2

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee Oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Eiiaiue Oa?an Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 621.762

Iaii/anoeiee oa eiiiiceoe?eiee iaoa??ae ia iniia?

iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe? ? aieieii

ea?a?aeo e?aii?th

01.04.07 – o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Iia?eia Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?ceee iaoae?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Eenia Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e caaaeueii? o?ceee;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oe iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Iaeai?iaea Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/,

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?iai? ?.I. O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?iai? A.A. Eo?aethiiaa IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_26_” ______04______ 1999 ?. i __1430_____ aiae.
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ? Ae26.001.24 ia o?ce/iiio
oaeoeueoao? Oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252022,
Ee?a — 22, i?iniaeo Aeooeiaa, 6, o?ce/iee oaeoeueoao, aoae. __200_

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252033, Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “__19__” ______03_______ 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, A.A. Io??iaiei

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y a iaoeiaeo onoaiiaao na?oo
?ioaineaii aeine?aeaeothoueny aeanoeaino? oaa?aeeo iaii/anoeiie, ui
neeaaeathoueny ?c nioaiue – oeny/ aoii?a, aeaii??ieo ie?aie c e?eueeio
aoiiieo oa??a, ae?io?a oa o?oaie ae?aiao?ii a aeanyoee iaiiiao??a.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae iaiiia’?eo?a aeicaiey? cia/ii iiiiaieoe iao?
ciaiiy a iaeano? OOO.

Oi/a caeiaooee iaoee i?i iaiiia’?eoe ? cia/i?, i?ioa aiia ?ua ia
ii/aoeia?e noaae?? naiai ?icaeoeo. Iai?eeeaae, iaei/enaeuei? ?iaioe ii
aenieioaiia?aoo?iei eiiiiceoai ia iniia? iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe?,
cie?aia c ea?a?aeo e?aii?th (ye iaei/enaeuei? ? ni?iae iaea?aeaoe
iaii/anoeiee SiC).

Noai?aiiy aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai eiiiiceoo iiaeeeaa (ye iaeei c aa??aio?a)
ia aac? iaia?a?aieo aieieii ea?a?aeo e?aii?th, ine?eueee oe? aieieia
ae?iaeythoueny ii iai?acaaiaenuee?e (?II IAIO, i.Ee?a) oa caaiaenuee?e
oaoiieia?yi (NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai?y, ssiii?y). I?ioa ?niothoue aaeee?
o?oaeiiu? i?e i?aeai?? iaoa??aeo iao?eoe?.

Iaea?eueo i?eaeaoiith iao?eoeath aeey eiiiiceo?a ia iniia? aieieii SiC ?
iao?eoey c ii?ioe?a SiC, ai i?e ?? aeei?enoaii? cieea? i?iaeaia o?i?/ieo
?aaeoe?e ia a?aieoe? aieieii – iao?eoey.

Iaiie?enoae?/i? ea?ai?ee iaaaaaoi ieanoe/i?o?, i?ae cae/aei? (ui iathoue
?ici?? ca?ia > 1iei). A?aeiiino? i?i iaiie?enoae?/i? ea?ai?ee SiC
a?aenooi?. Oiio ?nio? iio?aaa neioaco oa aeine?aeaeaiiy iaii/anoeiie SiC
? iao?eoe? SiC c iaiie?enoae?/iith aoaeiaith. Oeei ? aecia/a?oueny
aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??.

Aea/aiiy eiiiiceo?a ia iniia? iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe? SiC aeicaieeoue
a iaeaooiueiio aeaioiaeoe eiiaoee aaciaeo oo?a?i c eiiiiceoo SiC/SiC, ui
iaoeiooue aaeeeee ?ano?n ?iaioe, a neeia? onoaiiaee c oaeeie oo?a?iaie
iie?ioaoue aia?aaoe/io neooaoe?th a Oe?a?i?.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a ?aieao
iaoeiai? oaie ?97012 “?ic?iaea o?ceeio?i?/ieo iniia iaea?aeaiiy oa
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa iie?eoo?a” eaoaae?e o?ceee
iaoae?a Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Inoaiiy
aoiaeeoue aei i?ia?aie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa eiino?oeoi?nueei –
oaoiieia?/ieo ?ic?iaie iiaeo iaoa??ae?a.

Iaoa ?iaioe: aeiaanoe iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo c iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe? SiC, ui a?iiaaia
iaia?a?aieie aieieiaie SiC (EI SiC/SiC).

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe noaaeeeny oae? caaea/?:

1. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee iaea?aeaiiy iaii/anoeiie O?, SiC, oa Si, noai?eoe
eaai?aoi?i? onoaiiaee ? c ?o aeiiiiiaith aeaioiaeoe c?acee aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue.

2. Aeine?aeeoe ii?oieia?th iaii/anoeiie oa aeaye? o?ce/i? aeanoeaino?;
aeine?aeeoe ni?eaiiy iaiie?enoae?/iiai ii?ioeo oa o?ceei-iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? eaai?aoi?ieo c?ace?a EI SiC/SiC.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Aia?oa aeiaaaeaii, ui ?acoeueoaoii iaeii/anii? eiiaeainaoe?? ia?e
oaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a (Si, O?, a?ao?oo) oa ia?e ??aeeie (iai?eeeaae,
aaeooiiiai ianea) ia iaeio i?aeeeaaeeieo ? ooai?aiiy iaii/anoeiie.

