1

*A?I?AAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?i. TH??ss OAAeUeEIAE*A

OAeE 949.717 “18/19”

No?aeue/oe Iaoae?y Aanee?aia

Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo o Iaeaaeii??

(inoaiiy o?aoeia O?O no.- 1919 ?.)

07.00.02 – Anana?oiy ?noi??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

*a?i?aoe?, 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? neia’yi Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

ss?iaee Aaea??e ?aaiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaiaei?iae/ ?aai Ieoaeeiae/

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Iaoueiaea Ieeiea Iao?iae/

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 21 » o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 10.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.76.051.03 a *a?i?aaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a ca aae?anith:

274000, i.*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Eaoaae?aeueia, 2 (ei?ion 14).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia? a?ae?ioaoe?
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a

(274000, i. *a?i?aoe?, aoe. Ean? Oe?a?iee, 23).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 21 » ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
EA?II A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy oa iaoeiaa inieneaiiy
?noi??? e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii? oa I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie ? iaeiei ?c
o?aaeeoe?eieo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? ?noi?e/ii? aeoiee.
Iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy iiaeo ciai?oiuei-iie?oe/ieo i??i?eoao?a o
aeaiiio ?aa?ii? aeey iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie aeooae?coaaei aeine?aeaeaiiy
oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee. Inoaii? ?iee OO-ai noie?ooy iciaiaioaaeeny
o?aa?/ieie iiae?yie, iia’ycaieie c ai?iieie ae?yie, ye? ?icai?ioeeny ia
oa?eoi??? eieeoiuei? THaineaa??. Aiie i?eaaee aei ?? aeac?ioaa?aoe?? ?
iiyae iiaeo aea?aeaa ia Aaeeaiao. Iniaeeao oaaao aeine?aeiee?a
nueiaiaei? i?eaa?oa? iaaaeeea e?a?ia, ?icoaoiaaia a oeaio??
Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iaa — ?anioae?ea Iaeaaeii?y, yea ie?iei oeyoii
io?eiaea iacaeaaei?noue ? aeieeea ye iiaa aea?aeaaa na?oo a 1991 ?.

A?aenooi?noue oi?iaeiaae aaaaoueio noie?oue aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?
aecia/aea niaoeeo?eo eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ii? neooaoe??, ui neeaaeaeany ia
oa?eoi??? Iaeaaeii?? ? nooo?ai aieeaaea ia aeieth iaeaaeiioe?a,
aecia/ath/e ia o?eueee iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiona?aeiieaiiy,
aea e oeyoe noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaiino?. Iaeaaeiinueea ieoaiiy,
oea, ii noo? ieoaiiy, iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy iaeaaeiinueeiai
ia?iaeo, yea aoei neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oe?ei? iecee aaeeainueeeo e?ec,
eiai iaae??oai?noue iaiaeii?aciai noaaaea i?e/eiith ca?ieieo nooe/ie ?
a?enueeiaeo ae?e ye o ieioeiio, oae ? a iei?oiueiio noie?ooyo. O iaai?
ia??iaee ?noi??? aoee oae? ianoaaeie, ca yeeo iaeaaeiinueeee ia?iae
oe?eeii iieiyany ia?aae o?aa?/iith ia?niaeoeaith ao?aoe aeanii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?, cieeiaiiy ye aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? ni?eueiioe.
Eaoano?ioith aeey iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo noaee ??oaiiy Aa?e?inueeiai
eiia?ano (1878 ?.) ? Ia?ecueei? ie?ii? eiioa?aioe?? (1919 ?.).

Aeania, aaiiie?oe/ia iieiaeaiiy Iaeaaeii?? ia i?aaei? Aaeeai, o?niee
ca’ycie iaeaaeiinueeiai ieoaiiy ?c caaaeueiith neooaoe??th a ?a?ii? oa
o na?o?, i?ioe??//y i?ae ?a?iiaenueeeie oa aaeeainueeeie e?a?iaie ?
aca?ii? oa?eoi??aeuei? i?aoaic??, iacaoe?eaaeai?noue ?a?iiaenueeeo
aea?aeaa oa iaeaeeae/eo non?ae?a Iaeaaeii?? (A?aoe??, Aieaa???, Na?a??)
o iiya? iacaeaaeii?, naiino?eii? Iaeaaeii?? – oea o? iaeaaaeeea?o?
i?e/eie, ye? cioooaaee o?yaee oeeo e?a?i, o na?e /an, ia aeciaaaoe
iaeaaeiinueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo ye naiino?eio iie?oe/io
neeo ? ?iaeoe ana aeey eiai ?iceieo ? cieuaiiy.

Ai?iaeiaae noie?oue i?aoaiaeaioe ia oa?eoi??th Iaeaaeii??, ianaiia?aae
iaiaaaeeny cieueoe iaeaaeiinueeo iiao, eoeueoo?o, ?noi??th ? a oae?e
niin?a i?aaenoaaeoe iaeaaeiioe?a ?ic??ciaiei ianaeaiiyi iaaii?
oa?eoi???, yea ia iiaea noai?eoe aeanii? aea?aeaaiino?, a ioaea ? iaoe
iiaeeeaino? naiiio ae??ooaaoe naith aeieth. Iaeaaeiinueeee ia?iae no?eei
aeaiiino?oaaa onueiio na?oia? aieth aei aeaeeaaiiy. I?ioean
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, yeee ?icii/aany a 70-o ?ieao O?O no. oa
?icai?oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo a
e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo i?eaaee aei ooai?aiiy noaa?aiii?, iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae. Iniaeeai cia/oueie ? ae?aiaoe/ieie aeoaie a ?noi???
iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo aoee ?e?iaeainueea iianoaiiy oa i?iaieioaiiy
E?ooaanueei? ?anioae?ee (1903 ?.). Iaeaaeiinueeee ia?iae iaeyne?aa?oa
i?iyaea naith aieth aei ooai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae o «Ae?oaiio
?e?iaeai?» – can?aeaii? AOCIAI ? i?iaieioaii? Aa?aea?nueei? Iaeaaeii??
?anioae?eith o neeaae? THaineaa?? (1944 ?.) oa o «O?aoueiio ?e?iaeai?»
– i?iaieioaii? iacaeaaeiino? Iaeaaeii?? o 1991 ?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a
Iaeaaeii?? inoaiiuei? o?aoeie O?O no. – 1919 ?. aea? ciiao aeiaanoe
iaoeiao iani?iiiaei?noue oeo eiioeaioe?e, ye? caia?a/othoue oaeo
?nioaaiiy iaeaaeiinueei? iaoe??; ia eiie?aoieo oaeoao iieacaoe, ye
ianiaee oe?eani?yiiaaiee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo iaeaaeiinueeiai
ia?iaeo ia an?o aoaiao naiai ?icaeoeo a?aenoithaaa iaoe?iiaeuei?
?ioa?ane ? o nai?o i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaioao aecia/aa aieiaio iaoo —
ooai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? iaeaaeiinueei? aea?aeaae.

O oeueiio eiioaeno? aeooaeueiei ? ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ? aea/aiiy
ia?aaeoiia eiinie?aeaoe?? ??ciiiai?oieo iie?oe/ieo nee oa nioe?aeueieo
aa?noa noni?euenoaa iaaeiei iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? iai?ee?ioe? O?O –
ii/aoeo OO no., ?ie? oa i?noey iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo o
i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy iaeaaeiinueei? iaoe??, eiai aieeao ia ?icaeoie ??
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?.

Iaiao?aei?noue cai?iiiiiaaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c aeeaieei
aiae?cii, ioe?ieith oa a?aooaaiiyi ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo aeey a??iiai
?icoi?iiy oeo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny nueiaiaei? o
I?aaeaiii-No?aei?e ?a?ii?. Oei a?eueoa, ui ia oaee? oe?eeii
ni?aaaaeeeaiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Iaeaaeii??, ye ? a aaaaoueio ?ioeo
e?a?iao, aeieea? ? iaaaoeaia yaeua – «aoi?/iee iaoe?iiae?ci», yeee ?
iaei??th ?c i?e/ei no/anieo eiioe?eo?a ia Aaeeaiao. Aeey ?icoi?iiy
i?e/ei ?inoo iaoe?iiae?cio oa naia?aoecio a e?a?iao, ui ooai?eeeny i?ney
?iciaaeo N?O?TH, niaoeeo?ee iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei o oeueiio ?aa?ii?
aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aiae?c ?noi?e/ieo oiia iiyae ? ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ?oo?a O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. o
I?aaeaiii-No?aei?e ?a?ii?.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy, c iaeyaeo ia ?ieue, yeo a?ae?a?aa
iaeaaeiinueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo e?ioey O?O -ii/aoeo OO no. a ?noi???
Iaeaaeii??, ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ia?eoeaii? ioe?iee no/anieo
iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, aiae?co aaiethoe?? ia?o?eii? nenoaie no/anii?
Iaeaaeii??. Cie?aia, iaeia ?c aieeaiaeo ia?o?e AI?I-AeIII?, yea io?eiaea
ainaie 1998 ?. ia?aiiao ia ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai?ao aaaaea? naaa
ianooiieoeath ye AI?I, oae ? AI?I(Ia.).

Cacia/aia i?iaeaia aeooaeueia oaeiae ia eeoa c oi/ee ci?o iaiao?aeiino?
i?ciaiiy ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai iaeiiai ?c neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a, aea e
aeey iaeaaiaeaeaiiy aeainoi?iii?o iaeaaeiinueei-oe?a?inueeeo ca’yce?a
ia iaeaaeiiio oeea?e?ciaaiiio ??ai? ? ?o ?icaeoeo a iaaeao
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa iiaiooai?aieo aea?aeaa o I?aaeaiii-No?aei?e ?a?ii?.
Oe?a?ia a /ene? ia?oeo, o eeii? 1994 ?. aeciaea Iaeaaeii?th ? eenoii
I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa a?ae 20 ea?oiy 1995 ?. aeneiaeea
aioiai?noue anoaiiaeoe aeeieiiaoe/i? a?aeiineie. 20 ea?oiy 1995 ?. —
io?oe?eia aeaoa anoaiiaeaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae Oe?a?iith oa
Iaeaaeii??th. O a?oaei? 1998 ?. i?aceaeaioe Oe?a?ie ? Iaeaaeii?? Eaii?ae
Eo/ia ? E??i Ae?ai?ia i?aeienaee Aeiaia?? i?i ae?oaeao ?
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai i?ae aeaiia aea?aeaaaie.

