IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 325.8(477)

?ONIA*AIEI Aiaoie?e Ieeieaeiae/

IAOe?IIAEUeII-AECAIEUeIEE ?OO A OE?A?I? — NA?AAeEIa 1950-o — II*AOIE
1990-o ?IE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 07.00.01  — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? iiiia?ao?y

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aa?ai A.E., caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi???
neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a

Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

A?ean ?.A.,ia?iaeiee aeaiooao Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aeaoeaae/ ss.Ae., aee?aeoi? Euea?anueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy ?inoeoooo

oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? ?i. A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?
?noi?e/ieo iaoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 6 eeiiy 1999 ?. i 11-00 aiae ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.35.222.01 ?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i.
?. E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: i.Euea?a, aoe.Eicaeueieoeueea,
4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?. E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 11 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

e.?.i.
O.?.Noaae?e

CAAAEUeI? IIEIAEAIIss

1. Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaaoooy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?iith noaaeoue ia
ii?yaeie aeaiiee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei, ui i?eaaee aei e?ece ? ceaio
nenoaie oioae?oa?ecio a N?N?, aei c’yae iiaeo iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa ia ?o
oa?aiao. Aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue aeyaeaiiy iniiaieo nee ? oaeoi??a, ye?
i?eaaee aei iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie c oei, uia a?aooaaoe oe? oaeoi?e aeey
aeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a ? a iao?e aea?aeaa?,
? a e?a?iao No?aeii? ?a?iie. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo aoa
iaeaaaii?oith oaeith neeith ? i?e/eiith iaoi? iacaeaaeiino?.

Oey iacaeaaei?noue iinoaea a Oe?a?i? a ?acoeueoao? o?eaaeeo i?ioean?a
oai?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo iiaea?ii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, ye iane?aeie o?ueio
ia??iae?a aecaieueiiai ?ooo i?ioyaii anueiai XX noie?ooy. Ia eiai
ii/aoeo oe?a?inueeee ia?iae aoa iaeaea aeeeth/ii naeyinueeei ia?iaeii ye
ca ?iaeii caiyoue, oae ? ca i?noeai i?iaeeaaiiy. I?ia?aeiith aa?noaith
oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo i?ioyaii noie?ooy aoea ?ioae??aioe?y i?noa ? naea. A
/an ia?oiai ia??iaeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue oe?a?inueeee ?oo aenooiea ca
noai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae, oi/ oi?ioaaiiy oe?eeii no/anii? iaoe?? ua
ia aoei ia oie /an caaa?oaii. Oea noaei caiaeii iaei??th c iaeaaaii?oeo
i?e/ei ao?aoe iacaeaaeiino?. Aeania, c oeueiai ia??iaeo (1917—1921 ??.)
? iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i oi?ioaaiiy no/anii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, iic??ia
aeciaiiy yei? a?aeaeeiny o oaeo? ?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae?noe/ii?
aea?aeaae. I?ioyaii ianooiieo aeanyoee?oue (aae aei 1991 ?.) Oe?a?ia
aoea eieii??th ?in?? o neeaae? N?N?. Oeae i?aeiaa?eueiee noai ?anioae?ee
iineethaaany e ?nioaaiiyi aei?noeiai oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio ia ??
oa?eoi???, yeee ni?e/eieany aei aaaaoii?eueeiiieo aea?oa. A ?aieao
aeaii? nenoaie aeaaee a?aeaoeiny ia’?aeiaiiy iaeaea an?o oe?a?inueeeo
aoiia?ao?/ieo caiaeue. Oea oaae aoa /eiiee oai?aiiy no/aniiai
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. ?ioei oaeei /eiieeii, ae?y yeiai, i?ioa, aoea
aaeueie noia?a/eeaith, noaei oa, ui a ?acoeueoao? i?enei?aii?
?iaeono??ae?caoe?? ? ianeeueieoeueei? eieaeoea?caoe?? a ?anioae?oe?
c’yaeeiny ?iaeono??aeueia noni?euenoai. A?aeaoeany o?aai?caoe?y
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, ??cei c??n eiai ina?oi?e ??aaiue. C /anii
i?noeaaa iiiaieeaoo?a ii/eia? a?ae/oaaoe aeecuee?noue nai?o ?ioa?an?a ?
ianaeaiiy, aeieea? eieaeueiee iao??ioeci, a ia? iiaie? i?ieeaeathoueny
iaoe?iiaeuei? ii/oooy. C?icoi?ei, ca a?aenooiino? ni?eyoeeai?
i?aeia?iaeii? ianoaiiaee a oiiaao aeinoaoiuei? noaa?eueiino? ?iia?nueei?
oioae?oa?ii? aeaaee oe? /eiieee ua ia icia/aee iiaeeeaino? (ye iieaco?
aeina?ae aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1940—50-o ?ie?a) aeinyaiaiiy
iacaeaaeiino?. C? ci?iith aaiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? c e?ioey 1980-o ?ie?a,
?c caaino?aiiyi nenoaiii? e?ece a N?N? oe?a?inueeee ?oo io?eio? iia?
ia?niaeoeae.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Aei e?ioey 1980-o ?ie?a i?iaeaia
oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo, c?icoi?ei, aoea ia’?eoii iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue eeoa cao?aeieo ?noi?ee?a ? iie?oieia?a, ia?aaaaeii
oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. A inoaii? ?iee aei ia? caa?oathoueny aaea e
a?o/eciyi? aaoi?e. Oae /e ?iaeoa oe? ieoaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
aeayeeo caaaeueieo ?iaioao c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie: I?anoa Noaoaeueiiai,
A?eaae?y AEoeianueeiai, Aieiaeeie?a Aa?aia, Ai?ena Eaaeoeueeiai,
ss?ineaaa A?e?inueeiai 1.

Oe? ?iaioe yeithnue i??ith ? i?aenoieiaeie e o aea/aii? yaeua
oioae?oa?ecio, ui ?icii/aeiny ua a 30-o ?ieao. Aac aeine?aeaeaiue
oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie a oe?eiio iac?icoi?eeie aeaeathoueny e i?aenoaae,
nooue ? i?e/eie iiiceoe?eiiai, iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Ia?oith cia/iith
?iaioith ii aea/aiith oiai yaeua aoea i?aoey Aaiie A?aiaeo “Iioiaeaeaiiy
oioae?oa?ecio”. 2 Aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui oioae?oa?ia aea?aeaaa canoiniao?
aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai iaiaio ian i?iia?aiaeo e oa?i?, ye? iaaoaathoue
/e ia aaniethoiiai oa?aeoa?o, ? i?aaia ia?aoai?eoe ia eeoa
noni?eue-noai, a e i?e?iaeo ethaeeie.

Eeane/io ?ic?iaeo aeaia ieoaiiy io?eiaei a eiec? Ea?ea O??ae??oa ?
Ca??i?aa Aaeac?inueeiai “Oioae?oa?ia aeeeoaoo?a ? aaoie?ao?y”. Aiie ae
aeae?eythoue ? 6 iniiaieo e?eoa???a aeey oeoia/aiiy oioae?oa?iiai
neiae?iio 3.

?icaeoie oioae?oa?ecio, iniaeeai a N?N?, i?eca?a caiaeii aei iiyae
??ciiiai?oieo ioe?iie aaoi?eoa?ieo oi?i i?aae?iue ye noaae?e ?icaeoeo
oe??? nenoaie. Oiae? ae c’yaey?oueny ? ia?oa ?iaioa I. Aeae?eana 4 c
iiaeyaeii “c na?aaeeie” ia oioae?oa?ia na?aaeiaeua. Acaaae? c oeueiai
?yaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeae?ey?oueny i?aoey A. Aaoi?oaiiaa “Oaoiieia?y
aeaaee”, ye iaoiaeieia?/iith oae ? oaeoe/iith noi?iiith ni?aae.

C ae?oai? iieiaeie 1980-o ?ie?a a N?N? c’yaey?oueny /eiaei ?ia?o aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee ? ia?aeiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oioae?oa?ieo i?ioean?a o
Nithc? ?N?. Oea, cie?aia, ?iaioe A. Aooaiea, Ae. Aieeiaiiiaa,
E. Ai?aeiia, A. Eeiiiaa oa ?i. Uii?aaaea, ia an? aaoi?e oiae? i?oee
aia?aae a?ae ?noi?e/ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo ioe?iie oeueiai yaeua, aeaieo o
na?e /an aeeneaeaioaie 5, aea, aac noii?ao, iaaia, a iiaeaeoaee e
cia/ia, aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa c eiie?aoii? ?noi??? aoea oaee
i?iaaaeaia. C oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a o oeueiio iai?yieo oe?eaaeie ?
?iaioe ?. A?eana, N. A?eieiiy, TH. Oaiiaaea 6. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui
oai?aoe/i? e i?aeoe/i? ?ica?aeee a oeueiio ieai? aoee cae?eniai? naiai
/ano ua ioae?oeenoaie IOI-OIA, a oiio /ene? ss. Noa?ooii, I. Iieoaaith,
E. Iice/aitheii oa ?i.

Eeane/i? eiioeaioe?? oioae?oa?ecio ye iiaeae? iaee ia oaac?, ui
aoaeue-ye? nooo?a? a?aenooie a?ae iiaeae? ? iaiiaeeeaeie, ?iaeoa oaea
noni?euenoai aaea ia iiaeia aecia/aoe ye oioae?oa?ia. Aaaaeaeiny oaeiae,
ui caiouaiee oioae?oa?iee iaoai?ci iaia’yceiai i?eaaaea noni?euenoai aei
naiai ?aeaaeo, yeee iaiiaeeeai ii?ooeoe cna?aaeeie. Oe? eiioeaioe?? ia
i?iiiioaaee a?eueo-iaio caaeia?eueieo iiyniaiue ci?iai ana?aaeei?
no-ni?euenoaa oioae?oa?iiai oeio. I?ae oei, aaea a na?aaeei? 1950-o
aeine?aeieee, oa ae naia A. A?aiaeo, aeyaeee oe? ci?ie a ?nioth/?e
oioae?oa?i?e nenoai?. Aea c oiai aoei c?iaeaii ??ci? aeniiaee: /e oi i?i
iaiiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy oa?i?io oioae?oa?eci aei noni?euenoa oeio
N?N?, /e oi i?i “a?aeeeae” a ?icaeoeo aeaiiai noni?euenoaa. Iiaie?, ia
80-o? ?iee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? noia?a/eao i?iaeaa?oueny aeoiea i?i
?icoi?iiy oioae?oa?ecio ia ye iiaeae?, a ye i?ioeano; oioae?oa?iee
?aeaae, ui eiai iienoaaee eiioeaioe?? O??ae??oa, Aaeac?inueeiai, ii/anoe
A?aiaeo ? ?oi?o iine?aeiaiee?a ? eeoa ieneeia eiioeaioe?y. A ?aaeueiiio
aeeoo? aiia i?eiee ia iaaoaa? iiaiiai ao?eaiiy. Oaeee iiaeyae ia
oioae?oa?ia noni?euenoai aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio iiaeyiooe ia o? i?ioeane,
ui a?aeaoaaeeny a on?o noni?euenoaao ?aaeyinueeiai oeio, iniaeeai
No?aeii? ?a?iie oa N?N?. Iaiiaeeea?noue aeinyaiaiiy anacaaaeueiiai
eiio?ieth iaae noni?euenoaii, eiai ?icaeoeii iiyniththoue e ?nioaaiiy
nee iii?o oioae?oa?ecio, a oiio /ene? ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio, nioe?aeueiiio
??oio?.

?ioa neeaaeiaa iaoi? oaie — iaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie a oai?aoe/iiio ? a
i?aeoe/iiio aniaeoao ? oaiaie iaae/a?iieie a no/anieo aoiiiie?oe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo, a o. /. ? noiniaii c?oeiaiiy ?aeaieia?e iaoe?iiae?cio
oa eiioi?cio 7.

?iaioe, ui noinothoueny iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo aaciina?aaeiuei
oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie: aei ia?oi? iaeaaeaoue i?aoe?,
iaienai? iiee ui ia?aaaaeii ca?oa?aeieie iaoeiaoeyie. Aiie
aena?oeththoue ?noi??th ?ooo aei ii/. 1980-o ?ie?a. Aei ae?oai? a?oie
iiaeia ca?aooaaoe ?iaioe, ui noinothoueny iiae?e a Oe?a?i? a inoaii?
?iee. I?ioa iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaaaaaoi ? noinothoueny aiie,
ye i?aaeei, /e ia anueiai ia??iaeo ?ooo a oe?eiio, /e oi an?o
oe?a?inueeeo i?iaeai. Aei inoaii?o oiio ne?ae ia?aaeon?i a?aeianoe
caaaeuei? ?iaioe Aiaaeaia E?aa/aiea, Aiaaeaia Iaaaeea ? A?eoi?a
Naiaiaee 8, aeaa ca??ieee noaoae “Oe?a?ia naieaeanyoeo” oa “Oe?a?ia
i?ney Oaeanoa” 9. Aeoaea i?ei?oiith ? i?aoey o/anieoe?
aeeneaeaionueeiai ?ooo Ethaeieee Aeaena?ai? 10. Oe?a?inueeee ?oo ye
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee aoa aecia/aiee aia?oa o oeeee? noaoae ?aaia
Aaey ? Ie?ineaaa I?ieiia 11.

O?eaaeee /an o ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo oe?a?inuee? i?iaeaie oiai
/ano o?aeooaaeeny aai c aeineoue ianei?noe/ieie aeniiaeaie (TH. A??/)
aai ye eiioe?eo ?aeaieia?/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae, a?ae/oaeaiiy i?ae
aeaaeith oa oe?a?inueeeie aeeneaeaioaie 12.

C ?ia?o oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a inoaii?o e?o ne?ae iacaaoe i?aoe?
A. Ii?ica, TH. Eo?iiniaa, I. Caeoeaaa 13. Y?oioiaiee aiae?c i?noey
?ioae??aioe?? a ?on? iii?o oioae?oa?iiio ?aaeeiia? iiaeaii a i?aoe?
A. Eanueyiiaa “Iacaiaei?” 14.

Ia aeaeue, nueiaiaei? i?aeoe/ii iaia? aeine?aeaeaiue ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo
?oo?a ni?ioeao, cie?aia, ?ia?oieoeoaa, ca aeiyoeii noaoo? caaaeaii?
E. Aeaena?ai? oa e?eueeio ?ica?aeie o “No/aniino?” e?ioey 70-o ?ie?a 15.

Cae/aeii, oey i?iaeaia caeaaeaa ui e ie?aneaia a no/ani?e
?noi??ia?ao??.

A?aeiinii oe?oa eiei ?noi?ee?a, iie?oieia?a aena?oeth?, aiae?co?
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo a Oe?a?i? c e?ioey 1980-o ?ie?a. Iaea?eueo
??oioiaieie c ieo ? iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy I. Aa?aiy,
A. Eai?inueeiai, O. Eocuei ? A. A?eueniia 16. Oe?a?inuee? aeine?aeieee
oe??? i?iaeaie ia ia?oa i?noea a aeinyaiaii? Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino?
noaaeyoue ia?o ca ana (ca iaaaeeeei aeiyoeii) ?oo oe?ieeo ian,
iiaiooai?aieo ia?o?e ? ?oo?a, aeineoue aeia?a ?icaeyiooa i?e oeueiio ?
i?ioeeaaeia noi?iia — EIO oa ?? ni?eueieee. A aeayeeo ca?oa?aeieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo aieiaio ?ieue o iacaeaaeieoeueeeo aeiiaaaiiyo
iieeaaeathoue ia eieeoith e ae?th/o ia?oiiiai-eeaoo?o oa ?? noaaeaiee?a.
C’yaeeiny aeae?eueea na?eicieo iaoeiaeo noaoae, aaoi?e yeeo ioe?iththoue
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i? /eiieee iacaeaaeiino?.

Nioe?aeueiee i?ioano, yeee noi?iaiaeaeoaaa oe?a?inueeo ?aaiethoe?th
inoaii?o ?ie?a ? iniaeeai a e?ioe? 80-o, ia aeaeue ? ia iiaeea
aiaeii/an, noaa oaiith iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaeaea aeeeth/ii ca
iaaeaie Oe?a?ie. Aei oaeeo ne?ae a?aeianoe eieae Ae. Iaiena,
A. Eiiia?a 17.

I?aenoiiaoth/e, iiaeia neacaoe, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny noaiiaeaiiy
?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeai aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? aeaiiai ia??iaeo.
Oaeoi?e ? neee, ui oae /e ?iaeoa ni?eyee iaaeeaeaiith iacaeaaeiino?
Oe?a?ie: ?? iiaea?i?caoe?y, iaoe?iiae-eiioi?ci (ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai?)
? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo. Iaia?, iaeiae, eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo
aei ieoaiiy iacaeaaeiino?, c iieacii ?aaeueii? aaae eiaeiiai c iacaaieo
aeua oaeoi??a. Iaeaea iaia? e ie?aieo i?aoeue c ioe?ieith oi? /e ?ioi?
neee aieeao ia oeae i?ioean. ? iaaia e?euee?noue ?ia?o, ui noinothoueny
oaie iaoi? aeena?oaoe??. A?eueo?noue ?c ieo, i?ioa, ienaia iie?oieiaaie,
a ia ?noi?eeaie. An?i oeei ?iaioai, ye ia iaia, a?aeo? eia?/ii?
caaa?oaiino? o aena?oeaii? i?iaeaie a o?iiieia?/ieo ?aieao aeaiiai
ia??iaeo. Aeineoue aocueeith, c iiaeyaeo nueiaiaeaiiy, ? ? aeaea?aeueia
iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?aaaaea? ee?aioeaio?eci aeeeaaeo aeaea?ae
(iniaeeai o aena?oeaii? inoaiiueiai aoaio ?ooo). I?aeoe/ii iaia?
aeine?aeaeaiue ?ioeo ?oo?a ni?ioeao nenoai?, cie?aia ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo.
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo, eiai ?aea? ? ?ieue o aeeoo? noni?euenoaa
ae?oai? iieiaeie OO no., a aeinyaiaii? iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?iith o?aa ui
iacaai?. Oei /anii ?nioaaiiy a na?aaeei? nenoaie oioae?oa?ecio
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, iiiceoe?? ciooo? ian ii-iiaiio ioe?ithaaoe
oaa?aeaeaiiy e oyaeaiiy i?i oe?eeiaeoo iie?oe/io iie??i?noue ? neeo
anaa?/iiai oioae?oa?iiai eiio?ieth a noni?euenoa? ?aaeyinueeiai oeio.
Iaaiei iiyniaiiyi oaeiai noaio no/anii? ?noi??ia?ao?? iiaea aooe oa, ui
eaeaoueny i?i iiae?? ua cian?i iaaeaaiueiai ieioeiai.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo ? ?ia?oie/?
i?ioanoe a Oe?a?i?, nenoaia aeaaee a ?anioae?oe? a oeae ?noi?e/iee
ia??iae.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo ? ia?o?eieo
i?aai?a o aaeoc? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee a N?N? oa O?N?, a oeaio?? e ia
i?noeyo, i?aei?eueieo a?oi, iaoi?iaeueieo ia’?aeiaiue, ooai?aiue, ia?o?e
? ?oo?a, i?aai?caoe?e, ie?aieo in?a, noai noni?eueii? iai?aeoeaico?ii?
aeoiee a ?anioae?oe?.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae c na?aaeeie
1950-o ? aei ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a. Ia na?aaeeio 50-o ?ie?a caaa?oo?oueny
ae?oaa ni?iaa caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino? a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie OO noie?ooy. Oey
iiooaa a?aeaoaaeany ye o ie?ieo, oae ? ia?aaaaeii ai?iieo oi?iao. Ie?i?
caniae ciaaaiue a oiiaao i?ioenoiyiiy aeaio oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a — N?N?
? I?ia//eie aoee aeineoue iaiaaeaieie. Iaeiae, c iaeyaeo ia o? ae oiiae,
ca?ieia ai?ioueaa, yea aoea oni?oiith a ?ioeo e?a?iao, ia ?ioeo
eiioeiaioao, ooo aaaeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo ia aeinyaea. Neee aoee iaaeoi
ia??ai?. ?oo oiai /ano ?nio? ye aeia?a i?aai?ciaaiee, aea caiaeii
cina?aaeaeo?oueny iaeaea aeeeth/ii a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?. C na?aaeeie 50-o
ca?ieiee ii?? ?aaeeiia? aoa i?eaeooaiee. Aea i?iaeiaaeoaaee ae?yoe ua
nioi? i?aei?eueieo a?oi, i?aai?caoe?eii iia’ycaieo c IOI-OIA.
Aeieeathoue i?aei?euei? a?oie, ye? c iiia?aaei?i ia??iaeii aoee
iia’ycai? o?aa ui ?aeaeii. C ae?yeueiino? oeeo a?oi ?
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo e?ioey 1950-o — ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a
ii/eia?oueny iiaee ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?.
Eiai iniaeeaino? aecia/aee ye ii?acee aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 40—50-o
?ie?a, oae ? eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia ceai? aaea 50—60-o ?ie?a.
Noooth oeueiai ia??iaeo aoa ia?ao?ae a?ae ia?aaaaeii ca?ieieo oi?i
ai?ioueae ca iacaeaaei?noue aei ie?ieo cania?a, a oiio /ene? e
ea?aeueieo. A?aeaoaaeany iaaia ?aa?c?y ?aeaeieo i?ia?aiiaeo canaae ?ooo
a iai?yieo ?oiuei? aeaiie?aoecaoe??. Aoei aeei?enoaii, oi/ ? iaioith
i??ith, oaeiae i?aai?caoe?eiee aeina?ae iiia?aaeiueiai ia??iaeo,
uii?aaaea, ia aaciina?aaeiuei, a /a?ac “aae?aiiy” oiai aeina?aeo iiaeie
iieie?iiyie. Aeania, ianooiia iieie?iiy ? oai?eoue iaeaea aeeeth/ii
o/aniee?a oeueiai ia??iaeo ?ooo.

C e?ioey 1980-o ?ie?a ?oo iaaoaa? ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o, a iueiai
aeeth/athoueny e ?io? iieie?iiy ai?oe?a. E?ioeaaei i?aenoieii oeueiai
ia??iaeo aecaieueiiai ?ooo noa? caeiaoooy iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino?
Oe?a?iith a e?ioe? 1991 ?., ui eia?/ii e ?noi?e/ii ? caaa?oaiiyi aeaiiai
ia??iaeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?.