2. Iaii/anoeiee aeia?iaothoueny c aeaea?aea (noniaic?y, eoia ii?ioeo,
iai?eeeaae) ye oe?ea (ia eeoa iiaoiiii /a?ac aaciao oaco), i?e/iio
?ioaineai?noue aeia?iaoaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici???a /anoeiie, nee
c/aieaiiy i?ae /anoeieaie oa oaiia?aoo?e. Oea iiynith?oueny
iieaeoey?ii-e?iaoe/iith oai???th. Oiio iiiyooy a?ioi?anueeiai ?ooo
/anoeiie a ??aeei? ?icoe?aii ? ia ?o aeia?iaoaaiiy ye oe?eiai.

3. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui ?ioaineai?noue aeia?iaoaaiiy iaii/anoeiie ye
oe?eiai c?inoa? a iino?eiiio aeaeo?e/iiio iie?.

4. I?e iaae?ii? ia oaa?aeo iiaa?oith iaii/anoeiie SiC, ui
aeia?iaothoueny ye oe?ea c aeaea?aea, ooai?th?oueny iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaee
eiiaeainao.

5. Iaii/anoeiee SiC ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao eiiaeainaoe?? ia iiaa?oith
??aeeie iathoue ??aiiaaeeeo oi?io, ia caaa?oaeueieo aoaiao
aeeneiiiae?aio c eaaae?aoieie aai i?aaeeueieie oanoeeooieie ia?eiao?aie,
ui aeeeoo?oueny ai?cio?ii??th eiao?oe??ioo iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao oa
oiiaith i?i?ioiii o iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??.

6. Ia i?eeeaae? ni?eaiiy iaii/anoeiie SiC i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a?aeiia yaeua
cia/iiai cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ni?eaiiy c? ciaioaiiyi ?ici???a
iaii/anoeiie.

7. Aia?oa aeaioiaeaii eaai?aoi?i? c?acee eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo
SiC/SiC ia iniia? iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe? SiC oa iieacaii, ui ?o
aeiaaio?eaaea /aniaa a?aieoey i?oeiino? ia ?icoya cia/ii ia?aaa?oo? oeae
ia?aiao? iaeiii?enoi? cae/aeii? ea?ai?ee SiC.

8. Ia i?eeeaae? iao?eoe? SiC c iaiie?enoae?/iiai ii?ioeo i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
a?aeiia yaeua iacia/iiai ?inoo aaee/eie ca?ai (aeey SiC ??no aei 10-30
ii i?ioyaii 30 aiaeei i?e 1473-1500 E) iaiie?enoae?/iiai eiiaeiia?aoo a
?acoeueoao? a?aeiaeo i?e ?iai/eo oaiia?aoo?ao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a: 1. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii
iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy noaa?eueiiai i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao EI SiC/SiC
ia aac? iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe?, ui aeicaiey? ?icii/aoe aoai
oe?ieiianooaaieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/ieo
?ic?iaie ii aeaioiaeaiith aeaoaeae aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo iaoei,
iai?eeeaae, eiiaoie oo?a?i; 2. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a oa aea? iia?
onoaiiaee aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ? eiina?aaoe?? iaii/anoeiie oeyoii
iaeii/aniiai ?icieeaiiy oaa?aei? ?a/iaeie oa ??aeeie c eiiaeainaoe??th
iaio ia?iaeo iioie?a ia iaeio i?aeeeaaeeieo; 3. Cai?iiiiiaaia oa
ia?aa??aia aenia?eiaioaeueii ?aeay iie?ioaiiy noaa?eueiino? ?iaioe
aaeooiiiai aeeooc?eiiai ianino oeyoii cai?ie aaeooiiiai ianea ia
noniaic?th iaii/anoeiie a iane?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy: anoaiiaeaii, ui iaii/anoeiee aeia?iaothoueny c
eiiaeiia?aoo ye oe?ea (oiaoi ia eeoa iiaoiiii), /ei ?icoe?aii iiiyooy
i?i a?ioi?aneee ?oo /anoeiie a ??aeei? ? ia aeia?iaoaaiiy /anoeiie c
??aeeie /e oaa?aei? iiaa?oi?. Oea iiaeia aeei?enoaoe i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e
ii iieaeoey?i?e o?ceoe?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

1. Iaeaaiaeaeaii aea? onoaiiaee aeey iaea?aeaiiy iaii/anoeiie.

2. Aeaioiaeaii iaiie?enoae?/i? ianoe (Ti, Si, SiC), c?acee EI SiC/SiC oa
aeine?aeaeaii ?o aeaye? aeanoeaino? (aeia?iaoaaiiy ? eiiaeainaoe?th
iaii/anoeiie, aeiaaio?eaaeo i?oei?noue, aioo??oi? oa?oy), i?iaaaeaii
aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i? oa ?aioaai?anuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

3. Ia?iaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe.

4. Cae?eniaii ni?aea??aieoeoai aeaiia aeeieiiieie ?iaioaie, a yeeo
aea/aeenue aieieia oa iaii/anoeiee SiC (no. Neeaiei I.I. oa no.
I?aaioi?iaa I.I.) oa iaaiai?aii ? iiyniaii ?o ?acoeueoaoe.