Nueiaiaei?, ca oiia ooaa?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino?, neeaaeathoueny
iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey caaaeaiiai aea/aiiy caiia/oaaieo o
ieioeiio i?iaeai ?noi??? iaio ia?iae?a.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie coiiaeaia ? nooiaiai ?? iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee. Inoaii? i?aoe? c iaeaaeiinueeiai ieoaiiy o ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? c’yaeeeny a 60-o ?ieao. Ai?iaeiaae ianooiieo aeaio
aeanyoee?oue, o ca’yceo c iaaaaeaiiyi caaino?thaaoe noinoiee i?ae N?N?,
Aieaa???th, NO?TH, aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii?
ai?ioueae iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo i?aeoe/ii i?eieieeeny. Eeoa iacia/i?
aniaeoe i?iaeaie iia?aeii aena?oethaaeeny a ie?aieo i?aoeyo c ?noi???
Aieaa???, THaineaa?? oa ?iaioao ocaaaeueithth/iai ieaio c ?noi???
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie. ?noi??y Iaeaaeii?? ia ciaeoea oaeiae
aeeaieiai aena?oeaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??, oiio caa?iaiiy aei
oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee ni?eyoeia oi?ioaaiith iiaeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
?ioa?an?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? Iaeaaeii?? iia?oiuei? aeiae, a oaeiae aaaeeeaeo
aniaeo?a noaiiaeaiiy no/aniiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a oe?e
e?a?i? iiaea noaoe iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith aea/aiiy oe?a?inueeeie
a/aieie anueiai niaeo?o i?iaeai, ui ?o ae??ooaaoeiooue aaeeainuee?
ia?iaee ia ii?ic? OO? noie?ooy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a ?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie “?noi??y neia’yinueeeo
ia?iae?a a eiioaeno? noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei-?a?iiaenueeeo
noinoie?a” (aea?aeaaiee ?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? 97123), ui aeeth/aia aei
oaiaoe/iiai ieaio Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/ai? c o?aooaaiiyi noaio iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee oa aeooaeueiino? oaie. Ia iniia? aiae?co a?o?aieo aeaea?ae oa
iioae?eiaaieo aeieoiaio?a, i?ane, oa ?ioi? e?oa?aoo?e eiiieaenii
aeine?aeeoe ca?iaeaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo a oiiaao
aaiiie?oe/ieo ci?i oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e ia Aaeeaiao
inoaiiuei? o?aoeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae 70-o ?ie?a O?O
no. aei 1919 ?. Ieaeiy iaaea iia’ycaia c ca?iaeaeaiiyi iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai-aecaieueiiai ?ooo i?ney ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueei? a?eie
1877-1878 ?. ? Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano, a aa?oiy – ?c caaa?oaiiyi Ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie, ooai?aiiyi Ei?ie?anoaa NON oa inoaoi/iei ocaeiiaiiyi
iiae?eo Iaeaaeii?? ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e eiioa?aioe??.

Iaeaaeii?y ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/ia iaeanoue, ui
ioiiethaaea a iniiaiiio Onethanueeee (Neiinueeee aai Ein?anueeee),
Iiianoe?nueeee (A?oieuenueeee) ? Naeii?enueeee (Nieoinueeee) a?ea?oe
eieeoiuei? Iniainueei? ?iia??? a i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ieo ei?aeiiao:
i?ai?/ – a.Oa?-ieai?ia, no?ae – ?iaeiie (ei?aeii c O?ae??th), i?aaeaiue
– Aaaenueea ii?a (ocaa?aaeaey, aeeth/ath/e ?.Aeueyei?ii, i?aino??a
Oaee?ae?e? c ?. Ianoa) c O?O no. c Naeii?enueeith caoieith, cao?ae –
?. A?eee ? *i?iee Ae?ei oa Ei?/nueea eioeiaeia.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c iinoaaeaiith iaoith a aeena?oaoe?? ae??oothoueny
ianooii? iaoeia? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ice?eoe ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae ca?iaeaeaiiy oa noaiiaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo a inoaii?e
o?aoei? O?O no.;

— iieacaoe ae?yeuei?noue ??cieo oa/?e iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo i?ae /an ?e?iaeainueeiai iianoaiiy oa
E?ooaanueei? ?anioae?ee (1903 ?.);

— aeine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a e?aea??a iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo oa oa?aeoa? i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaio?a AII?I
iaia?aaeiaei? oa a ?iee Ieaaeioo?aoeueei? ?aaiethoe??;

— aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a ?iee Aaeeainueeeo oa Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?ei.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui a ?iaio? aia?oa o
a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? caaaeyee nenoaiaoecaoe??, ocaaaeueiaiith ?
aiae?co cia/iiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, eiiieaenii i?iaiae?ciaaii
neeaaei? oaeoi?e, ui ni?e/eieee aei ca?iaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai-aecaieueiiai ?ooo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo ? eiai aieea
ia ia?aa?a iiae?e ia oa?ai? Iaeaaeii?? inoaiiuei? o?aoeie O?O – ii/aoeo
OO no. Aia?oa cae?eniaii aiae?c iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo c aeei?enoaiiyi eiioeaioe?? iia?e?caoe??
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a /anueeiai aeine?aeieea I. A?ioa

Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaaaeaii iaeia?aeii? ? iaaeei?enoai? a?o?ai?
iaoa??aee A?o?ao ?anioae?ee Iaeaaeii?y (i. Neii’?), A?o?ao
Iaeaaeiinueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe oa Ienoaoeoa (i. Neii’?), A?o?ao ?inoeoooo
Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??? (i. Neii’?), ?inoeoooo ?oeiieno Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a?ae?ioaee IAI Oe?a?ie ?i. Aa?iaaenueeiai (i. Ee?a), A?o?ao Ciai?oiuei?
iie?oeee ?in?enueei? ?iia??? (i. Iineaa), A?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??
(i. Iineaa ).

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui iaoa??aee ?
aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a ocaaaeueithth/eo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo c ?noi??? e?a?i I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie, o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo oa
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe: Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?aia ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
neia’yi Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea oa can?aeaii?
eaoaae?e anana?oiuei? ?noi??? *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. TH??y Oaaeueeiae/a. Iaeaaaeeea?o? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?eethaeiai? a aeiiia?aeyo ? iia?aeiieaiiyo ia
i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo «?noi?e/ia neiayiiciaanoai:
niaaeueia, o?aaeeoe?? oa no/ani?noue» (Ee?a, 23-24 o?aaiy 1997 ?.),
«Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie a Oe?a?i? oa noai oe?a?inueei? aoi?/iino? a
ae?anii??: nooi?noue, ?aae?? eiioe?eoiino?, i?iaeaie oa i?iaiice ia
ii?ic? OO? noie?ooy» (i. Ee?a, 22-25 o?aaiy 1997 ?.), «I?aeaioiaea
iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a oa ae?yeuei?noue iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio
a nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?oe: aeina?ae oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo» (i.
*a?i?aoe?, 29-30 ea?oiy 1998 ?.), “?a?iia: ?aea? oa i?ioeane”
(i.*a?i?aoe?, 4-5 /a?aiy 1998 ?.), “Ia?oa na?oiaa a?eia oa aeie?
ia?iae?a Oeaio?aeueii? oa I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie” (i. *a?i?aoe?,
26-27 aa?aniy 1998 ?.), Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea
a?o?aiciaanoai: ?noi??y, no/aniee noai oa ia?niaeoeae” (i. Ee?a, 19-20
eenoiiaaea 1996 ?.) .

No?oeoo?ii aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a (174 n.), nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (435 iaeiaioaaiue),
aeiaeaoe?a (4).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iaoeiaa iiaecia, o?iiieia?/i?
oa oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Iaeyae ?noi??ia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeueii? aace
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo
(inoaiiy o?aoeia O?O no. –1919 ?.)» cae?eniaii iaeyae iaeaaaeeea?oeo
caeiaooe?a a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo ?noi?ee?a c i?iaeaie, a oaeiae
aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaea?aeueii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. iaeaaeiinueea ieoaiiy a ?noi??ia?ao?? aaaaoueio
e?a?i ?icaeyaeaeiny ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia ?noi??? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei, i?e/iio Iaeaaeii?y aenooiaea eeoa ye ia’?eo ai?ioueae
aaeeeeo aea?aeaa oa ?oi?o aaeeainueeeo nithciee?a. Iaae??oaii?noue
iaeaaeiinueeiai ieoaiiy i?ney Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano, a i?ci?oa ??
iiae?e i?ney Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie i?eaaee aei iiyae oe?ei? iecee
i?aoeue, iniaeeai a non?aei?o e?a?iao, ye? aei?aaaeiaoaaee ?o
i?aoaic?? ia Iaeaaeii?th. Aaoi?e oeeo i?aoeue, ia o?eueee ia
?icynithaaee neeaaeia iaeaaeiinueea ieoaiiy, a aianee ua a?eueoo
ieooaieio a iaeaaeiinueeo aoiia?ao?th. N. Aiieaae/, N.?aaiiae/,
I.Oeaiiae/ i?aeo?eioaaee oaco i?i oa, ui a Iaeaaeii?? iaia? aieaa?, ? ui
neia’yie, ye? oai i?iaeeaathoue ca iiaith, o?aaeeoe?yie, iiaooii —
na?ae. A.A?eai?iae/, I.Aea?aeaa?i, O.Oei??inueeee, A.Eei/aa aa/eee
Iaeaaeii?th aeiyoeiai aieaa?nueeith e?a?iith. Iacia/ia /anoeia
iaoeiaoe?a oa ioae?oeeno?a e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. i?aeo?eioaaee
oai??th naiiaooiino? iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo (I.Ae.Ae?aaaiia, I.I.
Aeo?iiai, I.Aio?oaao?ia). Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueia ai?ioueaa
iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo caeeoaeany iica ?oiueith oaaaith.