A ?noi?e/iiio ieai? 50—90-o? ?iee — oea oaeiae ia??iae ia?aoiaeo a?ae
eeane/iiai noae?i?cio aei eiai iii’yeoaieo oioae?oa?ieo oi?i o iai?yi?
aaiethoe?? inoaii?o aei aaoi?eoa?ecio.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ?iaio? iaae aeena?oaoe??th
canoiniaaii i?eioeei ?noi?ecio ia ??oio? ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueieo oa
aiae?oe/ieo iaoiae?a. Aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oaeiae ?
i?aaeiaoii-o?iiieia?/iee oa nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei yaeu, ui noaee ia’?eoii aea/aiiy.

Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/ei, oiia ? aoai?a ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo oa ?ia?oie/iai ni?ioeao a oeae
?noi?e/iee ia??iae o eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i?
oa ca ?? iaaeaie; aieea?a oeeo ?oo?a ia aeaiie?aoe/i? i?ioeane a
?anioae?oe?; i?noey iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a caeiaooo? iacaeaaeiino?
iaoith e?a?iith; ?ie? e i?noey eiaeiiai c aeaieo ?oo?a a
aioeoioae?oa?iiio iiiceoe?eiiio ?on?. Aeoiaey/e c oe??? iaoe, aeena?oaio
aeiineoue ia caoeno oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee:

1. I?iaiae?ciaaiee o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeeneaeaionueeee ?
i?aaicaoeniee ?ooe ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?iyae ia?o ca ana oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. Oe? ?ooe iaee i?ia?aie, oe?e?, aoee
no?oeoo?eciaai? o??th /e ?ioith i??ith, iaee iaaio e?euee?noue
o/aniee?a, ye? aaee ?iaioo, ni?yiiaaio ia aeaiiioaae ?nioth/i? nenoaie
aeaaee a e?a?i?, ca ooaa?aeaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.
Oiio aieiaia oaaaa a ?iaio? cina?aaeaeaia ia oeeo nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ieo
oa ?aeaeieo canaaeao ?ooo, ?icaeoeo iicaoeaico?ii? oe?a?inueei?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee. A oe?eiio i?ae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiei
?ooii ia?oueny ia oaac? ?oo, ui eiai aaaea a?eueoa /e iaioa i?aai?ciaaia
/anoeia ia?iaeo ca aeinyaiaiiy nai?? aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?;

2. I?iyaaie oeueiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo ne?ae aaaaeaoe ae?yeuei?noue
ia?ao?aeieo a?oi ia iaae? 1950—60-o ?ie?a, a oaeiae ?ioeo i?aei?eueieo
a?oi ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??oio?, ye? ?nioaaee i?ioyaii iaeaea anueiai
ia??iaeo, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny a aeena?oaoe??;

3. ?aeaieia?/ieie i?aeaaeeiaie ?ooo aoa iaoe?iiae?ci, iaoe?iiaeueia
?aeay /e e caa?iaiiy a ?yae? aeiaaee?a aei iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee
?noeiiiai (ye caeaaaeiny oei ethaeyi) ia?enecio-eai?i?cio, a oaeiae
aeaiie?aoe/i? o?aaeeoe?? no/aniiai na?oo;

4. ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a?aeaoaaany a
aaciina?aaeiueiio ca’yceo c aaiethoe??th oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie a inoaii?
/ioe?e aeanyoee?ooy. Oea coiiaeth? iaaio ia??iaeecaoe?th ?ooo a ?aieao
aeaiiai ia??iaeo, iia’ycaio, ca?nii, c ?icaeoeii eiai ?aeaeieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i;

5. A oiiaao anacaaaeueii? e?ece, yea ioiieea ?aaeyinueeee Nithc a e?ioe?
80-o ?ie?a, naia iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo aoa o??th iie?oe/iith
neeith, ui ae??oeea aeieth Oe?a?ie ia ei?enoue ?nioaaiiy ?? ye
iacaeaaeii? ? naiino?eii? aea?aeaae;

6. Cia/iee ni?ioea nenoai? aeaaee a oeae ia??iae aeyaeei ?ia?oieoeoai.
No?aeee ?ia?oiee?a o 1950—80-o ?ieao, nii?aaee/i? e iai?aai?ciaai?,
ia?a?inoathoue o iiaooi?e ?ia?oie/ee ?oo, ui aenooia? i?ioe
oioae?oa?ecio ? aeaaee eiiia?o??. ?ia?oie/ee ?oo noa? iaea?eueoei ?
iaeiiaooi?oei nithcieeii iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia aoai?
?aaiethoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue e?ioey 80-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa a ?noi??ia?ao??
cae?eniaii aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?
inoaii?o /ioe?ueio aeanyoee?oue ia iniia? aeieoiaioaeueieo a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, ui o?eaaeee /an aoee iaaeinooii? aeey aeine?aeiee?a. A
?iaio? aia?oa oaeiae ?icaeyaeathoueny ia aeieoiaioaeueiee iniia? aeoiee
no/aniiai ?ia?oie/iai ni?ioeao, a caiaeii ? ?ooo, i?ney caaa?oaiiy
neeaaeaiiy i?iieneiaiai ?ia?oie/iai eeano ia aeani?e aac?. Oiio iiaei ?
? canoinoaaiiy, e ai?iaaoe?y aeayeeo iaeiaeinooiieo aeae?a ?noi?e/ieo
aeaea?ae, ui aei oeueiai /ano ia canoiniaoaaeeny a iiae?aieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo, cie?aia iaoa??aee ne?ae/eo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa c
a?o?a?a NAO, a?o?a?a naiaeaeaao ? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e
e?ioey 80-o — ii/. 90-o ?ie?a. Cae?eniaii oaeiae aiae?c ?icaeoeo
oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio a N?N? ia ??oio? O?N? a eiai aaiethoe?? aei
aaoi?eoa?ecio, ? oiai, ye oey aaiethoe?y ?aaeeio coiiaethaaea ? aieeaaea
ia oe?a?inueeee iiiceoe?eiee ?oo.

Iaoeiaei a?aee?eooyi ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? iaea?aeueii? oa/??
oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo a aeaiee ia??iae ? ia?o ca ana — i?aei?eueieo a?oi
e?ioey 1950 — ii/. 60-o ?ie?a. A?aeiaeaeai? oaeiae i?ia?aiia? aeieoiaioe
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Aeena?oaio ?icooeaa oaeiae ieceo aeieoiaio?a, ye?
na?ae/aoue i?i aeineoue cia/iee ?iciao ?ia?oie/eo i?ioano?a, iaeia?oa —
ia aeiiii?/i?e i?aenoaa?, a oiio /ene? — ianiaeo no?aee?a. Aeyaeeiny, ui
a Oe?a?i? ae?yee oaeiae iaai? ?ia?oie/? oa?ii? i?aai?caoe?? iie?oe/iiai
? i?ioni?eeiaiai ni?yioaaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iiiio? iaaio iiaeaeue
?icaeyaeo oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie ? noaio eieii?e a eieeoiueiio N?N? oa
aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiiyo iiae?aiiai oeio. Oey iiaeaeue iieaco?, ui oae?
?aaeeie iaee iaai? ?aiee o nai?io ?icaeoeo aei aeaiie?aoe/ieo ci?i.
Ine?eueee ?aaeei aoa ia eeoa oioae?oa?iei, a e ?iia??ae?noe/iei, oi
ia?oith iaaeath eiai ni?iiiaeiino? aei ?aoi?ioaaiiy noaei iaoe?iiaeueia
ieoaiiy, ae?oaith — i?noea eiiia?o?? a nenoai? aeaaee. Aeania,
oioae?oa?ia nenoaia ii?iaeaeoaaea ii?? aei naaa ? ia?o ca ana
iaoe?iiaeueiee. Iaoe?iiaeueiee ii?? nenoai? o aeaeyae? aecaieueiiai ?ooo
iinea nai???aeiee oa?aeoa? uiaei aiaeia?/ieo ?oo?a a ?ioeo
iaoioae?oa?ieo, ia?aaeyinueeeo nenoaiao, aea oe? a?aei?iiino?
noinothoueny nei??oa ianooaa?a aeaiiai iii?o i?ae eiai no?oeoo?e.
No?eioaaiee, oeae ?oo ca ia?oeo aea ni?eyoeeaeo oiia iaaoaa? oe?ioe ?
?iciaoo, ye oea noaeiny a Oe?a?i? a e?ioe? 1980-o. Neea oaeeo ?oo?a
iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie ? ia eeoa iaoe?iiaeueieie, aioe?iia?nueeeie, a e
aioeoioae?oa?ieie, aioeeiioi?noe/ieie, ui a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo
caaacia/eei oni?o ? oe?a?inueeiio ?ooia?. *enei eiai o/aniee?a i?ioyaii
o?eaaeiai /ano aoei a?aeiinii iaaaeeeei, no?oeoo?ae?caoe?y a?aeaoaaeany
/a?ac naiaeaeaa, aiaeii/an a?aeaoaaeiny oi?ioaaiiy i?aei?eueieo ?
iai?aiaea?aeueieo oa/?e, a?oi. O?ao?e ia??iae oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai
?ooo a OO noie?oo? aeyaea iai ?aa?c?th ? ?icaeoie iniiaieo ?aeaieia?e o
a?o/eciyi?e noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? — eiioi?cio ? iaoe?iiae?cio.
?oi? c?oeiaiiy, ?aae?? OO no. ii?iaeeee iaaiee a?aeo?ae iae oeeo aeaio
?aeaieia?e o aeaeyae? oa/??, ui ni?eeiyea, canai?ea ? ?icaeaaea
aeaiie?aoe/i? oe?iiino? no/aniiai noni?euenoaa.

Aeeiiaia ?iaioa iieaco?, ui iino?eiith i?iaeaiith aeey oiae?oiuei?
aeaaee caeeoaany ianeaiee ? aeoeaiee ni?ioea ianaeaiiy ?? iie?oeoe?. A
aeaiiio ?ac? o?aaa neacaoe, ui ?ia?oie/? no?aeee ? ?ia?oie/ee ?oo a
Oe?a?i? aoee oaeei naiei yaeuai iii?o ye ? a ?ioeo e?a?iao
i?ae?aaeyinueeiai aeieo, a a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo iaoe?iiaeueiee ?
nioe?aeueiee ?ooe noaee nithcieeaie a ai?iouea? c ?nioth/ei ?aaeeiii. Ia
iith aeoieo, oea cana?ae/o? ?aaeueio iiaeeea?noue ii?aeiaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo ? nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a o ?aaiethoe?yo iiae?aiiai oeio.

A oe?eiio iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i aaaeeeao ?ieue o
?iciaae? N?N? ? noaiiaeaii? iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa (ia i?eeeaae? Oe?a?ie)
noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a iii?o ? ai?ioueae c aeaiei ?aaeeiii. Oeae oaeoi?,
iaeeaaoenue ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaaeenue o
e?a?i? ?, cie?aia, a na?aaeiaeu? iiiaieeaoo?e, ? ae??oea aeieth
iacaeaaeiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye iin?aiee aeey aea/aiiy ?noi??? Oe?a?ie OO
noie?ooy o na?aaei?o ? aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao. A?aeiia?aeii
aeioe?eueiei aoei a ?oi? aeei?enoaiiy o i?ina?oieoeuee?e ?iaio? oa
iao??ioe/iiio aeoiaaii?.

Aeaio ?iaioo iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey ii??aiyiiy (a a aeayeeo iiiaioao ye
iiaeaeue) i?e aea/aii?, aeine?aeaeaii? iiia?aaei?o ia??iae?a
oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo ? ia?aaeon?i — 1940—50-o ?ie?a.
Oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? iaaooee iaoi? ?iaioe noaee a o i?eaiae? e i?e
i?iaaaeaii? ii??aiyeueieo nooae?e c aeeneaeaionueeiai, iiiceoe?eiiai
?ooo ye a N?N? (o ??cieo ?anioae?eao), oae ? a No?aei?e ?a?ii?.
Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaee a aooe ei?enieie ? i?e iaienaii?
oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o c ?noi??? no/anieo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a a Oe?a?i? oa
ca ?? iaaeaie.

?aeiino?oeoe?? i?aei?eueii?, /e iaea?aeueii?, oa/?? ?ooo, i?aai?ciaaieo
oi?i iii?o ?aaeeiia? iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe ? aei aea/aiiy ?ioeo
iiiceoe?eieo ?oo?a oiai /ano. Ooo i?eaeaeeny a ? i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co
oa aeei?enoaiiy cia/ii? iane a?aee?eoeo aeey iaoeiaiai ia?ao
aeena?oaioii aeieoiaio?a /eneaiieo a?o/eciyieo a?o?a?a ? iniaeeai —
niaoeneoaea, oeaio?aeueieo ia?o?eieo i?aai?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa ? aeaioiiiith iiiia?ao??th, ia?oee oii
yei? ? aeania aeine?aeaeaiiy, ae?oaee — ca??iee aeieoiaio?a.

??. INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “?noi??ia?ao?y ? aeaea?aea aei aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie” cae?eniaii aiae?c no/aniiai noaio aea/aiiy i?iaeaie oa
i?aeoiae?a aei ?? ?ica’ycaiiy. Ine?eueee i?i oea aaea cia/iith i??ith
eoeiny aeua, ooo oi?eiaiiny eeoa aeayeeo caaaeueieo caoaaaeaiue ?
aeaea?aeueii? aace iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oe?eiio aiie ua
ia?aaoaathoue ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy, ui coiiaeaii ia o?eueee aeecuee?noth
iiae?e aeey aeine?aeiee?a, a e oei, ui cao?aei? ?noi?eee, iai?eeeaae,
aoee iicaaaeai? aaaeeeaeo aeaea?ae oa e o?eaaeee /an iaaeiioe?ithaaee
iiaeeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a. Iei? a?o/eciyi? a/ai?, noiaea,
iaaeiioe?iththoue aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, ye
aca?iicaeaaeieo, a oi e ia?aieaoaieo. Iaoiaeieia?/ii ie?aeiei aoei a
caa?iooe oaaao iaoeiaoe?a ia eeoa ia iiaa?oith iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, a e
ia yaeua, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny ana?aaeei? noni?euenoaa, a iiaoo?,
iiaaae?ioe?, ia ?iaio?. Oea a naith /a?ao aeiaaa? e caeo/aiiy an???
??ciiiai?oiino? aaea a?aeiieo a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, ? iiooeo iiaeo.

Aeaea?aeaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ye ia/eneaii? iioae?eiaai?
ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a /e ie?ai? aeieoiaioe, iioae?eiaai? niiaaaee
o/aniee?a ?ooo, oae ? ia?aaeon?i a?o?ae ??cieo aea?aeaaieo ?
a?iiaae-nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i? oa ca ?? iaaeaie 18. Aei /enea
iioae?eiaaieo aeieoiaio?a iaeaaeaoue ia?o ca ana aeaeaiiy “Niieineeia” ?
cae?eniai? iei ae?oee “Oe?a?inueeiai a?nieea”, aeieoiaio?a
aeeneaeaionueeiai ?ooo, a oaeiae aeae?eueea aeaeaiue, cae?eniaieo a
inoaii? ?iee a Oe?a?i?. Oe? ioae?eaoe?? a oe?eiio caaeia?eueii
iieacothoue ea?aeueio oa/?th ?ooo oa iaiaaaiiy aeaaee caaaeueioaaoe
eiai, i?eai?eaoe, cieueoe eiai o/aniee?a. Aea a oeeo aeaeaiiyo iaia?
e?eueeio aaaeeeaeo i?ia?aiiaeo aeieoiaio?a ?ooo, aiie ae ia i?noyoue ?
niaoeeo?ee oi?ioaaiiy oa no?oeoo?ecaoe?? ?ooo, /eiaea /anoeia
i?iiiiiaaii? oeeie aeaea?aeaie ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaiiaiith, iaiaaeaiith, aai
e aaeueie noa’?eoeaiith. Iauiaeaaii c’yaeeiny e?eueea aeineoue
caaeieoiaioiaaieo niiaaae?a, iaienaieo o o? /ane iaoa??ae?a, ye? c
a?eueoith a??ia?aei?noth ? oi/i?noth o?enothoue ? aeoo oiai /ano, e
ianoaaeie iiae?e, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny, aeoiaey/e ca ?aiee cae/aeieo
aeeoo?ien?a, niiaaae?a. Aei oaeeo ioae?eaoe?e iaeaaeaoue, cie?aia,
aeieoiaioaeuei? niiaaaee E. Eoe’yiaiea, I. Oaeanoa, i?aoey
TH. Aaaecy 19.

I?e iaienaii? ?iaioe aeena?oaio aeei?enoaa oaeiae iaoa??aee 29 a?o?a?a.
Oiiaii oe? a?o?ae iiaeia iiae?eeoe ca i?eiaeaaei?noth ia o?e a?oie. Aei
ia?oi? iaeaaeaoue eieeoi? ia?o?ei? a?o?ae, ia?aaeon?i — Oeaio?aeueiee
aea?aeaaiee a?o?a a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie. A inoaiiueiio ?
/eiaei iaoa??ae?a, ui noinothoueny ae?yeueiino? naii? oioae?oa?ii?
nenoaie oa ?? ?inoeooo?a, ? ianaiia?aae, ia?o??, i?aaiioi?iiieo ?
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a. Cono??/athoueny ooo ? iia?aeiieaiiy c i?noeue, c
??cieo a?aeiinoa i?i ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oa eiai iin??a,
iaoa??aee naiaeaeaao. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaiiai ?iaeo oia?aaeaeai?noue,
aai e ia?ae?o/aiiy a oeeo aeieoiaioao, aiie ? oe?iieie aeaea?aeaie aei
aea/aiiy ye naiiai ?ooo, oae ? oiia, o yeeo a?i a?aeaoaaany, i?aenoaa ?
aeiaaee?a i?iyao nioe?aeueiiai ni?ioeao. Uiaei inoaiiueiai, oi oea
iaeaea ?aeeia aeaea?aei aeey aea/aiiy, ine?eueee iioae?eiaaieo
iaoa??ae?a, na?ae/aiue oaeiai ?iaeo iaeaea iaia?, ye iaia? ?o ? a
aeinooiieo iai ?ioeo aeaeao aeaea?ae. Iiae?aia oa?aeoa?enoeea
noino?oueny aei iaaii? i??e e iaeanieo aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a. Aiie
i?aaenoaaeai? aaoi?ii c iniiaieo ?a??ii?a Oe?a?ie.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie a?o?a?a iaeaaeaoue a?o?ae Neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie oa
?? iaeanieo oi?aae?iue. Iiaeeeaeie aeey aeei?enoaiiy a oeeo a?o?aao (aei
oiai ae c? cia/ieie o?oaeiiuaie) noaee o?eueee ne?ae/? e?ei?iaeuei?
ni?aae iaaeioaa/aieo ? inoaeaeaieo, a caiaeii ?aaa?e?oiaaieo (a 90-o?
?iee) in?a. Oe? ni?aae ?, ye i?aaeei, aaaaoioiiieie ? ia’?iieie
aeieoiaioaie, ui i?noyoue aeoaea aaaaoi ??ciiiai?oii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia
eeoa i?i o/aniee?a aecaieueiiai ?ooo, a e i?i eiai noi?ioeaiee?a.
Iayaieie a oeeo aeieoiaioao ? ia eeoa aeai?, aaea a?aeii? niaoeneoaea?,
a e iaaiiai ?iaeo iia?aoeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y, aeieoiaioe naiaeaeaao,
iaoai?ci ci?ie noaaeaiiy aei ?ooo oiui. Aeine?aeieeia? i?e oeueiio,
iaeiae, ne?ae aooe aeoaea oaaaeiei uiaei iiaeeeai? na?aeiii? /e
iana?aeiii? oaeueneo?eaoe?? aeinooiieo eiio aeieoiaio?a.

Cia/iee ?ioa?an noaiiaeyoue ? iaoa??aee a?o?a?a o?aouei? a?oie —
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e oa ia?o?e Oe?a?ie inoaiiueiai aoaio
?ooo aeaiiai ia??iaeo. ss iaiaaaany caeo/eoe ia?aaeon?i i?ia?aiia?
aeieoiaioe, aeai? i?i neeaae oeeo i?aai?caoe?e, aca?ieie c ?ioeie
ia?o?yie oa ?ooaie, iaoa??aee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?aai?caoe?ei? ?
oai?aoe/i? canaaee ?ooo. Iaea?eueo aaeaeeie uiaei oeueiai aeyaeeeny
a?o?ae I?O, O?I, no?aeeiaeo ?ia?oie/eo eii?oao?a.

Ie?aio a?oio aeieoiaio?a neeaaeathoue iaoa??aee, aeyaeai? aeena?oaioii a
A?o?a? naiaeaeaao a Ithioai?, a oaeiae a A?o?a? ?inoeoooo a?aee?eoiai
noni?euenoaa (Aoaeaiaoo). Oe? iaoa??aee noinothoueny ye oe?a?inueeiai
naiaeaeaao, oae ? iiae?aiiai eiio naiaeaeaao c ?ioeo ?anioae?e
eieeoiueiai Nithco.

Ianiaeie aeaea?aeaie ne?ae aaaaeaoe e ??ciiai ?iaeo iaoi?iaeuei?
aeaeaiiy e?ioey 80-o — ii/. 90-o ?ie?a, a?aeiaeaeai? aeena?oaioii. Aiie
aeia?a a?aeoai?ththoue ianoaiiaeo a ?yn? ? iica iei o ??cieo iaeanoyo
Oe?a?ie. Ciiao ae iaea?eueoo aa?o?noue aeey ian ooo yaeyee ?oo?anuee?
aeaeaiiy, ye? aeoiaeeee a?eueo-iaio nenoaiaoe/ii. Ca oeeie aeieoiaioaie
iiaeia i?ine?aeeoaaoe o?iiieia?th noaiiaeaiiy e iia?eueio iie?oe/io
aaiethoe?th ?ooo, ia?ane?aeoaaiiy aeaaeith eiai o/aniee?a, ?aeaei?
iiooee a ?on?.

I?aenoiiaoth/e neacaia, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aeueia
iniiaa iaoi? i?iaeaie, a oe?eiio ia?aaoaathoue ua ia aoai? naiai
noaiiaeaiiy. Cae?aiiy, nenoaiaoecaoe?? ? ?icoe?aiiy iio?aaothoue iacaai?
aeua a?oie aeaea?ae c ??cieo a?o?a?a, ao?i, iiaeeeai, ye ? eiei oeeo
a?o?a?a. Iii?e ana oea, iao ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?icaeyae oe?a?inueeiai iiiceoe?eiiai ?ooo inoaii?o
aeanyoee?oue ye ia?aaaaeii iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ia? oaiaeaioe?th
aei iiaiiaa?o?niiai ae?aaeaiiy a ?noi?e/ieo a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
inoaii?o ?ie?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Oioae?oa?ia nenoaia a N?N? ? O?N?”. Ooo aeena?oaio
i?aaioa c’ynoaaoe ? aeeeanoe i?e/eie e oiiae ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo a ?anioae?oe?. Oea aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie aiae?co nenoaie aeaaee
e oi?aae?iiy, ?ie? eiiia?o??, noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie a Nithc?, iie?oeee
?oneo?eaoe??, ui i?iaiaeeeany aeaaeith.

