /a?ac i?ecio eo oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeoe/aneiai
iiuoa ii nicaeaieth o/aaiie eeoa?aoo?u ii /oaieth ia iaoeeiiaeueiie
iniiaa aeey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia. O?iiieiae/aneea ?aiee enneaaeiaaiey
ioaaouaatho 1857-1997 aa. Aai ieaeiyy a?aieoea iaoneiaeeaaaony ecaeaieai
a 1857 a. “A?aiiaoee” I.Eoeeoa e oeaeie na?ee oe?aeineeo aoeaa?ae aeey
iaoeeiiaeueiie oeieu, eioi?ua auee oanii naycaiu n i?aaeuaeouae
ouny/aeaoiae o?aaeeoeeae ?ani?ino?aiaiey neaayineie acaoee. Iniaia
aieiaiea a aeenna?oaoeee oaeaeyaony aiaeeco “Aoeaa?y thaeii?onneiai”
O.Oaa/aiei (1861), noaaoaai cia/eoaeueiui yaeaieai a
eoeueoo?ii-ia?aciaaoaeueiie aeecie Oe?aeiu.

A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony iineaaeothuea yoaiu enoi?e/aneiai iooe
?acaeoey oe?aeineeo o/aaieeia ii /oaieth aeey ia/aeueiie oeieu n oi/ee
c?aiey iaoeeiiaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoe niaea?aeaiey o/aaiie eeoa?aoo?u,
eciaiaiey eiioeaiooaeueiuo iiaeoiaeia e ia?aaeeai. A /anoiinoe,
aiaeece?oaony “?iaeiia neiai” Ai?ena e Ia?ee A?ei/aiei, o/aaieee
A.Aaeionaiei, A.Noaoaiei e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aaoi?ia, iioaeeeiaaiiua a
ia?eiae 1905-1917 aa. eae io?aaeaiea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo niauoee a iauanoaa.

Ioaeaeueii eco/aaony o/aaiay eeoa?aoo?a, iiyaeaoayny a oe?aeineie oeiea
a 20-a aiaeu, a oaeaea oieoeoee?iaaiiua o/aaieee, eioi?ua auee
iioaeeeiaaiu a oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaiie iaaeaaiaeee ia/aea 30-o —
eiioea 50-o aa., 60-o — ia/aea 80-o aa. ?anniao?eaathony oaeaea
o/aaieee, iaienaiiua iaoeie niioa/anoaaiieeaie ec aeeanii?u. Caaa?oaaony
enneaaeiaaiea 1997 aiaeii, o.a. aiaeecii iaoeeiiaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoe
niaea?aeaiey iuia aeaenoaothueo o/aaieeia ii /oaieth aeey oe?aeineie
iaoeeiiaeueiie oeieu.

A aeenna?oaoeee inaauaiu i?eioeeiu ioai?a e no?oeoo?ecaoeee niaea?aeaiey
o/aaiie eeoa?aoo?u ii /oaieth aeey aeaoae ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa.
Iainiiaaiu oeaeue e caaea/e iiyaeaiey iiaiai iieieaiey o/aaieeia aeey
oe?aeineie ia/aeueiie oeieu, /oi iicaieeei oaaee/eoue a?aoiaiou a
iieueco noa?aeiaaiai aaoi?neiai iieiaeaiey ia eioaa?e?othuae ?iee
oe?aeiiaaaeaiey a i?ioeanna onaiaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai eiiiiiaioa
niaea?aeaiey ia?aciaaiey. ?anniio?aia nia?aiaiiay o/aaiay eeoa?aoo?a
aeey ia/aeueiie oeieu, iaienaiiay n o/aoii oe?aeineie iaoeeiiaeueiie
eaeae. A /anoiinoe, i?aaeiaoii i?enoaeueiiai aiaeeca noaee o/aaieee
“Aoeaa?ue” I.*a?iie, Ae.A?aaa?y (Eueaia, 1994) e “Nooiaiueee” E.Aaeiai
(Aeiiaoee, 1995), a eioi?uo oe?aeiiaaaeaiea i?aaie/anee naycaii n
nenoaiie ciaiee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ae?oaeie o/aaiuie aeenoeeieeiaie —
?iaeiui ycueii, i?e?iaeiaaaeaieai, iocueie e iaieai, ecia?aceoaeueiui
eneonnoaii.

Iniuneaiea iaioaeueiie iniiau o/aaieea ii /oaieth a i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia
iaaiciiaeii aac yenia?eiaioaeueiie ?aaiou a yoii iai?aaeaiee. Aaoi?
aeenna?oaoeee inaauaao oaeaea i?iaaaeaiea e ?acoeueoaou eiinoaoe?othuaai
n?aca n oeaeueth auyniaiey o/eoaeueneiai iiaiey ioiineoaeueii iuia
aeaenoaothueo o/aaieeia ii /oaieth, ?acoeueoaou annioeeaoeaiiai
yenia?eiaioa, eioi?ue i?iaiaeeeny n o/aieeaie ieaaeoeo eeannia,
iaoiaeeeo yiie?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey yoie/aneiai niciaiey ieaaeoeo
oeieueieeia.

Caaa?oaaony aeenna?oaoeeiiiia enneaaeiaaiea e?aoeeie auaiaeaie,
iaiauathueie ?acoeueoaou iao/iiai iienea, e nieneii eniieueciaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oe?aeiiaaaeaiea, iaoeeiiaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue,
ia?aciaaiea, iao/aiea, oe?aeineee o/aaiee, niaea?aeaiea,
no?oeoo?ecaoeey, eioaa?e?iaaiea, ieaaeoea oeieueieee.

Kusmenko N.M. A national orientation of the contents of the Ukrainian
school textbooks on reading for the younger schoolboys (1857-1997).- The
Manuscript.

The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate
of pedagogical sciences on a speciality 13.00.01 — theory and history of
pedagogics. — Kiev University of a name Taras Shevchenko, Kiev, 1998.

The dissertation contains research of history development of a national
component in the Ukrainian school textbooks on reading for the younger
schoolboys for a period 1857-1997. In work the principles of selection
and composition of the contents of the educational literature on reading
for children of younger school age are covered. Is certain periods of
creation of the textbooks on the given interval of time. The purpose and
tasks of occurrence of new generation of the textbooks for a Ukrainian
elementary school is reasonable, that has allowed to increase arguments
for the benefit of a rod author’s situation about an integrating role
ethnology during mastering a national component of the contents of
formation.

Key words: ethnology, the national direction, formation, training, the
Ukrainian textbook, contents, composition, integration, the younger
schoolboys.

Похожие записи