I?e?iaeii, ui ia?o? i?aoe? i?enay/ai? iaeaaeiinueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?ooo iaeaaeaoue eiai ea??aieeai oa ?aeaieiaai
– Iao?o Iii A?niao, Ai?/a Iao?iao, E?noa I?n??eiao, Aeieo?o *oiianuee?,
Ae?ii Oaaeae? Ae?iiao, ye? a?ae/oaaee aino?o iio?aao eiai oai?aoe/iiai
iiyniaiiy ? ?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiia oa i?ia?aiieo
iieiaeaiue.

Na?aae aeine?aeaeaiue 30-40-o ?ie?a OO no. aeae?eythoueny i?aoe? O?enoi
Neeyiiaa «Aecaieueia ai?ioueaa o Iaeaaeii??» oa Aiaaea Aeei?aa
«?e?iaeainueea aiiiay». Ia aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui Neeueyiia aoa
i?eoeeueieeii aa?oia?no?a ? i?aai? oa/?? AI?I, o eiai i?aoe? ? aeineoue
i?aaaeeaeo ? ia’?eoeaieo na?ae/aiue c ?noi??? iaio oa/?e
iaeaaeiinueeiai-iaoe?iiaeueii aecaieueiiai ?ooo. Ui noino?oueny eieae
A.Ae?iaaa “?e?iaeainueea aiiiay”, oi iiaeyaee ?? aaoi?a cia/ii
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae iiaeyae?a Neeueyiiaa. Aiaae Ae?iaa (1891-1952)
oaeiae o/aniee iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, aea eiai
“e?aiai e?eea”. Aeei?enoaaoe aaeeeo e?euee?noue i?ea?iaeueieo
aeieoiaio?a AI?I, eenooaaiiy oa niiaaaee o/aniee?a iiae?e, aaoi? c
iiceoe?e i?ia?aneaii? /anoeie iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo a?aenoith? iaeaaeiinueeo iaoe?iiaeueio naiiaooi?noue.

sse?nii iiaee ia??iae a ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie ?icii/eia?oueny i?ney
Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie.

O ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ?noi??y Iaeaaeii??, a oei a?eueoa ieoaiiy
iia’ycai? ?c oi?ioaaiiyi iaeaaeiinueei? iaoe??, ciaoiaeeeeny i?ae
iaaiith caai?iiith. Aeiaaee ia??iae caiia/oaaiiy iaeaaeiinueeiai ieoaiiy
iicia/eany ia aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?c ?noi??? Aaeeai o oe?eiio, oiio ui ?c
iiey ci?o iieie?iiy ?noi?ee?a eieeoiueiai N?N? aeiaa i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
iaeaaeiinueei? iaoe??.

Ie?ai? aniaeoe ?noi??? Iaeaaeii?? ?icaeyaeaeeny o ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
eieaeoeaieo aeaeaiiyo o «?noi??? THaineaa??» (O.1.), «?noi???
aeeieiiao??» (O.2.), «?noi??? Aieaa???», «Ei?ioe?e ?noi??? Aieaa???. C
iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei iaoeo aei?a». Aeaye? noi?iie iaeaaeiinueeiai
ieoaiiy aena?oeai? o eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?yo, i?enay/aieo i?aeia?iaeiei
a?aeiineiai ia Aaeeaiao e?ioey O?O- ii/aoeo OO no.

Na?aae i?aoeue, iaienaieo ?noi?eeaie eieeoiueiai N?N?, ?, ye? iaaiith
i??ith oi?eathoueny aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaie oaie, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy E.E.No?oeiai?, ?.A.Naieaae/, ?.N. Aaee?ia, A.N.Oioiaia,
A.O.I?ee??a, A.?. Oi?eueeiai?, TH.I.Iena??aa, I.A.Nieieianueei?.

I?ioa o?eaaeee /an ?aeeiith i?aoeath, ui aena?oethaaea ?noi??th
Iaeaaeii?? c iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei e?ioey Aaeeainueeeo a?ei o N?N?
caeeoaany aeaioiiiee eo?n eaeoe?e i?ioani?a Eacainueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
A.N.Oioiaia. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui oey ioae?eaoe?y c’yaeeany o ia??iae
caiia/oaaiiy iaeaaeiinueei? i?iaeaie, aaoi? ciooaiee aoa ia oi?eaoeny
oe?eiai ?yaeo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c iaeaaeiinueeei
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiei ?ooii ? aooe iaa?aaeiei a ioe?ioe? oeueiai
yaeua.

Ia?oo ni?iao aeaoe caaaeueiee iaeyae iaeaaeiinueeiai ieoaiiy, aecia/eoe
aoaie eiai ?icaeoeo c?iaeaii o eieaeoeai?e noaoo? ?in?enueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a A.A.Aaeainueeiai, A.A.Ea?anueiaa, N.I.Oeaoi?no?aiei «Aei
?noi??? iaeaaeiinueeiai ieoaiiy». Ianya noaoo?, a?aenooi?noue aeeaeie
aiae?co a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, ia??iaeeee iaaeathoue ?e a?eueo
iaeyaeiaiai oa?aeoa?o.

A.?. Einee aeine?aeaeo? iiae??, ui a?aeaoaaeeny o Iaeaaeii?? a e?ioe?
O?O — ii/aoeo OO no., cie?aia, ?ieue ?in?? o ae??oaii? iaeaaeiinueeiai
ieoaiiy. ?in?enuee? ?noi?eee A.?.O?aeaecii, N.I.?iiaiaiei o nai?o
i?aoeyo aeathoue oe?eaa?, iaiaeiicia/i? ioe?iee aaeeainueeei e?ecai oa
i?e/eiai, ui ii?iaeaeoaaee i?aeaoi?/i? eiioe?eoe o oeueiio ?aa?ii?.
Aniaeoe ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo
oa noaaeaiiy Eii?ioa?io aei iaeaaeiinueeiai ieoaiiy ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy
o i?aoeyo ?in?enueei? aeine?aeieoe? E.AEeee.

A oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ?noi??y Iaeaaeii?? ia ciaeoea aeeaieiai
aena?oeaiiy, ca aeeeth/aiiyi ie?aieo aniaeo?a o aeine?aeaeaiiyo
?.A.Ao?eooa, A.A.Ao?aeae, A.A. AEaaie?eoeueeiai, A.E.Ia?oeiaiei,
I.A.Iaaeth/aiei, I.N.Nioaiy, I.A.No?aeue/oe, TH.TH.Oii?ia.

Uiaei no/anieo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aeine?aeiee?a ?noi??? Iaeaaeii??
oeueiai ia??iaeo, oi aiie ia?aaaaeii cina?aaeaeoaaee oaaao ia
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao ? iaaeiioe?ithaaee ?ie? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a
ia Aaeeaiao ?, cie?aia, iaeaaeiinueeiai. Na?aae iaei/enaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?a?iiaenueeeo ?noi?ee?a aeae?eythoueny i?aoe? Iao?ana
Aa?iaoa ? Noaoaia O?aanoa.

Noiniaii aeine?aeaeaiue iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo iaeaaeiinueeiai
ia?iaeo o aieaa?nuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??, oi a?i o?aeooaaany ye yaeua
aieaa?nueea ca nai?th i?e?iaeith. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a
aaaaeaee eiai «naia?aoenonueeei» a?aeiinii aieaa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo, aai noaa?aeaeoaaeany aeoiea, ui yeui oea ia aieaa?nueeee ?oo, oi
oea i?iya na?anueei? i?iiaaaiaee. Ii?acee oa iaaaea/?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo (cie?aia, ?e?iaeainueea iianoaiiy (1903
?.) iiynithaaeeny eiai neaae?noth ? cian?i ia a?aeeny aei oaaae
aeiyoeiai iani?eyoeea? ciai?oiuei-iie?oe/i? oiiae.

Na?aae aieaa?nueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo aeae?eythoueny i?aoe? E.Iaiaeaaa. O 1979
?. c’yaeeanue aeineoue ia’?iia eiai ?iaioa “Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee
?oo a Iaeaaeii?? oa Iae?einueei. 1878-1903” .

Iaoa?aeoa?iith aeey aieaa?nueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? 70-80-o ?ie?a ? i?aoey
Oooa Aeaoiaa “E?eca a aieaa?nueei-oo?aoeueeeo a?aeiineiao”, o ye?e
aino?i e?eoeeo?oueny iaoe?iiae?noe/ia iie?oeea aieaa?nueeiai aeai?o
a?aeiinii Iaeaaeii??.

Iaea?eueoee aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie c?iaeee ?noi?eee
Iaeaaeii??. Oi/a ? a iaeaaeiinuee?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? aeiaaee /an
i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia ?icaeyaeaeany ye naiino?eiee
ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, aea/aiiy ?? ie?aieo aniaeo?a i?enooi? o i?aoeyo
N.Ae?aeoea, E.A?oinuee?, A.Aai?a??anuee?, E.Eaiaa?ne?, ?.
Eaioa?aeae??aa, E.Ea?ianuee?, A.Eiianuee?, A.?enoianuee?,
A.Oiaei?inuee?, O. Iieaiaeiae/a.

Aeineoue iiaii a i?aoeyo iaeaaeiinueeeo a/aieo E.Eaia, I.I?iinuee?,
I.Iaoeianuee?, N.Ae?iaanuee?, O.Aiaeiiiaa-Iieyinuee? aena?oeaii? iiae??
Iaaoonueeiai (1822?.), ?aceiaa/nueeiai (1876 ?.), E?aniainueeiai
(1878-1879??.), ?e?iaeainueeiai (1903 ?.) iianoaiue.

Noaooo I?I oa ?io? i?ia?aii? aeieoiaioe iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
aeine?aeaeoaaee ?.Eaoa?aeae??a, I.O??noia, A.Aaneiae/-Aaiaae?.
I.O?ayiianuee? o iecoe? ioae?eaoe?e aeine?aeaeoaaa a?aeiineie i?ae I?I
? Aeca?o??th. Ai?ioueao I?I c aa?oia?ciii aeine?aeaeoaaee ?.Iiieaca?ia
oa I.Iaiaeaanuee? .

Noaaeaiiy aeeieiiao?a oa a?iiaaenueeino? ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i aei
noaiiaeua iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.
aeine?aeaeothoue I.I?iinuee?, ?. Oa?c?inuee?, E.N?aeianuee?,
O.Aiaeiiia-Iieyinuee? oa ?io?.