Aac noii?ao, oa?aeoa? ?aaeeio, ui ?nioaaa oiae? a N?N? oa O?N?, iaee?aua
aecia/eoe oa?i?iii — oioae?oa?eci. Ca I. Ea?o?nii, e?eoa??yie oaei?
aeaaee ?: 1) io?oe?eia ?aeaieia?y, ui ia? ia iao? iiaoaeiao iie?oe/iiai
oa nioe?aeueiiai ii?yaeeo ? noai?aiiy iiaiai oeio iniaenoino?; 2)
iiiiiie?y ia eiio?ieue ca iniaenoei aeeooyi ?iaeea?ae?a c iaoith
caaacia/aiiy eiioi?i?cio; 3) oa?i? ? iie?oe/ia iie?oe?y; 4) ???a?o?/ia
iaeiiia?o?eia nenoaia; 5) i?aei?ia iniaenoeo ?ioa?an?a noni?eueieie; 6)
oeaio?ae?caoe?y aeaaee, iaaeiiouaiiy iiiceoe?? oa ?iaeiieneaiiy; 7)
iai?aeeiio?ieuei?noue aeu?e aeaae?; 8) eiio?ieue iaae caniaaie ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? oa ina?oiueith nenoaiith iia?e?caoe?? a?iiaaeyi;
9) a?aenooi?noue ni?aaaei?o a?eueieo aeai??a; 10) iiiiiieueiee eiio?ieue
iaae ca?i?th ? ca?ieieie neeaie; 11) a?aeiiaa a?iiaaeyiai ia a?eueiee
ae?cae ca ei?aeii; 12) oeaio?ae?ciaaia ieaiiaa aeiiii?ea c
eiio?ieueiaaiei niiaeeaaiiyi; 13) iniaenoa aeeeoaoo?a aiaeaey. Oea aoa
oioae?oa?eci e?aiai oeio, yeee i?ney nia?o? Noae?ia iiaie?
aaiethoe?ii?coaaa o iai?yi? aei aaoi?eoa?ecio. I?e aeaae? ia?aaoaaa
“iiaee eean” — iie?oe/ia ath?ie?ao?y. Ei?ai? oeueiai eeano — a
eiioi?noe/i?e ia?o??. Naia aiia ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith, na?oeaaeiith oa
iniiaith iiaiai eeano, aei yeiai aoiaeyoue o?, ooi i?ioan?eii
caeia?oueny ia?o?eiith ? ea??aiith ?iaioith, iath/e oaeei /eiii ?
aeiiii?/io aeaaeo e ia?aaaae, ? i?ea?ea?. Aae nenoaia ia iino?aaeaeaea a
oe?eiio, aiaeae? oiai eeano ciooai? aoee i?iaanoe i?ney nia?o? Noae?ia
iii??eiaaio aeanoae?i?caoe?th ?aaeeio. Aoei canoaeaeaii eiai
(noae?i?cio) aeno?aiaeuei? i?iyae, aea inoaeia?, cae/aeii, ia i?aeeyaaee
i? ?aeaieia?/i?, i? aeiiii?/i?, i? iie?oe/i? iniiae ?aaeeio. Iaeiae
/eiaei ethaeae i?oee aeae? eiio?ieueiaaii? aeanoae?i?caoe??. I?aoeaaeaio
e?eoeee eoeueoo iniae ni?e/eieany aei noii?ao a ae??aino? nenoaie a
oe?eiio, ui noaei iaeiei c aeoie?a ?iaeiieneaiiy.

A Oe?a?i? aeanoae?i?caoe?y i?iyaeeany ianaiia?aae o i?ecia/aii? iiaiai
ia?oiai nae?aoa?y OeE EIO e ooai?aiiy aai ?icoe?aiiy ca ?aooiie nithcieo
a?aeiinoa ooieoe?e aeayeeo ?anioae?eainueeeo i?i?noa?noa, /enea oeo
naieo i?i?noa?noa ii?yae ?c caaaeueiei ?icoe?aiiyi eiiiaoaioe?? o?yaeo
?anioae?ee. ?icii/aeany ?aaa?e?oaoe?y in?a, canoaeaeaieo o ?iee
aeeeoaoo?e. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie io?eiaee ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai,
?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai aei iaaiiai i?i?ioio.

O iie?oe/i?e noa?? aieiaia, /iai aeiaeany I. O?ouia,— oea ci?oeiaiiy
aeoeaio?a aeaaee: ia?o?eiee aia?ao noaa ia?oei o o?eeooieeo aeaaee,
iio?nieaoe iie?oeaenueeee aia?ao.

A eiec? iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i oa?aeoa?, neeaae eiiia?o?? ?anioae?ee a oeae
ia??iae, /enaeuei?noue ? no?oeoo?o ia?o?eiiai aia?aoo a ?anioae?oe?.
Iai?eeeaae, a 1961 ?. a O?N? ia?aoiaoaaeiny /ioe?iaaeoeyoue oeny/
iiiaieeaoo?ieo i?aoe?aiee?a. A /enaeuei?noue EIO c?inea a oeae ia??iae
a?eueo, i?ae oo?e/?. Eiiia?o?y Oe?a?ie caeeoaeany ia?o??th neoaeaiaoe?a
ca ?iaeii caiyoue: ia 1985 ?. ?o aoei 42,3 % a?ae on?o /eai?a
i?aai?caoe?? (n. 29). *enei ?ia?oiee?a oaae c?inoaei, aea e ia oie /an
?ia?oieee i?iieneiaino? neeaaeaee a ia?o?? eeoa iaeio oinoo ?? /anoeio.
?ia?oieee iii?e o/anoue ?o o iaeaea an?o ia?o?eieo i?aaiao, i?eiee ia
iaee a ieo ia?aaaaeath/iai aieeao, a a?aenioie ?oiueiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa
oai aoa iaa?oue ieae/ei, i?ae ?oi?e neeaae o ia?o?? caaaeii. Oiaoi
oaa?aeaeaiiy i?iia?aiaee i?i EIO ye ?ia?oie/o ia?o?th ia a?aeiia?aea?
ae?eniino?. Iiaie? e oey ia?o?y noaea iiaieoeny aeo?aeoeyie ei??iii?
iaoe?iiaeueiino?, oi/ ? ooo ?oi?e a?aenioie aoa iaioei, i?ae /anoea
oe?a?ioe?a o ianaeaii? ?anioae?ee.

Eiiia?o?y Oe?a?ie oa ?? e?aea?e aoee ia?aaeaaaeueiei iaoai?ciii aeac?aie
c E?aiey, a ?i?oe?aoeaa e?aea??a ia aeoiaeeea ca iaae? aeicaieaiiai.
Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aea? i?aenoaa aiai?eoe e i?i eiio?ieueiaaiee
aaoiiii?ci a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeo I. Oaeanoa.

O aeacaiee ia??iae /ano a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?oeiaiiy e ?icoe?aiiy i?ea?ea?a
i?aaey/iai eeano, cae??ieaieo eiinoeoooe??th N?N? 1977 ?. Oeae eean ?c
iii?iaeueiiai ia e?iaoeue 80-o ?ie?a noa? ?aaeueiei aeanieeii eai?oaeo,
ae?iaie/eo ia’?eo?a. Oeei /anoeiai ? iiynith?oueny aace?iai?noue ia?ai?i
e?ioey 80-o — ii/. 1990-o. A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii ?inoee oeueiai
ia?a?niiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy (n. 32—33). A oe?eiio o? i?ioeane ua
iio?aaothoue aeiaeaoeiaiai aea/aiiy.

E??i i?yiiai i?eiono aeaia nenoaia aeaaee iio?aaoaaea ua e
?aeaieia?/iiai oa iie?oe/iiai eiio?ieth ? iiea?aiiy. Iaeae??a?oa aiie,
ia iao iiaeyae, i?iyaeeeny /a?ac oeaico?o, ia?o?eiee eiio?ieue ? EAeA.
Oeaico?o cae?enithaaei Aieiaia oi?aae?iiy ii ioi?ii? aea?aeaaieo ?
a?enueeiaeo oa?iieoeue o i?an? i?e ?aae? I?i?no??a ?anioae?ee — Aieiae?o
?acii c iaeanieie a?aeae?eaiiyie — iaee?oaie. Noa?aiiyie oeueiai
a?aeiinoaa ca nieneaie, neeaaeaieie a ?anioae?oe?, aoei caai?iiaii,
aeeo/aii c a?ae?ioae, cieuaii, a e?auiio aeiaaeeo — noiaaii aei
niaoeoiiae?a, on? eieae, aeaeai? aei 1939 ?. a Aaee/ei? e Caea?iaoo?,
aaaaoi eiea O?O no., aeaeaieo aei a?eie a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i?, oa e
i?ney ia?, oei a?eueoa — ca ei?aeiiii. E??i oiai, ae?yea oeaico?a c
ananithcieo niene?a, neeaaeaieo a Iinea?. I?ae ieeueiei iaaeyaeii
Oeaio?aeueiiai Eii?oaoo oeaico?a iineethaaeany c na?. 60-o aae aei ii/.
80-o ?ie?a.

Iaaii? aaiethoe?? ?acii c ?aaeeiii caciaei e EAeA — iauiaeaaii
anaiiaooi? a?aeiinoai. Iai?yi oe??? aaiethoe?? oaeee: a?ae aeayeiai
caiaiaaeo ii nia?o? Noae?ia aei iinooiiaiai ci?oeiaiiy naiai noaiiaeua
aae aei a?aeiiaeaiiy aieeao ia aaea ye?nii iiaiio ??ai? ca /an?a aainaea
TH. Aiae?iiiaa. A O?N? nooue oe??? no?oeoo?e aeaaee ca aeacaiee ia??iae
ia ci?ieeany: aiia caeeoaeany ia?aaeon?i ni?yiiaaiith i?ioe
oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo, ?iaeiieneaiiy, ia iiooee ?aaeueieo oieaoi?a,
ci?oeiaiiy aea?aeaaii? aaciaee ianeeiaeie iaoiaeaie. A aeaiiio ?icae?e?
iieacaii ? i?aaiaiiy OeE EIO iinoaaeoe aei ea??aieoeoaa neoaeae naith
ethaeeio, aieeiooe ia ?ai?aai?caoe?th a?aeiinoaa i?ney cae?i/aiiy
ca?ieii? ai?ioueae a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?. Aeaaeae? a?eueoo ?ieue o
aeyaeaii? “cei/eioe?a” oaia? a?ae?a?athoue i?eoiaai? “nooea/?”,
iia?aeiieyth/e i?i iano?i? a eieao ?ioae??aioe??, iie?oeeith noa?
oeaico?oaaiiy oai??a e?oa?aoo?e o no?iao oeueiai ae a?aeiinoaa
naiino?eii ? ?acii c a?aeiia?aeieie a?aeae?eaie OeE EIO.

C ii/. 1970-o ?ie?a, a iniaeeai — c i?eoiaeii ia iino aieiae
?anioae?eainueeiai EAeA A. Oaaei?/oea oey no?oeoo?a ci?oeith?oueny
e?euee?nii ? ye?nii. Aieiaiei ?? caaaeaiiyi noa? cieuaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
?ooo. A iaaieo ciai?oi?o i?iyaao oea eiio aaeaeiny c?iaeoe.

?ioei eeth/iaei iiiaioii aeey ?icoi?iiy i?e/ei iiaeaaaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? a oeae ia??iae ? ioe?iea
noaiiaeua O?N? o Nithc? ?N?. Aeena?oaio ioe?ith? eiai ye eieii?aeueia, c
on?ia nai???aeiinoyie oaei? i?ciuei? eieii?? oioae?oa?iiai oeio.
Eia?/ii, ui oaea iaoa ioe?iea aeoiaeeoue ? c aecia/aiiy ?iia??? (ca
I. Iioeeai) ye aeeeoaoi?nueei? aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae,
aenieioeaio?ae?ciaaii?, oa?eoi??aeueii na?iaioiaaii? ? eoeueoo?ii
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii?, aea oeaio?ae?caoe?y, na?iaioaoe?y ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y
ia?ae?eaathoueny. Aeieeiaiiy N?N? oiae? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?acoeueoao
na?aeiii o?ainoi?iiaaii? ?aaiethoe?eii? ?in?enueei? aeeeoaoo?e
a?eueoiaeeaie a eiiieaenia ieaoeai ?iia??ae?noe/ieo a?aeiinei,
iaeeiaiiyi ia?in?enueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? neiaie?/ii noaa?aiiei
?anioae?eai, ye? aoee ianaeai? aecia/aii ia?in?enueeei ianaeaiiyi. Oie
oaeo, ui oe? ?anioae?ee caciaee iiaea?i?caoe?? ? ui ?in?y caieaoeea
aenieo aeiiii?/io oe?io ca nai? iie?oe/ia aeii?ioaaiiy, ia onoaa?
?iia??ae?noe/iiai oa?aeoa?o ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae.

A 70-o? ?iee neooaoe?y a ?anioae?oe? oneeaaeieeany. A oie /an io?oe?eii
aoei i?iaieioaii eiioeaioe?th aeaio ??aeieo iia, iiai? ?noi?e/ii?
ni?eueiino? ethaeae — ?aaeyinueeiai ia?iaeo oa ?i. I?aaa ?anioae?ee
iie?oe/ii iaiaaeoaaee e oaenoe nithcii? oa oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei?
eiinoeoooe?e iaa?oue aei iiia?aaeiueiai noaio 40—50-o ?ie?a. sse oaea
iiaeeinue, ia aoea naiino?eiith o nai?o ??oaiiyo ? eiiia?o?y ?anioae?ee;
aaaaoi iaoe?a?ioe?a, aeo?aeoe?a c-iica iaae Oe?a?ie, ia?aaoaaee ia aeueo
? iaeaeueo aeaaeieo iinaaeao. An? neeia? no?oeoo?e oaae aoee
i?ia?aeieeaie iie?oeee Iineae, a ia Ee?aa, ia’?eoeaii, a /anoi ?
noa’?eoeaii, aeaaea a O?N? aoea eieii?aeueiith aaei?i?no?aoe??th. A
?icae?e? iiaeaii ? oeeo?e uiaei aeiiii?/ii? caeaaeiino? oa
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie Oeaio?ia?, iane?aeee yeiai ie
iiaeeia?ii e iiiei?. Aeineoue aeacaoe, ui 80 % caaaeueiiai ia’?io
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa a O?N? ia iaei ia ?? oa?eoi??? cae?i/aiiai
ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo, a o?e /aa?o? ?? ?iaeono??? i?yii ea?oaaeinue ?c
Iineae, a ia c Ee?aa. O?oaeiiu? iac??aaee ? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
?anioae?ee.

A oe?eiio i?aeiaa?eueiee noai ?anioae?ee ciaeoia nai? ae?aaeaiiy a
aeooiaiiio ? o?ce/iiio *i?iiaeeyo, ciaioaii? /enea oe?a?ioe?a ia ??aei?e
caie? c ?ieo a ??e, a?ae ia?aieno aei ia?aieno ianaeaiiy uiaei eiai
caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? a Oe?a?i?.

Eieii?aeueiee noai Oe?a?ie aeia?a aeaeii ? a i?iyaao i?yii? ?oneo?eaoe??
oa anei?eyoe??. ?iia??y i?aaioea ci?ieoe iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th
ei??iiiai ia?iaeo. C ??cieo aniaeo?a ?oneo?eaoe?? iaea?eueoa oaaae a
aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?eaii oiaeo oeueiai i?ioeano a iiai?e noa??. Aeania,
aiia aoea /e ia inoaii?i ?oaaaeai iiaii? ?oneo?eaoe?? oa
?ioaeaeooaeueii? eieii?caoe??.

I?ioean aeo?niaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae c? an?o noa? noni?eueiiai ?
eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy eoia iiaie?, aea iaooeeueii ua c aeiai?iieo /an?a.
I?eoaeaeoea oeae i?ioean caeii i?i ina?oo, i?eeiyoee aaea a 1958 ?., ca
yeei ?aaeueii iiaa ianaeaiiy (ei??iiiai) ?anioae?ee iiaea ia aea/aoenue
o oeieao. Oeueiio i?eneoaeeee e eiioeaioe?? oa oai??? c iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy, i?i ye? aaea caaaeoaaeiny aeua. Aaei?i?no?aoe?y, ia?o?ei?
ae?y/? a?eueoiai ? iaioiai ianooaao, ainiiaea?nuee? ea??aieee aoee
iaeaea aeeeth/ii ?in?enueeiiiaieie. Cae/aeii, oea oaae i?enei?thaaei ?
noeioethaaei iioe?aiiy ?in?enueei? iiae, a o. /. ? a oe?eueieoeoa?. A
iiiia?ao?? iaaiaeyoueny eiie?aoi? i?eeeaaee, ye o Oeaio?? ciaaaaeeeai
noaaeeeny aei oe?a?inueei? iiae ? eoeueoo?e, iaiaaaeeny e
aaei?i?no?aoeaieie caoiaeaie ni?eyoe iioe?aiith ?in?enueei?. Ia
inoaii?ie ooo aoee e iinoaiiae OeE EI?N ? ?aaei?io N?N? uiaei ?icoe?aiiy
aea/aiiy ?in?enueei? iiae a on?o iaa/aeueii-ina?oi?o oa aeoiaieo
caeeaaeao, ii/eiath/e c 1 eeano oeiee.

Oaea iie?oeea oeaio?aeueii? ? i?noeaai? aeaaee ni?e/eieeany aei oiai, ui
aaea a 1959 ?. a on?o aaeeeeo i?noao oeiee c ?in?enueeith iiaith
iaa/aiiy aai ia?aaaaeaee /enaeueii e ca e?euee?noth o/i?a, ui a ieo
iaa/aeeny, aai ca oeei ae?oaei iieacieeii ia?aaaaeaee oeiee c
oe?a?inueeith iiaith iaa/aiiy (n. 47). A ianooii? ?iee i?ioean i?oia ua
aeae?, oae ui o aocao ?anioae?ee ia e?iaoeue 80-o ?ie?a oe?a?inueeith
iiaith /eoaeiny aeecueei 5 % on?o eaeoe?e, aeaeaaaeiny 18 % a?ae on?o
eiea (3 % ?oiueiai oe?aaeo). Iai?iii?oe?eii aaeeea /anoeia ?ioae??aioe??
aoea ia i?inoi iaoe?a?iiiiaia, a e iaoe?a?inueea ca iioiaeaeaiiyi.
?aaeueiei noaei a?ae/oaeaiiy i?noa ? naea ia oeueiio ??oio?, oa e o?,
ooi a i?no? caeeoaeeny a??ieie ??aei?e iia?, ni?eeiaeeny iaeaaoaeyie ye
iioaioe?ei? ao?aeoaci? iaoe?iiae?noe. Aeaaea oe?eeii na?aeiii ni?e/eiyea
i?ia?ioe?ei?noue oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ? iiae, ye? ia?aoai?thaaeeny ia
iiao oa eoeueoo?o naea ? a?oie ?ioae??aio?a i?noa.

I?ioeane eieii?aeueiiai aiiaeaiiy, anei?eyoe?? i?a nieieoe o?eueee
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo, iaoe?iiae?ci. Iniiaiei i?ia?aeieeii oa e
iin??i oeueiai ?ooo ia aeine?aeaeoaaiee o iiiia?ao?? ia??iae caeeoaeany
?ioae??aioe?y. Ia?aae iath iinoaaaea i?iaeaia inieneaiiy i?e/ei ii?acie
?ooo iiia?aaeiueiai ia??iaeo ai?ioueae, ioe?iee noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie a
Nithc?, aeai?o iiaeo oeyo?a ? oi?i ?ooo. I?i oaeee ?oo iiaeia aoei a
cae/aeii aiai?eoe, eiee a aoea ciiaa aa/eoe iaaio e?euee?noue eiai
o/aniee?a, i?aai?caoe?th, no?oeoo?o, i?ia?aie oa ?aeaei? oe?e?. Naia
oeueiio i?enay/aii ianooii? ?icae?ee iaoi? ?iaioe.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iiiia?ao?? “Ia?ao?aei? i?aei?euei? a?oie e?ioey
50-o — ii/. 60-o ?ie?a” i?ine?aeeiao?oueny, ye a?aeaoaaany ia?ao?ae aei
iiaeo oiia aecaieueii? ai?ioueae a?ae ca?ieieo oi?i a oai??? ? i?aeoeoe?
aei ie?iiai inyaiaiiy iacaeaaeiino?. Oaei? ae naii? aaiethoe?? caciaaaee
o? i?aei?euei? a?oie, ui iinoaee c na?aaeeie 50-o ?ie?a a Oe?a?i? oa ca
?? iaaeaie i?ney cae?i/aiiy ae?yeueiino? IOI-OIA. A iiiia?ao??
i?iaiaeeoueny aeaoaeueiee aiae?c i?ia?aiiaeo canaae ae?yeueiino?
aeaeio?eo ?c cacia/aieo aeua a?oi, ye? i?aeoe/ii caeeoeeeny iaa?aeiieie
? aeey no/aniee?a, ? aeey ?noi?ee?a ? ii nueiaiaei?.

Aei anaoe?a?inueeeo ianooaa?a i?aaioea a?oia ua iieiaeeo ethaeae i?ae
iacaith “Ia’?aeiaiiy”, ui aeieeea a 1956 ?. c? ca?eueiaieo c ?ioeinueeeo
oaai??a o/aniee?a aecaieueiiai ?ooo iiia?aaeiueiai ia??iaeo. Aeoeaieie
/eaiaie a?oie aoei aeecueei i?aoi?a aeanyoea /ieia?e ia /ie? c
ss?ineaaii Aantheii.