5. O/anoue a ieaioaaii? aenia?eiaoi?a, aenoaaii? a?iioac, ocaaaeueiaii?
oa iiyniaii? ?acoeueoao?a, iaienaiiy noaoae oa i?aeaioiaea aeiiia?aeae
ia eiioa?aioe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

?acoeueoaoe aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia:

1. I’yo?e ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? nooaeaio?a ?
ani??aio?a a A?ei?on??, i.A?iaeii. 1997?.

2. I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ?II IAIO, “Iiaaeoea i?ioeannu e iaoa?eaeu
a ii?ioeiaie iaoaeeo?aee”, i.Ee?a, 1997 ?.

3. Ainueiiio i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiiceoi? “Oiieea ie?iee a yeaeo?iieea”,
i.Oa?e?a, 1997.

4. International Conference on Advanced Materials, Strasburg, 1997.

5. Oino?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?ceea ? oaoiieia?y oiieeo
ie?aie”, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe iioae?eiaai? a 5 noaooyo a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao,
a iaei?e noaoo? oa aeaio aeiiia?aeyo a iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, a 5 oacao
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ia`?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui i?noeoue 179 iineeaiue.
Aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 136 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 43
?enoiee ? 8 oaaeeoeue ianyaii 16 noi??iie.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny noai i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiue, iaa?oioiao?oueny
aeooaeuei?noue oaie, oi?ioeththoueny iaoa ? iniiai? caaea/? ?iaioe,
aecia/athoueny ?? iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy iaii/anoeiie oa ?o
iaeoaaiiy, o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? iaii/anoeiie oa iaiie?enoae?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? iiaee, a?eueo oi?aa?naeueiee iaoiae
iaea?aeaiiy iaiiii?ioe?a oa aeaye? o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? iaii/anoeiie.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia ?aeay iaea?aeaiiy iaii/anoeiie iaeii/aniei
aeia?iaoaaiiyi oaa?aei? ?a/iaeie ? aaeooiiiai ianea c eiiaeainaoe??th
ia?iaeo iioie?a ia iaeio i?aeeeaaeeieo. ?ic?iaeai? e aei?iaoaai? aea?
onoaiiaee aeey aeaioiaeaiiy iaiiii?ioe?a ii iaoiaeo iaaiao?iiiiai
aeia?iaoaaiiy i?oai? oa iaeii/aniiai oa?i?/iiai aeia?iaoaaiiy aaeooiiiai
ianea, iaea?aeaii ii?ioee Ti, Si, SiC.

Oeoaiia? iaii/anoeiee iaea?aeoaaee ca?aaee aoanoaoe?? iaoiaeeee: oeoai
iaaecae/aeii aa?aneaiee iaoae. sseui iiaeia io?eiaoe oeoaiia? /anoeiee
oeyoii noi?uaiiy eiiaeainaoe?? c i?ioeanii ?o eiina?aaoe??, oi oei
a?eueoa iiaeia canoinoaaoe iaoiaeeeo aei iaea?aeaiiy iaii/anoeiie iaio
aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, iai?eeeaae SiC, Si.

Aeaeo?iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii, ui na?ae? oeoaiia?
iaii/anoeiee iathoue E.I.Oe. no?oeoo?o, yea oa?aeoa?ia aeey oeoaio aeua
1115,5 E. ?aioaaiioaciaei aiae?cii oeoaiiaeo c?ace?a, nia/aieo c
iaiiii?ioeo i?e 573+10E ia i?ioyc? 8 a., ciaeaeaii, ui E.I.Oe. no?oeoo?a
cai?uo?oueny oeiiaith no?oeoo?ith a-iiaeeo?eaoe??. Oae aoea aoanoiaaia
iaoiaeeea iaea?aeaiiy iaiiii?ioe?a ye oi?aa?naeueia.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? oeoaiiaeo ii?ioe?a a aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? (OAIA —
100 AE, ?ic??cithaaia a?aenoaiue 0,3-0,4 ii) aoei iii?/aii, ui aeaye?
iaii/anoeiee ?ooathoueny ia aoa?euei?e i?aeeeaaeeioe?, ?ieiee cieeathoue
c iiey ci?o, ia aeioiaey/e aei e?a?a aea?aii? iaeano?. Noai?thaaeiny
a?aaeaiiy, ui /anoeiee c?neaeothoue c i?aeeeaaeeiee i?e oaiia?aoo?ao,
aei yeeo aeaeo?iiiee i?ii?iue i?e?ineiia i?ia??aa? i?aia?ao (iaioa 773
E), aeia?iaothoueny ye oe?ea (ia eeoa iiaoiiii).

Aeey iiyniaiiy c?neaeoaaiiy iaii/anoeiie c i?aeeeaaeeiee iaiao?aeii
ooeaoe neee ?iioeueniiai oa?aeoa?o. Oaeeie neeaie yaeythoueny neee,
ciaoiiaeai? oaieiaeie oeoeooaoe?yie. Oea neee, ui iaoiiaeththoue
a?ioi?anueeee ?oo iaii/anoeiie a ??aeei?. E?iaoe/ia aia?a?y ?ooo oeaio?a
aaae /anoeiee, ca?aeii oai??? A. Aiooaeia, ia caeaaeeoue i? a?ae
?ici???a ? aeanoeainoae /anoeiee, i? a?ae aeanoeainoae ioi/oth/iai
na?aaeiaeua. Oey aia?a?y ??aia aia?a?? oaieiaeo oeoeooaoe?e. Canoino?ii
oea oaa?aeaeaiiy A. Aiooaeia aei iaii/anoeiee, ui eaaeeoue ia iiaa?oi?
i?aeeeaaeeiee. Oiae?