Aaeeea eiei aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo e?aea?ai iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo (ss. Naiaeainuee?, A.Aeae/aao,
A.Iao?iao, E.I?n??eiao, I.*oiianuee?, I.Iii A?niao, I.Oao?ao, Ae.Oaaeae?
Ae?iiao, Ae.A?o?ao oa ?ioei), iineoue /enoi a?ia?ao?/iee oa?aeoa?. Oea
i?aoe? O.Aiaeiiiaa-Iieyinuee?, E.Eaia, A.Aai?a??aa, A.Aioaaa,
?.Aeaiyiianuee?, Ae.Ae?ianuee?, I.?aaiianuee?, Ae.Eiinoaio?iiaa,
Ae.I?o??aa, A.??noianuee?, I.Iaiaeaanuee?.

Aeaiee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c aea? iiaeeea?noue noa?aaeaeoaaoe, ui
a?o/eciyieie ? ca?oa?aeieie ?noi?eeaie c?iaeaii /eiaei a ieai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo. Aeei?enoiaoth/e
caeiaooee ?noi??ia?ao??, caeo/ath/e iia? a?o?ai? aeaea?aea, iioae?eiaai?
aeieoiaioe, c’yaeeany iiaeeea?noue aeaoe oe?e?nio ea?oeio ?icaeoeo
iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo inoaiiuei? o?aoeie 90-o
?ie?a O?O – ii/aoeo OO no.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeei?enoaia i?e iaienaii?
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, iiae?ey?oueny ia aeae?eueea a?oi: iaoa??aee
a?o?a?a, iioae?eiaai? aeieoiaioe, iaoa??aee ia??iaee/ii? i?ane, niiaaaee
oa eenooaaiiy o/aniee?a iiae?e.

Aaoi?ii ii?aoeueiaaii oe?ea iecea aeieoiaio?a, ye? caa??aathoueny o
A?o?a? ?anioae?ee Iaeaaeii?y (i. Neii’?), A?o?a? Iaeaaeiinueei?
Aeaaeai?? Iaoe oa Ienoaoeoa (i.Neii’?), A?o?a? ?inoeoooo Iaoe?iiaeueii?
?noi??? (i. Neii’?), ?inoeooo? ?oeiieno Oeaio?aeueii? a?ae?ioaee IAI
Oe?a?ie ?i. Aa?iaaenueeiai, (i.Ee?a), A?o?a? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
?in?enueei? ?iia??? (i.Iineaa), A?o?a? ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??
(i.Iineaa), Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? ?AI
(i.N-Iaoa?ao?a), Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaeaniiio a?o?a?.

O A?o?a? ?anioae?ee Iaeaaeii?y aaoi?ii ii?aoeueiaaii oiiaee: o. 834.
«Eioei ?aoeei» (eenooaaiiy, niiaaaee o/aniee?a
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo); o. 866. «A?ia?ao??, aaoia?ia?ao??,
iaioa?e. 1866-1944»; o. «Aieaa?nueea oi?aaa 1915-1918» (aeieoiaioe
/an?a aieaa?nueei? ieoiaoe??); o. 158 «Ia?iaei? cai?e I?I/N?I», o yeiio
cina?aaeaeai? ??ciiiai?oi? aee?aeoeae, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy, iinoaiiae,
caa?iaiiy a?aeiinii iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a
Iaeaaeii?? .

Aeiyoeiaa i?noea iin?aeathoue iaoa??aee, ui caa??aathoueny a A?o?a?
Iaeaaeiinueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe oa Ienoaoeoa, aea aaoi?ii ii?aoeueiaaii
oiiaee ae?y/?a iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo: o.»Aiaae Ae?iaa
(1910-1953)» (?oeiiene ioae?oeenoe/ieo iioae?eiaaieo ? iaiioae?eiaaieo
oai??a, eenooaaiiy /eai?a AI?I, a?ae?ia?ao??); o. «A?eai??e Oaaeae?
Oaoeiae/ (1875-1942)» (eenooaaiiy, ?oeiiene aaoia?ia?ao?/iiai oa?aeoa?o,
iniaeno? aeieoiaioe); o. «A?nai? Eiaeia (1882-1924)» (?oeiiene, i?ica,
iiac?y, ei?aniiiaeaioe?y – oeo?iaai? eenoe /eai?a i?aai?caoe??, eenoe
iniaenoiai oa?aeoa?o, oioia?ao??, a?nieee, ye? aeoiaeeee ca eiai
?aaeaeoe??th, eiai noaoo? aei ieo) .

Aeena?oaioii oaeiae aeei?enoai? iioi/i? a?o?ae ?inoeoooo Iaoe?iiaeueii?
?noi??? oa Oi?aa?neoaoo na. Ee?eea oa Iaoiae?y i. Neii’? .

I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii i?e?io?eueie oiiae?a Iaeanueeiai
iaeaniiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao, i?e?io?eueie o. “Neaayineee noie» A?o?ao
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ?in?enueei? ?iia??? (i.Iineaa) oa oe?ei? iecee
oiiae?a A?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? (i.Iineaa), aea i?noyoueny
oe?eaa? iaoa??aee i?i ae?yeuei?noue i?ia?aneaii? iaeaaeiinueei?
ai?a?aoe?? o ?in?? oa Oe?a?i?.

Aaoi?ii aia?oa a?aee?eoi ? i?aeaioiaeaii aei ioae?eaoe?? eenoe iaeiiai
?c e?aea??a iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai iaeaaeiinueeiai ?ooo E.I?n??eiaa
aei i?ioani?a Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo O.Oei??inueeiai, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny o oiiaeao ?inoeoooo ?oeiien?a Oeaio?aeueii? a?ae?ioaee IAI
Oe?a?ie ?i. Aa?iaaenueeiai.

O ioae?eaoe?yo aeaea?ae ?c ?noi??? Iaeaaeii?? e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO
no. iaeoe?oa aeei?enoai? oo?aoeuee? aeieoiaioaeuei? aeaea?aea, ye? ia
eeoa ?ice?eaathoue oa?aeoa? iie?oeee Oo?a//eie ia Aaeeaiao, iniaeeaino?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy e aenieoaoaoe?? neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a, cie?aia,
iaeaaeiinueeiai, ye? iieieeenue i?ae ?? aeaaeith, aea e oaeiae i?noyoue
oe?ii? oaeoe i?i oa?aeoa?, oi?ie ? ?iciao aecaieueii? ai?ioueae neia’yi
o ?a?iiaenueeeo i?ia?ioe?yo Iniainueei? ?iia???.

Na?aae inoaii?o ioae?eaoe?e aeieoiaio?a, i?aeaioiaeaieo i?e ni?eyii?
a?o?ao Iaeaaeii?? — ca??iee Oo?aoeuee? aeieoiaioe i?i ?e?iaeainueea
iianoaiiy, yeee aeeth/a? 172 aeieoiaioe c oiiaeo Rumeli Mufettis ligi
Tasnifi Iniainueeiai a?aeae?eo Aaia?aeueii? aee?aeoe?? oo?aoeueeeo
aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a o Noaiaoe?. Aeieoiaioe aena?oeththoue iiae?? o
A?oieuenueeiio a?ea?o? iaia?aaeiaei? ? i?ae /an ?e?iaeainueeiai
iianoaiiy. Oiiae ua aeiiaaeaaia aoa cae?eoei aeey aeine?aeiee?a ?
ioae?eaoe?y aeieoiaio?a cae?eniaia aia?oa. Aaoi?ii aeei?enoaia oaeiae
oe?ea iecea iioae?eiaaieo ?in?enueeeo, a?eoainueeeo, o?aioeocueeeo oa
aano??enueeeo aeieoiaio?a ?c ?noi??? iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo. O 90-o
?ieao c’yaeeeny ioae?eaoe?? aeineoue oe?eaaeo aeieoiaio?a o iaoeiaeo
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, ye? aeaee iiaeeea?noue ii-iiaiio iiaeeaeoeny ia
??ci? noi?iie ae?yeueiino? iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo . Cie?aia oea ioae?eaoe?? i?aeaioiaeai? A.Aai?a??aei oa ?.
Oa?c?inuee?.

Iaai? a?aeiiino? aeey ?ice?eooy oaie ii/a?iioo? aaoi?ii ?c
?a?iiaenueei? i?ane oiai /ano, ianaiia?aae, ?c aeaeaiue ??cieo
oiaa?enoa, oa/?e, o?aeoe?e iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo («Iaeaaeiinee aean», «Aa?aea?», «Iaeaaeiinei aeaei», «?aoi?ie» oa
?io?), aacao i?aaeaiineia’yinueei? ai?a?aoe?? («Neiaainee jua»,
«Aueaa?neay iuneue», a oaeiae ia??iaee/ii? i?ane ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i
(«Neaayineea ecaanoey», «Nia?aiaiiee» «Aanoiee Aa?iiu», «Aaeeai»,
«Neaayineee aae» oa ?io?). Ioae?eaoe?? o oeeo aeaeaiiyo, ye ? oaeoe c
?ioeo aeaea?ae, aeicaieeee iiai?oa iieacaoe caaaeueio noia?a/eeao
ea?oeio ?icaeoeo ? noaiiaeaiiy iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, noaaeaiiy aei iueiai o?yae?a ?
i?ia?aneaii? a?iiaaenueeino? ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i.

Ie?aio a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue niiaaaee ? iaioa?e ae?y/?a
iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo oa no/aniee?a iiae?e,
iioae?eiaai? ye o Iaeaaeii??, oae ? a ?ioeo e?a?iao. Oea niiaaaee
aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a ?in?? oa Aieaa??? I.I?etheiaa, ?.Aaoiaa, ea??aiee?a
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo Aioea Aeae/aaa, Ai?/a Iao?iaa, ssia
Naiaeainuee? oa ?ioeo aeineoue a?aeiieo o/aniee?a iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo: /eai?a OeE, nae?aoa??a ? ai?aiae /ao.
I?e aeei?enoaii? niiaaae?a aeiaiaeeeiny a?aoiaoaaoe, cie?aia, aiioe?eia,
/anoi noa’?eoeaia noaaeaiiy ?o aaoi??a aei oeeo iiae?e.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoaia oaeiae iioae?eiaaia
ai?noiey?ia niaaeueia Aioea Aeae/aaa, E?noa I?n??eiaa oa ?i.

Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia a?aeiinii cia/io e?euee?noue ?noi?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo iaeaaeiinueeiio iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio
?ooia?, ieoaiiy, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny a aeena?oaoe??, aei oaia??oiueiai
/ano ia noaee i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iayaia
iaoeiai-aeine?aeia aaca niiioeaea aaoi?a aei iiooeo iiaeo i?aeoiae?a o
aea/ai? aeaii? i?iaeaie, ui a naith /a?ao aeaei ciiao /?oe?oa aecia/eoe
?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo oa eiai i?noea ? ?ieue a ?noi??? Iaeaaeii??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe, ui ia? iacao «?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae
aeieeiaiiy aecaieueiiai ?ooo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo», ?icaeyaeathoueny
aeiiii?/iee oa nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie Iaeaaeii??, yea aoea a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O no. «aioo??oiueith» i?ia?ioe??th Oo?a//eie oa
aoii-iie?oe/i? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaaeeny ia oe?e oa?eoi???. Cie?aia,
cacia/a?oueny, ui iiyaa ia ?noi?e/i?e noeai? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo ni?aiaea ?c aaaeeeaeie ci?iaie o
aioo??oiueiio aeeoo? Iniainueei? ?iia??? oa ii/aoeii iiai? aiioe o
?icaeoeo ia?iae?a I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie.

Ai?iaeiaae i’yoenioa?eiaiai iaioaaiiy oo?ee cae?enieee a Iaeaaeii??
ianiao eieii?caoe?th, caeiyee iaee?au? caie?, a i?noeaaeo aeeoae?a
iicaaaeee aeaiaioa?ieo a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?aa, ia?aoai?eaoe a?eueoo
/anoeio c ieo ia e??iinieo – «?aey». Aeaaea i?aeo?eioaaea oo?aoeueeeo
iii?uee?a, ye? iaeaea an? aoee ionoeueiaiaie ? aeeiioaaee oaeiae
aaei?i?no?aoeai? oa ea?aeuei? ooieoe??. Iaaaeee? iaae?ee, iecueea
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, caieaeai? oe?ie ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo
i?iaeoeoe?th, aenie? iiaeaoee, ei?oiiiaai?noue ath?ie?aoe/iiai aia?aoo,
eeoaa?noai – oea iniiai? i?e/eie, ye? i?eaiaeeee a Iaeaaeii?? aei
?oeiaoe?? aaeeei? e?eueeino? naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa. sse naia nenoaia
iiaeaoe?a, oae ? ?o ca?? iino?eii noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny ceiaaeeaaiiyie c
aieo oo?aoeueeeo aeanoae.

Aa?a?ia oa o?iainiaa e?eca o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. ooiaoaea cia/io
/anoeio a?eueiiai naeyinoaa, ae??aieo oi?aiaoe?a, ?ia?oiee?a Iaeaaeii??
ia ai?ioueao ca nai? i?aaa ? naia aiie noaee nioe?aeueiith aacith
c?inoath/iai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?ney
?in?enueei-oo?aoeueei? a?eie 1877-1878 ??. iaeaea ana iie?aoi?/ia
ianaeaiiy Iaeaaeii?? acyei o/anoue o aecaieuei?e ai?iouea? i?ioe ai?oo
Iniainueei? ?iia??? oa iani?aaaaeeeaeo ??oaiue Aa?e?inueeiai eiia?ano.
Iaeiania?oei ? iaeiine?aeiai?oei noaa ?oo iaeaaeiioe?a-neia’yi, ye?
neeaaeaee a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy Iaeaaeii??. Iaeyne?aa?oeie noi??ieaie
ai?ioueae iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo i?ioe oo?aoeueeiai ai?oo o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O no. noaee iiae?? ?aceiaa/nueeiai (1876 ?.) oa
E?aniainueeiai (1878-1879??.) iianoaiue.

Iaooeeueia c?inoaiiy iii?o iniainueeiio ?aaeeio o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O
no. noaei aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii noni?eueiiai aeeooy Iaeaaeii??. Ana a?eueoa
a?ae/oaa?oueny i?aaiaiiy iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo aei ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e ? iineeaiiy ai?ioueae ia eeoa i?ioe
nioe?aeueiiai ai?oo oo?aoeueeeo oaiaeae?a, aea e i?ioe aeooiaiiai oa
?ae?a?eiiai ?aanoaa. Oea ciaeoei nai? ae?aaeaiiy o ?on? ca iaoe?iiaeueio
oea?eao ? a?aeiiaeaiiy Io?eaenueeiai a?oe?ieneiinoaa oa noai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?e ?c aeeeaaeaiiyi ??aeiith iiaith.

Ai?ioueaa ca noaiiaeaiiy aeanii? iaoe?iiaeueii? iiae ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?? nii/aoeo a oi?a?ae? oa iianyeaeaiiiio aeeoo?, a iio?i o e?oa?aoo?? oa
ienoaoeoa? aoea iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaith aeey iiaeaeueoi? aeie?
iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo. Eiai i?iaoaeaeaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? iaiaaaeany caaaeueioaaoe aioeiaoe?iiaeueia i?iiaaaiaea
A?aoe??, Na?a??, Aieaa???. Oea ua a?eueoa oneeaaeithaaei oiiae, a yeeo
?icaeaaany iaeaaeiinueeee eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeee ?oo o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O no., ? aieeioei ia oi?ioaaiiy oeo ?en, ye? a?ae??ciythoue
eiai a?ae aiaeia?/ieo ?oo?a o ?ioeo aaeeainueeeo caieyo.

A?oaa aeaiaoe?iiae?caoi?nueea iie?oeea Na?a??, A?aoe??, Aieaa???
iaooiaoioea iieiaeeo iaeaaeiinueeeo ?ioaeaeooae?a ia aeoieo, ui o?eueee
i?aai?ciaaia ai?ioueaa iiaea coieieoe ?iicaiio i?iiaaaiaeo ? a?yooaaoe
iaeaaeiinueeee ia?iae a?ae iiae?eo i?ae non?aei?ie aea?aeaaaie.
Iaeaaeiinueea ?ioae?aaioe?y iaea cia/iee aieea ia naeyinoai oa ?io?
aa?noae ianaeaiiy ? aaeeeith ?? caneoaith ? oa, ui aiia iinoaaeea ia
ii?yaeie aeaiiee ia o?eueee ieoaiiy iie?oe/i? ? nioe?aeuei?, aea e
iaoe?iiaeuei? oa aeooiai?. Naia iieiae? iaoe?iiaeueii iaeaooiaai?
iaeaaeiinuee? ?ioaeaeooaee noaee ?i?oe?aoi?aie noai?aiiy Iaeaaeiinueei?
?aaiethoe?eii? I?aai?caoe?? (I?I).

Nie?ath/enue ia ia??iaeecaoe?th I. A?ioa aeey iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a iaeeo
ia?iae?a, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee
?oo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo iai?ee?ioe? 70-o-ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a OO no.
ciaoiaeeany a noaae?? «A», oiaoi a?i ?icii/aany ye nooi eoeueoo?iee ?oo
? eeoa caiaeii iie?oecoaaany.

Nai???aei?noue iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O no. iieyaaea a oiio, ui a?i aoa ni?yiiaaiee ia eeoa i?ioe
oo?aoeueeiai ai?oo, aea ? i?ioe iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? i?iiaaaiaee non?aei?o
e?a?i A?aoe??, Na?a??, Aieaa???. Ooai?aiiy non?aei?o iieiaeeo
aaeeainueeeo aea?aeaa ia ia?oeo ii?ao aoei iaeiei ?c iiceoeaieo
oaeoi??a, ye? iaee aieea ia eiai noaiiaeaiiy. Iaeaaeiioe? a?aee o/anoue
o aecaieuei?e ai?iouea? na?a?a, aieaa?, /i?iiai?oe?a, a?ae?a. ?iceie o
nithc? aaeeainueeeo o?enoeyi o ai?iouea? i?ioe oo?aoeueeiai y?ia cyaeany
?c noai?aiiyi Aieaa?nueei? aeca?o??, eiee ?icii/eia?oueny ai?ioueaa
i?ae iath oa Oea?aa?aaenueeith iao??a?o??th, a i?ci?oa aei oe???
ai?ioueae i?e?aeio?oueny ? Na?a?y. Oaeei /eiii, iaeaaeiinueeee ia?iae
ciooaiee aoa ai?ioeny ia aeaa o?iioe: i?ioe oo?aoeueeiai ?aanoaa ? i?ioe
nai?o non?ae?a, ye? nai?ie ae?yie iin?yee noii?a ? iaaeia??o aei naaa.

O oac? “A” e?aea?aie iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
aoee a/eoae? oa i?aaineaai? nayuaieee, ye? ?iaeee ana, uia caeo/eoe aei
?ooo yeiaea?eueoa naeyi. Iaeaieth/?oeie ieoaiiyie, ye? noiyee a oeae
ia??iae ia?aae iaeaaeiinueeeie aoaeeoaeyie aoee: ?ae?a?eia (aeiiaa
oea?eiaiiai aiaineoae?iiy iaoe?iiaeueiith iiaith oa a?aeiiaeaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? Io?eaenueeiai a?oe?ieneiinoaa) oa iiaia (aeiiaa
aeeeaaeaiiy a oeieao ??aeiith iiaith ? ai?ioueaa ca aeciaiiy
iaeaaeiinueei? iiae). Aeey iniiaii? iane ianaeaiiy Iaeaaeii?? oe?
ieoaiiy o?nii ia?aie?oaeeny ?c nioe?aeueieie – ai?ioueaith i?ioe
aiiaeaiiy c aieo oo?aoeueeeo oaiaeae?a oa aea?aeaaieo /eiiiaiee?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «I?aai?caoe?eia ioi?ieaiiy Iaeaaeiinueei?
?aaiethoe?eii? I?aai?caoe??. Ai?ioueaa c aa?oia?ciii» iaaieioo?oueny, ui
ye?nii iiaei, aeuei nooiaiai o ?icaeoeo iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo noaei noai?aiiy o 1893 ?. I?I. Caaaeyee
ae?yeueiino? oe??? i?aai?caoe?? iaeaaeiinueeee ia?iae aenooiea ia
aaeeainueeo iie?oe/io noeaio ye aeoeaiee iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iee
noa?eo.