Ieaioaaee ae?yoe a iaaeao an??? Oe?a?ie /eaie a?oie “Oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee eii?oao” ia /ie? c Aiaaeaiii Eaaoeeiith oa ?aaiii
Eiaaeai, Oe?a?inueea ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueea ni?eea (O?NN) Eaaea Eoe’yiaiea
oa ua, iaaooue, ?yae ?ioeo ooai?aiue. Aeaye? a?oie, iai?eeeaae,
iaiaaeoaaeeny c?aco ae o nai?o ieaiiaaieo ? cae?enithaaieo aeoe?yo eeoa
iaaeaie naiai ?aeiio /e ?a??iio. I?aaiaiiy aei ae?? o anaoe?a?inueeeo
ianooaaao, iayaia a i?ia?aiao i?aei?eueieo a?oi, cana?ae/o? ?icoi?iiy
?oi?ie ?ic?iaieeaie eieii?aeueiiai noaio Oe?a?ie ? oiai, ui aecaieaiiy c
iueiai iiaeeeaa eeoa oiae?, eiee ca ni?aao aecaieaiiy a?cueiaoueny
oaanue ia?iae. Iayaieie ooo aoee e oiiae oe?eeiaeoi? a?ae??aaiino? oeo
a?oi iaeia a?ae iaeii?. *eaie a?aeiieo iai? a?oi aoee ca iioiaeaeaiiyi c
??cieo nioe?aeueieo eean?a ? noai?a, i?aaaethaaee ana ae aeo?aeoe? c
naeyi ? iieiae? ?ia?oieee, ia a?aei?io iae ia?aaaaeii ?ioae??aionueeiai
ianooiiiai aoaio ?ooo. Iaeiei c iiyniaiue oaeiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa ? oa,
ui iaeaeoeai?oa /anoeia ?ioae??aioe?? aoea aaea caa?aooiaaia ?
inoaeaeaia. 3 ?ioiai aieo, aeaiee neeaae o/aniee?a oeueiai aoaio ?ooo
aeaiiino?o? iiaeeea?noue eiai oe?iei? aace. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui ana,
neacaia uiaei i?aei?eueieo ia?ao?aeieo a?oi, noino?oueny ia?aaaaeii
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie. *a?ac i?iaeaie c aeinooiii aei a?o?aieo aeaea?ae iaio
a?aeiieie caeeoathoueny a?oie a Oeaio??, ia Noiae? Oe?a?ie. ? ana-oaee ?
iaaia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iayai?noue iecee oaeeo a?oi ? oai. A ae?yeueiino?
aaea oeeo a?oi, ye na?ae/eoue iaoa ?ioi?iaoe?y, iathoue aooe a?eueo
iii?oieie caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/i? oa nioe?aeuei? iioeae.

O iaia ? i?aenoaae aiai?eoe i?i aacia?a?ai?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo e
oiio, ui cia/ia /anoeia eiai o/aniee?a /e e on? a iaaieo a?oiao aoee
eieeoi?ie /eaiaie IOI aai OIA, aeiiiiaaaee ai?iouea?, i?i-eoee aeo/eo a
oaai?ao AOEAAo. Iaeiae, aoee a?oie — oa ae O?NN E. Eoe’yiaiea, ye?
ia’?aeioaaee ethaeae, oi?iaeueii ia i?e/aoieo aei ?ooo 40—50-o ?ie?a. Ia
naiino?ei?noue oeeo a?oi, ?oith ie?ai?oi?noue uiaei iiia?aaeiueiai
ia??iaeo ?ooo iieaco? e oa, ui e?aea?aie-i?aai?caoi?aie a?oi, aea aoee e
eieeoi? /eaie IOI-OIA, ye i?aaeei, noaaaee ethaee iia?. A/eeeny aaea ia
aeina?ae? iiia?aaei?o iieie?iue, a oiio /ene? e nai?o iaeiia?oiiee?a.

Ia ca’ycie c ieioeei aeacothoue i?ia?aiia? oe?e? an?o oeeo ooai?aiue.
sse i?aaeei, ?aeaeii aiie aaaaeaee naaa iia’ycaieie c IOI-OIA, aac
noii?ao, i?iaeiaaeoaa/aie e /anoeiith oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo.
Aiaeii/an o i?ia?aiiaeo iaoa??aeao, /e nei??o a ioe?ioe? iiia?aaeiueiai
ia??iaeo ai?ioueae, cao/aee e e?eoe/i? iioe ia aae?ano oeeo aeaio
i?aai?caoe?e oa ?oi?o i?ia?aeiee?a. Oea iiynith?oueny ye iaaiith
a?aenoaiith o /an? aeey iiaeeeaino? oaei? e?eoeee, oae ? oei, c?aooith,
ui ?oo oiai /ano caciaa ii?acee.

Iai a?aeiii ia oae oaea e aaaaoi ?ic?iaeaieo i?ia?ai ae?yeueiino?
aeacaieo a?oi. O aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aei oeueiai a ieo ua i?inoi ia
ae?e-oei, a ?ioeo — ia iaaeaaaee oaeei ?ic?iaeai iniaeeai? oaaae. Aeia?a
?ic?iaeaieie aoee i?ia?aiia? iieiaeaiiy ? noaoooe eeoa a O?NN,
Oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio o?iio? oa a “Ia’?aeiaii?”. Oe? i?ia?aie,
aeoiaey/e c ??cieo ?aeaieia?/ieo iiceoe?e — ia?enecio ? iaoe?iiae?cio —
eiaeia aa/eea iaeaooi? Oe?a?ie a iacaeaaei?e naiino?ei?e aea?aeaa?.

Oae, o a?oi? “Ia’?aeiaiiy” ia i?aenoaa? i?ia?aie IOI, neioacoth/e an? ??
caei?ia? iaaeaaiiy, ia?aaeaa/aeiny iae?aneeoe aeaeueo? iai?yiee ?iaioe
ca?aeii c oiai/aniith aioo??oiueith ? i?aeia?iaeiith ianoaiiaeith (n.
65). Eiiia?o?y ?icaeyaeaeany ye iai?eie?aiiee ai?ia. Ai?ioueaa c
nenoaiith aeaaee iaea ae i?iaiaeeoeny “i?iia?aiaeeaii-aee?eaaeueiei
iaoiaeii” ? o?eueee a e?aei?e iaiao?aeiino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie
oa?aeoaie. *eaie a?oie iiaeii? aoee aeiiaaaoeny ceeooy a ?aeeia oe?ea
ye?niiai ?aaiethoe?eiiai aeaiaioo a iaaeao ? iica iaaeaie Oe?a?ie,
ni?eyoe ianiaiio iiaa?iaiith oe?a?ioe?a ia Aaouee?aueio. Ia?aaeaa/aeany
e aiae?oe/ia ?iaioa ii aea/aiith aoai?a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa. Iii?ith i?aai?caoe?? iaea noaoe iieiaeue, a a i?iieneiaeo
oeaio?ao ieaioaaeiny i?aai?ciaoaaoe /eai?a a?oie — ?ia?oie/?
ia’?aeiaiiy.

C /enea i?ia?aiiaeo ioieo?a Oe?a?inueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueiiai eii?oaoo
iiaeia aeae?eeoe, e??i ?yaeo caaaeueieo, i?aee?aneaia iaiieyaaiiy ia
?ica’ycaii? aa?a?ieo i?iaeai a oe?a?inueeiio nae?. Aiii ciaoiaeeoue
iiyniaiiy ye o iioiaeaeaii? /eai?a a?oie, oae ? a oiio, ui oea ieoaiiy
aoei a?eueo i?ae iaaaeueiei o oie /an aeey Aaee/eie (n. 77).

Aeia?a ?ic?iaeaio i?ia?aio i?ae iacaith “?icoe?aiee i?iaeo i?ia?aie
Oe?a?inueei? ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueei? ni?eee” iaea a?oia E. Eoe’yiaiea.
Oeae aeieoiaio i?noea aeaoaeueiee iaeyae ? ni?iao aiae?co iaeaaaeeea?oeo
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai no/aniino? N?N? ? O?N?. Aaoi? i?ia?aie
aeoiaeeoue o nai?o aeeeaaeeao c aeciaiiy ia?enecio ia?aaeiaith
?aeaieia??th ? a?aeiia?aeii eaiiiai inoaiiuei? aoaeo? na?e aeieoiaio,
yeee aeyaey?oueny a i?aenoieo oe?eeii i?ioeeaaeiei oiio, ui caaoueny
?aaeueiei nioe?ae?ciii. Aeniei iiceoeaii ioe?ithth/e AEiaoiaao
?aaiethoe?th, aaoi?, i?ae ne?aeii ca I. Iieoaaith, cacia/a? oaeiae, ui
“iniaeea?noth iaoi? aiioe ? iineeaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo”. Noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie a neeaae? Nithco
ioe?ith?oueny ye eieii?aeueia (n. 94). I?ae a i?iaeiaaeaiiy aeiia IOI
noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i oe?a?i?caoe?th ca?ieieo nee, oiaoi i?aeoe/ii —
i?i noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? a?i??.

A i?iaeo? i?ia?aie canoaeaeo?oueny oe?iea nioe?aeueia aeaiaaia?y, yeo
canoiniao? nithcia ea??aieoeoai ? ?in?enueea (c?oneo?eiaaia)
aaei?i?no?aoe?y, noaa?aeaeoth/e, ui i?aeoi naiino?eia Oe?a?ia
iaiiaeeeaa. Aiaeii/an i?iaeo canoaeaeo? e iaoe?iiae?ci. E. Eoe’yiaiei,
yeee aoa aaoi?ii oeueiai aeieoiaioa, aaaaeaa oaeiae, ui a N?N? iaio?
aeeeoaoo?a ia?o??, ia?iae onoiooi a?ae aeaaee. Oeueiio ne?ae iieeanoe
e?ae. C oe??? oi/ee ci?o a noai? aenieoaoiaaieo ? aeae? i?iaeiaaeothoue
caeeoaoeny ?ia?oieee e naeyie, aiiaeai? ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeei
/eiiaieoeoaii. I?ia?aia ia?aaeaa/aea anoaiiaeaiiy naiioi?aae?iiy ia
ae?iaieoeoa?, iaiaaii — naiaiaeo aeai?o oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? yaii —
i?aai naeyiai ?icii?yaeaeaoeny ieiaeaie nai?? i?aoe?.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe a?oie ia?aaeaa/aeiny ie?ieie caniaaie, c ii?aeiaiiyi
ea?aeueieo ? iaea?aeueieo oi?i ?iaioe. Oaeei /eiii, cie?aia, aaa/aany
aeo?ae Oe?a?ie c? neeaaeo N?N? a?aeiia?aeii aei /eiii? eiinoeoooe??
Nithco, yea ia caia?a/oaaea a oai??? oaeiai e?ieo. I?iaeo i?ia?aie
aenoaaa oaeiae ia?oi/a?aiao aaaeeeao oaco ye iaoo a?oie: ai?ioueaa ca
?icoe?aiiy ia?iaeiaeaaeaey.

Iaeaeeae/ei caaaeaiiyi aeey naaa a?oia ?. Aiaony aaaaeaea ?aeaieia?/io
naiiina?oo ? ci?oeiaiiy naiii?aai?caoe?? c ianooiiith ai?ioueaith ca
oe?a?inueeo naiino?eio aea?aeaao.

A ?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny e i?aai?caoe?eia aoaeiaa an?o a?aeiieo iai
a?oi, ui a oe?eiio aoea iiae?aia aei aoaeiae IOI. Ia?aaeaa/aeiny e
iaieiae?iiy iaoiaeaie eiini??aoe??, ?nioaaee eeyoae, i?enyae. Aeiaie?
oni?oiith, ye ia oiae?oi? oiiae, aoea i?aeoe/ia ?iaioa ia?ao?aeieo a?oi
ii ?aae?caoe?? nai?o i?ia?ai. Ia?ao?ae aei ie?ieo oi?i ai?ioueae
niiioeaa ni?iae aei ?icai?oaiiy ia?aaeon?i oe?iei?
a??oaoe?eii-i?iia?aiaeenonueei? ?iaioe, yea aaeanue oeyoii
?iciianthaeaeaiiy eeno?aie, aea?ooaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aii??a, onii?
a??oaoe?? ? o. i.

Iaaooue, iaeiii?oi?o? oni?oe a oeueiio nain? iaea a?oia “Ia’?aeiaiiy”.
Naiiooaeee /eaie a?oie ciaeno?oaaee iio?aeio ae?oea?ith ? iaae?oeoaaee c
15 ??cieo eeno?aie caaaeueiei oe?aaeai ia iaioa oeny/? i?ei??iee?a.
Aeae?eueea nio oeeo “eaoth/ie” caiaeii aoei ?iciianthaeaeaii a
E??iaia?aaenuee?e ? ??aiainuee?e iaeanoyo. C?a?ai? aeieoie, oe? eeno?aee
noaiiaeyoue ?ioa?an ? c oi/ee ci?o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iicaoeaico?iaaii? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee. OIE ai?eooe iaaeeceany
aei noai?aiiy aeanii? iie?a?ao?/ii? aace, c?a?aa o?ioe noa?i? ca?i?,
yea, ao?i, eiio oae ? ia i?eaeaeany. Inoaii? noino?oueny ?
oiaei??anueei? a?oie. Oey a?oia coi?ea ana ae ii?ica?ooaaoe a e?eueeio
?aeiiao Euea?anueei? iaeano? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aii?e, oai aea caeeoeoe e
eaoth/ee.

*eiaei coneeue aeieeaee ea??aieee iiaiooai?aieo a?oi aei ?icaoaeiae
nai?o i?aai?caoe?e, ui caeiaei ia iaioa /ano, i?ae i?iia?aiaeenonueea
?iaioa, aei iiooe?a ?ioeo iiae?aieo i?aai?caoe?e.

C?icoi?ei, ui i?aei?euei? oiiae ae?yeueiino? a?oi iaeaea iaieio/a ca
yeeenue /an i?eaiaeeee aei ?oiueiai aee?eooy EAeA. Aeaaea iaaeaaaea
aee?eooth oeeo a?oi iaaaeyeiai cia/aiiy, aaa/ath/e a ieo ca?iaeee
iaeaooi?o, ni?aaae? anaoe?a?inueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Oiio ae?iee o/anieeai
oeeo a?oi aeiineeenue aeoaea noai?? — a?ae 10—15 ?ie?a oaai??a aei
nia?oii? ea?e.

A ?icae?e? aeena?oaio aiae?co? oaeiae ?iciao ae?yeueiino? oa cia/aiiy
oeeo a?oi aeey oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo a oe?eiio. E?euee?noue ?o aeiaie?
iaaecia/aia /a?ac a?ae aeinoia??ieo aeaea?aeueieo aeaieo. Aea
ae?yeuei?noue o/aniee?a oeeo a?oi i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oaco i?i
aacia?a?ai?noue ai?ioueae ca iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie. Ia iiaeia aiai?eoe
? i?i aacia?niaeoeai?noue oaei? oi?ie ?iaioe: aeaye? a?oie i?io?eiaeeny
ii 3 ? a?eueoa ?ie?a, caeo-/eaoe aei naaa aeineoue oe?iea eiei in?a,
iioe?eee ae?yeuei?noue ia e?eueea iaeanoae ?anioae?ee, ae?acii noaaoe ia
oeyo oai?aiiy anaoe?a?inueei? i?aai?caoe??. I?eioeei i?aai?caoe?? — oea,
aeania, aoei iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ia/ae, ui caa?aaee oe? a?oie a
oe?a?inueeiio ?on?, ii?yae c aeoiaeii ia ie?i? oi?ie ai?ioueae. A
oe?eiio oeae aoai ?ooo, ui oai?eee aeai? a?oie, ? aoa ia?ao?aeiei a?ae
iaeiiai ia??iaeo aei ?ioiai.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee “Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee O?iio” i?enay/aii
ae?yeueiino? iaei??? c i?aei?eueieo a?oi na?aaeeie aaea 60-o ?ie?a, yea
cia/ii aeae?eyeany na?aae ?ioeo iiae?aieo a?oi ? a ?on? a oe?eiio.
Iniaeea?noue oe??? a?oie iieyaaea a oiio, ui aiia ae?yea a /an, eiee
?io? i?aei?euei? a?oie aaea aoei e?ea?aeiaaii aeanoyie, eiee iii?oiei
yaeuai o i?ia?aiiaeo canaaeao ? ?iciaoo ae?yeueiino? a?oie noa?
aeeneaeaionoai.

Aeieeiaiiy ? canioaaiiy a?oie OIO ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c iniaith ?
iniaeno?noth Aeieo?a Eaaoeueea — i?aai?caoi?a ? e?aea?a a?oie, a/eoaey
?noi??? c Aeieeinueeiai ?aeiio ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeano?. Aea/ath/e
?noi??th Oe?a?ie, I?eea?iaooy, a?i aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i
ni?aaaaeeea?noue aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1940—50-o ?ie?a. Caaaeath/e ia
oiae?oi?e noai Oe?a?ie, a?i ae??oo? noai?eoe i?aai?caoe?th, yea,
aeei?enoiaoth/e aeina?ae iiia?aaeiueiai ia??iaeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue,
coi?ea a oaee aeinyaiooe iacaeaaeiino? ?anioae?ee. A aeena?oaoe??
?ice?eaa?oueny i?aai?caoe?eia aoaeiaa a?oie, oi?ie ? iaoiaee ??
ae?yeueiino?, i?ia?aiia? iaoa??aee OIO. Aei a?oie aoiaeeee aeeoae?
/ioe?ueio iaeanoae Oe?a?ie. Na?aae a?aeiieo caiaeii iinoaoae
aeae?eythoueny iiao Ceiia?e E?an?anueeee, eai?oai i?e?oe?? Ieoaeei Aeye.

Caniiaiee a?oie aaaaeaa ca iaiao?aeia aeey Oe?a?ie caeiaoooy
iacaeaaeiino? e aea?aeaaiino?, anoaiiaeaiiy ia?iaeii? aeaiie?ao?? ia
iniia? naiaiaee ? i?e?iaeieo i?aa a?eueii? ethaeeie, nioe?aeueieo ?aoi?i
ye oeyoo aei caaacia/aiiy aenieiai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy oa aeaaiiieo//y
ianaeaiiy. Oe? i?eioeeie, aaaaeaa Ae. Eaaoeueei, iiaeia aoei ao?eeoe a
aeeooy oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ?aaiethoe??, yea iiaeiia aoea cai?ieoe
?aaeyinueeee nioe?ae?noe/iee eaae ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eiiia?aoeaiee. C oeeo
iinooeao?a, a oaeiae iaoa??ae?a III Cai?o IOI aeoiaeeea ? I?ia?aia
(i?iaeo) OIO. No/aniee na?o, aeaco? aeieoiaio, ?icae?eeany ia aeaa
oaai?e: eiioi?noe/iee ? aioeeiioi?noe/iee. O e?a?iao a?eueiiai na?oo
oaeaeei i?inoaathoueny aei nioe?ae?cio, a ieo a?aeaoaa?oueny
nioe?ae?caoe?y aeiiii?ee, a oea onoaa? ?ia?oie/ee ?oo, aaaea aei
i?ae?eao eiioi?noe/iiai ?ooo. Aieiaiei ci?noii ? aieiaiith iniaeea?noth
nai?? aeiae ?ic?iaiee i?iaeoo i?ia?aie aaaaeaa nioe?ae?ci (o aeaniiio
?icoi?ii? — ?. A. ) ? iaoe?iiae?ci (n. 123). ?aaeyinueea nenoaia
ioe?ith?oueny iei ye oioae?oa?ia e ?iia?nueea. Aeaiee ?aaeei ia? aooe
cai?iaiee a Oe?a?i? ia ia?iaeiee nioe?ae?ci, yeee o i?ia?ai? aeaeyaea?
noiaeei ia nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?th cao?aeii?a?iiae-nueeiai c?acea c iaaieie
canoa?aaeaiiyie, /e ao?eaiiyi ?icaeoeo ia-oe?iiae?noe/ii? eiioeaioe??
iaeaooiueiai Oe?a?ie.

Aeia?a ?ic?iaeaiei o i?iaeo? ? ? iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy. Iii?ae ?ioiai —
a?aecia/a?oueny iiaia ??aiii?aai?noue o iaeaooi?e aea?aeaa? an?o
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, ui i?iaeeaathoue ia ?? oa?eoi??? ii?yae c
oe?a?ioeyie. Iie?oe/ia ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae ia?aaeaa/aea cai?io
aea?aeaaii-eieii?aeueii? aaei?i?no?aoe?? iiaith, iaoe?iiaeueiith
aeaaeith, ia?aiith naiei ia?iaeii, ?icione on?o eieeoi?o
ia?o?eii-i?iia?aiaeenonueeeo i?aai?a oa i?aai?caoe?e, aeaiie?aoe/i?
i?aaa ? naiaiaee ? o. i. (n. 126—127).

A aeiiii?/i?e noa?? i?iiiioaaany ia?aaeon?i ?icaeoie no/anii? ?iaeono???
a ?anioae?oe?. Aaeeea i?iieneia?noue iaea caeeoaoeny a ?oeao aea?aeaae.
I?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee iaee a ?icii?yaeaeaoeny ae??aiith i?iieneia?noth
oa eiiia?aoeaii-a?iiaaenueeith aeani?noth. 3ayaeyeiny, ui aea?aeaaa ia
/eieoeia ia?aoeiae ? i?eaaoi?e ?i?oe?aoea?, caeo/aoeia i?aoe?aiee?a aei
oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie.

I?iaeo i?ia?aie ia?aaeaa/aa e?ea?aeaoe?th eieainiii-?aaeainiii? nenoaie
ia nae?; caiey iaea ia?aeoe aei oeo, ooi ?? ia?iaey?. *eiaei caoiae?a
ia?aaeaa/aeiny aei cae?eniaiiy ? a nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?e noa??.

Aeeeaaeai? aeua i?ia?aiia? aeiiae OIO noaiiaeee, oae ae iiaeoe,
i?ia?aio-iaeneioi i?aai?caoe??. I?i?iaeuei? aeiiae oaeoe/iiai ieaio
noiniaii no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai aeeooy i?noeee aeaa aeieoiaioe o?iioo,
iineai? nithciiio ? ?anioae?eainueeiio o?yaeai. Oe? aeiiae noinothoueny
iiaa?iaiiy aeaii?oiaaieo oe?a?ioe?a ia Aaouee?aueio, iaaeaiiy oiia
eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo oei c ieo, ooi iaoea? ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie,
i?eieiaiiy aii?iue ia oe?a?inueeo ?ioae??aioe?th, iaaeaiiy ia?aaaaeiiai
i?aaa oe?a?inuee?e iia? oa eoeueoo?? a noni?eueiiio e eoeueoo?iiio
aeeoo? ?anioae?ee. C’yaa oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo, aiai?eeiny a iaeiiio c
eeno?a, ? caeiiii??iith a oiiaao no/anii? Oe?a?ie. Aiae?c oeeo
i?i?iaeueieo aeiia iieaco?, ui aiie ? caaaeueieie i?iaeaiaie aeaio oa/?e
?ooo — ea?aeueii? e iaea?aeueii?, yeo i?aaenoaaeya OIO. O?aaa neacaoe,
ui iaia?aai?ieo ia?aoeiae i?ae oeeie aeaiia oa/?yie ?ooo ia aoei,
iiceoe?? noi??i ??cieeeny nei??oa a oaeoe/iiio i?ae no?aoaa?/iiio ieai?.