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aeey ?ooo a ??aeei?. A inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo oaea?e a?ae non?ae?a
ae?thoue oaioe/ii ii iai?yieai, oiio ?acoeueooth/a ci?uaiiy
a?ioi?anueei? /anoeiee iacia/ia. Eiee /anoeiea eaaeeoue ia iiaa?oi?
e?enoaeo, oi oaea?e ni?yiiaai? a iniiaiiio a?ae iiaa?oi?. Oea iieaaoo?
?oo /anoeiee a?ae iiaa?oi?, oiaoi ni?ey? ?? aeia?iaoaaiith ye oe?eiai.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??yee aeua neacaia oaeei /eiii. Noniaic?th ia
iniia? aaeooiiiai ianea ?ic/eiyee a aaenai?. Aaenaiiao noniaic?th
a?aenoithaaee a eai?ey?ao ae?aiao?ii 1,2 ii aenioith 50 ii i?ioyaii
o?ueio i?nyoe?a ia caoeuaiiio a?ae a?a?aoe?e ooiaeaiaio?. I?ney
a?aenoithaaiiy eai?ey?e caii?iaeoaaee ??aeeei acioii, eaiaee ia
a?ae??cee ? caa??aaee a ??aeeiio acio? aeey aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia ?en.1
i?aaenoaaeaii ?iciiae?e /anoeiie ii ae?aiao?ai.

wmetafile8? ??†????b??????? ??????? 1???
???????yyy?????b??C
?I???1????1????(???1??????????x(??Ae??Ae??????????????yyy?y
yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy??yyyyyy??yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyay
yuyyy??yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyc?yythyy??yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyAy
yyyyyyy?yac?ItuyyyyyyyyyyayyyyyyyyyyA?yyyyyyyy?yac?AE??yyyyyyyyyyayyyy
yyyyyy??yyyyyyyayCc?AE??yyyyyyyyyyayyyyyyyyyyth?yyyyyyyaey?en.1
Caeaaei?noue /enea e?aii?eiaeo /anoeiie N a?ae na?aaeiueiai ae?aiao?o
/anoeiee d; 1, 2 — aeey aa?oiuei? oa na?aaeiuei? ae?eyiie eai?ey?o,
a?aeiia?aeii.

Aeia?iaoaaiiy iaii/anoeiie ye oe?eiai aea/aee a aaeooi? ~10-2Ia.

Aeey oeueiai e?aieth aaenaiiai? noniaic?? iaiineee ia aeca?eaeueiee
n??aiee aeene, iaae yeei e??ieee eaooiio ieanoeieo c ooi?iieanoiaeie
ie?aeaie. I?ney aeia?iaoaaiiy aaenaio nenoaio a?aeea/oaaee, i?ae aeeneii
oa ieanoeieith i?eeeaaeaee ??cieoeth iioaioe?ae?a (“iethn” ia aeeneo).
Oaiia?aoo?ith “eei?iiy” eoie ii?ioeo c iaii/anoeiie aaaaeaee oo
oaiia?aoo?o i?e ye?e iiiiaethaaany aeca?eaeueiee aeene aeeneo i?ioyaii
50-70 nae (aeey oeueiai oioiiii?ii ?a?no?oaaee a?aeaeoee a?ae aeeneo
na?oeiaee i?ii?iue).

Oa?i?ie “oaiia?aoo?a eei?iiy”, “oi/ea eei?iiy”, “inaaaeieei?iiy” aeoaea
oiia?. Aiie aaaaeai? aeey oiai, uia iaoe iiaeeea?noue ii??aithaaoe
aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe ii aeia?iaoaaiith ??cieo iaii/anoeiie ye
oe?eiai. Ie ia iiaee aeei?enoaoe oa?i?ie “oaiia?aoo?a aeia?iaoaaiiy” /e
“oaiia?aoo?a aeani?aoe??”, ai oae? oa?i?ie ia iathoue o?ce/iiai ci?noo,
aaeaea aeia?iaoaaiiy (aeani?aoe?y) cae?enith?oueny i?e aoaeue-ye?e
oaiia?aoo??. I/aaeaeii, ui ooo iaia e eei?iiy, ai ia aeeiio?oueny oiiaa
eei?iiy (oene iane/oth/i? ia?e a aoeueaaooe? ia?e ??aiee ciai?oiueiio
oeneo, ui ae?? ia aoeueaaoeo).

?acoeueoaoe, iaaaaeai? ia ?en.2. iiaeia iiynieoe oaeei /eiii.

1. I?e d<4 ii oaiia?aoo?a “eei?iiy” O ia?inoa?, ai c?inoathoue aaeaac?ei? neee aca?iiae?? iaii/anoeiie Si i?ae niaith oa c iniiaith - n??aiei aeeneii (oaeoi? ja a ae?acao 2 ? 3). *ei a?eueoa iana /anoeiee, oei aeua oaiia?aoo?a “eei?iiy”, ui niinoa??aa?ii i?e d>6 ii (oaeoi? mj0
a ae?acao 2 ? 3).