Iaoith i?aai?caoe??, ca?aeii ?? Noaoooo, aoei caeiaoooy iie?oe/ii?
aaoiiii?? Iaeaaeii?? oa Iae?einueei. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oey aeiiaa
eaaeaea a iniia? i?ia?ai ? aaaaoueio ?ioeo iaeaaeiinueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, ao?oe?a, oiaa?enoa. ??cieoey iieyaaea a oiio, yeeie
caniaaie ? iaoiaeaie aiie i?aaioee aeinyaoe iaoe ? ui ?icoi?ee i?ae
«iie?oe/iith aaoiiii??th». I?I a ia?o? ?iee nai? ae?yeueiino? i?aaioea
aei aaoiiii?? a ?aieao Iniainueei? ?iia??? ? aaaaeaea ?? e?ieii aei
noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? iaeaaeiinueei? aea?aeaae ia Aaeeaiao. O oeueiio
I?aai?caoe?th i?aeo?eioaaee ? iaeaaeiinuee? nioe?ae?noe, ye? anooieee a
?? ?yaee ? caiaeii acyee o/anoue a ?e?iaeainueeiio iianoaii?.
I?aaenoaaieee i?iiaeaaeiinueeeo aieaa?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aaaaeaee
aaoiiii?th e?ieii aei ia’?aeiaiiy Iaeaaeii?? oa Aieaa???, aiaeia?/ii, ye
oea noaeiny o 1885 ?. c No?aeiith ?oiae??th.

Iaeii/anii ?c i?aai?caoe?eiei ioi?ieaiiyi I?I, ia oa?eoi??? Aieaa???
ai?iaeiaae 80-90-o O?O no. ?ie?a aeieea? ?yae eaaaeueieo
«iaeaaeiinueeeo» i?aai?caoe?e, ye? o aa?aci? 1895 ?. ia’?aeiaeeny ?
i?iaieineee noai?aiiy Aa?oiaiiai Iaeaaeiinueeiai Eii?oaoo (AIE).
Aieaa?nueeee o?yae aeoeaii aeiiiiaaaa o noai?aii? AIE, yeee iieeaa
ii/aoie ?aaeoe?ei?e oa/?? o iaeaaeiinueeiio iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio
?on? – aa?oia?cio. Aa?oia?ci iaa?oue i?ney oi?iaeueiiai ?icioneo
eii?oaoo i?iaeiaaeoaaa ?nioaaoe ? i?ei?n aaaaoi oeiaee aecaieuei?e
ni?aa? iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo.

Aa?oia?noe aaaaeaee, ui ?aaiethoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue iiaeiia eeoa
cioneoe ?a?iio aei aeoeaieo ae?e o ni?aa? aaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i o
Iaeaaeii??, a ai?ioueaa ca aaoiiii?th Iaeaaeii??, ? iaaiei aoaiii ia
oeyoo i?e?aeiaiiy Iaeaaeii?? aei Aieaa???. Ae?yeuei?noue aieaa?nueeeo
iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e ? ica?i?ieo /ao, ye? iaiaaathoueny
i?aeei?eoe iaeaaeiinueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo ?ioa?anai
aieaa?nueei? aea?aeaae, cia/ii oneeaaeieei neooaoe?th o Iaeaaeii??,
iineeeeenue ?ai?an?? oo?aoeueei? aeaaee ? oea o?eueee iia??oeei
noaiiaeua iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo.

Ca?aeii ia??iaeecaoe??, cai?iiiiiaaii? I.A?ioii, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui ia
ii/aoeo OO no. iaeaaeiinueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo iinooiiai
ia?aoiaeeoue o oaco A, oiaoi a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai iie?oecaoe?y. *?oe?oeie
noathoue i?ia?aii? aeiiae I?I noi?ioeueiaai?, ye «iie?oe/ia aaoiiii?y
Iaeaaeii??» ? ana a?eueoa /anoeia ianaeaiiy i?aeo?eio? eicoia
«Iaeaaeii?y aeey iaeaaeiioe?a».

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «?e?iaeainueea iianoaiiy 1903 ?. Ae?yeuei?noue I?I
oa AIE», ?icaeyaeathoueny ciai?oiuei-iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y oa noaiiaeua o
Iaeaaeii?? iaia?aaeiaei? oa o aei? ?e?iaeainueeiai iianoaiiy 1903 ?.,
i?iaiae?ciaaii neeaaeio ? noia?a/eeao aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a ae?y/?a
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, ia?aa?a iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae i?ney
iianoaiiy oa aeeaieo e?eco iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo i?ney ci?ie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nee ? ?iciaaeoaaiiy «e?aeo» oa i?aaeo».

Cia/iee aeieoiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae aeei?enoaii i?e aena?oeaii? iane?aee?a
?e?iaeainueeiai iianoaiiy, yea noaei iaeaeuei i?iyaii ono?aie?iue
i?eaiiaeaiiai iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo aei naiaiaee ? iacaeaaeiino?.
E?ooaanueea ?anioae?ea, noai?aia a aei? iianoaiiy, i?iaieineea
aeaiie?aoe/i? i?eioeeie ? naiaiaee, iieacaea naiiaooi?noue ?
i?ia?aneai?noue iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. Nai?i
?nioaaiiyi aiia aeiaaea a??i?noue iiaeyae?a e?aiai e?eea iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, yea aaaaeaei, ui o?eueee ?aaiethoe?eiei
oeyoii iiaeia aeinyaiooe iiaii? iie?oe/ii? aaoiiii?? ? caia?a/oaaea
iiaeyaee aa?oia?no?a, ye? ia a??eee o ca?eueiaiiy Iaeaaeii?? aeanieie
neeaie ? aeiaaaee ?ioa?aaioe?? ?c-ciai?. Noai?aiiy E?ooaanueei?
?anioae?ee — ia?oi? aea?aeaae oaeiai oeio ia Aaeeaiao, i?iaeaiiino?oaaei
iie?oe/io c??e?noue iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo,
aioiai?noue iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo eoe ia aoaeue-ye? aea?oae a ?i’y
nai?? iaoe?iiaeueii? ? aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?.

?e?iaeainueea iianoaiiy ci?ieei «noaoon-eai» Iniainueei? ?iia???,
i?eioneaoe aaanoe ia oa?eoi??? Iaeaaeii?? ?aoi?ie, aea oea o?eueee
/anoeiai iie?aueei noaiiaeua iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo, ia ae??oeaoe
inoaoi/ii iaeaaeiinueeiai ieoaiiy.

E?a? neee AI?I i?ney iianoaiiy ae?yee iaea?eueo aeoeaii o Na?nueeiio,
No?oieoeueeiio oa A?oieuenueeiio ?aaiethoe?eieo ie?oaao aae aei
Ieaaeioo?aoeueei? ?aaiethoe??. Ooo aiie ei?enooaaeeny
caaaeueiiia?iaeiith i?aeo?eieith, ? ia aeeaey/enue ia ae?yeuei?noue
i?iiaaaiaeenonueeeo /ao ?ioeo aea?aeaa, ui iaiaaaeeny aianoe ?iceie o
?yaee I?I, i?iaeiaaeoaaee ai?ioueao ca iacaeaaei?noue iaeaaeiinueeiai
ia?iaeo o iaeaaae/? ?iee i?ney ?e?iaeainueeiai iianoaiiy. I?ney
?eeuenueeiai c’?caeo (1905 ?.) «i?aa?» i?iaieaa?nuee? ae?y/?
iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ?iaeee ana aeey oiai,
uia I?I ia a?aeiiaeea nai?? ae?yeueiino? ia iniia? i?eioeeiiaeo ??oaiue
c’?caeo ? aaea ia i?eoiaoaaee nai?? iniiaii? iaoe – i?e?aeiaoe
Iaeaaeii?th aei Aieaa???.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ia??iae 1903-1907 ??. ? iaeneeaaei?oei o ?icaeoeo
iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. I?ney iianoaiiy ia?aae
AI?I iinoaei o?e i?iaeaie, ye? iaee cia/aiiy aeey ?? iiaeaeueoi? aeie?:
iaiao?aei?noue aeanii? aioo??oiuei? aeaiie?aoecaoe??, iiooe iiaeo oi?i
ai?ioueae ? iiaeo nithciee?a. Noaiiaeua o iaeaaeiinueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on? oneeaaeithaaeiny oaeiae ? oei, ui
aaeeainuee? i?aoaiaeaioe ia «iniainueeo niaaeueio» i?iaeiaaeoaaee
i?aai?ciaoaaoe nai? «iaeaaeiinuee?» eiio?i?aai?caoe?? ? a?enueeia? /aoe,
ae?? yeeo aoee iai?aaeai? i?ioe ?aeiino? iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? «Iaeaaeiinueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo o
1908-1919 ??.», iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eaia ae?yeueiino? e?aea??a
iaeaaeiinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a ia??iae
Ieaaeioo?aoeueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1908 ?. oa ai?iouea? iaeaaeiinueei?
ai?a?aoe?? a ?iee Aaeeainueeeo oa Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?ei ca
iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iee noaa?ai?oao nai?? aaouee?aueie.

Iaae?? ? niiae?aaiiy ia ci?ie o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oo?a/eiie ?
Iaeaaeii??, ye? caoiieee e?aea??a iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeacieueiiai ?ooo i?ney Ieaaeioo?aoeueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1908
?., ia aoee ?aae?ciaai?. ?icaeyaeath/e a ?noi?e/i?e ?ao?iniaeoea?
ae?yeuei?noue ieaaeioo?aoeueeiai ?aaeeio, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
iaiine?aeiai?noue o cae?eniaii? ia?oeyieo ia?aoai?aiue. O ?acoeueoao?
ieaaeioo?ee ia ciiaee i?iaanoe oe?e?nio aeaiie?aoecaoe?th aea?aeaae ?
?aaeeeaeueii ci?ieoe noaiiaeua i?eaiiaeaieo ia?iae?a, noai?eoe oiiae
aeey ?o aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Iaeaaeiinueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo, ia aeeaey/enue ia
o?aa?/i? noi??iee ?noi??? (Aooa?anonueeee ie?iee aeiaia??, Aa?naeuenueea
ie?ia eiioa?aioe?y), ia ciai?oi? aieeae oa ni?iae eiai ?ic/eaioaaiiy,
i?iaeiaaeoaaa ?nioaaoe a ai?a?aoe?? ? iaiaeii?aciai cayaeya i?i naaa ye
na?aeiia iie?oe/ia neea. Iaaaaeai? o aeine?aeaeaii? oaeoe na?ae/aoue i?i
oa, ui iaeaaeiinueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo ?nioaaa a on?o
e?a?iao, ye? iiae?eeee Iaeaaeii?th — a A?aoe??, Aieaa???, THaineaa??, a
oaeiae o e?a?iao, aea i?iaeeaaei aaaaoi iaeaaeiioe?a-ai?a?aio?a –
Aieaa???, ?in??, Oe?a?i?, Oaaeoea??? oa ?ioeo e?a?iao.