OIO — ae?oaa c a?aeiieo iai i?aai?caoe?e, yea coi?ea ? ciiaea ?icai?iooe
oe?ieo i?iia?aiaeenonueeo ?iaioo ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie. Aieiaiei ooo aoei
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy Ae. Eaaoeueeii oa C. E?an?anueeei aeioneo iaoeiiieniiai
naiaeaeaaiiai aeo?iaeo “Aiey ? Aaouee?aueia” i?ioyaii aeaio c iieiaeiith
?ie?a, anueiai aeeoei o?noiaaeoeyoue iiia??a oeueiai aeo?iaeo,
aeaa’yiinoi o?noue i?ei??iee?a. AEo?iae, ca caaeoiii Ae. Eaaoeueea, iaa
noaoe ina?aeyi, iaaeiei yeiai oai?eoeiaoueny i?aai?caoe?y. Oa?aeoa?
aeaeaiiy aoa iaoe?iiae?noe/iee ? aioeeiioi?noe/iee. sse aeaeii c iaeyaeo
ae?yeueiino? ??cieo a?oi oa e ea?aeueii? oa/?? ?ooo,— i?aaiaiiy aei
aeioneo aeaniiai ae?oeiaaiiai i?aaio — noaea oaiaeaioe?y a ?on?.

A ??ci? ?a??iie Oe?a?ie iioe?thaaeanue e?oa?aoo?a, aeaioiaeaia ye
/eaiaie a?oie, oae ? i?iia?aiaeenonuee? iaoa??aee IOI-OIA, ui aoee
a?aeiaeaeai? a e?n?. Iaea?eueoa a?aecia/eany i?e ?iciianthaeaeaii?
eeno?aie Ieoaeei Aeye. Oae, o a?oaei? 1965 ?ieo, io?eiaaoe a?ae
Ae. Eaaoeueea 10 ioi?anueeeo a?ioo?, a?i ?aea aei Eueaiaa ? ?iceeaea? ?o
a oi?aa?neoao? e o i?ae’?caeao non?aei?o aoaeeie?a (n. 112). Anueiai
/eaiaie a?oie aoei ?iciianthaeaeaii aeae?eueea nioaiue
a??oaoe?eii-i?iia?aiaeenonueeeo iaoa??ae?a o naie iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie.

A?oia i?aaioea cayaeoe naaa ? ye i?aai?caoe?y anaoe?a?inueea, aenoioaoe
aeiiae a?ae ?ooo aei aeaaee. C oe??th iaoith aoei iaae?neaii iaii?aiaeoi
c’?caeia? eiiia?o??, cayao aeuei o?yaeiaei /eiieeai ?anioae?ee. Oe?
aeieoiaioe oaae iioe?thaaeeny na?aae ianaeaiiy.

?iciao ? ieaie ae?yeueiino? OIO o?eaaeee /an aeeeeeaee caiaiiei?iiy ? a
ia?o?eieo, ? a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aaiao. O?eaae? iiooee inoaii?o ? iiieeee
a eiini??aoe?? i?eaaee a?aoo?-?aoo o 1966 ?. aei aee?eooy a?oie.
Cia/ei?noue ni?aae a?oie ae??ciy? ia eeoa aaeeea a?oia ne?ae/eo c ??cieo
iaeanoae Oe?a?ie, ye? aoee caae?yi? a ne?aenoa?, a e oa, ui aiia aoea
caneooaia ia ae?cieo nan?yo Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo O?N?. I?aenoaei? — /eaie
a?oie — io?eiaee iaeneiaeuei? no?iee oa’yciaiiy. Ae. Eaaoeueeia?
caa?iaeoaaea nia?oia ea?a, caiaeii aiia aoea cai?iaia 15 ?ieaie
oa’yciaiiy (c ieo — 5 e?o oth?ie) ? 5 ?ieaie caneaiiy.

Ae?yeuei?noue OIO iieacaea, ui i?aei?eueia no?oeoo?a iiaea oni?oii
i?i?nioaaoe o?eaaeee /an iaa?oue a oiiaao oiae?oiueiai ?aaeeio. I?ia?aia
? noaooo a?oie aoee iinooiii o ?icaeoeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee.
Aoa i?aeo?eiaiee i?eioeei i?aai?caoe?? o anaoe?a?inueeeo aei??ao. Oe?
?aeaei? e i?aai?caoe?ei? iieiaeaiiy, aenoioo? /eaiaie a?oie, ui ae?noaee
nai? ao?eaiiy o ianooii? aeanyoee?ooy ?icaeoeo ?ooo, i?aenoiiaothoueny a
oeueiio ?icae?e?.

?icae?e i’yoee aeena?oaoe?? iaceaa?oueny “Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a e?ioe? 1950-o aei ii/. 1970-o ?ie?a”.
Iiaa a iueiio eaea i?i oa/?th, iia’ycaio c o?noaeanyoieoeoaii,
aeeneaeaionoaii, ii/aoeaie aea?oneo?eaoe?? 1960-o. Aeacaiee aoai ?ooo
ii/aany a ia??iae a?aeiinii? e?aa?ae?caoe?? ?aaeeio, iii??eiaaii?
aeanoae?i?caoe??, ia?aa?oioaaiiy ana?aaeei? i?aaey/iai eeano. Eia?/iei
?acoeueoaoii oeeo ia?oo?aaoe?e o nenoai? aeaaee a aea?aeaa? noaei
ci?oeiaiiy oeueiai eeano, iineeaiiy oeaio?ae?nonueeeo oaiaeaioe?e eiai
caa?oiee?a o Iinea?, ui i?eaaei aei oe?ieiianooaaieo ianooi?a ia
iiiceoe?th, iniaeeai iaoe?iiaeueio, c ii/. 1970-o ?ie?a.

Ii/aoee oeueiai aoaio ea?aeueii? oa/?? ?ooo ca?aathoueny a /an? ia
o?eueee c a?aeiiaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?ooo e?ioey 50-o —
ii/. 60-o ?ie?a. A iiiia?ao?? aeacai? i?ioeane e i?aenoaae, ui eiai
ni?e/eieee ? noi?iaiaeaeoaaee. A i?noa i?eeoei iiaa iieie?iiy iieiaeeo
oe?a?ioe?a, ye? ia ciaee no?aoo oa?i?o 30-o ?ie?a, aea aeia?a ciaee
?aaeyinueeo ae?eni?noue, ? ia c eaeoe?e aoc?anueeeo i?ioani??a. Oey
iieiaeue aoea iinoaaeaia a aeene?ei?iaoe?eia ii a?aeiioaiith aei
?in?enueeiiiaieo a?iiaaeyi noaiiaeua a aeinooi? aei aeui? ina?oe. Ia
aoei aeeaiei, ui na?aae ?in?yi, ye? i?iaeeaaee a Oe?a?i?, ia aeanyoue
oeny/ /ieia?e ianaeaiiy in?a c aeuith ina?oith aoei ia 25—30 % a?eueoa,
i?ae na?aae oaei? ae e?eueeino? oe?a?ioe?a. Iaooeeueii ciaiooaaeany
/anoea ei??iiiai ianaeaiiy a ?anioae?oe?. Iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea Oeaio?o
aoea ni?yiiaaia ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy oai??? aeaiiiaiino?, ooai?aiiy “iiai?
?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiino?” ? o. i., i?ae i?ee?eooyi yeeo cae?enithaaeeny
?oneo?eaoe?y oa anei?eyoe?y oe?a?ioe?a, ui oaae iineethaaei iiiceoe?ei?
iano?i? na?aae aeiaie? oe?ieeo e?e oe?a?inoaa. I?ia?aeieeii ?ooo
caeeoa?oueny ?ioae??aioe?y, c aeoiaeii ia e?i ?? iiaiai iieie?iiy: ?aaia
Aecthae, ?aaia Na?oee/iiai, A’y/aneaaa *i?iiaiea, ?aaaia Naa?nothea,
Aaneey Neiiiaiea, E?ie Einoaiei, Aeee Ai?nueei? oa ?i. Iaoi?iaeuei?
a?oie iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieoeueeiai ni?yioaaiiy c’yaeythoueny a
??cieo i?noao Oe?a?ie: Ee?a?, Iaean?, Oa?eia?, Eueaia? oa ?i.

C e?ioey 50-o ?ie?a a?aeiii i?i aeieeiaiiy iiiaeeiieeo a?oi ? iinoaoae,
ui i?aaiooue caia?a/eoe ?nioth/?e nenoai? ? neiaii ? ae?eii — A’y/aneaa
?iei/?e, Aiaoie?e Eoiei?n, Aaaeei Eooeaiei oa ?i. (n. 144—145).

Aea i?ia?aeiith oa/??th a oe?a?inueeiio ?on? ii/. 60-o caeeoaeinue
eoeueoo?ieoeoai, i?eiaeii?, aei ia?oeo a?aoo?a. Aieiaiith i?iaeaiith
?ooo nii/aoeo aoea i?iaeaia oe?a?inueei? iiae, ?noi???, eoeueoo?e. Iiaia
ieoaiiy aoei ? a oeaio?? oaaae iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? a Ee?a? a 1963 ?.
Ia oeueiio io?oe?eiiio c?a?aii? aoei oiae? /eiaei neacaii i?i caiaiaae
oe?a?inueei? iiae, i?i ia?ane?aeoaaiiy oeo, ooi ?? ianoith?. Oey
i?iaeaia caeeoeeany aeooaeueiith ? ai?iaeiaae ianooiieo /an?a, aiia
ae?noaea aeia?ee aeya ? a oe?a?inueeiio naiaeaeaa?: eeno?aee “Oiaa?eo?
aaoueee oeiey??a”, “Eeiiioaiiy” Nayoineaaa Ea?aaainueeiai oa ?i. O nai?e
noaoo? N. Ea?aaainueeee aieinii iacaaa ?nioth/o a ?anioae?oe? iie?oeeo
?oneo?eaoe??th ? oia?i?ciii. A iaei?e ?c iiae?aieo noaoae aeacoaaeinue,
ui noai c oe?a?inueeith iiaith ca?ac oaeee, ui eiee ethaeeia i?i?aea
i?nyoeue ii ?anioae?oe?, ?iciiaeyth/e iath, oi ?? a e?auiio ?ac?
aaaaeaoeiooue ca eaiaaeoey, a a a??oiio — ca oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiae?noa.

A?ae nooi iiaieo i?iaeai ia?aoiaeeei aei a?iiaaenueeeo caoiae?a, aa/i??a
iai’yo? eoeueoo?ieo ae?y/?a Oe?a?ie. Ia iaeiiio c oaeeo aa/i??a ?
i?icao/aea oaca ?. Aecthae i?i oa, ui iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay ? ? aoaea
aeooaeueiith nueiaiaei?; a oiio ae aenooi? aeaii e a?aee?eoo ioe?ieo
noae?i?cio (n. 150).

A ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui ianooiiei e?ieii o oi?ioaaii? ?ooo ane?ae ca
aoiia?ao?/ii-eoeueoo?iith noaae??th iaea noaoe iie?oe/ia. Iie?oecaoe?y e
i?aai?caoe?y ?ooo a?aeaoaaeeny, c?icoi?ei, a iaeiiio eiioaeno?, a oi e
aiaeii/an. Ie??i aeacaieo aeua i?aai?caoe?eieo /eiiee?a o ae?yo ?ooo ia
ii/aoeo 60-o i?aai?caoe?? ni?eyea e iiaaae?iea aeaaee. Oea ia?aaeon?i
iaiaaeee c 60 ?. ia ?ioae??aioe?th, i?aeiae a?ae?ioaee AI O?N?,
“cae?o/oaaiiy aaeie” o ca’yceo c iia??oaiiyi i?iaeiaieue/iai iinoa/aiiy
? nioe?aeueiei iai?oaeaiiyi a noni?euenoa?, ci?uaiiy I. Oaeanoa.
?ic?iaeyeeny e caoiaee OeE EIO uiaei ?aeaeieo iiceoe?e oe?a?inueei?
?ioae??aioe??, ? aiie ia caeeoaeeny o?eueee ia iaia??… Ana oea ni?eyei
i?aai?caoe?? e iie?oecaoe?? o?noaeanyoiee?a. O Ee?a? — oeaio?? ?ooo, ?
Eueaia? oi?io?oueny a?oia in?a iaaeiei ?. Na?oee/iiai, A. Ai?nueei?,
?. Aecthae, I. Ai?eiy, ?. Aaey. C 1964 ?. ?icea?oa? oe?a?inueeee
naiaeaeaa. Aeey iueiai niaoe?aeueii ieoooueny oai?e
e?oa?aoo?ii-ioae?oeenoe/iiai ? no-ni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy, ui
iieiathoue oeaico?o. A /ene? ia?oeo: “C i?eaiaeo i?ioeano iaae
Iia?oaeaeuenueeei” ?. Naa?nothea. A?aeiii e?eueea aeanyoe?a oai??a, ui
iioe?thaaeeny a oe?a?inueeiio naiaeaeaa? aei na?. 60-o ?ie?a. Aeena?oaio
iieaco?, ui iaaeiei iioe?aiiy oa e oai?aiiy oeeo aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a oi?io?oueny ia?aaea o/aniee?a ? i?eoeeueiee?a ?ooo,
ii?aeiaieo iaoi?iaeueieie ca’yceaie. Na?aae aeoeaieo
o/aniee?a-i?aai?caoi??a oe??? ia?aae? ne?ae iacaaoe Ieaenaiae?a
Ia?oeiaiea, ?aaaia I?iithea, Ieoaeea Ai?eiy. Aoei io?eiaii /anoeio
e?oa?aoo?e ? a?ae oe?a?inueei? ai???aoe??. A iiiia?ao?? iaaiaeyoueny
i?eeeaaee eiie?aoiiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaaieo naiaeaeaaieo oai??a ii
Oe?a?i?. Aeaye? iaeia?aeii? iinoao? oiai ia??iaeo ?ooo oaeiae aaee
aeineoue iaiieaaeeao, oi/, iaaooue, ia caaaeaee iii?oio ?iaioo ii
iaaa?iaiith aei nai?o iiaeyae?a /eiaei? e?eueeino? ethaeae. Aeieea?
ieoaiiy: ye? ae ?aea? aenoaaee aeoeai? e /?euei? /eaie oa ae?y/? ?ooo?
Ia aeoieo A. Eanueyiiaa, aei a?aoo?a 60-o ?ie?a aiie, oe? iniae, ia aoee
a?aeaa?oeie i?ioeaieeaie ?aaeeio. Ni?aaae?, iaaooue aeey ia?aaaaeii?
a?eueoino? o/aniee?a ?ooo oea oaa?aeaeaiiy ? ?noeiiei. Aea ?nioaaea
a?oia ethaeae, ina?aey ?ooo, ye? aoee aioia? aenooieoe i?ioe oe???
nenoaie aaea oiae?, oaae caciaaoe iaaii? ?aeaeii-ii?aeueii? aaiethoe??,
aeie?aneeaoe nai? ia?aeiiaiiy c aiae?co oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei?
ae?eniino?, a ia c caei?aeiiieo ia?aaea/ /e eiea. Oe? ethaee ? noaee
aaoi?aie noaoae i?ia?aiiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ye? ae?acii caaeaeea?oaaee eiai
iie?oe/i? iacaeaaeieoeuee? oe?e?. O aeaioiiieeo iiaeaii aeeeaae aeayeeo
c ieo, a oiio /ene? e iaa?aeiieo aeieoiaio?a, ui caa?aaeeny a a?o?aao
NAO, oa aeayeeo ?ioeo. Oae, iai?eeeaae, o noaoo? “Eeaniaa oa
iaoe?iiaeueia ai?ioueaa ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa”
aiai?eoueny i?i oa, ui oai??y iiaoaeiae eiioi?cio i?ieaoa??aoii ?
o?eoe??th. Aenieoaoaoe?y a oeueiio noni?euenoa? ia cieeea, a noaea ua
a?eueo aei?noeith ? iaeiio?ieueiaaiith. Aaaeeeaith a oe?a?inueeiio ?on?
aoea ?ic?iaea caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue o eiioaeno? uiaei
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai Oe?a?ie. Iaaooue, iaeiii?oi?oith ooo ? noaooy
?. I?iithea “Noai ? caaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai aec-aieueiiai ?ooo”. A i?e
aeacoaaeiny, ui N?N? ? aea?aeaaith aaoi?eoa?ii? ie?aa?o??, a i?ia?aia
EI?N ? ooii?/iith uiaei nai?? ?aae?caoe??. Oe?a?ia ia?aoai?eeany a oe?e
aea?aeaa? ia aaei?i?no?aoeaii-aeiiii?/io iaeanoue. Oiio ia?aae
oe?a?inueeei aecaieueiei ?ooii noi?oue caaaeaiiy aeinyaoe iacaeaaeiino?
?anioae?ee ye aeaiie?aoe/ii? e?a?ie. A aeieoiaio? aaoi? oaeiae aiae?co?
oeyoe ? iaoiaee caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino?, aeeth/ath/e nthaee ??ci?
i?aeoiaee c ea?aeueieie ? iaea?aeueieie /eiieeaie, c
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeith ?iaioith ia ii/aoeao, a caaaeii — oe?eeii
ie?ieie caniaaie ia aac? ?icoe?aiiy aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa (n.
161). Aaoi? aeaiiai aeieoiaioa, ye ? aaoi?e aeieoiaio?a i?aei?eueieo
a?oi, noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui oaia??oi?e ?oo ? i?iaeiaaeoaa/ai iiia?aae-iueiai
aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

Aeecueeeie aei aeuacaaaeaieo aeieoiaio?a aoee e noaoo? ?. Eociaoeiai?
(?. Naa/oe). Aene?aeeiaoth/e noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie i?ae aeaaeith ?in?enueei?
?iia???, a caiaeii — ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, aiia ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i
eieii?aeueia noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie a ieioeiio, i?i oa, ui i?iaiaeeoueny
iie?oeea ia aeieuaiiy oe?a?ioe?a o OO no. ?. Eociaoeiaa iaaeaicia/ii
iiceoeaii ioe?ith? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo o ?anioae?oe? a inoaii?
aeanyoee?ooy ? i?iiiio? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei aaaeaiiy oaeiai
?ooo a oaia??oi?e /an.

A ?icae?e? iieacaii ? oa, ye a?aooe na?aaeeie 60-o ?ie?a, ia?o? oa
ianooii? ca ieie, i?enei?eee iie?oe/ia ioi?ieaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.
Niiae?aaiiai aeaaeith oiiei?aiiy aeoeaiiai oe?a?inoaa ia noaeiny,
oaeaeoa iaaiaee — iianthaeii iioe?eeenue i?ioanoe i?ioe a?aoo?a ?
caeioaa/aiue. Oe? i?ioanoe, ?acii c inoaeaeaiiyi ca iie?oe/ieie noaooyie
a?aooiaaieo ?ioae??aio?a, ?nioaaiiyi i?ia?aiiaeo aeieoiaio?a
cana?ae/eee, ui iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo oaee ?. Ia?ane?aeoaaiiy aeaaeith
o/aniee?a ?ooo iicaaaeee aaaaoueio c ieo aeineoue oaeaeei “?iaeaaiai
iioei?cio” (A’y/aneaa *i?iia?e), oei naiei caaa?ooth/e ?oi?e ia?ao?ae ia
?aaeeeaeuei?o? iiceoe??.

Iaeiei ?c aeieac?a inoaiiueiai ? ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai naiaeaeaao oiai
/ano. C’yaey?oueny i?aoey ?. Aecthae “?ioa?iaoe?iiae?ci /e
?oneo?eaoe?y?”, A. *i?iiaiea “Eeoi c ?icoio”, ?. Naa?nothea “Niai? o
?eooiaaii?”, ana? Aaeaioeia Ii?ica, oai?e ?ioeo aaoi??a. Aeoeai?
o/anieee ?ooo ciaoiaeyoue iiaeeea?noue ca’ycaoeny c oe?a?inueeith
ai???aoe??th, ? oaeei /eiii oe?a?inueeee naiaeaeaa ioae?eo?oueny ia
Caoiae?. C?oeiaiiy c aeaaeith iaae?athoue aino??oiai, caoyo?oiai
oa?aeoa?o. Aeena?oaio aiae?co? aeaeio?? c ieo, cie?aia ui??/i? c?a?aiiy
a?ey iai’yoieea O. Oaa/aieia? a Ee?a?, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy eeno?aie,
aea?oaiiy i?aii??a, ae?? ie?aieo in?a (n. 169—171).

Aeaaea ia caeeoeea oe? ae?? aac oaaae. Ciiao iineeeany
ia?o?eii-?aeaieia?/iee i?an, iaea?aeii?oei ia’?eoii oeneo yeiai
iacaaa?ii noaa Ieanue Aii/a? ? eiai “Niai?”. Aiaeii/an aeoea?cothoueny ?
nooi ea?aeuei? i?aaie. Ca 3 ?iee (c 1967 ?.) a Oe?a?i? o?eueee aei
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca caeioaa/aiiyie a aioe?aaeyinuee?e
a??oaoe?? ? i?iia?aiae? aoei i?eoyaioei aeecueei aeaa’yiinoi in?a. Oiae?
ae ianiaiai iioe?aiiy iaaoaa? ciai? aoiaiiee, a iani?aaae? oeei?/iee ?
cei/eiiee niin?a “ia?aaeoiaaiiy” ?iaeiieney/eo — iai?aaeaiiy ?o o
ineo?ao?e/i? e?ea?i? niaoeneoaea; /enaeuei?noue oeeo ethaeae, ye
iieacothoue iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoea a e?eueea ?ac?a a?eueoith, i?ae
canoaeaeaieo aei iicaaaeaiiy aie? a oaai?ao. A?aooe ? iicanoaeia?
ia?ane?aeoaaiiy, ye? i?iaaaeeea aeaaea, aeicaieythoue iai
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeaaea aeia?a ?icoi?ea cia/aiiy ? ?iciao ?ooo,
i?aeae?ath/enue iinooiiai aei eiai eeth/iaeo o?ao?. Aiaeii/an iaia naino
aiai?eoe i?i i’ye?noue, e?aa?aeuei?noue i?aaeoae?a ?anioae?ee aei
na?aaeeie o?noaeanyoeo /e ii/aoeo n?iaeanyoeo ? aei?noie?noue ?oi?o
ianooiiee?a — aoee i?inoi ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, aea
eiai ia?ane?aeoaaiiy, ui aeeeooaaeiny c Iineae — aoei iaci?iiei.