2. I?ney noa??iiy iaiiii?ioeo ia aeeneia? ia i?ioyc? o?ueio ae?a i?e
oeneia? (10-1-1) Ia a?aeaoeinue /anoeiaa i?eaa?thaaiiy iaiiii?ioeo aei
aeeneo oa iaii/anoeiie i?ae niaith (oaeoi? ja) . Oiio oaiia?aoo?a
“eei?iiy” c?inea (e?eaa 2). Aiia ia c?inea aeey d>10 ii, ai aaeee?
iaii/anoeiee iathoue iaeo ieoiio iiaa?oith, iecueeo aeeooc?eio
aeoeai?noue, iiaaii caa?ththoueny.

3. A?aeiii, ui aeaeo?e/iei iieai aeinoaoiuei? iai?oaeaiino? A iiaeia
aeia?oaaoe aoiie c iiaa?oi? iaa?oue ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a (Ii, W). Oiio
caeiiii??iei (oaeoi? qU) ? iiieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e “eei?iiy” c ?inoii A
(e?ea? 1, 3, 4 ?en.2).

wmetafile8? ??`????<??????? ??????? A??? ???????yyy?????<??C ?I???A????A????(???A??????????,,??Ae??Ae??????????????yyy?y yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyI??yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy yyyyyyyy?yy????yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy?yyyyyyyyyyyyyyssyy????yyyyyyyyyy?y yyyyyyyyyayyyyyyyyyy‡y aefns Myyyyyyyyyy?yyyyyyyyyyC?yyyyyyyyyyues aeF????yyyyyyyyyy?yyyyyyyyyyI?yyyyyyyyyy1ues aeBmes yyyyyyyyyyCyyyyyyyyyyI?yyyyyyyyyy yueoueZ????yyyyyyyyyynyyyyyyyyyyAEyyyyyyyyyy yueoue???yyyyyyyyyyuyyyyyyyyyyAyyyyyyyyyy yuesueae????yyyyyyyyyyueyyyyyyyyyyCyyyyyyyyyyy ythueae[email protected],2% i?e 1473-1500 E ? oaeaeeino? ?icoyao 0,02 ii/nae), iaoiiaeaio iaiie?enoae?/i?noth iao?eoe? (eiacaiiy ii a?aieoeyi ca?ai ? aeaoi?iaoe?y ca?ai ii aeeooc?eiiio iaoai?cio). wmetafile8? ???????I??????? ??????? YO??? ???????yyy?????I??C ?I???YO????YO????(???O??Y????????L;??Ae??Ae??????????????yyy?y yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyythnueyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy yyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyth?yyyyyyyyyy yy?yyyyyyyyyyaoyyyyyyyueue yyaecynyyyyyyyyyyyyAEyyyyyyyyyIc?yyyyyyyueuIcyyEwy?en.5 Caeaaei?noue iiaeoe?a THiaa E (1, 2) ? cnoao G (3, 4) a?ae /ano aeo?eiee t i?e 1500+20 E aeey aieieia SiN c iie?eooyi (na?oe? oi/ee) ? aac iie?eooy (oaii? oi/ee). O?oaeii?noeeie (aaca - 200 a., 180 c?ace?a) aeine?aeaeaiiyie aieieii SiC c iaiie?enoae?/ieie iie?eooyie anoaiiaeaii, ui ?o aeiaaio?eaaea /aniaa a?aieoey i?oeiino? ia ?icoya i?e 1500E+20 iaeaea a 20 ?ac?a ia?aaa?oo? oeae ia?aiao? i?e 1270E c?ace?a c e?oiiica?ienoiai ii?ioeo c aeoeaoth/eie ni?eaiiy aeii?oeaie (?en.6). Ine?eueee EI SiC/SiC ieaio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ia?oo /a?ao aeey aeaioiaeaiiy eiiaoie oo?a?i, ui i?aoeththoue a oiiaao oa?iioeeeethaaiiy, aoee i?iaaaeai? aei??thaaiiy a?aieoe? i?oaeiino? s oa a?aieoe? i?oeiino? ia caei sa aei ? i?ney oa?iioeeeethaaiiy (oaaeeoey 2). EI SiC/SiC aei?iaoaai? ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue i?e 1500E+20 i?ioyaii 100+6 a. ?acoeueoaoe, ye aa/eii ii oaaeeoe? 2, caaeia?euei?. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?? (aeiaanoe iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy EI c iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe? SiC, ui a?iiaaia iaia?a?aieie aieieiaie SiC) aeinyaiooa. wmetafile8? ??????i??????? ??????? ,N??? ???????yyy?????i??C ?I???,N????,N????(???N??,?????????en.6 Aeiaaio?eaaea i?oei?noue st aieieii SiN c iaiie?enoae?/iei iie?eooyi SiN (1) ? aac iie?eooy (2) i?e 1500+20 E. Oaaeeoey 2 I?oaei? iiaeoe? G oa E, a?aieoey i?oaeiino? s oa i?oeiino? sa EI SiC/SiC. wmetafile8? ??????????????????ue??????????-?????uoy??????Aeniiaee 1. Aia?oa aeiaaaeaii, ui ?acoeueoaoii eiiaeainaoe?? ia?e oaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a (Si, O?, a?ao?oo)ia iiaa?oith ??aeeie (iai?eeeaae, aaeooiiiai ianea) ? ooai?aiiy iaii/anoeiie. 2. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a oa aea? iia? onoaiiaee aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ? eiina?aaoe?? iaii/anoeiie oeyoii iaeii/aniiai ?icieeaiiy oaa?aei? ?a/iaeie oa ??aeeie c eiiaeainaoe??th iaio ia?iaeo iioie?a ia iaeio i?aeeeaaeeieo. Aeaioiaeai? iaiiii?ioee O?, Si, SiC. 3. Iaii/anoeiee aeia?iaothoueny c aeaea?aea (noniaic?y, eoia ii?ioeo, iai?eeeaae)ye oe?ea (ia eeoa iiaoiiii /a?ac aaciao oaco), i?e/iio oaeaee?noue aeia?iaoaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici???a /anoeiie, nee c/aieaiiy i?ae /anoeieaie oa oaiia?aoo?e. Oea iiynith?oueny iieaeoey?ii-e?iaoe/iith oai???th. Oiio iiiyooy a?ioi?anueeiai ?ooo /anoeiie a ??aeei? ?icoe?aii ? ia ?o aeia?iaoaaiiy ye oe?eiai. 4. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui ?ioaineai?noue aeia?iaoaaiiy iaii/anoeiie ye oe?eiai c?inoa? a iino?eiiio aeaeo?e/iiio iie?. 5. I?e iaae?ii? ia oaa?aeo iiaa?oith iaii/anoeiie SiC, ui aeia?iaothoueny ye oe?ea c aeaea?aea, ooai?th?oueny iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaee eiiaeainao. 6. Iaii/anoeiee SiC ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao eiiaeainaoe?? ia iiaa?oith ??aeeie iathoue ??aiiaaeeeo oi?io, ia caaa?oaeueieo aoaiao aeeneiiiae?aio c eaaae?aoieie aai i?aaeeueieie oanoeeooieie ia?eiao?aie, ui aeeeoo?oueny ai?cio?ii??th eiao?oe??ioo iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao, oa oiiaith i?i?ioiii o iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??. 7. Ia i?eeeaae? ni?eaiiy iaii/anoeiie SiC i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a?aeiia yaeua cia/iiai cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ni?eaiiy c? ciaioaiiyi ?ici???a iaii/anoeiie. 8. Aia?oa aeaioiaeaii eaai?aoi?i? c?acee eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo SiC/SiC ia iniia? iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe? SiC oa iieacaii, ui ?o aeiaaio?eaaea /aniaa a?aieoey i?oeiino? ia ?icoya cia/ii ia?aaa?oo? oeae ia?aiao? iaeiii?enoi? cae/aeii? ea?ai?ee SiC. 9. Ia i?eeeaae? iao?eoe? SiC c iaiie?enoae?/iiai ii?ioeo i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a?aeiia yaeua iacia/iiai ?inoo aaee/eie ca?ai (aeey SiC ??no aei 10-30 ii i?ioyaii 30 aiaeei i?e 1473-1500 E) iaiie?enoae?/iiai eiiaeiia?aoo a ?acoeueoao? a?aeiaeo i?e ?iai/eo oaiia?aoo?ao. 10. Cai?iiiiiaaia oa ia?aa??aia aenia?eiaioaeueii ?aeay iie?ioaiiy noaa?eueiino? ?iaioe aaeooiiiai aeeooc?eiiai ianino oeyoii cai?ie aaeooiiiai ianea ia noniaic?th iaii/anoeiie a iane?. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao 1. Neeaiei I.I., Eiiaiue O.A. Eiiiiceoeeiiiue iaoa?eae ia iniiaa iaiie?enoaeee/aneiai SiC, a?ie?iaaiiai iai?a?uaiuie aieieiaie SiC // Ii?ioeiaay iaoaeeo?aey. - 1997. -?5-6. - N. 69-75. 2. Aaniueia N.A., Eiiaiue O.A., Eiiaiue TH.A., Iia?eia I.I. Aeia?iaoaaiiy oa eiiaeainaoe?y iaii/anoeiie e?aii?th a aeaeo?e/iiio iie? // A?niee ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y: o?c.-iao. iaoe. - 1997. -Aeione ? 2. - N.337-341. 3. Eiiaiue O.A., Iiaeeia I.I., Neeaiei I.I. Aeeeoaeueiay i?i/iinoue aieieia n iaiie?enoaeee/aneei iie?uoeai SiC // I?iaeaiu i?i/iinoe. - 1998. - ?1. - N. 95-99. 4. Eiiaiue O.A., Neeaiei I.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiii?o oa iiaeoey THiaa aieieii ea?a?aeo e?aii?th // A?niee ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y: o?c.-iao. iaoe. - 1998. -Aeione ? 2. - N. 412-417. 5. Aiiaea?aiei A.I., Ooeueaeaiei A.A., Ei?aaeaa N.O., Eiiaiue O.A. Aeeyiea ia?aiao?ia aa?ioa?ie/aneiai niaeaiey ia oa?aeoa?enoeee noano?oeoo?u e iee?ioaa?aeinoue iieee?enoaeee/aneeo OiC, VC, SiC, Cr2C3.// Naa?ooaa?aeua iaoa?eaeu. - 1998. -?3. -N. 8-12. 6. Eiiaiue O.A., Eiiaiue TH.A. I iieo/aiee iaiie?enoaeee/aneiai ii?ioea oeoaia eiiaeainaoeeae ia?ia ia iiaa?oiinoe i?aaie/aneiai ianea // Nia?aiaiiua aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe oece/aneiai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey: Ca. iaoe. i?. - E.: EII IAIO, 1995. - N. 137-142. 