I?ney caaa?oaiiy Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie Iaeaaeii?y ao?aoeea naith
oa?eoi??aeueio oe?e?ni?noue. Aiia aoea iiae?eaia ia /anoeie ? aa?eoea
aei neeaaeo ie?aieo aea?aeaa. Oeae iiae?e iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo, yeee
aei oeueiai /ano ioaeiuei ai?iany ca naith iaoe?iiaeueio
iacaeaaei?noue, caaaeaa eiio aaeeei? oeiaee ? c?iaea iaiiaeeeaei
iiaeaeueoee naiino?eiee aeiiii?/iee, iie?oe/iee oa iaoe?iiaeueiee
?icaeoie. Aeey iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo caeeoeeinue eeoa iaeia —
i?iaeiaaeoaaoe naith ai?ioueao ca naith aea?aeaai?noue.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeai? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?c aieiaieo i?iaeai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O inoaii?e o?aoei? O?O no. c aeiiii?/ii-nioe?aeueiei ?icaeoeii
Iaeaaeii??, iineeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?ae?a?eiiai ai?oo
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeee ?oo iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo ia?a?inoaa o
ianiaee i?aai?ciaaiee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo, ni?yiiaaiee ia
iiaaeaiiy iniainueeiai ?aaeeio.

Eiai nai???aei?noue iieyaaea a oiio, ui a?i aoa ni?yiiaaiee oaeiae ?
i?ioe iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo i?iiaaaiae non?aei?o e?a?i: A?aoe??, Na?a??,
Aieaa???.

Ooai?aiiy a 1893 ?. Iaeaaeiinueei? ?aaiethoe?eii? I?aai?caoe?? aoei
coiiaeaii aino?ioith nioe?aeueieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai. Aiia
ae?aaeaea ?ioa?ane oe?ieeo aa?noa naeyinoaa, ?ai?niee?a, ae??aieo
oi?aiaoe?a, iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioae?aaioe??. No?aoaa?/iith iaoith
I?aai?caoe?? i?iaieiooaaeiny caeiaoooy iie?oe/ii? aaoiiii?? Iaeaaeii??.

?e?iaeainueea iianoaiiy 1903 ?. oa i?iaieioaiiy E?ooaanueei? ?anioae?ee
i?aeoaa?aeeee a??i?noue iiaeyae?a e?aiai e?eea
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, yea aaaaeaei, ui aeinyaiooe iie?oe/ii?
aaoiiii?? iiaeia o?eueee nai?ie neeaie, ia /aeath/e ?ioa?aaioe??
?c-ciai?. Noai?aiiy E?ooaanueei? ?anioae?ee – ia?oi? aea?aeaae oaeiai
oeio ia Aaeeaiao, i?iaeaiiino?oaaei iie?oe/io c??e?noue iaeaaeiinueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ? aioiai?noue iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo
aei noai?aiiy nai?? aea?aeaaiino?.

Iiae?e Iaeaaeii?? i?ney Aaeeainueeeo oa Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie ia aeaaaa
iiaeeeaino? aanoe eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oeoaeuenueeo ?iaioo ia iaoe?iiaeuei?e
oa?eoi??? ? oeaio?aie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai iaeaaeiinueeiai ?ooo ia
iaaieo aoaiao noaaaee i?noa ?ici?uai? iica aoi?/iith oa?eoi???th
Iaeaaeii?? (Nio?y, N.-Iaoa?ao?a, AEaiaaa, Iaeana, Aooa?ano, A?a?ea oa
?io?).

Neaa?noue aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee o Iaeaaeii?? oa a non?aei?o aaeeainueeeo
caieyo, ao?o/aiiy ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa i?ecaaee aei oiai, ui ia
aeeaey/enue ia ?iciao iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ii/aoeo OO
no. iaeaaeiinueeee ia?iae ia ci?a aeiaeoeny iaoe?iiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy
oa noai?aiiy ?aeeii? iaeaaeiinueei? aea?aeaae.

Aei ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
cie?aia, iiaeia a?aeianoe iciaeiieaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??ae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey a?eueo aeeaieiai, iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy iiae?e, ui
nueiaiaei? a?aeaoaathoueny ia Aaeeaiao, iniaeeai caaino?aiiy e?ece
iaaeiei Einiai, oae ye oe? iiae?? ?noi?e/ii o?nii iia’ycai? ?c iiae?yie,
ui ?icai?oaeeny ia oa?eoi??? ?a?iiaenueei? /anoeie Oo?a//eie o 70-o
?ieao O?O no. – ii/aoeo OO no. Ia’?eoeai?noue ? ei?aeoi?noue iaio noi??i
o ioe?ieao ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai iaoeiooue iaaaeyea cia/aiiy aeey
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aca?iei i?ae Oe?a?iith oa Iaeaaeii??th.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaiee aaoi?ii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. No?aeue/oe I.A. Iaeaaeii?y: ia?en ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo (inoaiiy o?aoeia O?O no. – ii/aoie OO no.) — *a?i?aoe?, 1999. —
120 n.

2. No?aeue/oe I.A. Iaeaaeiinueea ieoaiiy ia noi??ieao iaeanueeiai
a?nieea «Aueaa?nueea ienueue»// Ieoaiiy ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo noaoae. — *a?i?aoe?,1997. — Aei.1.- N.143-147.

3. No?aeue/oe I.A. ?noi?e/ia iaoea a Iaeaaeii?? (1945-1970 ??.)//
Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aei. 6-7. ?noi??y: Ca??iee
iaoe. i?aoeue.-*a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1996. — N.245-256.

4. No?aeue/oe I.A.?noi??ia?ao?y iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo o i?aeai?iio aeiao: no/aniee noai ? ia?niaeoeae
//Ieoaiiy ?noi???, ?noi??ia?ao??, aeaea?aeiciaanoaa oa a?o?aiciaanoaa
Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.- Ee?a-*a?i?aoe?,
1997.- Aei.1- N.321-334.

5. No?aeue/oe I.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??? ia eaoaae??
?noi??? oi?aa?neoaoo Na.Ee?eea ? Iaoiae?y i.Neii’?// A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — Na?.?noi??y. — E., 1998. – Aei. 37.-
N.29-33.

6. No?aeue/oe I. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaeaaeiinueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? oa
aeeeaaeaiiy ?noi???. ?aoe.: Aeooaeueie i?iaeaie ai iaeaaeiineaoa
enoi?eia?aoeja e ianoaaaoa ii enoi?eja/ ?aae. Oiaei? *ai?aaaiia.-
Neiija: Iaii?a, 1996.- 162 n. // Iie?oe/i? nooae??. Ca. iaoe. noaoae.-
*a?i?aoe?: Iieiaeee aoeiaeiaoeue, 1997. — N.144-147.

7. No?aeue/oe I.A. Aianie aeaaeai?ea IAI I. Iaoeianueeiai a
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieoiaio?a c ?noi??? Iaeaaeii?? ia??iaeo oo?aoeueeiai
iaioaaiiy// Oe?a?inueea a?o?aiciaanoai: ?noi??y, no/aniee noai oa
ia?niaeoeae: Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?? (19-20
eenoiiaaea 1996 ?.) o 2 /. /Oii?yaeieee A.I. Eyoioeueeee, ?.A. Iaoyo. —
E.,1997.-*.1.-N.353-356.

8. No?aeue/oe I.A. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie ? Aaeeaie//
Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie a Oe?a?i? oa noai oe?a?inueei? aoi?/iino? a
ae?anii??: nooi?noue, ?aae?? eiioe?eoiino?, i?iaeaie oa i?iaiice ia
ii?ic? OO? noie?ooy.Oace iyoi? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoey/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? 22-25 o?aaiy 1997 ?. — Ee?a-*a?i?aoe?, 1997. — N.397-398.

9. No?aeue/oe I.A. Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue eaoaae?e ?noi???
o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo oi?aa?neoaoo Na. Ee?eea ? Iaoiae?y (i.Neii’?,
?anioae?ea Iaeaaeii?y)// I?aeaioiaea iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a ?
ae?yeuei?noue iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio a nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueii?
ina?oe: aeina?ae ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo. Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. O aeaio /anoeiao. – *.1.-
*a?i?aoe?:I?oo,1998.- N.111-116.

10. No?aeue/oe I. Iaeaaeii?y oa i?ioeane ?a?iiaenueei? ?ioaa?aoe??.
Iaoa??aee iaoeiaiai neiiic?oio /Aoeiaeinueeee iie?oieia?/iee oeaio?.
Ath?i ?c ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? Oiiaeo O.Aaa?oa. -*a?i?aoe?: I?oo,
1998.- N.131-136.

Aiioaoe?y

No?aeue/oe I.A. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo o Iaeaaeii?? (inoaiiy
o?aoeia O?O no. – 1919 ?.). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 – Anana?oiy ?noi??y. – *a?i?aaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaii i?noea ? ?ieue
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a ?noi??? iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo
inoaiiuei? o?aoeie O?O – 1919 ?. Ia iniia? e?eoe/iiai aiae?co
a?o/eciy/ii? oa ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aaaaeaiiy aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao
i?ea?iaeueieo aeaea?ae nenoaiii aena?oeththoueny aca?iica’ycai?
i?iaeaie eiiieaenii? oaie: nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee oa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee ?icaeoie Iaeaaeii?? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no.,
?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae iiyae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
iaeaaeiinueeiai ia?iaeo, noai?aiiiy Iaeaaeiinueei? ?aaiethoe?eii?
I?aai?caoe?? (1893 ?.) oa ?? ai?ioueaa ?c aioo??oi?i oa ciai?oi?i
aa?oia?ciii, ?e?iaeainueea iianoaiiy (1903 ?.), E?ooaanueea ?anioae?ea
(1903 ?.), i?ioenoiyiiy «e?aeo» oa «i?aaeo» nee ?ooo, ai?ioueaa i?ioe
iiae?e?a Iaeaaeii?? o ?iee Aaeeainueeeo oa ia?oi? na?oiai? a?ei.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Iaeaaeii?y, iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo, aa?oia?ci,
?e?iaeainueea iianoaiiy, E?ooaanueea ?anioae?ea, iie?oe/ia aaoiiii?y.