Ae?oaa iieiaeia 60-o ?ie?a ciaiaio? ia eeoa aea? oa/?? a oe?a?inueeiio
?on? — ea?aeueio ? iaea?aeueio, aea e ?iciaaeoaaiiy ea?aeueii? oa/??
?ooo ia aea? aeeoo?a? iiceoe?? ? e?i?? iiaaae?iee — e?i?th Aecthae ?
e?i?th Iaaee/ea (A. Ii?ic). Ia a inoaiith /a?ao i?ae aieeaii A. Ii?ica ?
cao?aiiyi a oe?a?inueeiio ?on? a e?ioe? 60-o c’yaey?oueny “Oe?a?inueeee
a?niee” ca ?aaeaeoe??th A. *i?iiaiea, yeee noaa ina?aeyi, no?oeoo?ith,
iaaeiei yei? ii/aeiny aaea ia o?eueee iaoi?iaeueia, a e oi?iaeueia
no?oeoo?oaaiiy iiiceoe??. A oeueiio ?icae?e? i?ine?aeeiaothoueny
ianoaaeie oeeo yaeu, ui aeaiaeeee aecaieueiee ?oo ia iiaee aoai:
a?aee?eoiai c?oeiaiiy c aeaaeith e i?aai?caoe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy ie?ieie
ea?aeueieie ? iaea?aeueieie caniaaie. An? iaiao?aei? oiiae aeey oeueiai
aoee, ia iith aeoieo, caeeaaeai? ua a 60-o? ?iee, ine?eueee naia oiae?
oe?a?inueeee ?oo noa? iie?oe/iei ia eeoa ia’?eoeaii, a e noa’?eoeaii, a
i/ao ? ae?yo eiai o/aniee?a — aieiaiee i?aenoiie oeueiai aoaio ?
?icae?eo ?iaioe.

A ?icae?e? oinoiio iiiia?ao?? “Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a 70-o — ia
ii/. 80-o ?ie?a” ?icaeyaea?oueny ianooiiee aoai ?ooo. Aena?oeai? i?e/eie
? i?aenoaae a?aoo?a ii/aoeo n?iaeanyoeo ?ie?a, ?icaeoie aeaio oa/?e ?ooo
i?ney ?ai?an?e, aca?iica’ycee ? aca?iiae?? oe?a?inueei-ai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo c ?ioeie ?ooaie iii?o a ?anioae?oe? e ca ??
iaaeaie.

I?aenoaaith aeey ii/aoeo ?ai?an?e i?ioe ?iaeiieneaiiy, iaoe?iiaeueieo
?oo?a aoei ci?oeiaiiy nenoaie aeaaee a e?a?i?, ooaa?aeaeaiiy a?oie
E. A?aaei?aa oa eiai ioi/aiiy. Oe?a?ia, ui caaaeaee aoea i?ae iniaeeaith
oaaaith ? i?aeic?ith Iineae, noaiiaeea aeey ia? aeeeth/iee ?ioa?an,
ine?eueee oai iaa?oue I. Oaeano noaa aaaaeaoeny oe?a?inueeei
iaoe?iiae?noii. Iaeace ia a?aooe ? ?ai?an?? i?eeoee c Iineae. *an aoa
ia?aiee aaeaei: aaea aec??a aei i?aai?caoe?? ii?? nenoai?, a non?aei?o
e?a?iao a?i aoa i?eaeooaiee (Iieueua, *aoineiaa//eia). Ca i?a?ieo a
Oe?a?i?, ca ??cieie i?ae?aooieaie, aoei a?aooiaaii iiiaae noi /ieia?e, c
ieo canoaeaeaii a?n?iaeanyo aeaa’youe. A oie aea /an a?aeaoeeny iaai?
ci?ie a neeaae? ea??aieo i?aoe?aiee?a ??cieo ??ai?a o ?anioae?oe?.
Iai?nieeii Iineae a Oe?a?i? noa? Aieiaeeie? Ua?aeoeueeee. Aeaae? oaee
aaeaeiny i?ecoieieoe, aea ia cieueoe ?oo. Na?ae/aiiyi i?iaeiaaeaiiy
ea?aeueii? oa/?? ?ooo noa? ni?iaa iiiiaeoe aeione aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
naiaeaeaao, ia?o ca ana “Oe?a?inueeiai a?nieea”. Aaoi? aeieeaaeii
coieiy?oueny ia ianoaaeiao aeoiaeo a na?o ? 9 a?nieea, yea
cae?enithaaeiny ia?aaeon?i noa?aiiyie ?aaaia I?iithea, Aaneey E?niaiai,
Aaneey Ian??iea oa ie?ai?oiueiai aeaeaiiy “OA”, cae?eniaiiai aaea a
1974—75 ?ieao ca ?i?oe?aoeaith Noaiaia Oia?e. Inoaii?, oia??anueea
aeaeaiiy, aoei aino?i iie?oeciaaiei ? a?aee?eoi noaaeei “ieoaiiy
aeaeieii?caoe?? Oe?a?ie ? nia?oeueei? ?iia???”. A oeueiio aeaeaii? ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe noaooth N. Oia?e “Aoiioeeae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo”, yea
caeeoeeany iaei??th c iaea?eueo a??oiaioiaaieo ?noi?e/ieo i?aoeue
oeueiai ia??iaeo a oe?a?inueeiio naiaeaeaa?. Inoaii?e, iacaaaeath/e ia
ia?ane?aeoaaiiy, i?iaeiaaeoaaa ?icaeaaoeny. Eiai i?iaeaiaoeea
ioiiethaaea ye i?aenoaae iauiaeaai?o ?ai?an?e a oe?ieiio ?noi?e/iiio
eiioaeno?, oae ? c na?.70-o ?ie?a ana /ano?oa noino?oueny i?aaicaoenieo
ieoaiue. Naiaeaeaa caeeoaany ?aaeueiith no?oeoo?ith, ui ca’ycoaaea ?
oi?ioaaea ?oo. Aeae?ey?oueny na?aae ?ioeo i?aoeue oiai /ano eieaa
TH. Aaaecuei “I?aai aeeoe”, ?. Aaey “A?ai? eoeueoo?e”, noaoo?
A. E?niaiai. ?iaioa TH. Aaaecuei /e ia ia?oith a oe?a?inuee?e
noni?euei?e aeoioe? iiaeaaaea iauaaeio e?eoeeo nioe?ieia?? ia?-enecio,
nenoaiiee iiaeyae ia noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Noaooy A. E?niaiai
“A?aee?eoee eeno aei /eai?a OeE EI?N ? OeE EI Oe?a?ie” ?, iaaooue,
iae?icai?ioo?oei ni?inooaaiiyi an?o noaeueneo?eiaaieo aeaaeith
caeioaa/aiue ?ooo ? oe?eeii iaoeiaa ni?iaa c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie
?iaeiaeoinoaa, iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a N?N? ? O?N?. Aaoi? eenoa aaa/aa
oe? i?e/eie a naiiio noai? ?a/ae c aeaiie?ao??th, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei
i?i??anii, iie?oeeith aeaaee. A?i aea aeacaa ? ia oa, ui oai??y ceeooy
iaoe?e ? aaiioeeaeii i?ioe ieo (n. 195). A iiiia?ao?? iaaiaeeoueny
?iceiaee aeeeaae ua iaei??? iaa?aeiii? ?iaioe a naiaeaeaa? — A. Ian??iea
“E?iaoeue oanoeaeanyoieoeoaa”. Aaoi? aiae?co? aaea nai oaiiiai
o?noaeanyoieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?, iieaco? ia ca’ycie oeueiai yaeua c
iiae?aieie i?ioeanaie a Nithc? ? na?o?. A. Ian??iei aeaco?, ui a
?anioae?oe? oea yaeua a neeo iaii?iaeueiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai noaiiaeua
iaae?a? ?en iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. I?aeaeaath/e i?aenoiee
a?aeiiiio eiio ia??iaeo o?noaeanyoieoeoaa, aaoi? caeeeea? aei
i?aai?caoe?? ?ooo ? aaaaea? iaeiei c eiai iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a aaaeaiiy
aeayeeo eiai aeoe?e a i?aei?ee?.

A aeaiiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaio i?eae?ey? cia/io oaaao ae?yeueiino? /eai?a
??cieo i?aei?eueieo ooai?aiue oeueiai aoaio ?ooo. Aeieeaaeii aiae?co?
aeieeiaiiy e aeoeai?noue aeaio oaeeo a?oi: “Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai o?iioo” (Ci?yi Iiiaaethe) oa “Ni?eee
oe?a?inueei? iieiae? Aaee/eie” (Aeieo?i A?eiuee?a). Ia?oa c oeeo aeaio
i?aai?caoe?e aeieeea o Euea?anuee?e iaeano? niiioaiii. Aeaye? ?? /eaie
iciaeiieeeny c naiaeaeaaii, aaea iaa/ath/enue o aocao. Iaaeiei o/aniee?a
oe??? a?oie caiaeii oi?io?oueny aeineoue oe?iea eiei nooaeaio?a
euea?anueeeo aoc?a, e?eueea aeanyoe?a /ieia?e, ye? i?aaiooue, iniaeeai
i?ney a?aoo?a 1972 ?., i?iaeiaaeeoe ni?aao nai?o
iiia?aaeiee?a-o?noaeanyoiee?a ? iaa?oue i?oe aeae?. ?aaeueii oea
aeeeeinue o noai?aiiy ua iaei??? /e aeaio i?aei?eueieo a?oi, iioe?aiiy
e?eueeio aeanyoe?a eeno?aie ii e?eueeio i?noao Aaee/eie, a caiaeii
e?eueeio aeanyoe?a eeno?aie o Eueaia? (n. 215). OIAO iaeaaiaeea aeione ?
naiaeaeaaiiai aeo?iaeo “Iinooi”. Noaoo?, i?aaenoaaeai? a aeo?iae?,
iathoue iaaiee ?ioa?an uiaei ?noi??? noni?eueii? aeoiee a Oe?a?i?. ?oi?e
aaoi? (A?eai??e Oainoaiei) canoaeaeo? aaaaiii?ci ? ?a??an, ui iana a
nia? N?N? o ciai?oiueiio ? aioo??oiueiio (aeey nai?? e?a?ie) aniaeoao.
Ia?eneci o Nithc?, ienaa a?i, c?eoia aei i?inoiai cia?yaeaey o
aeinyaiaii? ?in?enueeeo aaeeeiaea?aeaaieo oe?eae. A ?ioeo noaooyo
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ei??iiy e iane?aeee ?in?enueeiai oia?i?cio i?ioyaii
o?eaaeiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo. A 40—50-o ?ieao oeueiio oia?i?ciia?
i?ioeae?ya iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo.

I?aaenoaaieee o?iioo i?aaioee aeeoe ca iaae? aeania Aaee/eie,
?icai?ioaoe oe?ieo ae?yeuei?noue ii Oe?a?i?.

A?oia Ae. A?eiuee?aa (?aaii-O?aie?anueea iaeanoue) iaea ne?iii?o? oe?e?
uiaei ianya?a nai?o ae?e. ?? /eaie, ia a?aei?io iae OIAO, aoee aeeae/?
aei ?aeae IOI, oa eaaeaa anoeaioaoe ci?aai?coaaoeny ? i?enooieoe aei
yei?nue ?iaioe, aoee a?aooiaai?.

Aaaeeeaee aieea ia noni?eueio aeoieo iaei aeieeiaiiy (a eenoiiaae? 1976
?.) ? ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?inueei? a?oie ni?eyiiy aeeiiaiith
Aaeuen?inueeeo oaiae. A?oio naiai /ano i/iethaaee Ieeiea ?oaeaiei,
Ienaia Iaoei, Aaneeue Noon. O iiiia?ao?? iieacaii oiiae oai?aiiy a?oie,
o?enothoueny iniiai? a?oe ?? ae?yeueiino?. Aeania, OAA — oi ? iiaee e?ie
o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo, eiee iaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie
aecia/athoueny ye /anoeia anaethaenueeeo i?iaeai. *eaie OAA aeei?enoaee
?icai?oaiiy oe?iei? i?aaicaoenii? ae?yeueiino? a na?o? aeey oiai, uia
neacaoe i?aaaeo i?i noaiiaeua c i?aaaie ethaeeie a N?N? ? a Oe?a?i?
cie?aia. A?oia noa? ia?oith ea?aeueiith i?aai?caoe??th o ?anioae?oe?
aia?oa ca aaaaoi ?ie?a. *eaie a?oie caeiaeeny caoenoii i?aa
iani?aaaaeeeai inoaeaeaieo, ia?ane?aeoaaieo ca ?ae?a?ei? ia?aeiiaiiy,
aeyaeyee i?aeo?eieo aiaieo ia nioe?aeueiiio ??oio?. Caeiiii??ii, ui aaea
a 1978 ?. ia ia?oa i?noea a OAA aoei iinoaaeaii, /e, oi/i?oa —
aeneiaeaii, caaaeaiiy caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aa oe?a?ioe?a oa
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, ?ae?a?eieo i?aa. Iacaaaeath/e ia
?ai?an?? aeaaee ? ?? iaiaaaiiy aoaeue-ui i?eieieoe ?nioaaiiy a?oie, yea
iae?/oaaea aaea ia ii/. 1980-o ?ie?a 41 /ie. (n. 214), aiia ia i?eieieea
naith ae?yeuei?noue iaa?oue oiae?, eiee iaeaea an? ?? /eaie iieieeenue a
oa’yciaii?. Aeoeaia i?aaicaoenia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueei?
aaeuen?inueei? a?oie, ye ? iiae?aieo aei ia? a?oi a ?ioeo nithcieo
?anioae?eao, iieacaea, ui oe?a?inueeee oa ?io? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ooe ia
noiyoue inoi?iiue a?ae caaaeueiiethaenueeeo aoiai?oa?ieo i?iaeai,
aiaeii/an aiia aeiaaea, ui iaea?eueoith i?iaeaiith o noa?? ethaenueeeo
i?aa ooo ? ii?ooaiiy i?aa iaoe?iiaeueieo ? ui oe? ii?ooaiiy ?
iaa?ae’?iiith ?enith ?nioth/i? a e?a?i? nenoaie aeaaee e oi?aae?iiy.

A oeueiio ?icae?e? eaeaoueny ? i?i ie?ai? yne?aa? iinoao? iiiceoe?eiiai
?ooo oa ?oi? i?aoe?, ui noaee iniaeeai iii?oieie a 70-o? ?iee: TH??y
Aaaecuei, Aae?y Niaa??ueiaa, ?aaia Aaey.

?icae?e caaa?oo?oueny iaeyaeii ca’yce?a oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo
c ?ioeie iiiceoe?eieie ?ooaie a Oe?a?i? oa ca ?? iaaeaie. Cacia/a?oueny,
ui neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? aoea ai?ioueaa
ca ?nioaaiiy a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae. Ua iaeiei iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ooii
ei??iiiai ia?iaeo ?anioae?ee aoa ?oo e?einueeeo oaoa? ca iiaa?iaiiy ia
?noi?e/io aaouee?aueio.

Aeaoaeuei?oa a ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii aca?iica’ycee oe?a?inueeiai ?
?a?aenueeiai, oe?a?inueeiai ? ?in?enueeiai ?oo?a iii?o. Iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui oe?a?inueeee ?oo oiea?aioii noaaeany aei i?iaeai
?a?aenoaa acaaae? e ia Oe?a?i? cie?aia. A?aeia?aaeaiiyi oaeiai noaaeaiiy
iiaeia iacaaoe ? aenooie ?. Aecthae oa A. Aioiiaiea-Aeaaeaeiae/a a
Aaaeiiio ss?o a 1966 ?., a iiceoe?? “OA” ? a ?iaio? ?. Naa?nothea
“Ian?iiy oe?a?inueei? nie?aea?iino?”. C ?ioiai aieo o ?a?aenoaa, yea a
iiia?aae-i? ?iee aoei a?eueoa i?ea’ycaia aei ?iia?nueei? aea?aeaaiino?,
cieeathoue i?i?aaeyinuee? iano?i?, iineeth?oueny oyaa aei ae?caeo ia
naith ?noi?e/io aaouee?aueio.

Noeeoaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo ? ?in?enueeiai ?ooo iii?o,
aeeneaeaionoaa a?aeaoaaeiny aieiaiei /eiii o noa?? ai?ioueae ?aeae c
?nioth/ei a N?N? ?aaeeiii, a aioeeiioi?noe/i?e ni?yiiaaiino? iaio ?oo?a.
?in?enueeee ?oo i?aea, i?ioa, ia cayaeya i?i ea?aeeiaeueia ?ica’ycaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai, a o. /. e oe?a?inueeeo ia ei?enoue iacaeaaeiiai
?icaeoeo oeeo ia?iae?a. Iaa?oue Aiae??e Naoa?ia aeineoue i?ioieiaeii ia
ii/. 70-o ?ie?a noaaeany aei ?aea? a?ae’?aeiaiiy a?ae ?in??,
niiae?aath/enue aeaiie?aoecoaaoe N?N?; ia ia?aaeaa/aa iacaeaaeiino?
Oe?a?ie e Ieaenaiae? Nieaeai?oeei. I?aa? ae oa/?? o aeania ?in?enueeiio
?on? o?aeooaaee iaoe?iiaeuei? ieoaiiy o ae?ae oia?i?noe/iiio aeon?
(n. 218).

I?aeaeaath/e i?aenoiee oeueiai ?icae?eo, aeena?oaio cacia/a?, ui ia
caaa?oaiiy naiai o?aoueiai aoaio a oeueiio ia??iae? oe?a?inueeee ?oo aoa
oi/ ? i?eoeoieaiee, aea ia cieuaiee. ?oo aaeaany aei iiai? oaeoeee
ai?ioueae, aeei?enoiaoth/e ea?aeuei? iaoiaee, oei naiei ?icoe?thth/e
naith nioe?aeueio aaco. Oe?a?inuee? i?iaeaie, a o. /. ? iaoe?iiaeuei?,
iiaeathoueny /eaiaie ?ooo ? ni?eeiathoueny na?oiaith a?iiaaenuee?noth ye
caaaeueiiethaenuee?. Ona?aeiieth?oueny ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ?ooo, a oiio
/ene? /a?ac ?nioaaiiy iaea?aeueieo a?oi ? a?aeiia?aeii? oa/?? ?ooo a
oe?eiio. I?aei?ia?oueny iiaa iieie?iiy ai?oe?a. An? oe? oaiaeaioe??
ae?noaee aeaeueoee ?icaeoie ia ianooiiiio aoai? ?ooo c e?ioey 80-o
?ie?a, i?i ye? eoeiaoueny ieae/a.

A ?icae?e? nueiiiio ?iaioe “?ia?oie/? i?ioanoe ? ?ia?oie/ee ?oo a
Oe?a?i?” aeena?oaio aiae?co? ei??iiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioano?a ?aaeeiia?.
I?e?iaeii, ui oaeeo ne?ae aoei a niiae?aaoeny a?ae iaeoe?oeo ian
i?aoethth/iai ianaeaiiy — ?ia?oiee?a. I?i ?ia?oie/ee eean ye ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?anioae?oe?, ui ?icaeioany ia aeani?e aac?, iiaeia
aiai?eoe c na?. 70-o ?ie?a. A N?N? ?nioaaei ?iaeono??aeueia
noni?euenoai, iaeiae aaniethoia a?eueo?noue ?ia?oiee?a aoea na?aaeiuei?
/e iecueei? eaae?o?eaoe??, ui oa?aeoa?ii ye?ac aeey aei?iaeono??aeueiiai
noni?euenoaa. Aeania, no/ani? ?ia?oieee noaee aeiaeaoeiaei, iaieaiiaaiei
aeaaeith i?iaeoeoii oeueiai noni?euenoaa, i?iaaaeaii? iiaea?i?caoe??.
Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaco?, ui ?ia?oieee ia iaee yeeoinue ?aaeueieo
aieea?a i? a eiiia?o??, i? a ?ioeo aeaaeieo no?oeoo?ao. Aea ia o?eueee
iecueeee ?aaeueiee noaoon a oi?aae?ii? ae?iaieoeoaii, o noni?euenoa?
coiiaethaaa iaaaeiaieaiiy ?ia?oieoeoaa. Cia/iith i??ith ni?e/eieeeny aei
oeueiai e iecueea ca?ia?oia ieaoa, iiaai? aeeoeia? oiiae, oiiae i?aoe?
ia caaiaeao, oaa?eeao, o oaooao ? o. i. Oi?iaeueii aieiae?th/e an?i o
aea?aeaa?, ?ia?oieee aoee oae naii aaci?aai?, ye ? iaeaea an? ?io?
aa?noae noni?euenoaa. I?ioni?eee caeeoaeeny i?eaiaeiei ?aiaiai ia?o?? ia
ae?iaieoeoa?. Oiio ia aeeaii, ui caa??aaeiny a?ae/oaeaiiy ?ia?oiee?a
a?ae ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano oa ? aeaaee a oe?eiio.

Iaeyne?aa?oeie i?iyaaie oaeiai a?ae/oaeaiiy aeena?oaio aaaaea? aaeeeo
ieeii?noue eaae??a ? no?aeee ia i?aei?e?inoaao. A ?icae?e? aeieeaaeii
aiae?cothoueny aaciina?aaei? i?e/eie iaio oeeo aeya?a. Iani?aaae?
aeoiaeeei, ui aenieoaoaoe?y ?ia?oiee?a ia ?aaeyinueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao
aoea cia/ii a?eueoith, i?ae o eai?oae?noe/ieo i?aei?e?inoaao Caoiaeo.
Ine?eueee ?ia?oieee aaea ia aoee iaiaaeai? e?ei?iaeueieie iiea?aiiyie ca
ci?io ?iaioe c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae, oi ieeii?noue eaae??a ia aeayeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao ?anioae?ee a 60—70-o? ?iee nyaaea 30—70 %. Aeena?oaio
iaaiaeeoue oaeiae aeai? i?i aac?ia?ooy a Oe?a?i? a oeae ia??iae,
ni?inoiaoth/e oaco i?i iiaio caeiyo?noue o ?anioae?oe? a /ane iiaoaeiae
nioe?ae?cio (n. 229).