7. Iiaeeia I.I., Eiiaiue O.A. I eiiaeainaoeee ia aeeaeeoth e oaa?aeoth aeeyeaeo?e/aneoth iiaeeiaeee a yeaeo?e/aneii iiea // O?oaeu oe?aeineiai aaeooiiiai iauanoaa. -Oa?ueeia. - 1996. - Oii 2. - N. 210-212. 8. Aaniueia N.A., Eiiaiue A.N., Eiiaiue O.A. Ioea/ea n eniieueciaaieai iaii/anoeoe // O?oaeu oe?aeineiai aaeooiiiai iauanoaa. -Oa?ueeia. - 1997. - Oii 3. - N.453-455. 9. Aaniueia N.A., Eiiaiue O.A., Eiiaiue A.N., ?aai N.E. Ieaiee ea?aeaea e?aiiey, iieo/aiiua enia?aieai e eiiaeainaoeeae iaii/anoeoe // O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Oeceea e oaoiieiaey oiieeo ieaiie”. - Eaaii-O?aieiane. - 1997. - 12 n. 10. Aaniueia N.A., Eiiaiue A.N., Eiiaiue O.A. Ioea/ea n eniieueciaaieai iaii/anoeoe // Iaaeaeoia?. neiiiceoi. “Oiieea ieaiee a yeaeo?iieea”. - Oa?ueeia. - 1997. - 16 n. 11. Eiiaiue O.A., Iiaeeia I.I., Neeaiei I.I. Iaiie?enoaeee/aneee ii?ioie SiC // Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Iiaaeoea i?ioeannu e iaoa?eaeu a ii?ioeiaie iaoaeeo?aee”. - Eeaa. - 1997. - 12 n. 12. Eiiaiue O.A., Aaniueia N.A. Iaii/anoeoeu ea?aeaea e?aiiey e ieaiee ec iaii/anoeoe // Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Oeceea eiiaeainiaaiiuo n?aae”. - A?iaeii. - 1997. -67 n. 13. Kopan T.V., Kopan V.S., Novikov N.N., Vasnev S.V. The Copper-Graphite Nanocrystals Coatings// International Conference on Advanced Materials. Symposium K, k-11/p22, - Strasbourg. - 1997. -?. 22. Eiiaiue O.A. Iaii/anoeiee oa eiiiiceoe?eiee iaoa??ae ia iniia? iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe? ? aieieii ea?a?aeo e?aii?th. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei - iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.07 - o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea. - Oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Oe?a?ia, Ee?a, 1999 ?. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeaioiaeaiith iaii/anoeiie Ti, Si, SiC, aeine?aeaeaiith ?o aeayeeo aeanoeainoae oa iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo ia iniia? iaiie?enoae?/ii? iao?eoe? SiC ? iaia?a?aieo aieieii SiC (EI SiC/SiC). Iieacaii, ui ?acoeueoaoii iaeii/anii? eiiaeainaoe?? ia?e oaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a oa ia?e e?aii?ei?aai?/iiai aaeooiiiai ianea AAEE-94 ia iaeio i?aeeeaaeeieo ? ooai?aiiy iaii/anoeiie. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaii/anoeiee aeia?iaothoueny c aeaea?aea (noniaic??, eoie ii?ioeo) ye oe?ea (ye a?ioi?anuee? /anoeiee). ?ioaineai?noue aeia?iaoaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici???a /anoeiie, nee aaeaac??, oaiia?aoo?e oa a?aae??ioo aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Anoaiiaeaii, ui EI SiC/SiC ia? cia/io iaeanoue ieanoe/iino? (~ 0,2 % i?e 1473-1500E ? oaeaeeino? ?icoyao 0,02 ii/nae) ia?aae ?oeioaaiiyi oa aaeeeo a?aieoeth i?oeiino? ia caei (640+120 IIa i?ney 100 oa?iioeeee?a a?ae 1500E aei 373 E). Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaii/anoeiee, a?ioi?anueeee ?oo, iaiie?enoae?/ia iao?eoey, aieieia, ea?a?ae e?aii?th, eiiiiceoe?eiee iaoa??ae. Kopan O.V. Nanoparticles and Composite Material on Nanocrystal Matrix and Silicon Carbide Filaments. - Manuscript. Thesis for the Ph. Dr. degree on speciality 01.04.07 - Solid state physics. - The University of Taras Shevchenko, Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999. The thesis is devoted to production of nanoparticles Ti, Si, SiC, to research of their some properties and mechanical properties of a composite material on nanocrystal matrix and silicon carbide filaments (CM SiC/SiC). It is shown, that nanoparticles are formatted by simultaneous condensation of a solid material vapour and the vapour of vacuum silicone oil AAEE-94 on one base. It is proved, that nanoparticles evaporate from a source (a suspension, heap of a powder) as whole (as Brownian particles). The intensity of evaporation depends on the particle size, adhesion forces, temperature, and gradient of an electrical field. It is established, that the CM SiC/SiC has significant area of plasticity (~ 0,2 % at 1473-1500 K and velocity of tension of 0,02 mm/sec) before destruction and large brake point on bending (640 + 120 IPa after 100 termocycles from 1500 to 373 K). Key words: nanoparticles, Brownian motion, nanocrystal matrix, filaments, carbide of silicon, composite material. Eiiaiue O.A. Iaii/anoeoeu e eiiiiceoeeiiiue iaoa?eae ia iniiaa iaiie?enoaeee/aneie iao?eoeu e aieieii ea?aeaea e?aiiey. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 - oeceea oaa?aeiai oaea. - Oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Oe?aeia, Eeaa, 1999 a. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ecaioiaeaieth iaii/anoeoe Ti, Si, SiN, enneaaeiaaieth eo iaeioi?uo naienoa e iaoaie/aneeo naienoa eiiiiceoeeiiiiai iaoa?eaea ia iniiaa iaiie?enoaeee/aneie iao?eoeu SiN e iai?a?uaiuo aieieii SiN (EI SiN/SiN). Iieacaii, /oi ?acoeueoaoii iaeiia?aiaiiie eiiaeainaoeee ia?ia oaa?aeuo iaoa?eaeia e ia?a e?aiieei?aaie/aneiai aaeooiiiai ianea AAEE-94 ia iaeio iiaeeiaeeo anoue ia?aciaaiea noniaicee, a eioi?ie caeiina?ae?iaaiu iaii/anoeoeu. Iaii/anoeoeu eco/aee n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiiai i?inaa/eaathuaai iee?ineiia, ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca, Iaea-iee?ineiia e ae?oaeo iaoiaeee. Aeey yoiai ianeyioth noniaiceth ?anoai?yee a aaenaia, /anoeoeu ?acaeaeyee ii ?acia?ai iooai ionoaeaaiey aaenaiiaie noniaicee a eaieeey?ao. Aeieacaii, /oi iaii/anoeoeu enia?ythoueny ec enoi/ieea (noniaicee, eo/e ii?ioea) eae oeaeia (ia oieueei iiaoiiii). Oaiia?aoo?a eioaineaiiai enia?aiey oiaioaaony n ?inoii aeeaiao?a /anoeoe, i?ioiaeeo /a?ac ieieioi e niiaa aic?anoaao; aic?inoaao n ?inoii nee aaeaacee; oiaiueoaaony n oaaee/aieai a?aaeeaioa yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey iaae enoi/ieeii, a oaeaea i?e aicaeaenoaee aea?aoeee ia enoi/iee. I?e eiiaeainaoeee iioiea iaii/anoeoe (Si e SiC, iai?eia?) ia iiaeeiaeea ia?acoaony ieaiea n oaiia?aoo?iui oiaeii nii?ioeaeaiey, oa?aeoa?iui aeey iieoi?iaiaeieeia. ?acoeueoaou iauyniaiu ia iniiaa iieaeoey?ii - eeiaoe/aneie oai?ee. Iiiyoea a?ioiianeiai aeaeaeaiey a aeeaeeinoe ?anoe?aii ia aeaeaeaiea /anoeoe ii oaa?aeie iiaa?oiinoe e a ii?iaeueiii e iiaa?oiinoe iai?aaeaiee, ?acoeueoaoii iineaaeiaai anoue enia?aiea /anoeoe eae oeaeiai (ia oieueei iiaoiiii). Ii oaiia?aoo?iui e?eaui aioo?aiiaai o?aiey onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaii/anoeoeu SiN niaeathoueny (ca n/ao ca?iia?aie/iie aeeooocee) a iaiie?enoaeee/aneoth iao?eoeo i?e oaiia?aoo?ao (T<1500E), eioi?ua ia 100-300 E ieaea oaiia?aoo?u aeaa?aaeaoeee aieieii, /oi eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea e iicaieyao nicaeaaaoue EI SiN/SiN. I?e niaeaiee iacia/eoaeueii aic?inoatho ?acia?u ca?ai iaiiiao?eoeu (aei 10-30 ii), iiyoiio iia aieaa ieanoe/ia ii n?aaiaieth n e?oiiie?enoaeee/aneie. A nayce n yoei aieieia SiN n iaiie?enoaeee/aneei iie?uoeai (aeeaiao? 100 iei, oieueia iie?uoey 70 iei) eiatho aeeeoaeueioth i?i/iinoue (st~30.107 Ia iinea t=200 / i?e 1500 E), eioi?ay ii/oe a 20 ?ac i?aauoaao st e?oiiie?enoaeee/aneeo ia?acoeia. Iiyoiio EI SiN/SiN eiaao cia/eoaeueioth iaeanoue ieanoe/iinoe (~ 0,2 % i?e 1473-1500 E e nei?inoe ?anoyaeaiey 0,02 ii/nae) ia?aae ?ac?ooaieai e aieueooth a?aieoeo i?i/iinoe ia ecaea (640+120 IIa iinea 100 oa?iioeeeeia io 1500 aei 373 E). Iiauoaiiay ieanoe/iinoue EI SiN/SiN iauyniyaony ca?iia?aie/iui neieueaeaieai a iao?eoea e aeaoi?iaoeeae aa iaiica?ai ii aeeoooceiiiiio iaoaiecio. Aeenca?oaoeey eceiaeaia ia 136 no?., niaea?aeeo 43 ?enoiea e 8 oaaeeoe. Aeaeeia?aoey - 179. Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaii/anoeoeu, a?ioiianeia aeaeaeaiea, iaiie?enoaeee/aneay iao?eoea, aieieia, ea?aeae e?aiiey, eiiiiceoeeiiiue iaoa?eae.

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