Summary

N.V.Strelchuk.

The National Liberation Movement in Macedonia (the last third of the
XIXth century.-1919).-Manuscript.

The thesis for getting the degree of Candidate of the Historical Science
in the specialty 07.00.02- World History.- Chernivtsi Yuriy Fedkovych
State University, Chernivtsi, 1999.

The thasis presented deals with researching place and role of the
national liberation movement in the history of the Macedonian people in
the last third of the XIXth cent.-1919. The following interrelated
problems are elucidated on the basis of the critical analysis of native
and foreign literature and introduction of the original sources into
scientific discussion: the social-economic and social-political
development of Macedonia in the 2nd half of the XIXth century, the
historical prerequisites of the national liberation movement origin of
the Macedonian people, the creation of the Macedonian Revolutionary
Organization (1893) and its fight with internal and external
«verhovizm», the Ilindean uprising (1903), the Crushev Republic ( 1903
), the opposition of » left » and » right » movement forces, the
struggle directed against division of Macedonia within the years of
Balkan War and World War I.

Key words: Macedonia, national liberation movement, «verhovizm», the
Ilindean uprising, the Crushev Republik, political autonomy.

Aiiioaoeey

No?aeue/oe I.A. Iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea a Iaeaaeiiee
(iineaaeiyy o?aoue O?O a. –1919a.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 – Anaie?iay enoi?ey. – *a?iiaeoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee eiiieaenii enneaaeoaony ianoi e ?ieue
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a enoi?ee iaeaaeiineiai
ia?iaea iineaaeiae o?aoe O?O a. – 1919 a. Ia iniiaa e?eoe/aneiai aiaeeca
ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?u, aaaaeaiey a iao/iue iai?io
i?eaeiaeueiuo enoi/ieeia nenoaiii inaauathony acaeiinaycaiiua i?iaeaiu:
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneia ?acaeoea Iaeaaeiiee
ai aoi?ie iieiaeia O?O a., enoi?e/aneea i?aaeiinueee iiyaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey iaeaaeiineiai ia?iaea,
nicaeaiea Iaeaaeiineie ?aaiethoeeiiiie I?aaiecaoeee (1893 a.) e aa
ai?ueaa n aioo?aiiei e aiaoiei aa?oiaeciii, Eeeiaeaineia ainnoaiea
(1903 a.), E?ooaaneay ?anioaeeea (1903 a.), i?ioeainoiyiea «eaauo» e
i?aauo » nee aeaeaeaiey, ai?ueaa i?ioea ?acaeaeia Iaeaaeiiee a aiaeu
Aaeeaineeo e Ia?aie ie?iaie aiei.

Enneaaeiaaiea oaiu iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a
Iaeaaeiiee iineaaeiae o?aoe O?O – 1919 a. aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeieacaoue
iao/ioth ianinoiyoaeueiinoue oao eiioeaioeee, eioi?ua io?eoeatho
nouanoaiaaiea iaeaaeiineie iaoeee. Ia?aoaiiinoue iaeaaeiineiai aii?ina
iinea Aa?eeineiai eiia?anna, a oaeaea ?acaeae Iaeaaeiiee iinea
Aaeeaineeo e Ia?aie ie?iaie aiei i?eaaee e iiyaeaieth ?yaea ?aaio,
iniaaiii a ninaaeieo no?aiao, eioi?ua ii?aaaeuaaee eo i?eoycaiey ia
Iaeaaeiieth. Ia?aua iaueaeoeaiua ?aaiou, iinayuaiiua iaeaaeiineiio
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiio aeaeaeaieth, i?eiaaeeaaeao aai
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi e eaeaieiaai A.Iao?iao, E.Iene?eiao, Ae.*oiianee e ae?.,
eioi?ua /oanoaiaaee ino?oth iaiaoiaeeiinoue iauynieoue aai i?ia?aiiua
o?aaiaaiey.

A niaaoneie enoi?eia?aoee enoi?ey Iaeaaeiiee, a oai aieaa aii?inu
oi?ie?iaaiey iaeaaeiineie iaoeee, aeieaia a?aiy iaoiaeeeenue iiae
ii?aaeaeaiiui “oaao”. N?aaee ?aaio, iaienaiiuo enoi?eeaie auaoaai NNN? e
eioi?ua a iaeioi?ie ia?a eanathony iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey a Iaeaaeiiee, neaaeoao auaeaeeoue enneaaeiaaiey E.No?oeiaie,
E.Naieaae/, E.Aaeeeia, A.Oioiaia, TH.Iena?aaa. Enoi?ey Iaeaaeiiee ia
noaea i?aaeiaoii eco/aiey e oe?aeineeo enoi?eeia, ca eneeth/aieai
ioaeaeueiuo aniaeoia, a ?aaioao E.Ao?eooa, A.Ia?ouiaiei,
A.AEaaie?eoeeiai, A.Ao?aeae, I. No?aeue/oe e ae?.

Aaoi? oaeaea aeaao aiaeec ia?iiiiai ianneaa iaeaaeiineie, aieaa?neie e
aa?iiaeneie iao/iie eeoa?aoo?u ii enneaaeoaiie i?iaeaia.

Iie?aynue ia ia?eiaeecaoeeth I.A?ioa, aeenna?oaio n/eoaao, ui
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea iaeaaeiineiai ia?iaea a
eiioea 70-o –ia/aea 90-o aiaeia O?O no. iaoiaeeeinue a noaaeee “A”, o.
a. iii ia/aeinue eae eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea e oieueei
iicaea iieeoece?iaaeinue.

Naiaia?acea iaeaaeiineiai iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey
enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, a oii, /oi iii auei
iai?aaeaii ia oieueei i?ioea aiaoa Iniaineie eiia?ee, ii e i?ioea
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo i?iiaaaiae ninaaeieo ainoaea?noa: A?aoeee, Na?aee,
Aieaa?ee.

Nicaeaiea iieiaeie eioaeeaeooaeueiie yeeoie a 1893 a. Iaeaaeiineie
?aaiethoeeiiiie I?aaiecaoeee (I?I) iineoaeeei ia/aeii iiaiai yoaia a
?acaeoee iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey. I?I a ia?aua aiaeu
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe no?aieeanue e aeinoeaeaieth aaoiiiiee a ?aieao
Iniaineie eiia?ee e n/eoaea aa oaaii e nicaeaieth iacaaeneiiai
iaeaaeiineiai ainoaea?noaa.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n i?aaiecaoeeiiiui ioi?ieaieai I?I, a 1895 a. eaaaeueiua
“iaeaaeiineea i?aaiecaoeee” nicaeatho ia oa??eoi?ee Aieaa?ee Aa?oiaiue
Iaeaaeiineee Eiieoao. Aieaa?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai aeoeaii ieacuaaei
iiiiuue AIE, iuoaynue /a?ac aai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iiae/eieoue iaeaaeiineia
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea naiei eioa?anai.

Aeayoaeueiinoue aa?oiaenoia iaianea aieueoie a?aae inaiaiaeeoaeueiiio
aeaeaeaieth iaeaaeiineiai ia?iaea.

Niaeanii ia?eiaeecaoeee, i?aaeeiaeaiiie I.A?ioii, iiaeia n/eoaoue, /oi a
ia/aea OO a. iaeaaeiineia iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea
iinoaiaiii ia?aoiaeeo a oaco “A”, o.a. iieeoece?oaony. I?ia?aiiiua
o?aaiaaiey I?I oi?ioee?othony, eae “iieeoe/aneay aaoiiiiey Iaeaaeiiee” e
ana aieueoa ianaeaiey iiaeaea?aeeaaao eicoia “Iaeaaeiiey aeey
iaeaaeiioeaa”.

Iaeaunoei i?iyaeaieai aaeiauo ono?aieaiee iaeaaeiineiai ia?iaea e
naiaiaea noaei Eeeiaeaineia ainnoaiea 1903 a. E?ooaaneay ?anioaeeea,
nicaeaiiay a aeie ainnoaiey, i?iaicaeaneea aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu
naiaiaeu e iieacaea naiiauoiinoue e i?ia?anneaiinoue iaeaaeiineiai
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey.

Ia?eiae 1903-1907 aa. – iaeei ec naiuo e?eoe/aneeo iiiaioia a enoi?ee
iaeaaeiineiai iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey: ?aneie
iaaeaeo “eaaui” e “i?aaui” oa/aieai I?I oaeoaeyeny, a e?iia yoiai
aaeeaineea i?aoaiaeaiou ia “iniaineia ianeaaenoai” i?iaeieaeatho
i?aaieciauaaoue naie “iaeaaeiineea” eiio?i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaaeaaeaeu ia eciaiaiey a iieeoe/aneie aeecie Oo?aoeeie eiia?ee iinea
Ieaaeioo?aoeeie ?aaiethoeee 1908 a., eioi?ua ioaaoeee eeaea?ia
iaeaaeiineiai iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey, ia auee
?aaeeciaaiu. Ieaaeioo?ee ia niiaee i?iaanoe aeaiie?aoecaoeeth no?aiu e
?aaeeeaeueii eciaieoue iieiaeaiea oaiaoaiiuo ia?iaeia.

Iinea ?acaeaeia Iaeaaeiiee a ?acoeueoaoa Aaeeaineeo e Ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu, ianiio?y ia aiaoiea aeeyiea e iiiuoee aai ?an/eaieoue,
iaeaaeiineia iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea i?iaeieaeaei
nouanoaiaaoue e aanoe ai?ioueao ca iacaaeneiinoue Iaeaaeiiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Iaeaaeiiey, iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea,
aa?oiaeci, Eeeiaeaineia ainnoaiea, E?ooaaneay ?anioaeeea, iieeoe/aneay
aaoiiiiey.

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