Iaeae?aci?oa iacaaeiaieaiiy ?ia?oiee?a i?iyaeyeiny, iaaooue, o
a?aee?eoeo oi?iao i?ioanoo — no?aeeao. Aeine?aeaeoth/e oea yaeua,
aeena?oaio ?icaeyioa o?ae e?eueeio ?c ieo, aeacaaoe i?e/eie, iane?aeee,
?aaeoe?th oeaio?aeueii? ? i?noeaai? aeaaee, i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ia
aeai? iiae??. No?aee aoa oi/ ? iacae/iei, aea ia iiiaeeiieei yaeuai
ia??iaeo iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. No?aeee a?aeaoeeny a aeaio o?aoeiao
iaeanoae Oe?a?ie, aeae?eyth/enue o Ee?a?, Oa?eia?, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e
iaeano?. ss aecia/ea oaeiae ?ioaineai?noue no?aee?a ii ??cieo aaeocyo
i?iieneiaino?: iaea?eueoa ?o aoei a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, aoae?aieoeoa?, o
aoaeaaeiaoaaii?. Aeyaeeiny oaeiae, ui no?aeee aoee aeaeaei ia caaaeaee
oni?oieie, ye oea aaaaeaeiny nii/aoeo. No?aeee iaee aeiiii?/iee
oa?aeoa?, iiaeaeoaee iaaeeaeath/enue aei aeaiiino?aoe?e. A ieo ocyee
o/anoue ia a?eueoa 25 oeny/ /ieia?e, ca iaoeie i?ae?aooieaie (n. 236).
Aeaaea, i?ioa, aeoaea noi?iaeei c?aaaoaaea ia oe? oi?ie ?ia?oie/eo
i?ioano?a, neooii ?icaeyaeath/e oe? no?aeee ye iie?oe/i? aeoe??, ui
iiaeooue i?ae??aaoe noaa?euei?noue ?aaeeio. Iaaooue, oiio ne?ae oaee
aiai?eoe i?i iaaiee aieea oeueiai ?ooo ia oi?ioaaiiy aeaeeii? —
io?oe?eii? oa iaio?oe?eii?, eoeoa?ii? iie?oeee noiniaii ?ia?oieoeoaa ia
na?. 1970-o ?ie?a, eiee ?aaeei aeinya iaaii? iia/acii? aeiiiaeaiino? c
?ia?oieeaie.

C?icoi?ei, ui o?eueee oi?iaie i?ioanoo ia aeiiii?/iiio ??oio? ni?aaa ia
iaiaaeeeany. Aeena?oaio cina?aaeea oaaao oaeiae ? ia oi?ioaaii?
iie?oe/ii? ?ia?oie/i? iiiceoe?? aei o?yaeo. Aeieeaaeii a iiiia?ao??
aena?oeaii iaeio c i?e??iaeueieo i?aei?eueieo ?ia?oie/eo a?oi,— ?aaaia
Aeii?/aiea, ui ae?yea a Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? (n. 236—240).
I?aai?ciaai?noue ni?ioeao ?ia?oiee?a i?iyaeeany oaeiae o ni?iaao
noai?aiiy iacaeaaeieo i?ioni?eie, aeueoa?iaoeaieo aei io?oe?eieo.
Aeena?oaio aeieeaaei?oa coieiy?oueny ia ia?o?e oae?e i?ioan?ei?e
ni?eoe?: Anioe?aoe?? a?eueii? i?ioni?eee o?oaeyueo a ?aaeyinueeiio
Nithc?. Iacaaaeath/e ia ?ai?an?? aeaaee, caiaaeoi oe?ie? oe?e?, oe?
i?ioni?eeia? /e nei??oa — i?ioni?eeiaiiiae?ai? ooai?aiiy i?i?nioaaee aae
aei ia?aaoaeiae.

Ia?aaoaeiaa iinoaaeea ian ia?aae i?iaeaiaie aeai?o iaeaooiueiai ?
caa?aaeaiiy naiai aeeoo?aiai ??aiy. Aea?? oaee aoei c?iaeaii ia ei?enoue
ia?aaoaeiae, ?icai?oaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?ioean?a o e?a?i? c iaeii/aniei
caoenoii nai?o nioe?aeueieo ?ioa?an?a. E?eca aeiiii?ee ? aeaaee aeaea a
e?ioe? 1980-o ?ie?a iiooiao iiaooiueiio ?ia?oie/iio ?ooia? a
?anioae?oe?. A oeueiio ?icae?e? iaaiaeeoueny ei?ioeee aiae?c iniiaieo
aoai?a ?icaeoeo oeueiai ?ooo a?ae aeiiii?/ieo aei iie?oe/ieo aeiia ?
caeiaooe?a. No?aeeiie ia aeayeee /an noathoue o iaaieo ?a??iiao,
cie?aia, a Aeiiaan?, ina?aaeeaie ?aaeueiiai aieeao ? iaa?oue aeaaee. ?oo
iaaoaa? aioeoioae?oa?iiai ? aioeeiioi?noe/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Oea a
e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo i?eaaei aei ci?ie aeaii? nenoaie. A iie?oe/i?e
ai?iouea? ca iacaeaaei?noue ?ia?oie/ee ?oo noa? nithcieeii
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. I?aenoaae aei oaeiai ?icaeoeo iiae?e,
ye cacia/a?oueny a ocaaaeueiaiiyo aei oeueiai ?icae?eo, caeeaaeaeeny a
iiia?aaei? aeanyoee?ooy.

Noaiiaeua ? ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia caeeth/iiio
aoai? aei iacaeaaeiino? aeeeaaeaii o ainueiiio ?icae?e? iiiia?ao??. A?i
iaceaa?oueny “Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a e?ioe? 80-o — ia ii/. 90-o
?ie?a ? iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie”.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia e?eca coiiaeea i?ioean ia?aaoaeiae a eieeoiueiio
Nithc?. Ia?aaoaeiaa a oeo oiiaao aeaeea?oaaea aeani?noue, aeaiie?ao?th,
ui c iaieio/?noth aaei aei iio?aae ?ica’ycaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie
e?a?ie. ?aaeueii ia?oeie ia ii/aoeo iiai? oaee?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a ?anioae?oe? aoee ii?ooai?
ienueiaiieeaie ieoaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae a 1986—87 ?ieao. Iia?eueii, aea
iaeia ca iaeiei aeieeathoue a Oe?a?i? ??ci? iaoi?iaeuei? ia’?aeiaiiy
eoeueoo?ii-iiaiiai ni?yioaaiiy. A?eueo?noue ?c ieo, iaeiae, ia
caieeaeany eeoa a oeeo ?aieao, a i?aaioea iinoaaeoe ia iaaiai?aiiy
a?iiaaenueeino? e iie?oe/i? ieoaiiy. Oaeith aoea, iai?eeeaae,
ae?yeuei?noue Oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai eeoao a Ee?a?. C ?ioiai
aieo o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo ae?noaee i?iaeiaaeaiiy o
a?aeiiaeaii? ae?yeueiino? ia Oe?a?i? Oe?a?inueei? Aaeuen?inueei? a?oie c
iiaa?iaiiyi c oaai??a ? caneaiue ?? /eai?a. A?oia c?aco ae caeiyeany
ae?acii iie?oe/ieie ieoaiiyie. A. *i?iia?e oiae? oae aeeeaa iiaeeea?
aeey a?oie oiiae i?aeo?eiee ia?aaoaeiae: ceai nenoaie ia?o?eii? ?
aea?aeaaii? ath?ie?ao??, ?icoe?aiiy i?aa nithcieo ?anioae?e o
iie?oe/iiio, aeiiii?/iiio, eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo?, iaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiei
iiaai noaoono aea?aeaaieo o nai?o ?anioae?eao (n. 262). Oi aoea aeeaeiy
i?ia?aia iie?oe/ii? iiiceoe??.

A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii oi?ioaaiiy ? ia?o? e?iee oaeeo iiiceoe?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e (iica OAA), ia?aaeon?i Oiaa?enoaa oe?a?inueei? iiae ?i.
O. A. Oaa/aiea ii an?e ?anioae?oe?. Iaaaaii noaei c?icoi?eei, ui ?aiee
OOIo ? cao?ni? aeey ?icaeoeo ?ooo. Oiae? ae o ??cieo /anoeiao Oe?a?ie
aec??aa? ?aeay ?ooo. Iioae?eoaaiiy ae i?iaeoo i?ia?aie Ia?iaeiiai ?ooo
Oe?a?ie ca ia?aaoaeiao i?enei?eei noaiiaeaiiy oe?iei? iie?oe/ii?
i?aai?caoe??, aei yei? i?e?aeioaaeeny ye iia? iniae, oae ? /eaie aaea
?nioth/eo a?iiaaenueeeo ooai?aiue. Aeena?oaio aeieeaaeii iieaco?, ye oea
a?aeaoaaeiny. A?aoo?, ?oo oaee ia’?eoeaii iaa noaoe aioeiiaeii,
aeueoa?iaoeaith EIO. Inoaiiy oea /oaeiai ?icoi?ea ? ?iaeea ana iiaeeeaa
aeey iaaeiiouaiiy c’yae e i?aai?caoe?? I?O. Oiio ia aeeaii, ui
?icai?oaiiy ?oo?anueeeo ina?aaee?a, ?aeiiieo ? iaeanieo i?aai?caoe?e
i?ioiaeeei a aino??e ai?iouea? c aeanoyie, i?e?oe??th, EAeA. Oa aaea ia
/an Ia?oeo cai??a o ?on? aoei aeecueei 70 oeny/ /ieia?e, a aaniethoi?e ?
ia?aaaaeath/?e a?eueoino? oe?a?ioe?a, eeoa 8 % c ieo aoee /eaiaie EI?N,
a iiiaae o?aoeia — /eaiaie ua e EENIO.

Iii?oio ?ieue a ooai?aii? ?ooo, iie?oe/ii? iiiceoe?? a?ae?a?aaaea
OAA-OON, caiaeii — O?I.

Caaa?oaiiy ia?oeo Anaoe?a?inueeeo Cai??a I?O icia/aei, ui
caaaeueiioe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia iiiceoe?y ?aaeeiia? a Oe?a?i? ?nio?.
Aeieoiaioe, ooaaeai? cai?aie, iieacothoue, ui ?oo aoa a?eueo
?aaeeeaeueiei, i?ae ia oea niiae?aaeeny eiai aiaeae?, oei ia/a —
ea??aieoeoai EIO. Iii?oiee ?aaeeeae?ci o iiaeyaeao c iaoe?iiaeueieo
i?iaeai eoia ia?aaeon?i c Aaee/eie, a caiaeii ? c Ee?aa. Aaea i?ieoiaee
aeiiae i?i iacaeaaei?noue. Ia?aae I?O noiyee aeaa aeeaei? caaaeaiiy:
?inoo aeanieo ?yae?a ? i?aeaioiaee oa oni?oiiai i?iaaaeaiiy aeai?/i?
eaiiai??, c oei uia aeaaeii cae??ieoe nai? aeiiaaaiiy.

Iii?e noia?a/eea?noue i?ia?aiiaeo canaae ?ooo ?ic?ea c aeaaeith ua ia
a?aeaoany. Ia i?noeyo, iniaeeai a ia??iae i?aeaioiaee aei aeai??a aei
?anioae?eainueei? ? i?noeaaeo ?aae, ua ?ac aeyaeeany iaiaeii??aei?noue
aeiia ?ooo ii ?a??iiao. Ia Noiae? e I?aaei? aeineoue neeueieie aoee
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aeiiae, a ia Caoiae? e Oeaio?? — iaoe?iiaeuei?,
oi/ ia iaio ae?acieie aoee ooo aeiiii?/i? e nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie.

A ?icae?e? iieacaii, ye iine?aeiaii c?inoaee aeiiae ? aanea iiiceoe??
aei aeaaee a oiae? ?icaeoeo ?ooo — a?ae i?aeo?eiee io?oe?eii? e?i?? ia
ia?aaoaeiao — aei aanea iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Inoaii? noaei
iiaeeeaei i?ney oiai, ye o Aa?oiai?e ?aae? iiiceoe?y ae?noaea /aa?oue
a?ae on?o aeaiooaonueeeo iaiaeao?a, aea?aaoe aeai?e a Aaee/ei? oa
aeayeeo ?ioeo aaeeeeo i?noao. Aacoiiaii, neeaae oi? iiiceoe?? aoa
oe?ieee — aea oae /e ?iaeoa aiia aoea ni?yiiaaia i?ioe iiiiiie?? EIO ia
aeaaeo ? ia aeo?ae Oe?a?ie c Nithco oei /e ?ioei niiniaii. Aeania i?ney
aeai??a iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo, yeee aoa a iniia? iie?oe/ii?
iiiceoe?? aeaae?, ae?noaa ciiao ia?eaiaionueeei, aeaiie?aoe/iei oeyoii
aanoe ciaaaiiy ca iacaeaaei?noue. OeE EIO, yeee aoa aeineoue aeia?a
ii?ioi?iiaaiee i?i ae?? oa, iaaooue, ? ieaie iiiceoe??, ia iaa yeeoinue
?aaeueieo ieai?a, uia i?ioeae?yoe ?ooia?. Aei oiai ae a na?aaeei?
eiiia?o?? e?a?ie aeyaeeeny aioo??oi? ?iceieueieee — aeaiieaooi?ia,
/anoeia ia?o?eii? ? ?aaeyinueei? iiiaieeaoo?e ia?aoiaeeea ia iiceoe??
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiioi?cio. Cia/ia /anoeia iiaeiiaeaaeoe?a i?inoi
i?aaioea caa?aaoe aeaaeo, a a?aeoae ? aeani?noue oa aeinooi aei
aeaniino?, ia aaeueie ia?aeiath/enue ?aeaeieie i?eioeeiaie. ?oo aea,
cai?iaaaeeaoe aei nai?? i?ia?aie a aeiaoi? 1990 ?. aeiiao aeoiaeo
Oe?a?ie c Nithco ? ?? iiaii? iacaeaaeiino?, i?iaee?ath/enue /a?ac
?aeaeio e i?aai?caoe?eio ieooaieio oa ia?aoeiaee, aeiae?aa ? oi?ioaaa
nia? nithciee?a, aei?iaiaoaaa iaoiaee iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae. Ia na?. 1991
?. I?O, O?I — e?aea?e iiiceoe?? aoee aaea aeia?a no?oeoo?iaaieie
i?aai?caoe?yie. I?aaiaiiy Oeaio?o iiaea?i?coaaoe Nithc, oei naiei
a?aeeeaeath/e ?aeath iacaeaaeiino? c?aaeeeae?coaaei iiooee ? aeiiaaaiiy
iiiceoe??. Ia oie /an iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo iaa i?aeo?eieo
caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e o ?anioae?oe?, eiai nithcieeii
aenooiea ?ia?oie/ee ?oo, OAEOe, OAIOe, eiai i?aeo?eioaaee iao??ioe/ii
iaeaooiaai? a?enueeia? — /a?ac Ni?eeo io?oea??a Oe?a?ie, a aieiaia —
eiai i?ia?aia i?noeea ieaie ? a?aeiia?ae? ia caieoaiiy i?i iaeaooi?,
aioiai?noue a?aeiia?aeaoe ca iueiai ia?aae ia?iaeii (n. 280). EI?N ?
EIO, Oeaio?, aeano? ?anioae?ee oaei? aeueoa?iaoeae ia iaee; aeia??’y aei
EIO aoei iecueeei ? i?iaeiaaeoaaei iaaeaoe. A?enueeiaee ia?aai?io o
Iinea? (AE*I) eeoa i?enei?ea ?icaeoie iiae?e.

I?iaieioaiith 24 na?iiy 1991 ?ieo iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie i?aeoe/ii ia
aoei aeueoa?iaoeae. Oei ia/a, ui iiae?ai? aeaeea?aoe?? ia?aae oei aaea
i?ieoiaee a I?eaaeoeoe?, a Oeaio? aoa ineaaeaiee o ai?iouea? c
?in?enueeeie iiaeie ae?oaie. Aea, aacoiiaii, ye iieaco? iaoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? a oiio /ene? inoaiiy aeaaa, aea aeei?enoai? aeai?
a?o?aieo iiooe?a aeena?oaioa — iacaeaaei?noue ae?noaeanue Oe?a?i?
i?ioyaii ? aiane?aeie o?eaaei? ai?ioueae ? ia o?aoueiio ia??iae?
aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? a OO noie?oo? a ?aieao ? oi?iao ai?ioueae,
ie?aneaieo /anoeiai ua a iiia?aaeiueiio ia??iae?, /anoeiai e ?ai?oa.
Iaaia ??/, neacaia ia caia?a/o? aieea?a oa ?ioeo oaeoi??a o aeaiiio
caa?oaii? — iiaea?i?caoe?eieo, aaiiie?oe/ieo, e?ece nenoaie, aaiethoe??
iiiaieeaoo?e. Aea iacaeaaei?noue — oea ia?o ca ana caeiaooie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, ui aoa oiae? ia i?aeianaii?.

Ie?aiee ia?aa?ao ?icae?eo iiiia?ao?? i?enay/aii no?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio
eiioaenoia? oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo. Cacia/a?oueny, ui
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieie aoee oae? ae ?ooe a I?eaaeoeoe?.

O “Aeniiaeao” aeena?oaio i?aenoiiao? cae?eniaio iei ?iaioo. Aeaco?oueny,
ui i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a Oe?a?i? ?nioaaa o ae??a?e oi?i? ye o
aeaeyae? i?aei?eueii? /e iai?ai?aei?eueii? oa/?e, oae ? o aeaeyae?
a?aee?eoiai i?ioenoiyiiy ?aaeeiia?. I?e/eie iiyae e ?icaeoeo ?ooo ne?ae
ooeaoe o i?aeiaa?eueiiio noaiiaeu? Oe?a?ie a neeaae? N?N? ye ?iia???.
Eieii?aeueiee ai?o ii?aeioaaany c oioae?oa?iei ?aaeeiii, ui ?nioaaa ia
oa?aiao Nithco. Oiio caeiiii??ii, ui iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo aoa
aiaeii/an ? aioeoioae?oa?iei ca nai?th i?e?iaeith. Ine?eueee ae
iie?oe/ia e aeiiii?/ia aeaaea a e?a?i? iaeaaeaea eiiia?o??, oi
ia’?eoeaii oeae ?oo iaa oaeiae aioeeiioi?noe/iee oa?aeoa?. E?ioeaaith
iaoith ?ooo aoei aeinyaiaiiy Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino?. A aeaiee ia??iae
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo oea aeinyaaeiny ie?ieie caniaaie ai?ioueae.

Oaeoe/i? caniae, oi?ie ?nioaaiiy ?ooo ? eiai ae?yeueiino? ci?ithaaeeny
caeaaeii a?ae e?eueeio oaeoi??a, aieiaieie c yeeo aoee ci?ia oa
aaiethoe?y naii? nenoaie oioae?oa?ecio ? ?icaeoie naiiai ?ooo. ?aeaeiee
?icaeoie ?ooo, cacia/a? aeena?oaio, oaae aoa iaiaeiicia/iei.
Iaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie o?aeooaaeenue o ae?aiacii? a?ae ?aa?c??
iaoe?iiae?cio aei oaei? ae ?aa?c?? ia?enecio.

Ii?aeioaaeueiei oa?iaioii ?ooo, yeee ni?eya eiai no?oeoo?ae?caoe??, aoa
oe?a?inueeee naiaeaeaa. Iaea?aeueia oa/?y ?ooo oai?eea oe?eeii ae?aci?
i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e. O/anieeaie ?ooo aoee a oie /e ?ioee /an
??ciith i??ith i?aaenoaaieee iaeaea an?o nioe?aeueieo aa?noa
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. A?aeiia?aeii aei aeacaieo aeua /eiiee?a o oeueiio
ia??iae? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo aeae?eythoueny /ioe?e aoaie.

Iioaioe?eiei, a caiaeii ? ?aaeueiei nithcieeii
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a ia??iae, iaie aeine?aeaeoaaiee, aoa
?ia?oie/ee ni?ioea, ?ia?oie/ee ?oo, ?oo in?a iaeiaii? i?aoe?. O?eaaeee
/an a?i iaa noeo?eiee oa?aeoa?, oi/ iaai? ni?iae, e ?iiae? aaeueie
yne?aa?, iaaeaoe i?aai?ciaaia ia/aei oeueiio ?ooia?, ia i?eieiyeeny.
Inoaoi/ia i?aai?caoe?eia ioi?ieaiiy e iie?oecaoe?y ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo
a?aeaoeenue o e?ioe? 80-o ?ie?a. Ii?aeiaiiy oeeo aeaio iiaooi?o ?oo?a
i?enei?eei iaae?iiy ?aaeeio. ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo a
oiiaao ?aaeyinueei? ae?eniino? i?ioe eiioi?noe/ii? oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie
aiaeii/an c? ciaaaiiyie ca iaoe?iiaeueio aea?aeaaio iacaeaaei?noue, ia
iith aeoieo, ? a?eueo i?ae iii?oiei yaeuai iaoi? ? no?aeii?a?iiaenueei?
?noi???. ?oo ia? i?aenoaae aeey ?icaeoeo e iei?.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeaoaaeany a i?aeoeoe? ae?yeueiino?
aeayeeo a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo ooai?aiue Oe?a?ie, cie?aia: I?O, AeaiIO,
Ni?eee io?oea??a Oe?a?ie, AINOo. Aeena?oaio aeiinea aeaye? iieiaeaiiy oa
aeniiaee oe??? ?iaioe ia ai?iaaoe?th ? a oiae? ?yaeo i?aeia?iaeieo
eii??an?a, cie?aia, aeaio eii??an?a oe?a?iiciaaoe?a o Eueaia? oa
Oa?eia?, eiioa?aioe?e, ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo ?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e, a oiio /ene? e aeaea?aeiciaa/iai
oa?aeoa?o, ye io:

“?a??iie a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?: iiooee no?aoaa?? iioeiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo”, Oa?e?a, 1994; “Oe?a?ia ia ii?ic? XXI noie?ooy: iacaeaaei?noue
/e eieii?y?”, Euea?a, 1994; “Aea?aeaaia ?aeaieia?y a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?”,
Ee?a, 1994; “?a?iia ? na?oia? ni?eueiioe: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue”,
Aeiiaoeuee, 1996; “A?o?aii-ne?ae/? ni?aae ?ai?aniaaieo:
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe aeei?enoaiiy, Ee?a, 1997.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo

IIIIA?AO??

1. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a Oe?a?i?. Na?aaeeia 1950-o — ii/aoie
1990-o ?ie?a.— E.: Aeae-ai I. Oae?ae, 1998.— O 2 o.— 720 n. (?aoeaic?y
ia ia?: I?aaa ethaeeie, 1998, ? 30 (142); A?no? oeaeiy, 1998, 19
a?oaeiy; “Enoi?ey Eaoaee”, 1999, ? 1.)

2. Ia oeyoo aei oe?a?inueei? a?i?? (1989—1991). — Ee?a, 1992, 77 n.
(Aeea. ?aoeaic?th “Oe?a?inuee? i?iaeaie”, 1994, ? 3.)

3. I?iaoaeaeaiiy. ?ia?oie/ee ?oo ia Oe?a?i? a 1989—1993 ??. A 2-o
eieaao. E.: Aeaeaaie/ee ae?i “EI Aeaaeai?y”. — 1995, ei. 1.— 230 n.,
ei. 2.— 376 n. (Aeea. ?aoeaic?th: Oe?a?inuee? i?iaeaie, 1997, ? 1.)

Noaoo?

4. ?aeay aea?aeaaiino? a noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? 40—80-o ?ie?a.—
Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue a XX noie?oo?. — E.: Iie?oe/ia aeoiea, 1996,
?. 1, ae. 6, n. 97—112, 407—408.

5. Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?ia?oie/ee ?oo ia Aeiiaan? // Neiai
? /an.— 1992, ? 12, n. 55—59.

6. I?iaeaie ?ia?oie/iai ?ooo a no/ani?e Oe?a?i? // No/ani?noue. —
1992, ? 12, n. 39—45.

7. Noa/ea oaooa?ia ia Oe?aeia a ethea 1989 aiaea // Ioa/anoaaiiay
enoi?ey.— 1993, ? 1, n. 66—77.

8. Aoaeo?ii a?i?th, aoaeo?ii aea?aeaao // Aecaieueiee oeyo, 1993,
? 2, n. 100—107.

9. ?ia?oie/ee ?oo ? iaaeiei iueiai // No/ani?noue,1994, ? 2, n.
93—100.

10. Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee e?ecen e noa/ea eaoa 1993 aiaea a Oe?aeia /
?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea, nioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu e o?oaeiaua eiioeeeou a
no?aiao NIA.— Iineaa, 1994, n. 45—66.

11. ?ia?oie/ee ?oo a oe?a?inuee?e ?aaiethoe?? 1989—1991 ??.— ??
I?aeia?iaeiee eii??an oe?a?i?no?a. Euea?a, 22—28 na?iiy 1993 ?.
Aeiiia?ae? ? iia?aeiieaiiy. ?noi??y. *. 2. Euea?a, 1994, n. 149—154.

12. Iieiaeue ca a?eueio Oe?a?io (A?oia “Ia’?aeiaiiy”) // Aecaieueiee
oeyo.— 1994, ? 10, n. 1237—1247.

13. I?ioni?eee ? ?ia?oie/ee ?oo: iaaeaai? ieioea ? no/ani?noue //
Aaiaca. — 1994, ? 2, n. 205—208.

14. C?in?euaiiy Oe?a?ie a inoaii? 4 aeanyoee?ooy oa eiai iane?aeee.—
Iiaa aea?aeaaia, iiaa io?oe?eia.— Ee?a: “I?ina?oa”.— 1995, n. 99—109.

15. Iaoe?iiae?no? — Oae (I?i A. Eociaoeiao) // ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae.—
1995, n. 11—14.

16. 3 ?noi??? i?iaieaoe?e IAA ia Oe?a?i? // Oe?a?ia a ieioeiio.— 1995,
aei. 7, n. 207—227.

17. Ni?ioea ?ia?oieoeoaa oa ?ia?oie/? i?ioanoe a Oe?a?i? (e?i. 50-o —
ii/. 80-o ?ie?a) // ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae.— 1996, ? 4, n. 51—57.

18. sse Oe?a?ia caeiaoaaea iacaeaaei?noue ? ui c oiai aeoiaeeoue //
No/ani?noue.— 1996, ? 3—4, n. 58—64.

19. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a Oe?a?i?: na?. 1950-o— ii/. 90-o
?ie?a. III I?aeia?iaeiee eii??an oe?a?i?no?a, Oa?e?a, 26—28 na?iiy
1996 ?. ?noi??y. Oa?e?a, 1996, n. 169—172.

20. 3 ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai naiaeaeaao: “I?ia?aia Oeiioi?no?a” // Iiaa
iie?oeea.— 1996, ? 6, n. 44—47.

21. Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee o?iio — i?aei?eueia a?oia 1960-o ?ie?a
// O?AE-1997, ? 4, n. 81—94.

22. ?in?enueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee a ?in?enuee?e iai?aeoeaico?i?e
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? 1960—80-o ?ie?a // Aaiaca.— 1997, ? 5, n.
150—157.

23. TH??e Eeoaei — aoiai?no ? ieneeoaeue // Iiaa iie?oeea.— 1998, ? 1,
n. 28—36.

24. Oaia aieiaeiii??a a Oe?a?i? o oai?ao i?aei?eueii? ioae?oeenoeee
1940—1950-o ?ie?a. Cia?aaeaiiy ? ioe?iea.— Aieiae 1946—1947 ?ie?a a
Oe?a?i?: i?e/eie ? iane?aeee.— Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe??. Ee?a, 27 o?aaiy 1997 ?.— E.— Iueth-Ei?e: Aeae-ai I. Eioey,
n. 188—192.

25. Nioe?aeueiee ni?ioea iie?oe/i?e nenoai? a Oe?a?i? a 50—60-? ?iee.
Oioae?oa?ia aea?aeaaa ? iie?oe/i? ?ai?an?? a Oe?a?i?: 20—80-o? ?iee.
Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? 15-ai aa?aniy 1994 ?ieo,
i. Ee?a.— E., 1998, n. 95—100.

26. The Worker’s and National-Demokratic Movements in Conemporary
Ukraine // Journal of Ukrainian Studies 18, nos. 1—2 (Summer-Winter
1993): 123—149.

?aoeaic??

27. ?iiaioe/iee ia??iae iiai? ?aaiethoe??. I. A. Aa?aiue. Oaeoe ae?aeiia
(C ?noi??? ?ooo ? iiaeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e Oe?a?ie).— E.: Eea?aeue.—
1993, 200 n. // No/ani?noue.— 1994, ? 5, n. 93—94.

28. Nioe?aeueia o noa?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai: A. Aiae?oneoei. O iiooeao
nioe?aeueii? ??aiiaaae. Ia?en ?noi??? ?ia?oie/i? iie?oeee oe?a?inueeeo
o?yae?a ia??iaeo ?aaiethoe?? oa aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917—1920 ??.— E.,
1995, 191n. // A?/a.— 1997, ? 2, n. 150—153.

29. A?ae ?iia??? aei iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa. After Empire. Multietnic
Russian, Ottoman and Habsburg Empires. Ed. by Karen Barkey and Mark von
Hagen. Westview Press, 1997, 200 p. // No/ani?noue.— 1998, ? 9, n.
146—149.

30. Anatol Kaminsky. Na perekhidmu etapi “Hlasnost”, “Perestroika”, i
“demokratizatsia” na Ukraini. Prefece by Myroslav Prokop. Munich,
Ukrainskyi vilnyi universitet, 1990.viiii 625 p. // Journal of Ukrainian
Studies-1994, Winter, p.p. 121—124.

31. Volodymyr Lytvyn. Politichna arena Ukrainy. Diiovi osoby ta
vykonavtsi. Kyiv, 1994, 96 p. // Journal of Ukrainian Studies
(Summer-Winter 1996), pp. 316—18.

32. Volodymyr Kovtyn. Istoria Narodnoho Rukhu Ukrainy. Kyiv: the auter,
1995, 396 pp. //Journal of Ukrainian Studies 22, nos. 1—2 (Summer-Winter
1997): 185—87.

33. Heorhii Kasianov. Nezhodni: Ukrainska intelihentsiia v rusi oporu
1960—80 kh rokiv. Kyiv: Lybid, 1995. 224 pp. // Journal of Ukrainian
Studies 22, nos. 1—2 (Summer-Winter 1997): 182—84.

34. Iurii Badzo. Pravo zhyty: Ukraina v skladi SRSR, liudyna v systemi
totalitarnogo sotsializmy. Kyiv: Takson, 1996 // Journal of Ukrainian
Studies 23, no. 1 (Summer 1998): 129—133.

35. Volodymyr Baran. Ukraina 1950—1960 rr.: Evolutsiia totalit tarnoi
systemy. Lviv: Instytut ukrainoznavstva im. I. Kryp’iakevycha NAN
Ukrainy, 1996, 446 pp. // Journal of Ukrainian Studies 23, no. 1
(Summer) 1998: 133—137.

Ciinee

 1 Noaoaeueiee I?ano. Oe?a?ia, ?noi??y.— E.: Eea?aeue, 1991. A?eaae?e
AEoeianueeee, I?ano Noaoaeueiee. Ia?en ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.— Euea?a, 1992.
A. E. Aa?ai. Oe?a?ia i?ney Noae?ia. Ia?ene c ?noi???.1953—1985.— Euea?a:
II “Naiaiaea”, 1992.

B. Lewytskij. Politics and Society in the Soviet Ukraine. 1953—1980.—
CIUS; Edmonton, 1984. Ya Bilinsky. The Second Soviet Republic: The
Ukraine after World War II. New Brunswick — New York, 1964.

2 Hanna Arendt. Origin of Totalitarism. San Dirgo, New York, 1978, p.
458.

3 Friedrich C. J., Brzezinski Z. K. Totalitarian Dictatoship and
Autocracy.— Cambridge, 1956, p. 3.

4 Aeaeeean Ieeiaai. Iiaue eeann. A eiai ae: Eeoei oioaeeoa?ecia.— I.:
Iiainoe, 1992. N. 197—360.

5 Uiaei inoaii?o aeea.: Aeaenaaa Aaiiaaeee. Ioe?uoia ienueii a?aaeaeaiai
Niaao-neiai Nithca // A?o?a naiaeaeaoo (Ithioai), ? 80; TH?ee I?eia.
Aiciiaeai ee nioeeaeeci iaoioaeeoa?iiai oeia?— Oai naii, ? 425.

6 A?ean ?. ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueia nenoaia a Oe?a?i? a 1917—1953.
Noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee oa ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee aniaeo aiae?co. O 2 ei. E.:
“Eea?aeue”, “A?enueei Oe?a?ie”.— 1994. N. A?eie?iue. I?i oa?iieoe?
iaae??aenueeiai aeai?o; Ia?oiaeaea?aea.— Iaoa ieioea.—1993.— ? 1.— N.
17—38, 39—150. Oaiiaae TH. Oe?a?ia 20—50-o ?ie?a: noi??iee iaiaienaii?
?noi???.— E., 1993.

7 Szporluk Roman. Communism and nationalism. Karl Marx versus Friedrich
List.— Oxford, 1991. Antony D. Smith. Nationalism in the Tventieth
Century.— Oxford, 1979. A?i aea: Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeaioe/i?noue. E.:
Iniiae, 1994. Alfred Coban. The nation State and National
Self-Determination.— New York, 1970.

8 Kravchenko Aigdan. Social Changes and National Consciouness in
Tventieth Century Ukraine-CIUS. 1987., Bogdan Nahaylo and Victor
Svoboda. Soviet Disunion. F Histiry of Nationalities Problem in the
USSR.— Pin quin Group, London, 1990.

9 Ukraine in the Seventies-Mosaic Press, Ontario, 1975. Ukraine after
Shelest.— Edmonton, 1983.

10 Aeaenaaaa Ethaeieea. Enoi?ey eiaeiiuneey a NNN?.— Iineaa — Aeeueithn,
1992.

11 Aaeue ?. A?ai? eoeueoo?e.— Euea?a, 1993. I?ieii I. *e iiaee aoai
oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo? // No/ani?noue.— 1978.— ? 6.— N. 83—91; Ia iiaiio
aoai? // No/ani?noue.—1979.— ? 10.— N. 90—97; oa ?i.

12 Birch J. The Ukrainian Nationalist Movement in the USSR since 1956
London.The Ukrainian Information Service 1971. Farmer Kenneth
C. Ukrainian in the Post-Stalin Era. Myth Symbols and Ideology in Soviet
Nationalities Policy. The Hague-Boston: London, 1980. Bilocerkowycz
Yaroslaw. Soviet Ukrainian Dissent. A study of Political Allie nation
Bailder and London, 1988.

13 Ii?ic A. Oanoeaeanyo? ?iee ia Oe?a?i? // Anana?o.— 1992.— ? 9—10.—
N. 182—187; ? 11—12.— N. 152—156. Eo?iinia TH. TH. ?iaeiieneaiiy a
Oe?a?i? (60-o? — ia?oa iieiaeia 80-o ?ie?a OO no.).— E., 1994.

14 Eanueyiia A. Iacaiaei?: Oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y a ?on? iii?o
1960—80-o ?ie?a.— E.: Eea?aeue, 1995.

15 Aeaenaaaa E. Caaanoiaee a NNN? // NNN? — aioo?aiiea
i?ioeai?a/ey.—1986.— ? 12.— N. 80—145.

16 Eai?inueeee A. Ia ia?ao?aeiiio aoai?: “aeani?noue”, “ia?aaoaeiaa” ?
“aeaiie?aoecaoe?y” ia Oe?a?i?.— Ithioai, 1990. Aa?aiue I. A. Oaeoe
ae?aeiia. C ?noi??? ?ooo oa iiaeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e Oe?a?ie. E.:
Eea?aeue, 1993. Taras Kusio, Andrew Wilson. Ukraine: Perestroika to
Independence — CIUS, Edmonton, Toronto, 1994.

Aeea. oaeiae: Eiaooi B. ?noi??y Ia?iaeiiai ?ooo Oe?a?ie.— E., 1995;
Eeoaei A. Iie?oe/ia a?aia Oe?a?ie. Ae?eia? iniae ? aeeiiaaoe?.— E.:
Aa?en, 1995.

17 David R. Mapples. Ukraine under Perestroika. Ecology, Economy and the
Worker’s Revolt.— Mucmillan, 1991. Walter D. Conner. The Accidental
Proletariat. Worker’s Politics and Crisis in Gorbachev’s
Russia-Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1991.

 18 Oe?a?inueeee a?niee. — Ia?eae — Aaeoeii?, Eiiaeii (??ci? ?iee).
Oe?a?inueeee i?aaicaoeniee ?oo.— Niieineei-Oi?iioi.— Aaeoeii?.— 1978.
Oe?a?inueea noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeoiea a 20 no. Aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee.
O 3 o. No/ani?noue, 1988, o. 3. Iaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiineie a Oe?a?i? o
OO no. Ca??iee aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a.— E., Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1994.
Ieoaeei Oaeoaoe. Oe?a?inuee? neeoaoe / Iiea a?ae/ath ? iaae?e.— E.,
1994.— N. 137—192. Ferment in the Ukraine (ed. By Nichael Brown).—
Crisis Press, USA, 1973.— oa ?i.

 19 Eaaei Eoe’yiaiei. Ia aeai caaeiooue Oe?a?i?.— E.: Nio?y, 1994;
I. A. Oaeano. Aea ia noaeeiu aoaeaoa…— I., 1995; TH. Aaaecuei. I?aai
aeeoe.— E.: Oaenii, 1996.

iaoe?y, iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo, oe?a?ioe?, iacaeaaei?noue,
?iia??y, ?ia?oie/ee ?oo.

iaoeey, iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, oe?aeioeu,
iacaaeneiinoue, eiia?ey, ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea.

nation, national-liberation movement, ukrainian, independence, working
movement.

?onia/aiei A. I. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo a Oe?a?i?. Na?aaeeia
1950-o — ii/aoie 1990-o ?ie?a. O aeaeyae? iiiia?ao??. Aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe. Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. ?inoeooo
oe?a?ii-ciaanoaa ?i. ?. E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie. Euea?a, 1999.

?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a oiiaao
iinonoae?inueeiai N?N? a?aeaoaaany o aeaeyae? i?aei?eueii? ?
“ea?aeueii?” oa/?e. I?aei?eueio oa/?th oai?eee ??ciiiai?oi? ao?oee,
a?oie, i?aai?caoe??. “Ea?aeueia” oa/?y aeieeaea c ae?yeueiino? ??cieo
iaoi?iaeueieo a?oi oa ia’?aeiaiue, ui caiaeii ae?noaee iacao
aeeneaeaionueeeo.

?oo i?ieoia e?eueea aoai?a o nai?io ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeii aei aeanii?
aaiethoe?? oa ?nioth/iai a e?a?i? ?aaeeio. Iaoith aecaieueiiai ?ooo aoei
aeinyaiaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie (ie?ieie caniaaie). ?oo iaa ae?acii
aioeoioae?oa?ia ni?yioaaiiy. C e?ioey 1980-o ?ie?a oe?a?i-nueeee ?oo
noa? ianiaith iie?oe/iith neeith, ui, a?aoo?-?aoo, ? i?eaaea Oe?a?io aei
iacaeaaeiino?.

?ia?oie/? i?ioanoe, iniaeeai no?aeee, aoee ae?oaei ca neeith aeyao
aioeoioae?oa?iei ?ooii a ?anioae?oe?. sse nithciee aecaieueiiai ?ooo a?i
ni?eya aeai?aiith iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie.

.?onia/aiei A. I. Iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea a Oe?aeia.
Na?aaeeia 1950-o — ia/aei 1990-o aiaeia. A aeaea iiiia?aoee. Aeieoi?
enoi?e/aneeo iaoe. Niaoeeaeueiinoue 07.00.01. Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Einoeooo
oe?aeiiaaaeaiey ei. E. E?uiueyeaae/a IAI Oe?aeiu. Eueaia, 1999.

Oe?aeia a ninoaaa NNN? inoaaaeanue a iieiaeaiee eieiiee eiia?ee.
N?aaenoaaie aeaeueiaeoae eieiiecaoeee aunooiae nai ?aaeei, n aai
aeanoeie naa?ooeaio?aeecaoeeae, ?oneoeeaoeey e aneieeyoeey ianaeaiey,
i?aaeaea anaai oe?aeioeaa. Oioaeeoa?eci ?acaeaaeny a noi?iio aai
aaoi?eoa?iuo oi?i. I?iecioei niauaiea oeaio?a aeanoe io niaoeneoaea e
ia?oeeiui i?aaiai. Iiiaieeaoo?a iinoaiaiii noaiiaeeanue ainiiaenoaothuei
eeannii a ?anioaeeea. I iaoeeiiae-eiiioiecia a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae
aiai?eoue ia i?eoiaeeony.

?acaeoea oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a
oneiaeyo iinonoaeeienoneiai NNN? i?ienoiaeeei a aeaea iiaeiieueiiai e
“eaaaeueiiai” oa/aiee. Iiaeiieueiia oa/aiea nicaeaaaeinue
aeay-oaeueiinoueth ?acee/iuo a?oii, i?aaiecaoeee. “Eaaaeueiia” oa/aiea
aicieeei ec aeoeaiinoe ?aciuo iaoi?iaeueiuo a?oii e iauaaeeiaiee,
aiineaaenoaee iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea aeenneaeaioneeo.

Ii/oe ana iiaeiieueiua a?oiiu, iniaaiii 50—60-o aiaeia, enoiaeeee ec
o?aaeeoeee IOI-OIA e eiaee oeaeueth i?aaiecaoeeiiii iiaeaioiaeoue
aunooieaiea ca iacaaeneiinoue iin?aaenoaii naiae aeoeaiinoe. Iaeioi?ua
ec yoeo a?oii aeinoeaee caiaoiuo oniaoia a aaeoaoeeiiiie ?aaioa.
Aeenneaeaiou, ioeacaaoenue io oi?iaeueiuo no?oeoo?, i?aoniaee a
iaeaaeeaaiee naoe naiecaeaoa, naycothuaai caaia eo aeaeaeaiey.
Eniieuecoy eaaaeueiua e iieoeaaaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe, o/anoieee
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey iiaeieiaee aii?inu eoeueoo?u, i?aa oe?aeioeaa
eae iaoeee ia nouanoaiaaiea ia ?iaeiie caiea, aeaiie?aoe/aneeo naiaiae.

Aeaeaeaiea i?ioei ianeieueei yoaiia a naiai ?acaeoee niioaaonoaaiii
nianoaaiiie yaiethoeee e nouanoaothuaai a no?aia ?aaeeia. Oeaeueth
inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey auei aeinoeaeaiea iacaaeneiinoe Oe?aeiu
(ie?iuie n?aaenoaaie). Aeaeaeaiea iineei au?aaeaiiue aioeoioaeeoa?iue
oa?aeoa?. N eiioea 1980-o aiaeia oe?aeineia aeaeaeaiea noaiiaeony
ianniaie iieeoe/aneie neeie, eioi?ay a eiioea eiioeia e i?eaaea Oe?aeio
e iacaaeneiinoe.

Oe?aeineay iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay iuneue ?acaeaaeanue a nai-ecaeaoa, a
i?ia?aiiao iiaeiieueiuo a?oii. Aaoi?u naiecaeaoa auee ii/oe ia ciaeiiu n
eaeayie i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea aeaeaeaiey. Iniiaiuie eaeaeiuie oa/aieyie
oiai a?aiaie neaaeoao n/eoaoue ia?eneci e iaoeeiiaeeci, ecaanoii e ia
aia?oi-neiaeeeaeecia, aanueia caiaoiuie auee iienee i?aaicaueoieeia.
Ii/oe ana aaoi?u a naieo o?oaeao iiae-aa?aee ?aaecee ioeoeeaeueiua
iniiau yoeo o/aiee. Aeaaiie i?iaeaiie iieeoe/aneie iunee oiai a?aiaie
inoaaaeanue ioeaiea ianoa Oe?aeiu a Nithca e iooe aeinoeaeaiey
iacaaeneiinoe. N?aaee iineaaeieo iacuaaeenue ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii
ie?iua n?aaenoaa, i?aeiouanoaai-ii— eiinoeoooeeiiiue auoiae ec NNN?.
Aiaeec iineaaeothueo oaaia aanueia ne?iiiue.

?aai/ea i?ioanou, iniaaiii noa/ee, auee aoi?ui ca neeie i?iyaeaiey
aioeoioaeeoa?iui aeaeaeaieai a ?anioaeeea. Eae nithciee
inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey iii niaeaenoaiaaei ia?aoaieth
iacaaeneiinoe Oe?aeiie.

Rusnachenko A. M. National-Liberation Movement in Ukraine. Middle of
1950’s — beginning of 1990’s. Doctor of science. Speciality 07.00.01.
History of Ukraine. Institute of Ukrainian studies I. Krypjakevych by
name of NAS of Ukraine. Lviv, 1999.

The development of the Ukrainian national-liberation movement in the
conditions of poststalinist USSR continued in the forms of the
underground and legal currents. The underground current had created
different groups, unions. The legal current of the movement formed
various nonformal groups and societies named “dissidents” later.

The liberation movement come through some stades in its development
according to its own evolution and that by regime of the country. The
goal of the national movement was to gain Ukrainian independence by
peaceful means. The movement wsa antitotalitarianian by its character
too. From the end of 1980’s the Ukrainian movement become the mass
political force that led Ukraine to independence.

The worker’s protests, especially strikes formed the second
antitotalitarianian movement in the republic by its potential. As an
ally of the liberation movement, the working movement had promoted the
gaining of the Ukrainian independence.

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